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6. Shimoyama S, Fujishiro M, Takazawa Y: Successful type-oriented endoscopic resection for gastric carcinoid tumors: A case report. World J Gastrointest Endosc; 2010 Dec 16;2(12):408-12
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  • [Title] Successful type-oriented endoscopic resection for gastric carcinoid tumors: A case report.
  • The standard treatment in Japan for gastric carcinoid has been gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy.
  • This report describes the possibility of endoscopic treatment as an appropriate option for gastric carcinoid fulfilling certain conditions.
  • The patient had hypergastrinemia with pernicious anemia and type A chronic atrophic gastritis, suggesting that the tumors were type I in Rindi's classification.
  • Both tumors were located in the mucosal layer with no cellular polymorphism and were chromogranin A positive.
  • Neither tumor recurrence in the stomach nor distant metastases have been documented during the 5 years of follow-up.
  • Although many type I gastric carcinoids may be clinically indolent, reports on successful endoscopic treatment for this carcinoid have been scanty in the literature in Japan, presumably because of the hitherto surgical treatment stance for the disease.
  • This report discusses how the size, number, depth and histological grading of the type I gastric carcinoid could allow the correct identification of a benign or malignant propensity of an individual tumor and how endoscopic resection could be a treatment of choice when these factors render it feasible.
  • This stance could also obviate unnecessary surgical resection for more benign tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21191515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5190
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3010472
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; : Endoscopic resection / Gastric carcinoid / Hypergastrinemia / Pernicious anemia / Type A chronic atrophic gastritis.
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7. Mackley HB, Videtic GM: Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy. Oncology (Williston Park); 2006 Nov;20(12):1537-43; discussion 1544-5, 1549
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy.
  • Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung represent a clinical spectrum of tumors ranging from the relatively benign and slow-growing typical carcinoid to the highly aggressive small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17153907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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8. Fainstein Day P, Frohman L, Garcia Rivello H, Reubi JC, Sevlever G, Glerean M, Fernandez Gianotti T, Pietrani M, Rabadan A, Racioppi S, Bidlingmaier M: Ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion by a metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor: a case with a non hypophysial intracranial tumor that shrank during long acting octreotide treatment. Pituitary; 2007;10(3):311-9
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  • [Title] Ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion by a metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor: a case with a non hypophysial intracranial tumor that shrank during long acting octreotide treatment.
  • Although clinical improvement is common after treatment with somatostatin (SMS) analogs, the biochemical response and tumor size of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-producing tumor and its metastases are less predictable.
  • He had undergone lung surgery in 1987 for a "benign" carcinoid tumor.
  • Methods Measurement of circulating GHRH levels by fluorescence immunoassay levels and immunohistochemical study of the primary lung tumor and metastatic tissue with anti-GHRH and anti-somatostatin receptor type 2 (sst2A) antibodies.
  • Pathological study of liver and bone biopsy material and lung tissue removed 19 years earlier was consistent with an atypical carcinoid producing GHRH and exhibiting sst2A receptor expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Bronchial Neoplasms / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Hormones, Ectopic / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17373589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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9. Strehl MA, Scheich M, Ott I, Müller-Hermelink HK, Hagen R, Völker HU: [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2009 Mar;88(3):186-90
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  • [Title] [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Mittelohradenom/Mittelohrkarzinoid--ein unproblematischer Tumor?
  • OBJECTIVES: Adenomas/carcinoid tumors of the middle ear are very rare tumors of young to middle aged patients.
  • The terms adenoma and carcinoid tumor of the middle ear can be used as synonyms, with the WHO favouring the term middle ear adenoma (MEA).
  • These tumors usually present with unspecific clinical symptoms and a long case history.
  • They are classified as benign tumors with only very few reported cases of regional metastasis after years of disease.
  • METHODS AND PATIENTS: This study describes the clinical course and the diagnostic challenges in four cases of this rare tumor entity.
  • In two cases a tumor recurrence was documented with one case recurring six times.
  • The histological differential diagnosis can also be problematic; in one case with a highly atypical morphology it was impossible to arrive at a definite diagnosis during the analysis of a frozen section.
  • The presented cases in this study and the analysis of previously published cases shows that the typical progression described by the current WHO-classification with unproblematic surgical management of the tumor and an uncomplicated further clinical course does not always correspond to reality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, Middle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / diagnosis. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / pathology. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Otoscopy. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19065497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Pasieka JL: Carcinoid tumors. Surg Clin North Am; 2009 Oct;89(5):1123-37
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors, which arise from the enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract, encompass a diverse group of neoplasms.
  • Once thought to be "carcinoma-like," these neoplasms exhibit a biologic behavior that varies from an indolent, benign course to an aggressive, rapidly progressive, and deadly disease.
  • Today the term carcinoid is reserved for neuroendocrine tumors arising from the small bowel or neuroendocrine tumors that can cause carcinoid syndrome.
  • For the general surgeon there are several "carcinoid" tumors that he or she must be familiar with because many of these lesions are encountered during emergency laparotomies or incidentally discovered during investigation for vague abdominal pain.
