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1. Robertson RG, Geiger WJ, Davis NB: Carcinoid tumors. Am Fam Physician; 2006 Aug 1;74(3):429-34
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine neoplasms that often are indolent and may not become clinically apparent until there has been metastatic spread or evidence of carcinoid syndrome.
  • Recent evidence has revealed that the overall incidence of carcinoid tumors has been steadily increasing, and although the disease was thought to be relatively benign, it is now considered one of increasing malignancy.
  • Carcinoid tumors derive from different embryonic divisions of the gut: foregut carcinoid tumors commonly originate in the lungs, bronchi, or stomach; midgut carcinoid tumors in the small intestine, appendix, or proximal large bowel; and hindgut carcinoid tumors in the distal colon or rectum.
  • Carcinoid syndrome, although rare, is most associated with midgut carcinoid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor often is coincidental with surgery performed for another reason.
  • Treatment and prognosis are dependent on the location of the primary tumor and the degree and extent of metastasis at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / etiology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16913162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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2. Avcu S, Ozen O, Bulut MD, Bora A: Hepatic metastases of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor: A case report with radiological findings. N Am J Med Sci; 2009 Nov;1(6):305-8

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  • [Title] Hepatic metastases of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor: A case report with radiological findings.
  • CONTEXT: Carcinoid tumors represent a group of well-differentiated tumors originating from the diffuse endocrine system outside the pancreas and thyroid.
  • The overall prevalence of carcinoid tumors in the United States is estimated to be one to two cases per 100,000 persons.
  • Various sites of origin of this neoplasm are appendix - 30-45%, small bowel - 25-35% (duodenum 2%, jejunum 7%, ileum 91%, multiple sites 15-35%), rectum 10-15%, caecum - 5%, and stomach - 0.5%.
  • CASE REPORT: Here we report a case of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor in a 66-year-old woman metastasizing to liver with ultrasonography, computed tomography, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) findings.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary jejunal carcinoid tumor is a rare entity.
  • DWI can help in the differential diagnosis of hepatic hypervascular metastatic mass lesions from benign ones, as well as in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor.

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  • (PMID = 22666712.001).
  • [ISSN] 2250-1541
  • [Journal-full-title] North American journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N Am J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3364631
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoid / diffusion weighted MRI / jejunum / metastases / small bowel
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3. Langfort R, Rudziński P, Burakowska B: [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol; 2010;78(1):33-46
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment].
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung represent a broad spectrum of morphologic types that share specific morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular characteristics.
  • The classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors has changed over the last decades and currently four categories are distinguished: typical carcinoid tumor, atypical carcinoid tumor, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise approximately 20% of all primary lung cancers.
  • Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and prognosis, a reliable histological diagnosis, as well as clinical and pathological staging system are essential for an appropriate medical proceedings.
  • All carcinoids are malignant tumors with the potential to metastasize.
  • The majority of patients with pulmonary carcinoid have an excellent survival, even if they present with lymph node metastases.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma progress rapidly and are generally widespread at the moment of diagnosis.
  • Increased knowledge about pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors biology and the genetic characteristics, imply that carcinoid tumors appear to have a different etiology and pathogenesis than large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • In practice, it could be easiest to conceptualize this group of pulmonary tumors as a spectrum of malignancy ranging from the low grade typical carcinoid to the highly malignant large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • Typical carcinoid tumors associated with a fairly benign behavior should be classified as low-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G1) and atypical carcinoid tumors as intermediate-grade tumor/carcinoma (G2).
  • Whereas, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma should be grouped together under the designation of high-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G3).
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20162517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-7077
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumonologia i alergologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumonol Alergol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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4. Chen TH, Lin CJ, Wu RC, Ho YP, Hsu CM, Lin WP, Tseng YP, Chen CH, Chiu CT: The application of miniprobe ultrasonography in the diagnosis of colorectal subepithelial lesions. Chang Gung Med J; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(4):380-8
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  • [Title] The application of miniprobe ultrasonography in the diagnosis of colorectal subepithelial lesions.
  • This study investigated the value of colonoscopic miniprobe ultrasonography for differential diagnosis and treatment strategy in patients with colorectal subepithelial lesions (SEL).
  • The final diagnosis of these lesions was confirmed by cross section imaging, histopathologic findings, or clinical follow-up.
  • Thirteen patients, suspected of having rectal carcinoid tumors (mean size, 6.9 +/- 3.3 mm), were treated radically by endoscopic mucosal resection using a transparent cap (EMRC) after EUS confirmation of no muscular invasion.
  • Three patients had no residual or recurrent carcinoid tumor on EUS examination after previous empiric polypectomy or biopsy.
  • Five patients had suspected rectal myogenic stromal tumors on EUS; three were transferred for surgical resection due to uterine myoma compression (N = 2) or mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix with rectal metastasis (N = 1), and two had uterine myoma detected by gynecologic ultrasound or CT.
  • One appendiceal stone with orifice obstruction mimicking cecal submucosal tumor was proved by surgical resection.
  • The other six patients had various benign lesions, which were diagnosed and followed-up by EUS without progression.

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  • (PMID = 20804667.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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5. Strehl MA, Scheich M, Ott I, Müller-Hermelink HK, Hagen R, Völker HU: [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2009 Mar;88(3):186-90
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  • [Title] [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Mittelohradenom/Mittelohrkarzinoid--ein unproblematischer Tumor?
  • OBJECTIVES: Adenomas/carcinoid tumors of the middle ear are very rare tumors of young to middle aged patients.
  • The terms adenoma and carcinoid tumor of the middle ear can be used as synonyms, with the WHO favouring the term middle ear adenoma (MEA).
  • These tumors usually present with unspecific clinical symptoms and a long case history.
  • They are classified as benign tumors with only very few reported cases of regional metastasis after years of disease.
  • METHODS AND PATIENTS: This study describes the clinical course and the diagnostic challenges in four cases of this rare tumor entity.
  • In two cases a tumor recurrence was documented with one case recurring six times.
  • The histological differential diagnosis can also be problematic; in one case with a highly atypical morphology it was impossible to arrive at a definite diagnosis during the analysis of a frozen section.
  • The presented cases in this study and the analysis of previously published cases shows that the typical progression described by the current WHO-classification with unproblematic surgical management of the tumor and an uncomplicated further clinical course does not always correspond to reality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, Middle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / diagnosis. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / pathology. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Otoscopy. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19065497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Kim T, Grobmyer SR, Liu C, Hochwald SN: Primary presacral neuroendocrine tumor associated with imperforate anus. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:115
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  • [Title] Primary presacral neuroendocrine tumor associated with imperforate anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Presacral masses are unusual growths that have a limited differential diagnosis, typically not including neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
  • Classically, NETs are well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic tumors of probable benign behavior.
  • These tumors are associated with a typical morphologic pattern and involve the distal colon, rectum, and genitourinary tract; they are considered less aggressive, frequently asymptomatic, and rarely cause carcinoid syndrome, even when metastatic.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the presacral region are extremely rare and few have been described in the literature.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present an interesting case of a woman with a history of imperforate anus that was found to have a primary neuroendocrine tumor of the presacral region with no rectal wall involvement.
  • CONCLUSION: We argue that this is a primary gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor which likely originated from cells of hindgut origin that underwent an abnormal migration during embryonic development.

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  • (PMID = 17931412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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7. Fang HQ, Yang J, Zhang FF, Cui Y, Han AJ: Clinicopathological features of gastric glomus tumor. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Sep 28;16(36):4616-20
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of gastric glomus tumor.
  • AIM: To study the clinicopathological features of gastric glomus tumor and review the related Chinese literature published in 1990-2010.
  • METHODS: A case of gastric glomus tumor was reported.
  • Clinicopathological findings in 56 cases of gastric glomus tumor were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Gastric glomus tumor was far more common in women than in men with a female to male ratio of 1.6:1.
  • The tumor was located in antrum of the stomach.
  • The greatest diameter of the tumor was 0.8-11 cm.
  • Histologically, the tumor was comprised of nests of glomus cells surrounding the capillaries.
  • Vimentin, smooth muscle actin and actin were expressed in the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Gastric glomus tumor is a rare benign mesenchymal neoplasm.
  • Its diagnosis depends on pathologic examination.
  • Differential diagnosis includes gastrointestinal stromal tumor, paraganglioma and carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor. Stomach Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20857536.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2945497
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8. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Eick GN, Mane SM, Camp RL: Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed. Ann Surg; 2006 Jul;244(1):52-60
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  • [Title] Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use differential gene expression of candidate markers to discriminate benign appendiceal carcinoids (APCs) from malignant and mixed cell APCs.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy exists in regard to the appropriate surgical management of APCs since it is sometimes difficult to predict tumor behavior using traditional pathologic criteria.
  • METHODS: Total RNA was isolated using TRIzol reagent from 42 appendiceal samples, including appendiceal carcinoids identified at exploration for appendicitis (no evidence of metastasis; n = 16), appendicitis specimens (n = 11), malignant appendiceal tumors (> 1.5 cm, evidence of metastatic invasion; n = 7), and mixed (goblet) cell appendiceal adenocarcinoids (n = 3), normal appendiceal tissue (n = 5), and 5 colorectal cancers.
  • RESULTS: CgA message was elevated (> 1000-fold, P < 0.05) in all tumor types.
  • MAGE-D2 and MTA1 message were significantly elevated (> 10-fold, P < 0.01) in the malignant and goblet cell adenocarcinoid tumors but not in the appendicitis-associated carcinoids or normal mucosa.
  • Elevated CgA transcript and protein levels indicative of a carcinoid tumor were identified in one acute appendicitis sample with no histologic evidence of a tumor.
  • CgA identified all appendiceal tumors as well as covert lesions, which may be more prevalent than previously recognized.
  • The molecular delineation of malignant appendiceal tumor potential provides a scientific basis to define the appropriate surgical management as opposed to morphologic assessment alone.