  • This review focuses on the gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors that general surgeons are likely to encounter during their career.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19836488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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11. Sousa V, Carvalho L: [Glomic tumor: presentation of an infrequent case]. Rev Port Pneumol; 2006 May-Jun;12(3):269-74
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  • [Title] [Glomic tumor: presentation of an infrequent case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente.
  • Glomic tumours are generally benign.
  • They should be classified as glomic tumor, glomangioma and glomangiomioma according to the relative abundance of glomic cells and of the vascular and muscular components.
  • The differential diagnosis of glomic tumours of the lung includes the carcinoid, hemangioperycitoma, smooth muscle tumours (epithelioid leyomioma) and the paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16967176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-2159
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de pneumologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Pneumol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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12. Detterbeck FC: Management of carcinoid tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2010 Mar;89(3):998-1005
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  • [Title] Management of carcinoid tumors.
  • Primary bronchopulmonary carcinoids comprise a significant proportion of carcinoid tumors.
  • The clinical presentation allows prediction of the diagnosis and cell type and directs evaluation and treatment.
  • Young age, central tumor, and no nodal enlargement are highly suggestive of typical carcinoid.
  • Mediastinoscopy is suggested when there is moderate suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN1 or peripheral cN0), with lobectomy and lymphadenectomy if the mediastinal nodes are benign.
  • For a high suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN2, peripheral cN1, 2), imaging for distant metastases and mediastinoscopy is suggested, with multimodality treatment for an atypical carcinoid with N2 involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Lung Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20172187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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13. Lee DH, Cho HH, Cho YB: Typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2007 Dec;34(4):537-9
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  • [Title] Typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity.
  • The nasal cavity is a rare site of origin of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • They can be classified typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid and small cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine type.
  • The tumor histology and prognosis correlate closely.
  • The typical carcinoid tumors are well differentiated with benign course.
  • The treatment of the typical carcinoid is a conservative surgery and the prognosis is good.
  • But, typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity was extremely rare, so the treatment has not been established.
  • We report a case of typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity in a 76-year-old man who treated by conservative surgery using sinus endoscopy.
  • To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on an typical carcinoid in the nasal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17481837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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4. Zehlicke T, Punke C, Boltze C, Pau HW: Transient facial palsy in two cases of benign, very rare middle ear tumors (carcinoid tumor and myxoma). Neurologist; 2008 Jan;14(1):52-5
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  • [Title] Transient facial palsy in two cases of benign, very rare middle ear tumors (carcinoid tumor and myxoma).
  • OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the clinical features of 2 very rare middle ear tumors in which the guiding symptom was facial palsy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Illustrative case reports about a myxoma and a carcinoid tumor of the middle ear associated with peripheral facial palsy.
  • Moreover, both tumor entities are typically found in organs other than the ear; if located in the middle ear, those neoplasms grow rather superficially.
  • If the facial weakness starts together with symptoms suggesting an inflammatory process, the differential diagnosis may be focused first on diseases like herpes zoster oticus and a severe course of acute purulent otitis media.
  • We report the cases of 2 rare middle ear tumors causing facial palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, Middle / pathology. Facial Paralysis / pathology. Myxoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Facial Nerve / pathology. Facial Nerve / physiopathology. Hearing Loss / etiology. Hearing Loss / pathology. Hearing Loss / radiography. Herpes Zoster Oticus / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Mastoid / pathology. Mastoid / radiography. Mastoid / surgery. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Otitis Media / diagnosis. Petrous Bone / anatomy & histology. Petrous Bone / pathology. Petrous Bone / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vertigo / etiology. Vertigo / pathology. Vertigo / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18195660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-7931
  • [Journal-full-title] The neurologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ferlito A, Devaney KO, Rinaldo A: Primary carcinoid tumor of the middle ear: a potentially metastasizing tumor. Acta Otolaryngol; 2006 Mar;126(3):228-31
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumor of the middle ear: a potentially metastasizing tumor.
  • The concept of a carcinoid tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and lung is well established; less often, patients develop carcinoid tumors in the head and neck region.
  • One particularly uncommon site of origin of carcinoid tumors in the head and neck area is the middle ear.
  • Middle ear carcinoids have previously been approached as benign entities, lacking any capacity for metastasizing.
  • A critical review of the literature, however, disclosed a small number of cases in which middle ear carcinoid tumors have given rise to regional (cervical node) metastases.
  • This in turn suggests that, as is the case with pulmonary carcinoid tumors, middle ear carcinoids should be thought of as low-grade malignancies which, while relatively slow-growing, nevertheless possess a limited capacity for spreading to regional lymph nodes.
  • To date, distant metastases have not been associated with middle ear carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, Middle. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16618645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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16. Chen F, Sato T, Fujinaga T, Sakai H, Miyahara R, Bando T, Date H: Surgical management of bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors: an institutional experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Dec;11(6):737-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors: an institutional experience.
  • Bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors are well known as low-grade malignant tumors with fairly benign behaviors; however, distant metastasis after complete resection and multiple carcinoid tumors in the resected lungs have been sporadically reported.
  • For better understanding of bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors, we reviewed our institutional experience.
  • Eight patients with bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors underwent complete pulmonary resection.
  • In one patient who received a lobectomy for a peripheral nodule, multiple carcinoid tumors were found in the resected specimen.
  • In one patient, tumors recurred at the bronchial stump and in the liver approximately five years after complete pulmonary resection.
  • Despite a small number of cases, our study supported the idea that bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors might require major surgical procedures and that complete pulmonary resection of typical carcinoid tumors could expect long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pneumonectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Bronchoscopy. Female. Humans. Japan. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20852330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Kemp CD, Russell RT, Sharp KW: Resection of benign duodenal neoplasms. Am Surg; 2007 Nov;73(11):1086-91
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  • [Title] Resection of benign duodenal neoplasms.
  • Primary small bowel neoplasms (PSBN) are uncommon, accounting for less than 15 per cent of all gastrointestinal tumors.
  • Benign duodenal neoplasms (BDN) are rare, comprising only 10 to 20 per cent of all PSBN.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Duodenoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Lipoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18092639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Eloy-Garcia Carrasco C, Benguigui Benadiva J, Martinez Garcia S, Sanz Trelles A, Palacios S: Atypical primary carcinoid tumour of the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33 Suppl 2:32-4
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  • [Title] Atypical primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • We present a new case of a primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • Literature review showed this to be only the seventh case of primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • Although the number of cases is too small to draw definitive conclusions, information to date suggests that this type of tumour can be expected to have a benign behaviour, despite the presence in some cases of criteria suggestive of uncertainty, such as the presence of mitosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16972951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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19. Bapat U, Mackinnon NA, Spencer MG: Carcinoid tumours of the larynx. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar;262(3):194-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumours of the larynx.
  • The typical carcinoid tumours are well differentiated with a benign course.
  • The atypical carcinoid tumours are poorly differentiated with an aggressive course.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15164214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
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20. Modlin IM, Shapiro MD, Kidd M: An analysis of rare carcinoid tumors: clarifying these clinical conundrums. World J Surg; 2005 Jan;29(1):92-101
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  • [Title] An analysis of rare carcinoid tumors: clarifying these clinical conundrums.
  • Carcinoid tumors are distinct neuroendocrine neoplasms with characteristic histological, clinical, and biological properties.
  • Though commonly associated with the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system, a substantial number of these tumors originate in less common anatomical sites and can range from indolent, unrecognized entities to highly active, metastatic secretory tumors.
  • The authors reviewed 13,715 carcinoid tumors identified by three consecutive registries of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) from 1950 to 1999, focusing on the anatomic sites accounting for less than one percent of all carcinoids.
  • In addition, data from the world's literature published on carcinoid tumors within these particular anatomic locations were then analyzed with respect to incidence, clinical presentation, symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, microscopic and immunohistochemical findings, treatment strategies, and prognosis.
  • The primary organs in which carcinoids are most commonly mistaken for some of the more conspicuous endemic tumors include the esophagus, pancreas, liver, biliary tract, gallbladder, and Meckel's diverticulum, as well as within the pelvic and otolaryngeal organs and the breast.
  • Tumors with the worst prognosis were those that involved the pancreas (37.5%: 5-year survival) and those in the cervix (12-33%: 3-year survival).
  • The diminution of the likelihood of inadvertently neglecting these often benign, indolent neoplasms that are well known to metastasize if unaddressed would represent an important advance.
  • Familiarity with such unusual sites of origin will facilitate appropriate recognition and characterization of such tumors, allowing for timely intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15599742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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21. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma.
  • This report emphasizes a carcinoid-like pattern, a previously unrecognized feature in cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms.
  • We report 7 patients with sebaceous tumors in which neoplastic cells were arranged in a trabecular and ribbon-like pattern or formed rosettes/pseudorosettes.
  • The cases included 6 men and 1 woman, with their ages at the diagnosis ranging from 43 to 87 years (median age, 59).
  • The carcinoid-like arrangement of neoplastic cells was the sole pattern in 4 cases, and in 3 cases the so-called labyrinthine/sinusoidal and/or rippled patterns were seen in addition.
  • Although the neoplasm appeared benign architecturally, the presence of cytologic atypia qualified 2 tumors as low-grade carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the carcinoid-like pattern is another distinctive pattern indicative of sebaceous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Wolf M, Wunderlich H, Hindermann W, Gajda M, Schreiber G, Schubert J: Case report: primary carcinoid tumor of the testicle without metastases in combination with testicular atrophy and testosterone deficiency. Int Urol Nephrol; 2006;38(3-4):625-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case report: primary carcinoid tumor of the testicle without metastases in combination with testicular atrophy and testosterone deficiency.
  • The first case of testicular carcinoid was represented as an element of a benign cystic teratoma by Simon et al.
  • We report a case of carcinoid of the testis without carcinoid syndrome and metastasis but with testosterone deficiency based on a bilateral testicular atrophy, which has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testis / abnormalities. Testosterone / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 17115244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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23. Das-Neves-Pereira JC, de Matos LL, Danel C, Trufelli D, Riquet M: Typical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: a ramifying bronchial presentation with metastatic behavior. Ann Thorac Surg; 2006 Dec;82(6):2265-6
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  • [Title] Typical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: a ramifying bronchial presentation with metastatic behavior.
  • Bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors (BTCT) are neuroendocrine neoplasms with histologic low grade characteristics considered benign.