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  • (PMID = 16794389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097050; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-097050
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / MAGED2 protein, human; 0 / NAP1L1 protein, human; 0 / NLRP1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1570599
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9. Sousa V, Carvalho L: [Glomic tumor: presentation of an infrequent case]. Rev Port Pneumol; 2006 May-Jun;12(3):269-74
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  • [Title] [Glomic tumor: presentation of an infrequent case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente.
  • Glomic tumours are generally benign.
  • They should be classified as glomic tumor, glomangioma and glomangiomioma according to the relative abundance of glomic cells and of the vascular and muscular components.
  • The differential diagnosis of glomic tumours of the lung includes the carcinoid, hemangioperycitoma, smooth muscle tumours (epithelioid leyomioma) and the paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16967176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-2159
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de pneumologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Pneumol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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10. Detterbeck FC: Management of carcinoid tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2010 Mar;89(3):998-1005
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  • [Title] Management of carcinoid tumors.
  • Primary bronchopulmonary carcinoids comprise a significant proportion of carcinoid tumors.
  • The clinical presentation allows prediction of the diagnosis and cell type and directs evaluation and treatment.
  • Young age, central tumor, and no nodal enlargement are highly suggestive of typical carcinoid.
  • Mediastinoscopy is suggested when there is moderate suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN1 or peripheral cN0), with lobectomy and lymphadenectomy if the mediastinal nodes are benign.
  • For a high suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN2, peripheral cN1, 2), imaging for distant metastases and mediastinoscopy is suggested, with multimodality treatment for an atypical carcinoid with N2 involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Lung Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20172187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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11. Lee DH, Cho HH, Cho YB: Typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2007 Dec;34(4):537-9
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  • [Title] Typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity.
  • The nasal cavity is a rare site of origin of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • They can be classified typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid and small cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine type.
  • The tumor histology and prognosis correlate closely.
  • The typical carcinoid tumors are well differentiated with benign course.
  • The treatment of the typical carcinoid is a conservative surgery and the prognosis is good.
  • But, typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity was extremely rare, so the treatment has not been established.
  • We report a case of typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity in a 76-year-old man who treated by conservative surgery using sinus endoscopy.
  • To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on an typical carcinoid in the nasal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17481837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Zehlicke T, Punke C, Boltze C, Pau HW: Transient facial palsy in two cases of benign, very rare middle ear tumors (carcinoid tumor and myxoma). Neurologist; 2008 Jan;14(1):52-5
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  • [Title] Transient facial palsy in two cases of benign, very rare middle ear tumors (carcinoid tumor and myxoma).
  • OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the clinical features of 2 very rare middle ear tumors in which the guiding symptom was facial palsy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Illustrative case reports about a myxoma and a carcinoid tumor of the middle ear associated with peripheral facial palsy.
  • Moreover, both tumor entities are typically found in organs other than the ear; if located in the middle ear, those neoplasms grow rather superficially.
  • If the facial weakness starts together with symptoms suggesting an inflammatory process, the differential diagnosis may be focused first on diseases like herpes zoster oticus and a severe course of acute purulent otitis media.
  • We report the cases of 2 rare middle ear tumors causing facial palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, Middle / pathology. Facial Paralysis / pathology. Myxoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Facial Nerve / pathology. Facial Nerve / physiopathology. Hearing Loss / etiology. Hearing Loss / pathology. Hearing Loss / radiography. Herpes Zoster Oticus / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Mastoid / pathology. Mastoid / radiography. Mastoid / surgery. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Otitis Media / diagnosis. Petrous Bone / anatomy & histology. Petrous Bone / pathology. Petrous Bone / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vertigo / etiology. Vertigo / pathology. Vertigo / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18195660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-7931
  • [Journal-full-title] The neurologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Kemp CD, Russell RT, Sharp KW: Resection of benign duodenal neoplasms. Am Surg; 2007 Nov;73(11):1086-91
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  • [Title] Resection of benign duodenal neoplasms.
  • Primary small bowel neoplasms (PSBN) are uncommon, accounting for less than 15 per cent of all gastrointestinal tumors.
  • Benign duodenal neoplasms (BDN) are rare, comprising only 10 to 20 per cent of all PSBN.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Duodenoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Lipoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18092639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • [Title] Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma.
  • This report emphasizes a carcinoid-like pattern, a previously unrecognized feature in cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms.
  • We report 7 patients with sebaceous tumors in which neoplastic cells were arranged in a trabecular and ribbon-like pattern or formed rosettes/pseudorosettes.
  • The cases included 6 men and 1 woman, with their ages at the diagnosis ranging from 43 to 87 years (median age, 59).
  • The carcinoid-like arrangement of neoplastic cells was the sole pattern in 4 cases, and in 3 cases the so-called labyrinthine/sinusoidal and/or rippled patterns were seen in addition.
  • Although the neoplasm appeared benign architecturally, the presence of cytologic atypia qualified 2 tumors as low-grade carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the carcinoid-like pattern is another distinctive pattern indicative of sebaceous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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15. De Dosso S, Bajetta E, Procopio G, Cortinovis D, Buzzoni R, Catena L, Platania M, Verzoni E: Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):162-8
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  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign.
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, there were 37 metastatic and 11 non-metastatic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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16. Safioleas MC, Moulakakis KG, Kontzoglou K, Stamoulis J, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Lygidakis NJ: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):123-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are thought to be the most common type of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Although the vast majority of appendiceal carcinoids behave in a benign fashion, they are considered malignant because they all have the potential for invasion, metastasis and production of physiologically active substances.
  • Following confirmation of the diagnosis, secretion of 5-HLAA (5-Hydroxy-Inndole-Acetic Acid) was measured after a 24-hour collection of urine.
  • Also, patients with tumor size more than 1cm underwent a Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (Octreoscan).
  • RESULTS: The most common site for the tumors was the tip of the appendix (18/22).
  • In sixteen patients the tumor size was less than 1cm, in seven patients the tumor diameter was measured to be 1 to 2cm and in one patient the tumor was 3cm.
  • Most of our patients (16/22) underwent only an appendicectomy, while in the rest of them (in the patients with tumor size between 1-2cm and in the patient with invasion of mesoappendix) a right hemicolectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix, in most cases, are found incidentally during appendicectomies, especially in young females and usually are less than 1cm in size, which is probably the reason of the absence of metastases in all cases.
  • Histological examination and size of the tumor are important factors that contribute to the selection of the surgical treatment and both must be estimated by the surgeons to make the final choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15783011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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17. Capovilla M, Kambouchner M, Bernier M, Soulier A, Tissier F, Saintigny P: Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid. Clin Lung Cancer; 2007 Mar;8(5):339-41
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  • [Title] Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid.
  • Although epithelial bronchial neoplasm is a cancer frequently observed in adult patients, it is rarely observed in patients who are children.
  • The most frequent histologic subtype is well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, or carcinoid.
  • They have a variable biologic behavior, ranging from benign to malignant tumors capable of very late recurrence or metastasis.
  • Liver and lung are frequent sites of carcinoid metastasis, and the central nervous system is exceptionally involved.
  • We report the case of a child with a pulmonary carcinoid initially considered typical, who presented with relapse in the cerebellum and mediastinum 16 years later.
  • After review of the pathology slides, primary and metastatic tumors were reclassified as atypical carcinoid according to the criteria of the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17562235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Matsuki M, Inada Y, Nakai G, Tatsugami F, Tanikake M, Narabayashi I, Nishimura H, Iwamoto M, Hiramatsu M, Tanigawa N, Kurisu Y, Tsuji M: CT and MR features of sclerosing mesenteritis mimicking a mesenteric metastasis from the carcinoid tumor. Radiat Med; 2006 Apr;24(3):220-3
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  • [Title] CT and MR features of sclerosing mesenteritis mimicking a mesenteric metastasis from the carcinoid tumor.
  • Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare and benign inflammatory entity characterized by fibrofatty thickening of the mesentery.
  • In this present case, MR imaging demonstrated tissue characterization of fibrosis, and partial maximum intensity projection (MIP) and three-dimensional angiography images obtained using multislice CT clearly revealed the extent of the tumor and the vascular appearance affected by the mass.
  • However, a mesenteric metastasis from the carcinoid tumor may show such imaging features.
  • Therefore, when encountering such a case, we suggest that a tentative diagnosis of sclerosing mesenteritis be made, followed by a biopsy for intraoperative histopathologic analysis to avoid aggressive surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mesentery. Panniculitis, Peritoneal / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male