  • Metastasis occurred despite typical carcinoid microscopic features in 3 female patients of African origin presenting at macroscopic examination as ramifying bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors following the bronchial tree.
  • We suggest that clinical ramifying presentation may be related to metastatic behavior, even for bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors not displaying histologic criteria for atypical carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 17126146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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24. Junaid I, Paz R, Salihu HM, Sharma PP, Aliyu ZY: Pseudo-Meig's syndrome with multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2006 Feb;273(5):315-8
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  • [Title] Pseudo-Meig's syndrome with multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Meig's and Pseudo-Meig's syndromes have been reported in association with several malignancies but the concomitant existence of multiple synchronous benign and malignant tumors in association with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome has not been reported in the published literature.
  • Histological examination confirmed a right ovarian carcinoid tumor embedded within a mature cystic teratoma while the left ovary, fallopian tube and the uterus contained a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first case report of Pseudo-Meig's syndrome in association with ovarian carcinoid tumor and multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Asthma / complications. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / complications. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Hydrothorax / complications. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16136360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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25. Safioleas MC, Moulakakis KG, Kontzoglou K, Stamoulis J, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Lygidakis NJ: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):123-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are thought to be the most common type of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Although the vast majority of appendiceal carcinoids behave in a benign fashion, they are considered malignant because they all have the potential for invasion, metastasis and production of physiologically active substances.
  • Following confirmation of the diagnosis, secretion of 5-HLAA (5-Hydroxy-Inndole-Acetic Acid) was measured after a 24-hour collection of urine.
  • Also, patients with tumor size more than 1cm underwent a Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (Octreoscan).
  • RESULTS: The most common site for the tumors was the tip of the appendix (18/22).
  • In sixteen patients the tumor size was less than 1cm, in seven patients the tumor diameter was measured to be 1 to 2cm and in one patient the tumor was 3cm.
  • Most of our patients (16/22) underwent only an appendicectomy, while in the rest of them (in the patients with tumor size between 1-2cm and in the patient with invasion of mesoappendix) a right hemicolectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix, in most cases, are found incidentally during appendicectomies, especially in young females and usually are less than 1cm in size, which is probably the reason of the absence of metastases in all cases.
  • Histological examination and size of the tumor are important factors that contribute to the selection of the surgical treatment and both must be estimated by the surgeons to make the final choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15783011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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26. De Dosso S, Bajetta E, Procopio G, Cortinovis D, Buzzoni R, Catena L, Platania M, Verzoni E: Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):162-8
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  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign.
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, there were 37 metastatic and 11 non-metastatic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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27. Capovilla M, Kambouchner M, Bernier M, Soulier A, Tissier F, Saintigny P: Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid. Clin Lung Cancer; 2007 Mar;8(5):339-41
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  • [Title] Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid.
  • Although epithelial bronchial neoplasm is a cancer frequently observed in adult patients, it is rarely observed in patients who are children.
  • The most frequent histologic subtype is well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, or carcinoid.
  • They have a variable biologic behavior, ranging from benign to malignant tumors capable of very late recurrence or metastasis.
  • Liver and lung are frequent sites of carcinoid metastasis, and the central nervous system is exceptionally involved.
  • We report the case of a child with a pulmonary carcinoid initially considered typical, who presented with relapse in the cerebellum and mediastinum 16 years later.
  • After review of the pathology slides, primary and metastatic tumors were reclassified as atypical carcinoid according to the criteria of the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17562235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Choi US, Alleman AR, Choi JH, Kim HW, Youn HJ, Lee CW: Cytologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a lung carcinoid in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol; 2008 Jun;37(2):249-52
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  • [Title] Cytologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a lung carcinoid in a dog.
  • Cells were arranged in packets separated by fine fibrovascular stroma, suggestive of a pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasm, specifically a carcinoma/carcinoid.
  • With these findings the tumor was diagnosed as a primary lung carcinoid.
  • Eleven months after resection, there was no evidence of tumor regrowth or metastasis.
  • The absence of necrosis, few mitotic figures, minimal pleomorphism, and benign behavior of this tumor resembled those of a typical carcinoid in humans.

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  • (PMID = 18533928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-6382
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Matsuki M, Inada Y, Nakai G, Tatsugami F, Tanikake M, Narabayashi I, Nishimura H, Iwamoto M, Hiramatsu M, Tanigawa N, Kurisu Y, Tsuji M: CT and MR features of sclerosing mesenteritis mimicking a mesenteric metastasis from the carcinoid tumor. Radiat Med; 2006 Apr;24(3):220-3
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  • [Title] CT and MR features of sclerosing mesenteritis mimicking a mesenteric metastasis from the carcinoid tumor.
  • Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare and benign inflammatory entity characterized by fibrofatty thickening of the mesentery.
  • In this present case, MR imaging demonstrated tissue characterization of fibrosis, and partial maximum intensity projection (MIP) and three-dimensional angiography images obtained using multislice CT clearly revealed the extent of the tumor and the vascular appearance affected by the mass.
  • However, a mesenteric metastasis from the carcinoid tumor may show such imaging features.
  • Therefore, when encountering such a case, we suggest that a tentative diagnosis of sclerosing mesenteritis be made, followed by a biopsy for intraoperative histopathologic analysis to avoid aggressive surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mesentery. Panniculitis, Peritoneal / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male


30. Soga J: [The life of S. Oberndorfer: the proposer of the term "carcinoid"--the outcome of a seed in the past 100 years]. Nihon Rinsho; 2009 Nov;67(11):2201-6
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  • [Title] [The life of S. Oberndorfer: the proposer of the term "carcinoid"--the outcome of a seed in the past 100 years].
  • Since Siegfried Oberndorfer proposed the term "carcinoid" in 1907, over 100 years have passed.
  • In 1876, he was born at Munich and, in 1907 reported a series of 6 cases of "carcinoids" in the small intestine as benign tumorlets.
  • In 1929, he partly revised his initial concept of carcinoid, pointing out some cases being malignant with metastases.
  • A proposal of the concept of GEP system in 1973 was followed by proposals of the concept of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and the GEP-NET classification based on the WHO histological classification, later developing into the TNM classification by the ENETS (European NET Society), which was founded in 2004.
  • Carcinoids are now included in a corner of the GEP-NET classification with a somewhat confusing expression of "benign biological(clinical) behavior" vs. histological malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / history

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  • (PMID = 19899541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Biography; English Abstract; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Oberndorfer S
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36. Levy AD, Rimola J, Mehrotra AK, Sobin LH: From the archives of the AFIP: benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):245-64
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • Mesenteric fibromatosis, sclerosing mesenteritis, inflammatory pseudotumor, and extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor constitute a loosely associated group of benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery.
  • Mesenteric fibromatosis is a locally aggressive, benign proliferative process that may occur sporadically or in association with familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare idiopathic disorder that most commonly produces a stellate mass within the mesentery and should be differentiated from metastatic disease, specifically metastatic carcinoid, because it frequently responds to conservative or medical management.
  • Inflammatory pseudotumor (inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor) is a benign, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that manifests as a solid mesenteric mass, indistinguishable from malignancy.
  • Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor is a tumor of submesothelial origin that is identical to the solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura.
  • When located in the mesentery or peritoneal cavity, extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor has an imaging pattern that must be differentiated from metastatic disease, soft-tissue sarcomas, and other benign and malignant neoplasms of the mesentery and peritoneum.
  • Knowledge of this group of benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery is important in the preoperative evaluation of a mesenteric mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesentery. Peritoneal Diseases / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Panniculitis, Peritoneal / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16418255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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37. Cañizares MA, García-Fontán EM, Rivo JE, Gonzalez-Piñeiro A: Local recurrence and metastatic disease in a typical N1 carcinoid bronchial tumour. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Jun;7(5):216-8
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  • [Title] Local recurrence and metastatic disease in a typical N1 carcinoid bronchial tumour.
  • Typical carcinoid bronchial tumour is a well-known disease that, for years, was considered benign.
  • We present, here, a case of a 19-years-old female diagnosed as having N1-bronchial typical carcinoid tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [Cites] Neoplasma. 2003;50(1):60-5 [12687280.001]
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  • (PMID = 15960934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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38. McDermott JH, Thabit H, Hickey N, Thompson C, Gaffney E, Young V, Sreenan S: ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Ir J Med Sci; 2008 Sep;177(3):269-72
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  • [Title] ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
  • OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion, where the only potential source on conventional imaging was a tiny benign-appearing lung nodule, which failed to take up radiolabelled octreotide.
  • Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed bronchial carcinoid staining positive for ACTH.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the few cases described where ectopic ACTH secretion secondary to bronchial carcinoid responded to somatostatin analogue therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / etiology. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18516660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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39. Saruya S, Nagamine H, Komiya T, Ito S, Iino Y, Kodera K, Imamura T: [Immunohistochemical and clinical features of patients with benign middle ear tumors]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2007 May;110(5):403-9
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemical and clinical features of patients with benign middle ear tumors].
  • The middle ear is a rare site for benign tumors.
  • We report six patients with benign middle ear tumors surgicaly removed: three with carcinoid, one with adenoma, and two with paraganglioma.
  • These tumors showed similar histological features in trabecular and glandular architecture, so further immunohistochemical study was needed to make a definitive histopathological diagnosis.
  • When we analyzed clinical features of patients diagnosed immunohistochemically, the differentiation of two patients with paraganglioma from the remaining four with adenomatous tumors such as adenoma and carcinoid was relatively easy from otomicroscopic findings and enhancement in temporal bone MRI.
  • It was however difficult to differentiate patients with adenomatous tumors from each other because they induced similar clinical symptoms and showed similar findings in images.
  • For a definitive diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct exploratory tympanotomy or removal of the tumors to obtain enough specimen for histological and immunohistochemical studies.
  • Tumors induced no bone destruction or complications.
  • We recommend staged operations for total removal of tumors and for good postoperative hearing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, Middle. Paraganglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17564130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Valdes EK, Feldman SM, Krassilnik N: Neuroendocrine tumor of the breast. Am Surg; 2006 Feb;72(2):185-7
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumor of the breast.
  • Mammary carcinoid is an uncommon neoplasm.
  • However, it is still controversial whether mammary carcinoid tumors should be considered a distinct clinical entity or be treated as a variant of conventional breast carcinoma.