19. Luong TV, Salvagni S, Bordi C: Presacral carcinoid tumour. Review of the literature and report of a clinically malignant case. Dig Liver Dis; 2005 Apr;37(4):278-81
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  • [Title] Presacral carcinoid tumour. Review of the literature and report of a clinically malignant case.
  • Carcinoid tumours arising in the presacral region are extremely rare and they are usually benign.
  • We report the case of a 37-year-old black man with a clinically malignant carcinoid tumour (well differentiated endocrine carcinoma) occurring in a sacrococcygeal teratoma and already metastasised to pelvic nodes, liver and bone at the time of the initial diagnosis.
  • Such an aggressive behaviour of the presacral carcinoid tumours has never been described.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15788213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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20. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies.
  • We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions.
  • Two patients had carcinoid syndrome including diarrhea, hot flashes, and palpitations.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • Mitotic figures were rare in primary carcinoid tumors with only 3 cases showing more than 2 per 10 HPF; necrosis was found in only 1 case.
  • Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The other 2 patients with atypical carcinoid and follow-up had no evidence of disease at 68 and 114 months.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.
  • However, lesions with the morphology of atypical carcinoid can occasionally exhibit metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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21. Hatzipantelis E, Panagopoulou P, Sidi-Fragandrea V, Fragandrea I, Koliouskas DE: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: experience from a tertiary center in northern Greece. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2010 Nov;51(5):622-5
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: experience from a tertiary center in northern Greece.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are rare in childhood and usually have a benign clinical course.
  • The aim of the study was to report the frequency, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and outcome of children with appendiceal carcinoid treated in a pediatric oncology department.
  • Demographics, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and follow-up results were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Among 839 admissions, 19 patients (9 boys) with appendiceal carcinoid were identified during the study period.
  • In all of the cases, diagnosis was established after appendectomy.
  • The mean tumor diameter was 4.55 (± 3.45) mm (range 1-15 mm).
  • In 18 children tumor size was ≤ 10 mm and did not infiltrate surrounding tissues.
  • All of the tumors were located at the tip of the appendix and were of the classic histological type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms. Appendicitis / complications. Carcinoid Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20948448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4801
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Levy AD, Rimola J, Mehrotra AK, Sobin LH: From the archives of the AFIP: benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):245-64
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • Mesenteric fibromatosis, sclerosing mesenteritis, inflammatory pseudotumor, and extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor constitute a loosely associated group of benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery.
  • Mesenteric fibromatosis is a locally aggressive, benign proliferative process that may occur sporadically or in association with familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare idiopathic disorder that most commonly produces a stellate mass within the mesentery and should be differentiated from metastatic disease, specifically metastatic carcinoid, because it frequently responds to conservative or medical management.
  • Inflammatory pseudotumor (inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor) is a benign, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that manifests as a solid mesenteric mass, indistinguishable from malignancy.
  • Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor is a tumor of submesothelial origin that is identical to the solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura.
  • When located in the mesentery or peritoneal cavity, extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor has an imaging pattern that must be differentiated from metastatic disease, soft-tissue sarcomas, and other benign and malignant neoplasms of the mesentery and peritoneum.
  • Knowledge of this group of benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery is important in the preoperative evaluation of a mesenteric mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesentery. Peritoneal Diseases / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Panniculitis, Peritoneal / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16418255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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23. McDermott JH, Thabit H, Hickey N, Thompson C, Gaffney E, Young V, Sreenan S: ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Ir J Med Sci; 2008 Sep;177(3):269-72
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  • [Title] ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
  • OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion, where the only potential source on conventional imaging was a tiny benign-appearing lung nodule, which failed to take up radiolabelled octreotide.
  • Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed bronchial carcinoid staining positive for ACTH.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the few cases described where ectopic ACTH secretion secondary to bronchial carcinoid responded to somatostatin analogue therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / etiology. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18516660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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24. Saruya S, Nagamine H, Komiya T, Ito S, Iino Y, Kodera K, Imamura T: [Immunohistochemical and clinical features of patients with benign middle ear tumors]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2007 May;110(5):403-9
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemical and clinical features of patients with benign middle ear tumors].
  • The middle ear is a rare site for benign tumors.
  • We report six patients with benign middle ear tumors surgicaly removed: three with carcinoid, one with adenoma, and two with paraganglioma.
  • These tumors showed similar histological features in trabecular and glandular architecture, so further immunohistochemical study was needed to make a definitive histopathological diagnosis.
  • When we analyzed clinical features of patients diagnosed immunohistochemically, the differentiation of two patients with paraganglioma from the remaining four with adenomatous tumors such as adenoma and carcinoid was relatively easy from otomicroscopic findings and enhancement in temporal bone MRI.
  • It was however difficult to differentiate patients with adenomatous tumors from each other because they induced similar clinical symptoms and showed similar findings in images.
  • For a definitive diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct exploratory tympanotomy or removal of the tumors to obtain enough specimen for histological and immunohistochemical studies.
  • Tumors induced no bone destruction or complications.
  • We recommend staged operations for total removal of tumors and for good postoperative hearing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, Middle. Paraganglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17564130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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25. Kapur U, Helenowski M, Zayaad A, Ghai R, Vigeneswaran W, Rajan P: Pulmonary glomus tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Dec;11(6):457-9
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  • [Title] Pulmonary glomus tumor.
  • Glomus tumor (GT) is an infrequent but distinct neoplasm.
  • Pulmonary GT is a rare neoplasm with only a few cases reported in the literature.
  • These tumors are usually benign and, although rare, tumors with aggressive behavior have been reported.
  • The tumor size, location, and histomorphological features may be useful in predicting tumor behavior.
  • We present here a case of pulmonary GT that was initially diagnosed as a typical carcinoid tumor.
  • The differential diagnosis as well as the recent classification of GTs is discussed along with a review of literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Asthma / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Diabetes Mellitus. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Obesity, Morbid / complications

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  • (PMID = 18022133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Somogyi A, Ruzicska E, Varga T, Rácz K, Nagy G: [Development of silent gastric carcinoid in a type 1 diabetic patient with primer hypothyreosis]. Orv Hetil; 2007 Sep 2;148(35):1667-71
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  • [Title] [Development of silent gastric carcinoid in a type 1 diabetic patient with primer hypothyreosis].
  • ECL hyper/dysplasia is known to increase the likelihood of gastric carcinoid tumor development in affected patients.
  • Gastric carcinoid tumors forming from the hyperplasia of ECL cells are found in 4-9% of patients having autoimmune gastritis or pernicious anemia.
  • The histological examination indicated carcinoid tumor.
  • Non-antral, multiple polyps could cover silent neuroendocrine tumors, which are slowly growing benign endocrine tumors, however, they also might be high malignity endocrine carcinomas.
  • These tumors could be easily recognized in the clinical practice by measuring the serum or tissue chromogranin A level and other markers of tumor growth.
  • Thus screening of gastric endocrine tumors in type 1 diabetic patients with co-morbid autoimmune diseases is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Chromogranin A / blood. Diabetes Complications / diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications. Hypothyroidism / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis


31. Vezzosi D, Bouisson M, Escourrou G, Laurell H, Selves J, Seguin P, Pradayrol L, Caron P, Buscail L: Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jan;64(1):63-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The distinction between benign and malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours is hard to achieve.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether detection of telomerase or quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein subunit (hTERT) differ between benign and malignant endocrine tumours.
  • Based on clinical and histopathological criteria, tumours were categorized with the most recent WHO classification as 'benign' (n = 14), 'uncertain' (n = 5) or 'malignant' (n = 12) with (n = 7) or without (n = 5) metastasis after a mean follow-up of 40.4 +/- 25.8 months (4-122 months).
  • RESULTS: Telomerase activity was detected in 7 malignant and metastatic tumours, in 1 malignant tumour without metastases, in 1 uncertain tumour and in 1 benign tumour. hTERT mRNA levels were significantly higher in malignant endocrine tumours with or without metastases (P = 0.001) when compared to benign tumours.
  • The negative predictive value of hTERT mRNA quantification for the diagnosis of malignancy was 88.9%, whereas the positive predictive value was 68.7%.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clinical Enzyme Tests. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Telomerase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16402930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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32. Wakely PE Jr: Fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thymic epithelial neoplasms. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;22(3):433-42
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thymic epithelial neoplasms.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of thymoma is a demanding diagnostic exercise by the cytopathologist because of an overwhelming, often obscuring population of benign lymphocytes in many cases.
  • Diagnosis requires the presence of a dual population of unequivocal epithelial cells and lymphocytes in the correct clinical-radiologic context.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18514125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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33. Tsuchiya S, Li F: Electron microscopic findings for diagnosis of breast lesions. Med Mol Morphol; 2005 Dec;38(4):216-24
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  • [Title] Electron microscopic findings for diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • If the nuclei of the epithelial cells of normal mammary glands and benign breast lesions are compared with those of malignant breast lesions, the latter are primarily oval or circular in shape whereas the former often show marked notches.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma and carcinoid tumor of the breast are histological types of breast carcinoma that show characteristic features under an electron microscope.
  • Breast carcinoma shows several ultrastructural characteristics that are useful in differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • [Cites] Am J Clin Pathol. 1976 Aug;66(2):291-375 [181979.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Pathol Jpn. 1981 Jan;31(1):45-54 [6263041.001]
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  • (PMID = 16378230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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34. Izikson L, English JC 3rd, Zirwas MJ: The flushing patient: differential diagnosis, workup, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Aug;55(2):193-208
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The flushing patient: differential diagnosis, workup, and treatment.
  • Most cases are caused by very common, benign diseases, such as rosacea or climacterum, that are readily apparent after a thorough taking of history and physical examination.
  • However, in some cases, accurate diagnosis requires further laboratory, radiologic, or histopathologic studies to differentiate several important clinicopathologic entities.
  • In particular, the serious diagnoses of carcinoid syndrome, pheochromocytoma, mastocytosis, and anaphylaxis need to be excluded by laboratory studies.
  • If this work-up is unrevealing, rare causes, such as medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pancreatic cell tumor, renal carcinoma, and others, should be considered.
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVE: At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be familiar with the mechanisms of flushing, its clinical differential diagnosis, the approach to establish a definitive diagnosis, and management of various conditions that produce flushing.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Eruptions. Humans. Menopause. Mental Disorders / complications. Nervous System Diseases / complications. Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16844500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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35. Bailey AA, Debinski HS, Appleyard MN, Remedios ML, Hooper JE, Walsh AJ, Selby WS: Diagnosis and outcome of small bowel tumors found by capsule endoscopy: a three-center Australian experience. Am J Gastroenterol; 2006 Oct;101(10):2237-43