  • Differentiating these lesions from benign lesions such as epithelial hyperplasia and papillomas can be challenging at times.
  • We present a case of neuroendocrine tumor of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16536254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Somogyi A, Ruzicska E, Varga T, Rácz K, Nagy G: [Development of silent gastric carcinoid in a type 1 diabetic patient with primer hypothyreosis]. Orv Hetil; 2007 Sep 2;148(35):1667-71
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  • [Title] [Development of silent gastric carcinoid in a type 1 diabetic patient with primer hypothyreosis].
  • ECL hyper/dysplasia is known to increase the likelihood of gastric carcinoid tumor development in affected patients.
  • Gastric carcinoid tumors forming from the hyperplasia of ECL cells are found in 4-9% of patients having autoimmune gastritis or pernicious anemia.
  • The histological examination indicated carcinoid tumor.
  • Non-antral, multiple polyps could cover silent neuroendocrine tumors, which are slowly growing benign endocrine tumors, however, they also might be high malignity endocrine carcinomas.
  • These tumors could be easily recognized in the clinical practice by measuring the serum or tissue chromogranin A level and other markers of tumor growth.
  • Thus screening of gastric endocrine tumors in type 1 diabetic patients with co-morbid autoimmune diseases is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Chromogranin A / blood. Diabetes Complications / diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications. Hypothyroidism / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis


42. Kapur U, Helenowski M, Zayaad A, Ghai R, Vigeneswaran W, Rajan P: Pulmonary glomus tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Dec;11(6):457-9
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  • [Title] Pulmonary glomus tumor.
  • Glomus tumor (GT) is an infrequent but distinct neoplasm.
  • Pulmonary GT is a rare neoplasm with only a few cases reported in the literature.
  • These tumors are usually benign and, although rare, tumors with aggressive behavior have been reported.
  • The tumor size, location, and histomorphological features may be useful in predicting tumor behavior.
  • We present here a case of pulmonary GT that was initially diagnosed as a typical carcinoid tumor.
  • The differential diagnosis as well as the recent classification of GTs is discussed along with a review of literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Asthma / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Diabetes Mellitus. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Obesity, Morbid / complications

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  • (PMID = 18022133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Seemann MD, Meisetschlaeger G, Gaa J, Rummeny EJ: Assessment of the extent of metastases of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors using whole-body PET, CT, MRI, PET/CT and PET/MRI. Eur J Med Res; 2006 Feb 21;11(2):58-65
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  • [Title] Assessment of the extent of metastases of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors using whole-body PET, CT, MRI, PET/CT and PET/MRI.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the fusion of PET and CT (PET/CT) and PET and MRI (PET/MRI) in the detection of metastatic disease of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included six patients with extensive nonresectable metastases of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors which were consecutively examined from the base of the skull to the proximal thigh using a state-of-the-art PET/CT scanner and a 1.5 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner.
  • Lesions were rated as metastases if they were not clearly identified as benign lesions according to standard radiological criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16504962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Bryant AS, Cerfolio RJ: The maximum standardized uptake values on integrated FDG-PET/CT is useful in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. Ann Thorac Surg; 2006 Sep;82(3):1016-20
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  • [Title] The maximum standardized uptake values on integrated FDG-PET/CT is useful in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules.
  • Eighty-nine patients had a benign nodule and the median maxSUV was 4.9 (range, 0 to 28, p < 0.001).
  • False negative FDG-PET/CT was from bronchoalveolar carcinoma in 11 patients, carcinoid in 4, and renal cell in 2.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / radiography. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / surgery. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Lung Diseases, Fungal / radiography. Lung Diseases, Fungal / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 16928527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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45. Jiang X, Dong X, Zhao X, Peng C: Bronchial sleeve resection distal to the main bronchus with complete pulmonary preservation for benign or low-grade malignant tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Oct;84(4):e19-21

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  • [Title] Bronchial sleeve resection distal to the main bronchus with complete pulmonary preservation for benign or low-grade malignant tumors.
  • Three cases are presented with benign or low-grade malignant bronchial tumors managed by bronchial sleeve resection distal to the main bronchus.
  • Bronchial sleeve resection distal to the main bronchus can be successfully performed; this is a safe and effective bronchoplastic technique for benign or low-grade malignant bronchial tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bronchoscopy / methods. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyoma / pathology. Leiomyoma / radiography. Leiomyoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17888950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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46. Cunningham JL, Grimelius L, Sundin A, Agarwal S, Janson ET: Malignant ileocaecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumours: the presence of a solid growth pattern and/or Ki67 index above 1% identifies patients with a poorer prognosis. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(6):747-56
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  • [Title] Malignant ileocaecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumours: the presence of a solid growth pattern and/or Ki67 index above 1% identifies patients with a poorer prognosis.
  • Patients with malignant serotonin-producing carcinoid tumours in the jejunum, ileum and caecum generally have long survival expectancy.
  • This study also showed that Ki67 index <2% cannot, as previously suggested, be used to indicate a benign progression for this tumour category.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / physiopathology. Cecal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ileal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Serotonin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis. Disease Progression. Female. Health Status Indicators. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17653896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin
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47. Schaefer JF, Vollmar J, Wiskirchen J, Erdtmann B, V Renteln D, Vonthein R, Schick F, Claussen CD, Seemann MD: Differentiation between malignant and benign solitary pulmonary nodules with proton density weighted and ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging. Eur J Med Res; 2006 Dec 14;11(12):527-33
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  • [Title] Differentiation between malignant and benign solitary pulmonary nodules with proton density weighted and ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate performance of MRI for differentiating malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) using morphological characteristics.
  • Morphological signs of SPN were determined and compared with previously performed helical-CT, where final diagnosis served as reference with 52% frequency of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / radiography. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Protons. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tuberculoma / diagnosis. Tuberculoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17182365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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48. Sieren LM, Collins JN, Weireter LJ, Britt RC, Reed SF, Novosel TJ, Britt LD: The incidence of benign and malignant neoplasia presenting as acute appendicitis. Am Surg; 2010 Aug;76(8):808-11
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  • [Title] The incidence of benign and malignant neoplasia presenting as acute appendicitis.
  • We retrospectively reviewed all patients admitted with the diagnosis of appendicitis to our Acute Care Surgery Service from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2009.
  • Final pathology revealed four colonic adenocarcinoma; three mucinous tumors; one carcinoid; one endometrioma; and one patient had a combination of a mucinous cystadenoma, a carcinoid tumor, and endometriosis of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendicitis / diagnosis. Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20726408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Greiner B, Schulz C, Pfeifer M, Heiss P, Völk M, Feuerbach S, Hamer OW: [A 74-year-old female patient with histologically proven carcinoid of the lungs and pulmonary mosaic pattern]. Radiologe; 2009 Jun;49(6):538-41
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  • [Title] [A 74-year-old female patient with histologically proven carcinoid of the lungs and pulmonary mosaic pattern].
  • DIPNECH can be complicated by obliterative bronchiolitis and is presumably often misdiagnosed because the clinical symptoms are unspecific, the entity is relatively unknown and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in inspiration and expiration is necessary for the diagnosis.
  • DIPNECH is thought to be a precursor of tumorlets and carcinoids and usually runs a benign course.
  • The diagnosis is confirmed by histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung / diagnostic imaging. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Radiography

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  • [Cites] Thorax. 2007 Mar;62(3):248-52 [17099078.001]
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  • (PMID = 19034406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2102
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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50. Angouridakis N, Hytiroglou P, Markou K, Bouzakis A, Vital V: Middle ear adenoma/carcinoid tumour: a case report and review of the literature. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord); 2009;130(3):199-202
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  • [Title] Middle ear adenoma/carcinoid tumour: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Middle ear adenoma, a rare benign tumour with glandular and neuroendocrine differentiation, originates from the epithelial lining of the middle ear.
  • CONCLUSION: Middle ear adenoma is a benign tumour that is treated by complete surgical removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Carcinoid Tumor. Ear Neoplasms. Ear, Middle

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  • (PMID = 20345079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1334
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de laryngologie - otologie - rhinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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56. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Schmitt A, Perren A, Chetty R: Cytokeratins 7 and 20 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell and classical carcinoids of appendix. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):16-22
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  • Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the vermiform appendix is an uncommon neoplasm and its histogenesis is controversial.
  • Whether GCC represents a morphological variant of classical appendiceal carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is still conjectural.
  • Little is known about the immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratins 7 (CK7) and 20 (CK20) in appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors.
  • In this study, we compared the expression of CK7 and CK20 in 17 cases of appendiceal GCC and 25 cases of classical carcinoid.
  • The tumors were also evaluated for Ki-67 proliferation index, mitotic activity, tumor necrosis, extracellular pools of mucin, obvious intestinal type adenocarcinomatous foci, angiolymphatic permeation, perineural/neural infiltration, and the depth of invasion of the appendix wall.
  • Immunohistochemically, all 17 (100%) of GCC exhibited strong and diffuse immunopositivity for CK20, whereas expression of CK7 was present in 12 cases (70.5%), ranging from 5 to 50% of tumor cells being labeled.
  • On the other hand, 25 cases of classical carcinoid tumors were consistently negative for CK7; however, 4 cases (16%) showed immunolabeling for CK20 in 25-50% of the tumor cells.
  • This study shows that in addition to the morphological differences, GCC (CK7/CK20-positive) and classical carcinoid (CK7/CK20-negative) differ in their expression of CK7 and CK20.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid should be regarded as a crypt cell or an amphicrine carcinoma rather than a variant of carcinoid tumor, a lesion that has benign connotations.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Goblet Cells / metabolism. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17652796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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57. Ferlito A, Silver CE, Bradford CR, Rinaldo A: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx: an overview. Head Neck; 2009 Dec;31(12):1634-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx are rare but are the most common nonsquamous tumors of this organ.
  • In the past, there has been considerable confusion about the nature and classification of these neoplasms, but the current consensus is that there are 4 different types of laryngeal neuroendocrine tumors composed of paraganglioma, typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid tumor, and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Diagnosis is based primarily on light microscopy and confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
  • Precise diagnosis is essential because the natural history, treatment, and prognosis vary widely for the different neoplastic categories.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors are more common and more aggressive.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly aggressive and should be considered disseminated at initial diagnosis.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors have a 5-year survival rate of approximately 50%, which decreases with time.