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and outcome of small bowel tumors found by capsule endoscopy: a three-center Australian experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine diagnosis and outcome in a series of patients with small bowel tumors detected by capsule endoscopy (CE) in three Australian centers.
  • METHODS: Review of prospectively collected data from 416 CEs identified 27 tumors in 26 patients.
  • Clinical parameters, tumor histology, and follow-up are reported.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven tumors were identified in 26 patients (mean age 61 +/- 13.7 yr).
  • Indications for CE were obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (21), suspected tumor (3), abdominal pain (1), diarrhea (1).
  • Nine tumors were proven benign: hamartoma (4), cystic lymphangioma (1), primary amyloid (1), lipoma (1).
  • Seventeen tumors were malignant: five adenocarcinomas, six carcinoids, two melanoma metastases, two gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), one colon carcinoma metastasis, one non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Tumors were surgically resected in 23 patients.
  • Three of the six with carcinoid tumors have had no recurrence up to 51 months postresection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small bowel tumors are a significant finding at CE and are often missed by other methods of investigation.
  • In many patients, detection of a tumor alters management and improves outcome.

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  • (PMID = 17032187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Ferlito A, Silver CE, Bradford CR, Rinaldo A: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx: an overview. Head Neck; 2009 Dec;31(12):1634-46
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  • Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx are rare but are the most common nonsquamous tumors of this organ.
  • In the past, there has been considerable confusion about the nature and classification of these neoplasms, but the current consensus is that there are 4 different types of laryngeal neuroendocrine tumors composed of paraganglioma, typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid tumor, and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Diagnosis is based primarily on light microscopy and confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
  • Precise diagnosis is essential because the natural history, treatment, and prognosis vary widely for the different neoplastic categories.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors are more common and more aggressive.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly aggressive and should be considered disseminated at initial diagnosis.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors have a 5-year survival rate of approximately 50%, which decreases with time.
  • The biological behavior of laryngeal paraganglioma is generally benign and the prognosis is excellent.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Laryngectomy / methods. Male. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Paraganglioma / mortality. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19536850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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37. Nguyen VX, Nguyen CC, Li B, Das A: Digital image analysis is a useful adjunct to endoscopic ultrasonographic diagnosis of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Sep;29(9):1345-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Digital image analysis is a useful adjunct to endoscopic ultrasonographic diagnosis of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of digital image analysis in differentiating endoscopic ultrasonographic (EUS) features of potentially malignant gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions (SELs) from those of benign lesions.
  • METHODS: Forty-six patients with histopathologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), carcinoids, and lipomas who had undergone EUS evaluation were identified from our database.
  • [MeSH-minor] Area Under Curve. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / ultrasonography. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / ultrasonography. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Lipoma / ultrasonography. Neural Networks (Computer). Principal Component Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20733191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Cheng NH, Huang HF, Lian LJ, Wu Y: [Ovarian growing teratoma syndrome clinical study of 22 cases]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jun;44(6):426-30
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  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the essential points for the correct diagnosis and best treatment for ovarian growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) developed after surgery and chemotherapy for ovarian immature teratoma.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and long term follow up results of 22 cases of ovarian GTS to illustrate the unique biological behavior of the tumor and good prognosis of the disease.
  • RESULTS: Pathological examination of the tumors revealed completely benign mature teratoma with G0 grading in 20 cases.
  • The other 2 cases were found to be G0 mature teratoma with concurrent association of malignant somatic cell tumor: carcinoid and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) respectively.
  • Among the 22 cases of ovarian GTS there are 6 cases with recurrent tumors developed repeatedly, so totally surgical treatments had been performed for 31 times.
  • Such a time factor is of high significance for the diagnosis of ovarian GTS.
  • As the benign behavior of the ovarian GTS together with its poor response to chemotherapy have just been recognized in recent years, they were treated as malignant tumors as their original primary immature teratoma before the year of 1987.
  • The rest 2 patients died of the concurrent association of malignant somatic cell tumors with carcinoid and PNET in 0.1 and 0.3 years respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian GTS is a tumor developed after surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant ovarian immature teratoma.
  • Pathologic grading of the tumors showed retroconversion of the malignancy of the tumor from G3, G2 or G1 to G0 with good prognosis.
  • The tumor usually remained to be quiescent for long periods of time.
  • But there are also some potential of progressive growth, the tumor may grow to huge size and the recurrent tumor may develop repeatedly for several times more than 10 or 20 years later.
  • Surgical removal should be the main treatment either for the primary or the recurrent tumors.
  • Only correct knowledge about the benign biological behavior of the ovarian GTS and reasonable therapeutic regimen can have the disease ends with good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19953942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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39. Coco C, Rizzo G, Manno A, Mattana C, Verbo A: Surgical treatment of small bowel neoplasms. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2010 Apr;14(4):327-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Benign small intestinal tumors (e.g., leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma, or desmoid tumor) usually are asymptomatic but may present with complications.
  • Primary malignancies of the small intestine, including adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and lymphoma, are often symptomatic and may present with intestinal obstruction, jaundice, bleeding, or pain.
  • Because the small intestine is relatively inaccessible to routine endoscopy, diagnosis of small intestinal neoplasms is often delayed for months after onset of symptoms.
  • During last years the increase of small bowel endoscopy and other diagnostic tools allow earlier non-operative diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20496543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-3602
  • [Journal-full-title] European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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40. Jeong WK, Park JW, Choi HS, Chang HJ, Jeong SY: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors: experience at Korea's National Cancer Center. Surg Endosc; 2009 Nov;23(11):2575-9
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  • [Title] Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors: experience at Korea's National Cancer Center.
  • BACKGROUND: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive alternative to transanal excision, enabling complete local excision of selected benign or malignant rectal tumors.
  • This study aimed to determine the surgical and oncologic results for rectal tumors excised by TEM.
  • METHODS: From November 2001 to October 2007, 45 patients underwent TEM for excision of adenoma (13 patients), carcinoid tumor (6 patients), and carcinoma (26 patients).
  • RESULTS: The median tumor distance from the anal verge was 7 cm (range, 3-15 cm), and the median tumor size was 17 mm (range, 2-60 mm).
  • No recurrence occurred for six patients with carcinoid tumors.
  • Histologic examination of the carcinomas showed pathologic tumor (pT) stage 0 (ypT0) in 2 patients, pT1 in 17 patients (including ypT1 in 1 patient), pT2 in 6 patients, and pT3 in 1 patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The TEM procedure is a safe and appropriate surgical treatment option for benign rectal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Microsurgery / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Proctoscopy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cancer Care Facilities. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19347399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Buragas M, Kidd M, Modlin IM, Cha C: Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and synchronous ileal carcinoids. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2005 Mar;2(3):166-70; quiz 1 p following 170
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  • [Title] Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and synchronous ileal carcinoids.
  • His physical examination and medical history were unremarkable except for benign prostatic hypertrophy.
  • Biopsy of the mass revealed an ulcerated tumor composed of spindle cells.
  • A gastric-wedge resection revealed an ulcerated 4.5 cm mass in the stomach, and exploration of the abdomen revealed two ileal carcinoid tumors, jejunal diverticula and reactive mesenteric lymphadenopathy.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors occurring concomitantly with ileal carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Neoplasms, Second Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diverticulum / etiology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors. Hematemesis / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Jejunal Diseases / etiology. Male. Stomach Ulcer / etiology


42. Bubanović G, Pavićević R, Franjević A: Determining the cut-off value of pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) in lung cancer according to population characteristics. Coll Antropol; 2008 Dec;32(4):1155-64
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  • ProGRP serum levels were measured in 273 healthy subjects, 176 patients with benign diseases and tumours, 200 with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 294 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 21 with carcinoid tumour, 93 with undifferentiated lung cancer, 35 with mixed SCLC-NSCLC, and 189 with other malignancies.
  • It is based on 96.8% specificity in benign diseases which cause problems in differential diagnosis.
  • The sensitivity of ProGRP was 85% at the time of SCLC diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / blood. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / blood. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptide Fragments / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Croatia. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / blood. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19149223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98)
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43. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • Endocrine tumors (ET) of the digestive tract (formerly called neuroendocrine tumors) are rare.
  • They are classified into two principal types: gastrointestinal ET's (formerly called carcinoid tumors) which are the most common, and pancreaticoduodenal ET's.
  • The surgical goals are to: 1. prolong survival by resecting the primary tumor and any nodal or hepatic metastases, 2. control the symptoms related to hormonal secretion, 3. prevent or treat local complications.
  • The most common sites of gastrointestinal ET's ( carcinoids) are the appendix and the rectum; these are often small (<1 cm), benign, and discovered fortuitously at the time of appendectomy or colonoscopic removal.
  • The carcinoid syndrome (consisting of abdominal pain, flushing, diarrhea, hypertension, bronchospasm, and right sided cardiac vegetations) is caused by the hypersecretion of serotonin into the systemic circulation; it occurs in 10% of cases and is usually associated with hepatic metastases.
  • They are usually malignant and of advanced stage at diagnosis presenting as a palpable or obstructing mass or as liver metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • For gastrinoma with NEM-I, the benefit of surgical resection for tumors less than 2-3 cm in size is not clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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44. Vallot T: [Gastric polyps]. Presse Med; 2007 Oct;36(10 Pt 2):1412-7
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  • Gastric polyps exist in a wide variety of types, most often benign.
  • Hyperplastic polyps, adenomas and tumors must be totally resected.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the fundus most often occur in patients with hypergastrinemia during atrophic gastritis of autoimmune origin; they are not serious.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Adenoma. Carcinoid Tumor. Polyps. Precancerous Conditions. Stomach Diseases. Stomach Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / prevention & control. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Stomach / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17482791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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45. Bergmann F, Breinig M, Höpfner M, Rieker RJ, Fischer L, Köhler C, Esposito I, Kleeff J, Herpel E, Ehemann V, Friess H, Schirmacher P, Kern MA: Expression pattern and functional relevance of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2: novel chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors? Am J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jan;104(1):171-81
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  • [Title] Expression pattern and functional relevance of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2: novel chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors?
  • OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic endocrine tumors represent morphologically and biologically heterogeneous neoplasms.
  • Well-differentiated endocrine tumors (benign or of uncertain behavior) can be distinguished from well-differentiated and poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas.
  • Although many well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas show rather low rates of tumor growth, more than two-thirds of pancreatic endocrine carcinomas display distant metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • METHODS: The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were investigated in 110 clinically and pathomorphologically well-characterized pancreatic endocrine tumors, using immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses.
  • Functional tests were performed using the human pancreas carcinoid cell line BON and the mouse insulinoma cell line beta-TC-3.
  • RESULTS: The expression of EGFR correlated significantly with the grade of malignancy, increasing from low rates of expression in benign tumors and tumors of uncertain behavior to high rates of expression in well- and poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas.
  • The expression of COX-2 was independent of the malignant potential, but was more frequently expressed in primary tumors than in metastases.
  • The treatment of the human pancreas carcinoid cell line BON and the mouse insulinoma cell line beta-TC-3 with EGFR and COX-2 inhibitors (monotherapy and combined therapy) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent reduction of cell viability coupled with increased apoptosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EGFR and COX-2 may represent useful additional chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Celecoxib. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Insulinoma / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Middle Aged. Quinazolines. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19098866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Tyrphostins; 170449-18-0 / tyrphostin AG 1478; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
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46. Graham RP, Williams NP, West KA: Primary epithelial tumours of the appendix in a black population: a review of cases. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Mar 28;15(12):1472-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine cell tumours (carcinoids, 47.6%) and benign non-endocrine cell tumours (adenomas, 45.2%) were most common with nearly equal frequency.
  • Carcinoid tumours occurred in younger patients (mean age 32 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 1.2:1.
  • A clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis was the most common reason for appendectomy (57.1%) and was histologically confirmed in 75% (18 of 24) of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Appendiceal epithelial tumours are rare in our experience, and are represented principally by carcinoid tumours and adenomas.
  • Carcinoid tumours occurred in younger patients but were slightly more common in men than women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. West Indies / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2003 Feb 15;97(4):934-59 [12569593.001]
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  • (PMID = 19322920.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2665141
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47. Congregado M, Merchan RJ, Gallardo G, Ayarra J, Loscertales J: Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy: 13 years' experience. Surg Endosc; 2008 Aug;22(8):1852-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The clinical records of all patients were drawn from the hospital archive and data for the following variables were recorded for analysis: age, sex, clinical diagnosis, clinical status, date of surgery, type of surgery, inoperability, conversion to conventional surgery and reasons, duration of surgery and intraoperative complications, postoperative and long-term complications, postoperative stay, diagnosis, definitive status, and mortality.
  • RESULTS: A total of 237 major pulmonary resections were performed, on 203 males and 34 males, with a mean age of 61.43 years (non-small-cell bronchogenic carcinoma: 204, benign processes: 24, carcinoid tumors: 4, and lobectomy due to metastases: 5).
  • In our experience, VATS is currently to be considered ideally indicated for certain benign processes and for T1-T2 N0 M0 bronchogenic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / surgery. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Lung Diseases / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18157567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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48. Berns S, Pearl G: Middle ear adenoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):1067-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Middle ear adenoma is a benign tumor of the middle ear that can have exocrine (mucinous) and/or neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Early authors described a separate tumor with predominantly neuroendocrine differentiation as a middle ear carcinoid tumor, but these are now known to be the same tumor.
  • We review the literature of this tumor, including the clinical presentation, gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16831038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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49. Yang WL, Zhang XC, Yan ZQ, Zhang HM, Zhao Z, Zhang JG, Wang YJ: [Clinical analysis of primary small intestinal neoplasms in 305 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;29(10):781-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: To summarive the experience in diagnosis and treatment of primary small intestinal neoplasm.
  • METHODS: The data of 305 patients with pathologically confirmed primary small intestinal tumor collected from 6 hospitals around the Songhua River during the past 33 years were analyzed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: There were 42 benign and 263 malignant tumors in this series with a ratio of 1: 6.26.
  • The 263 malignant tumors in this series consisted of 135 adenocarcinomas, 57 malignant stromal tumors, 37 malignant lymphomas, 20 carcinoids, and etc.
  • Chronic occult bleeding, gradual of body weight loss and mild abdominal pain (three obscurities) were the common clinical features and alerting massage of intestinal tumor.
  • Correct preoperative diagnostic rate was only 57.0% (174/305) due to difficulty in early diagnosis, which was 67.2% (92/137) in the duodenal tumors, and 51.9% (82/168) in the jejunoileal tumors.
  • All of the 42 benign tumors were resected completely.
  • For the 263 patients with malignant tumors, radical dissection was performed in 153, palliative resection in 34, and gut by-pass or biopsy in 76.
  • The median survival of the patients who underwent radical resection of their malignant tumors was 92 months, which was significantly higher than that of the other groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis of primary small intestinal tumors is difficult and with a preoperative misdiagnosis rate of 43.0%.
  • Total intestinal barium swallowing, endoscopy and superior mesenteric arteriography are three critical examinations for diagnosis and location.
  • The primary small intestinal tumor should be resected as early as possible if no distant metastasis is detected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / secondary. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / surgery. Jejunal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Jejunal Neoplasms / pathology. Jejunal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18396694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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50. Kala Z, Válek V, Kysela P, Svoboda T: A shift in the diagnostics of the small intestine tumors. Eur J Radiol; 2007 May;62(2):160-5
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  • [Title] A shift in the diagnostics of the small intestine tumors.
  • Primary, secondary, benign or malignant tumorous diseases of the small intestine are rare.
  • This work should answer the question, whether there is a method of making the diagnosis earlier when the disease is limited and easy to cure.
  • METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study comprising 96 patients having undergone surgery for a small intestine tumor in our hospital from 1996 to 2005 is presented.
  • In the year 1998 we changed our philosophy in trying to directly detect the small intestine pathology and not making the diagnosis by the exclusion only.
  • RESULTS: We treated surgically 96 patients with the small intestine tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Intestine, Small / pathology. Intestine, Small / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Abdomen, Acute / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Algorithms. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Czech Republic. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17344005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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51. Bonkhoff H, Fixemer T: [Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer: an unrecognized and therapy resistant phenotype]. Pathologe; 2005 Nov;26(6):453-60
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  • The present review focuses on biological properties of NE tumor cells making them resistant to androgen deprivation and radiation therapy.
  • This particular phenotype consistently lacks the nuclear androgen receptor in both benign and malignant conditions but produces a series of hormonal growth factors exerting mitogenic stimuli on adjacent, exocrine tumor cells.
  • The absence of proliferative and apoptotic activity makes NE tumor cells particularly resistant towards cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apoptosis / physiology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Cell Division / physiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Growth Substances / analysis. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / radiotherapy. Prognosis. Prostate / pathology. Prostate / radiation effects. Receptors, Androgen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16195860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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52. Loizzi V, Cormio G, Resta L, Fattizzi N, Vicino M, Selvaggi L: Pseudo-Meigs syndrome and elevated CA125 associated with struma ovarii. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):282-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm composed entirely and predominantly of thyroid tissue.
  • CASE: We report an unusual presentation of a postmenopausal woman with benign struma ovarii associated with pseudo-Meigs syndrome, hypertiroidism, and elevated CA125 serum level, and a large complex right pelvic mass thereby mimicking an ovarian cancer.
  • This rare condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with ascites and pleural effusions but with negative cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / blood. Meigs Syndrome / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Struma Ovarii / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / blood

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  • (PMID = 15790478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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53. Granberg D, Wilander E, Oberg K: Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors in lung carcinoids. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(3):153-7
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  • OBJECTIVES: Typical lung carcinoids are usually relatively benign tumors, but distant metastases are seen in up to 12% of the patients.
  • In contrast, atypical carcinoids are more aggressive tumors, displaying metastases in up to 70%.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue from 51 patients with typical lung carcinoids were immunostained with polyclonal antibodies against c-kit, PDGFRalpha, PDGFRbeta and EGFR.
  • RESULTS: Twelve of the tumors stained positive for c-kit, 44 expressed PDGFRalpha, 30 showed positive immunoreactivity for PDGFRbeta and 26 were EGFR immunoreactive.
  • Among the 17 patients with distant metastases, 5 tumors expressed c-kit, 12 were PDGFRalpha immunoreactive, 9 stained positive for PDGFRbeta, and 7 showed positive immunoreactivity for EGFR.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16612146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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54. Yu R, Nissen NN, Dhall D, Wei M: Pheochromocytoma in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis: management and clinical predictors. Endocr Pract; 2008 Nov;14(8):967-72
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  • Pathologic diagnosis, demographic data, clinical history, imaging studies, and laboratory test results were reviewed and compared among patients whose adrenal mass was determined to be metastasis, adenoma, or pheochromocytoma.
  • Of the adrenal masses, 18 (60%) were metastases, 8 (27%) were benign adenomas, and 4 (13%) were pheochromocytomas.
  • Adrenal biopsy was performed without biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma in 9 patients (30%), including 2 subsequently found to have this tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pheochromocytoma occurs frequently in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis, but this tumor is often not considered in clinical practice.

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  • (PMID = 19095594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Isidori AM, Lenzi A: Ectopic ACTH syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1217-25
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  • Ectopic adrenocorticotropic secretion (EAS) is responsible for 12-17% of cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and covers a range of tumours, from undetectable benign lesions to widespread metastases.
  • EAS requires a complete workup that includes the establishment of endogenous CS, diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependency, localization of the source of ACTH secretion and rapid biochemical control of hypercortisolaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Abdominal Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Petrosal Sinus Sampling. Thoracic Neoplasms / complications. Thoracic Neoplasms / secretion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18209859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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56. Yamauchi N, Watanabe A, Hishinuma M, Ohashi K, Midorikawa Y, Morishita Y, Niki T, Shibahara J, Mori M, Makuuchi M, Hippo Y, Kodama T, Iwanari H, Aburatani H, Fukayama M: The glypican 3 oncofetal protein is a promising diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1591-8
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  • Then, we evaluated the feasibility of GPC3-immunohistochemistry in the pathological diagnosis of benign and malignant hepatocellular lesions by applying these monoclonal antibodies to formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens.
  • GPC3 immunoreactivity was detected in only one of 23 metastatic lesions of colorectal carcinoma, and its expression was entirely absent in the liver cell adenoma (0/7), carcinoid tumor (0/1), and cholangiocellular carcinoma (0/16).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / biosynthesis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Cell Line, Tumor. Glypicans. Hepatoblastoma / metabolism. Hepatoblastoma / pathology. Hepatocytes / metabolism. Hepatocytes / pathology. Humans. Liver / embryology. Liver / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15920546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
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57. Oliva E, Alvarez T, Young RH: Sertoli cell tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 54 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Feb;29(2):143-56
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  • [Title] Sertoli cell tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 54 cases.
  • Ovarian Sertoli cell tumors are rare, and their morphologic spectrum, behavior, and factors influencing the latter are not clearly established.
  • They may be mimicked by many different tumors, some of them more frequent than Sertoli cell tumors; immunohistochemistry may aid in this differential, but its role has not been analyzed in a large series.
  • We studied the clinicopathologic features of 54 Sertoli cell tumors, including the immunohistochemical profile of 23 of them.
  • The tumors ranged from 0.8 to 30 cm, with the majority being in the range of 4 to 12 cm.
  • The predominant microscopic pattern was tubular, seen, albeit often only focally, in all tumors; other patterns were cords or trabeculae (28), diffuse (21), pseudopapillary (4), retiform (3), islands or alveolar arrangements (3), and spindled (3).
  • Delicate septa were occasionally seen and were conspicuous in areas of one tumor.
  • The stroma was abundant in 15 tumors with marked sclerosis in 4.
  • The cells usually had pale to occasionally densely eosinophilic cytoplasm, but 6 tumors were composed of cells with prominent foamy cytoplasm, falling in the category of "lipid-rich" Sertoli cell tumor, and one had cells with clear non-foamy cytoplasm.
  • Forty-four tumors were stage I (42 of them were stage Ia and 2 were stage Ic), 1 was stage II, 3 were stage III, and 6 were not adequately staged.
  • Follow-up was available for 27 patients with stage I tumors, and all were alive and well at last follow-up except for 2 patients with stage Ia and 1 with stage Ic disease.
  • Those 3 patients had pelvic-abdominal recurrences 18, 36, and 9 months, respectively, after the initial diagnosis.
  • Two of the three clinically malignant stage I tumors had moderate to severe cytologic atypia and brisk mitotic activity (>5 or more mitoses/10 high power fields [HPFs]), and one of these had tumor cell necrosis.
  • Among the 10 clinically benign stage I tumors with more than 5 years of follow-up, only 3 had >5 mitoses/10 HPFs, but none had more than mild cytologic atypia and none had tumor cell necrosis.
  • Two of the three patients with stage III disease had follow-up information and one was alive at 16 months and the second developed splenic metastases 2 years after the initial diagnosis.
  • Two of the three stage III tumors had at least moderate cytologic atypia and brisk mitotic activity.
  • Immunohistochemical stains showed positivity for AE1/3-Cam5.2 in 15 of 23 tumors; Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) was negative in all the tumors.
  • Inhibin was positive in 18 of 22 tumors, calretinin in 10 of 20, CD99 in 19 of 22, vimentin in 17 of 18, smooth muscle actin in 4 of 18, neuron specific enolase in 8 of 16, S-100 in 2 of 20, and chromogranin was negative in all 21 cases studied.
  • Although Sertoli cell tumors usually have a distinctive tubular pattern that facilitates the diagnosis, other patterns may occasionally predominate, causing confusion with various other primary and metastatic ovarian tumors.
  • EMA, inhibin, and chromogranin represent the most helpful triad of immunomarkers serving to exclude two common mimics of Sertoli cell tumors (endometrioid carcinoma [inhibin-; EMA+; chromogranin-] and carcinoid tumor [inhibin-; EMA+; chromogranin+]).
  • Although CD99 and calretinin are often expressed in these tumors, they are much less specific and not as helpful in the differential diagnosis.
  • Most Sertoli cell tumors are stage I, unilateral, cytologically bland, and clinically benign, but occasional examples are high stage, and about 11% of stage I tumors have worrisome histologic features that may portend an adverse outcome.
  • The tumors typically occur in young females, sometimes children who typically present with sexual precocity, and occasional patients have Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / metabolism. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15644771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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58. Hartley N, Rajesh A, Verma R, Sinha R, Sandrasegaran K: Abdominal manifestations of neurofibromatosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Jan-Feb;32(1):4-8
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  • Mutations of the NF gene lead to abnormal tumor suppression.
  • Consequently, NF is a complex disease, with patients having an increased prevalence of benign and malignant neoplasms throughout the body.
  • We present cases of the most common abdominal presentations: neurofibroma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, pheochromocytoma, carcinoid, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and seminoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Seminoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18303281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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59. Porter G, Steel J, Paisley K, Watkins R, Holgate C: Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy? Clin Radiol; 2009 May;64(5):529-33
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  • Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%).
  • Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p=0.015].
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Lobular / radiography. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Melanoma / radiography. Melanoma / secondary. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Radiol. 2009 Oct;64(10):1041-2 [19748012.001]
  • (PMID = 19348850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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60. Igaz P: MEN1 clinical background. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;668:1-15
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is a rare hereditary tumor syndrome predisposing to tumor development in several endocrine organs.
  • Its major manifestations include hyperparathyroidism, tumors of endocrine pancreas and pituitary.
  • Beside these three, several other endocrine (adrenocortical, foregut carcinoid) and nonendocrine (lipoma, angiofibroma, collagenoma, ependymoma, meningioma) tumors have been described to be associated with this syndrome.
  • The diagnosis of MEN1 can be established if two of the three major manifestations are found in the same patient, whereas the diagnosis of familial MEN1 requires one MEN1 patient and a first degree relative with at least one MEN1 manifestation.
  • Both benign (parathyroid, anterior pituitary) and malignant (gastrinoma, glucagonoma) lesions may develop in MEN1 patients.
  • Several diagnostic modalities can be used to screen for and to examine MEN1-related tumors.
  • The therapy of MEN1-associated tumors requires specific approach in some cases, as multiple tumors and recurrence is frequently observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genetic Testing. Humans. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / physiopathology. Mutation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20175448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Park CM, Goo JM, Lee HJ, Kim MA, Lee CH, Kang MJ: Tumors in the tracheobronchial tree: CT and FDG PET features. Radiographics; 2009 Jan-Feb;29(1):55-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumors in the tracheobronchial tree: CT and FDG PET features.
  • A variety of tumors, including primary malignant tumors, secondary malignant tumors, and benign tumors, can occur in the tracheobronchial tree.
  • Primary malignant tumors commonly originate from the surface epithelium or the salivary glands, whereas most benign tumors arise from the mesenchymal tissue.
  • At computed tomography (CT), primary malignant tumors manifest as a polypoid lesion, a focal sessile lesion, eccentric narrowing of the airway lumen, or circumferential wall thickening.
  • Carcinoid tumors commonly show intense enhancement at contrast material-enhanced CT, which can be helpful in making the diagnosis, and usually have lower uptake at FDG PET than would be expected for a malignant tumor.
  • Secondary malignant tumors occur as a result of either hematogenous metastasis or direct invasion by a malignancy from an adjacent structure.
  • Their CT manifestations are similar to those of primary malignant tumors, with uptake at FDG PET depending primarily on the metabolic activity and degree of differentiation of the primary tumor.
  • Among the benign tumors, hamartoma and lipoma can show characteristic CT findings such as "popcorn" calcification or internal fat.
  • However, CT findings in most benign tumors are nonspecific.
  • At FDG PET, benign tumors usually show little or no uptake and can be differentiated from malignant tumors.
  • Knowledge of the characteristic CT and FDG PET findings of tracheobronchial tumors can aid in diagnosis and treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Image Enhancement / methods. Subtraction Technique. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Tracheal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19168836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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62. Bhosale PR, Patnana M, Viswanathan C, Szklaruk J: The inguinal canal: anatomy and imaging features of common and uncommon masses. Radiographics; 2008 May-Jun;28(3):819-35; quiz 913
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  • A variety of benign and malignant masses can be found in the inguinal canal (IC).
  • Benign causes of masses in the IC include spermatic cord lipoma, hematoma, abscess, neurofibroma, varicocele, desmoid tumor, air, bowel contrast material, hydrocele, and prostheses.
  • Metastases to the IC can occur from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, monophasic sarcoma, prostate cancer, Wilms tumor, carcinoid tumor, melanoma, or pancreatic cancer.
  • In patients with a known malignancy and peritoneal carcinomatosis, the diagnosis of metastases can be suggested when a mass is detected in the IC.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Inguinal Canal / pathology. Inguinal Canal / radiography. Peritoneal Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18480486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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63. Klöppel G: Tumour biology and histopathology of neuroendocrine tumours. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;21(1):15-31
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  • In the lung they are called carcinoid and small/large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Their clinical behaviour--ranging from benign and low-grade to high-grade malignancy--can be predicted on the basis of clinicopathological criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / classification. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / classification. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / genetics. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neurosecretory Systems / cytology. Prognosis. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / classification. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / genetics. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17382263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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64. Conlon JM: Granin-derived peptides as diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors. Regul Pept; 2010 Nov 30;165(1):5-11
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  • [Title] Granin-derived peptides as diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors.
  • Chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity (CgA-LI) has been, and remains, the most widely used diagnostic and prognostic marker for endocrine tumors.
  • However, circulating concentrations of CgA-LI are elevated in several non-neoplastic diseases and in patients receiving acid-suppression therapy which may lead to false positive diagnosis.
  • Additionally, certain endocrine tumors, such as rectal carcinoids, do not express the CgA gene so that there is a need for additional markers to complement CgA measurements.
  • Plasma concentrations of the CgA-derived peptide, pancreastatin, measured with antisera of defined regional specificity, have a prognostic value in patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid tumors receiving somatostatin analog therapy or hepatic artery chemoembolization.
  • Other CgA-derived peptides with potential as tumor markers are vasostatin-1, WE-14, catestatin, GE-25, and EL-35 but their value has yet to be fully assessed.
  • Circulating concentrations of chromogranin B-like immunoreactivity (CgB-LI) are not elevated in non-neoplastic diseases and measurements of CCB, the COOH-terminal fragment of CgB, may be useful as a biochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in lung tumors.
  • Antisera to the secretogranin II-derived peptide, secretoneurin detects carcinoid tumors of the appendix with greater frequency than antisera to CgA and are of value in identifying therapy-resistant carcinoma of the prostate (clinical stage D3).
  • Measurement of concentrations of a second secretogranin II-derived peptide, EM-66 in tumor tissue has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • These examples point to a limited although potentially valuable role for granin-derived peptides as tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromogranins / metabolism. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19931574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Secretogranin II
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65. Kamaya A, Maturen KE, Tye GA, Liu YI, Parti NN, Desser TS: Hypervascular liver lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2009 Oct;30(5):387-407
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  • Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies.
  • In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular.
  • While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply.
  • Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / blood supply. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19842564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-2171
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Ultrasound CT MR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 140
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66. Martinez S, Heyneman LE, McAdams HP, Rossi SE, Restrepo CS, Eraso A: Mucoid impactions: finger-in-glove sign and other CT and radiographic features. Radiographics; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5):1369-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The sign also may be observed in many acquired conditions, include inflammatory and infectious diseases (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, broncholithiasis, and foreign body aspiration), benign neoplastic processes (bronchial hamartoma, lipoma, and papillomatosis), and malignancies (bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, and metastases).
  • To point to the correct diagnosis, the radiologist must be familiar with the key radiographic and CT features that enable differentiation among the various likely causes.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Diseases / complications. Bronchial Diseases / diagnosis. Mucus / radiography. Radiography, Thoracic / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18794313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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67. Hughes JH, Young NA, Wilbur DC, Renshaw AA, Mody DR, Cytopathology Resource Committee, College of American Pathologists: Fine-needle aspiration of pulmonary hamartoma: a common source of false-positive diagnoses in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jan;129(1):19-22
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  • The specificity of FNA for making the correct general reference interpretation of benign was 78%.
  • The false-positive rate was 22%, with the most common false-positive diagnoses being carcinoid tumor, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma.
  • The overall accuracy for making the correct specific reference diagnosis of PH was 26%.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytodiagnosis / standards. Diagnostic Errors. Gynecology. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pathology, Clinical / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Databases, Factual. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15628903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Torlakovic E, Slipicevic A, Robinson C, DeCoteau JF, Alfsen GC, Vyberg M, Chibbar R, Flørenes VA: Pax-5 expression in nonhematopoietic tissues. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Nov;126(5):798-804
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  • We evaluated 123 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, including neuroendocrine tumors, adult brain, mesonephric tissues, and from various other sites.
  • We confirm that Pax-5 is expressed regularly in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors but never in well-differentiated classic carcinoid tumors.
  • Pax-5 expression also was found readily in benign and malignant mesonephric tissues and focally in müllerian duct-derived tissues and tumors.
  • Together, these results are important for correct interpretation of results in immunophenotyping of undifferentiated tumors, for diagnosis of mesonephric carcinoma, and, potentially, for correct classification of neuroendocrine tumors in small biopsy samples.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17050077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / PAX5 protein, human
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69. Papacharalampous GX, Korres S, Tzagaroulakis M, Segas I, Ferekidis E: Paraganglioma of the larynx: a case report. Med Sci Monit; 2007 Dec;13(12):CS145-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These tumors are generally considered benign.
  • The tumor was entirely removed along with the left aryepiglottic fold with respect to the surrounding tissues.
  • Histopathological examination showed a benign laryngeal paraganglioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Paragangliomas of the larynx are rare neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The differential diagnosis of laryngeal paraganglioma includes typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Although these tumors are generally considered benign, their surgical removal with respect to the surrounding tissues and maximal possible preservation of laryngeal function is the treatment of choice.

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  • (PMID = 18049441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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70. Faith A, Peek E, McDonald J, Urry Z, Richards DF, Tan C, Santis G, Hawrylowicz C: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells from human lung cancer draining lymph nodes induce Tc1 responses. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol; 2007 Mar;36(3):360-7
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  • Dendritic cells (DC) resident in draining lymph nodes (LN) of patients with lung cancer are proposed to have a critical role in stimulating anti-tumor immunity.
  • The present study, therefore, investigated the capacity of plasmacytoid-DC from human lung cancer draining LN to respond to CpG for activation of T cell responses relevant to anti-tumor immunity.
  • There was no significant difference between the responses of plasmacytoid-DC from patients with lung cancer and patients with benign carcinoid tumors with no pathologic LN involvement.

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  • (PMID = 17023687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-1549
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 9; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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71. Heyer CM, Kagel T, Lemburg SP, Walter JW, de Zeeuw J, Junker K, Mueller KM, Nicolas V, Bauer TT: Transbronchial biopsy guided by low-dose MDCT: a new approach for assessment of solitary pulmonary nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Oct;187(4):933-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included 33 consecutive patients (25 men; mean age +/- SD, 64 +/- 9.6 years) with solitary pulmonary nodules at different sites and with a lesion-to-pleura distance of at least 2 cm who previously underwent conventional bronchoscopy that did not result in histologic diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: The diagnostic yield was 24 in 33 selected patients (overall accuracy, 72.7%): 13 (54%) had primary lung cancer and 11 (46%) had benign diagnoses.
  • The final diagnoses of the remaining nine patients in whom transbronchial bronchoscopic biopsy was not diagnostic were non-small cell lung cancer (n = 3); small cell lung cancer (n = 3); and alveolar carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, and hemorrhaged bulla (n = 1 each).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Radiography, Interventional. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16985137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Bhatia P, Srinivasan R, Rajwanshi A, Nijhawan R, Khandelwal N, Wig J, Vasishtha RK: 5-year review and reappraisal of ultrasound-guided percutaneous transabdominal fine needle aspiration of pancreatic lesions. Acta Cytol; 2008 Sep-Oct;52(5):523-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Seven cases (2.6%) yielded insufficient material for diagnosis; 260 cases were classified as benign (n=118) and malignant (n=142) lesions.
  • Of the 118 benign aspirates, the cytodiagnosis was acute/chronic inflammation in 24, tuberculosis in 1, benign cyst in 10 and a benign aspirate, not otherwise specified, in the remaining 83 cases.
  • Of the 142 malignant aspirates, the cytodiagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 126, neuroendocrine/carcinoid tumor in 7, papillary solid epithelial neoplasm in 2, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in 2, acinar cell carcinoma in 1 and metastatic small cell carcinoma in lung in 4 cases.

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Cytol. 2008 Sep-Oct;52(5):521-2 [18833811.001]
  • (PMID = 18833812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Agarwal SK, Ozawa A, Mateo CM, Marx SJ: The MEN1 gene and pituitary tumours. Horm Res; 2009 Apr;71 Suppl 2:131-8
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  • Diagnosis in MEN1 carriers during childhood is not directed at cancers but at benign morbid tumours.
  • The MEN1 gene shows biallelic inactivation in 30% of some types of common variety endocrine tumours (e.g. parathyroid adenoma, gastrinoma, insulinoma and bronchial carcinoid), but in only 1-5% of common pituitary tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Gene Knockout Techniques. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Mice. Mutation. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19407509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cdkn1b protein, mouse; 0 / HRPT2 protein, mouse; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Men1 protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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74. Konishi M, Kinoshita T, Nakagohri T, Takahashi S, Gotohda N, Ryu M: Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy for duodenal neoplasms including malignancies. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Apr-May;54(75):753-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy (PSD) represents an attractive operation for benign or premalignant duodenal disease.
  • METHODOLOGY: The present study investigated 16 patients who underwent PSD for duodenal neoplasms including adenoma, cancer, carcinoid and non-epithelial tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17591055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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75. Ali FN, Ishaque S, Jamil B, Nasir-Ud-Din, Idris M: Sclerosing mesenteritis as a cause of abdominal mass and discomfort in an elderly patient: a case report and literature review. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:625321

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare benign process that involves inflammation, fat necrosis, and fibrosis of the mesentery.
  • With suspicion of a bowel carcinoid tumor on computed tomography scans, the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy.
  • A diagnosis of sclerosing mesenteritis was made on histological examination.

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  • (PMID = 20671922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2910504
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76. Zhou X, Shang JQ, Zhou JN: [Transsacral local wide resection for mid-lower rectal tumors]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jan;12(1):44-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Transsacral local wide resection for mid-lower rectal tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of transsacral local wide resection for mid-lower rectal tumors.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 133 patients undergone transsacral local wide resection for mid-lower rectal tumors between September 1994 and September 2005 were analyzed retrospectively.
  • Postoperative diagnosis was adenoma in 28 patients, hyperplastic polyp in 3 patients, carcinoid in 8 patients, gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 1 patient,adenoma with intra-mucosal carcinogenesis in 29 patients and adenocarcinoma invading into submucosa in 64 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Transsacral local wide resection is simple and safe for mid-lower rectal tumors, which is an appropriate procedure for mid-lower rectal benign tumor and can serve as a sphincter-saving operation for selected T(1) lower rectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19145503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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77. Suzuki H, Furukawa K, Kan H, Tsuruta H, Matsumoto S, Akiya Y, Shinji S, Tajiri T: The role of transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors. J Nippon Med Sch; 2005 Oct;72(5):278-84

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors.
  • PURPOSE: The management of rectal tumors is complex, because of the balance between preserving rectoanal function and curing the patient.
  • Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is both an effective treatment for benign rectal tumors and early cancers, and a diagnostic tool for determining tumor depth, or for residual tumors of post endoscopic mucosal resection.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the role of TEM in the management of rectal tumors.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients with rectal tumors underwent TEM from December 2000 through March 2005 in our department.
  • The operations were performed by a single surgeon, and the indications were mainly limited to a) benign tumors for which endoscopic resection was difficult, b) early cancers that had invaded the submucosa within 500 microm of the muscularis mucosae, c) submucosal tumors, i.e., gastrointestinal stromal tumor, carcinoid tumors, d) local excision for diagnosis, and e) palliative resection for high-risk cases.
  • Anesthesia, operation time, sizes of the tumor and of resected specimens, postoperative complications, length of hospitalization, pathological results, and postoperative recurrence rate were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 61.9 years, and the cases included 14 rectal cancers, 7 adenomas, 1 gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and 3 rectal carcinoid tumors.
  • All tumors were resected with horizontal and vertical safety margin.
  • In one case, the tumor had infiltrated the proper muscle layer, as shown by intraoperative frozen sectioning, which necessitated abdominoperineal resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TEM is a minimally invasive surgical procedure for rectal tumors, which allows the whole depth of the rectal wall to be resected with a safety surgical margin.
  • Although TEM requires technical skill and accurate preoperative diagnosis, the procedure is safe, facilitates accurate diagnosis of tumor depth, and limits the need for additional surgery.

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  • (PMID = 16247227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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78. Tsai BM, Finne CO, Nordenstam JF, Christoforidis D, Madoff RD, Mellgren A: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery resection of rectal tumors: outcomes and recommendations. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Jan;53(1):16-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transanal endoscopic microsurgery resection of rectal tumors: outcomes and recommendations.
  • PURPOSE: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery provides a minimally invasive alternative to radical surgery for excision of benign and malignant rectal tumors.
  • We analyzed patient and operative factors, complications, and tumor recurrence.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-nine patients underwent transanal endoscopic microsurgery for benign (n = 158) and malignant (n = 111) tumors.
  • Local recurrence rates for 121 benign and 83 malignant tumors were 5% for adenomas, 9.8% for T1 adenocarcinoma, 23.5% for T2 adenocarcinoma, 100% for T3 adenocarcinoma, and 0% for carcinoid tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a safe and effective method for excision of benign and malignant rectal tumors.
  • Transanal endoscopic microsurgery can be offered for (1) curative resection of benign tumors, carcinoid tumors, and select T1 adenocarcinomas, (2) histopathologic staging in indeterminate cases, and (3) palliative resection in patients medically unfit or unwilling to undergo radical resection.

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  • (PMID = 20010345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Fainstein Day P, Frohman L, Garcia Rivello H, Reubi JC, Sevlever G, Glerean M, Fernandez Gianotti T, Pietrani M, Rabadan A, Racioppi S, Bidlingmaier M: Ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion by a metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor: a case with a non hypophysial intracranial tumor that shrank during long acting octreotide treatment. Pituitary; 2007;10(3):311-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion by a metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor: a case with a non hypophysial intracranial tumor that shrank during long acting octreotide treatment.
  • Although clinical improvement is common after treatment with somatostatin (SMS) analogs, the biochemical response and tumor size of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-producing tumor and its metastases are less predictable.
  • He had undergone lung surgery in 1987 for a "benign" carcinoid tumor.
  • Methods Measurement of circulating GHRH levels by fluorescence immunoassay levels and immunohistochemical study of the primary lung tumor and metastatic tissue with anti-GHRH and anti-somatostatin receptor type 2 (sst2A) antibodies.
  • Pathological study of liver and bone biopsy material and lung tissue removed 19 years earlier was consistent with an atypical carcinoid producing GHRH and exhibiting sst2A receptor expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Bronchial Neoplasms / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Hormones, Ectopic / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17373589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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80. Saliba I, Evrard AS: Middle ear glandular neoplasms: adenoma, carcinoma or adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: a case series. Cases J; 2009;2:6508

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It is currently thought that these tumors are indistinguishable each from another.
  • Herein, we present a new case of a middle ear glandular neoplasm.
  • Our objective is to review all cases described in the literature in order to identify the clinical features, the gross pathology, the histopathology, the immunohistochemistry, to discuss the differential diagnosis, the treatment, the rate of recurrence, the follow-up, the incidence of metastasis, the prognosis and to present a new classification of middle ear glandular neoplasm.
  • We uncovered 75 patients with a carcinoid tumor and 19 patients with a middle ear adenoma diagnosis; the most common presenting symptom was a conductive hearing loss.
  • The tumor's cells are immunohistochemically positive for a variety of keratin antibodies and most of them are also positive for neuroendocrine markers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study and the review of the literature showed adenomas and carcinoid tumors of the middle ear to be essentially indistinguishable benign tumors with metastatic potential.

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  • (PMID = 20111612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2812983
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81. Namasivayam S, Martin DR, Saini S: Imaging of liver metastases: MRI. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:2-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - MRI Scans.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Specific characterization of liver metastases in patients with primary non-hepatic tumors is crucial to avoid unnecessary diagnostic work-up for incidental benign liver lesions.
  • MR contrast agents provide critical tumor characterization and can be safely used in patients with iodine contrast allergy and renal failure.
  • The degree and nature of tumor vascularity form the basis for liver lesion characterization based on enhancement properties.
  • Colon, lung, breast and gastric carcinomas are the most common tumors causing hypovascular liver metastases, and typically show perilesional enhancement.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors including carcinoid and islet cell tumors, renal cell carcinoma, breast, melanoma, and thyroid carcinoma are tumors most commonly causing hypervascular hepatic metastases, which may develop early enhancement with variable degrees of washout and peripheral rim enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 17293303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1804118
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82. Carlo JT, DeMarco D, Smith BA, Livingston S, Wiser K, Kuhn JA, Lamont JP: The utility of capsule endoscopy and its role for diagnosing pathology in the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Surg; 2005 Dec;190(6):886-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was the most common reported finding (43.9%), followed by ulcer (24.1%), colon or gastric pathology (14.1%), mass/tumor (9.1%), and stricture (6.9%).
  • Patients with abdominal pain (n = 81) had findings 46.9% of the time including edema/ulcer (47.4%), stricture (10.5%), mass/tumor (26.3%), gastric pathology (10.5%), AVM (2.6%), or sprue (2.6%).
  • Patients with diarrhea (n = 22) had findings 45.5% of the time including edema/ulcer (75%), mass/tumor (12.5%), or sprue (12.5%).
  • Pathology at the retention site included benign strictures or adhesions (n = 9, 75%), Crohn's stricture (n = 1, 8.3%) carcinoid tumor (n = 1, 8.3%), and villous adenoma (n = 1, 8.3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / utilization. Gastrointestinal Diseases / diagnosis. Miniaturization. Telemetry / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 16307940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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