  • The biological behavior of laryngeal paraganglioma is generally benign and the prognosis is excellent.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Laryngectomy / methods. Male. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Paraganglioma / mortality. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19536850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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58. Cheng NH, Huang HF, Lian LJ, Wu Y: [Ovarian growing teratoma syndrome clinical study of 22 cases]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jun;44(6):426-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the essential points for the correct diagnosis and best treatment for ovarian growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) developed after surgery and chemotherapy for ovarian immature teratoma.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and long term follow up results of 22 cases of ovarian GTS to illustrate the unique biological behavior of the tumor and good prognosis of the disease.
  • RESULTS: Pathological examination of the tumors revealed completely benign mature teratoma with G0 grading in 20 cases.
  • The other 2 cases were found to be G0 mature teratoma with concurrent association of malignant somatic cell tumor: carcinoid and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) respectively.
  • Among the 22 cases of ovarian GTS there are 6 cases with recurrent tumors developed repeatedly, so totally surgical treatments had been performed for 31 times.
  • Such a time factor is of high significance for the diagnosis of ovarian GTS.
  • As the benign behavior of the ovarian GTS together with its poor response to chemotherapy have just been recognized in recent years, they were treated as malignant tumors as their original primary immature teratoma before the year of 1987.
  • The rest 2 patients died of the concurrent association of malignant somatic cell tumors with carcinoid and PNET in 0.1 and 0.3 years respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian GTS is a tumor developed after surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant ovarian immature teratoma.
  • Pathologic grading of the tumors showed retroconversion of the malignancy of the tumor from G3, G2 or G1 to G0 with good prognosis.
  • The tumor usually remained to be quiescent for long periods of time.
  • But there are also some potential of progressive growth, the tumor may grow to huge size and the recurrent tumor may develop repeatedly for several times more than 10 or 20 years later.
  • Surgical removal should be the main treatment either for the primary or the recurrent tumors.
  • Only correct knowledge about the benign biological behavior of the ovarian GTS and reasonable therapeutic regimen can have the disease ends with good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19953942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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59. Guillem JG, Chessin DB, Jeong SY, Kim W, Fogarty JM: Contemporary applications of transanal endoscopic microsurgery: technical innovations and limitations. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2005 Nov;5(4):268-73
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  • PURPOSE: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive procedure used to transanally excise select benign and malignant tumors of the rectum.
  • In addition, a PubMed literature search was performed with use of the key words "transanal endoscopic microsurgery," "TEM," "rectal tumor," and "rectal cancer."
  • RESULTS: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery was performed for rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 17; 53%), adenoma (n = 12; 38%), and carcinoid tumors (n = 3; 9%).
  • Median tumor location was 9 cm from the anal verge (range, 3-15 cm).
  • Reasons for inability to complete TEM included narrow rectal lumen or contour of bony pelvis prohibiting passage of the operating proctoscope into the upper rectum and inability to maintain the proctoscope in the rectal lumen with carbon dioxide insufflation because of the distal location of the tumor.
  • Innovations used in the excision of rectal tumors via TEM included the use of the harmonic scalpel, closure of the rectal defect with an extracorporeal slip knot, and a hybrid approach incorporating TEM and traditional transanal techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colonoscopy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal. Female. Humans. Male. Microsurgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16356304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Coco C, Rizzo G, Manno A, Mattana C, Verbo A: Surgical treatment of small bowel neoplasms. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2010 Apr;14(4):327-33

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  • Benign small intestinal tumors (e.g., leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma, or desmoid tumor) usually are asymptomatic but may present with complications.
  • Primary malignancies of the small intestine, including adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and lymphoma, are often symptomatic and may present with intestinal obstruction, jaundice, bleeding, or pain.
  • Because the small intestine is relatively inaccessible to routine endoscopy, diagnosis of small intestinal neoplasms is often delayed for months after onset of symptoms.
  • During last years the increase of small bowel endoscopy and other diagnostic tools allow earlier non-operative diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20496543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-3602
  • [Journal-full-title] European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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61. Buragas M, Kidd M, Modlin IM, Cha C: Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and synchronous ileal carcinoids. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2005 Mar;2(3):166-70; quiz 1 p following 170
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  • [Title] Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and synchronous ileal carcinoids.
  • His physical examination and medical history were unremarkable except for benign prostatic hypertrophy.
  • Biopsy of the mass revealed an ulcerated tumor composed of spindle cells.
  • A gastric-wedge resection revealed an ulcerated 4.5 cm mass in the stomach, and exploration of the abdomen revealed two ileal carcinoid tumors, jejunal diverticula and reactive mesenteric lymphadenopathy.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors occurring concomitantly with ileal carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Neoplasms, Second Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diverticulum / etiology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors. Hematemesis / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Jejunal Diseases / etiology. Male. Stomach Ulcer / etiology


62. Jeong WK, Park JW, Choi HS, Chang HJ, Jeong SY: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors: experience at Korea's National Cancer Center. Surg Endosc; 2009 Nov;23(11):2575-9
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  • [Title] Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors: experience at Korea's National Cancer Center.
  • BACKGROUND: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive alternative to transanal excision, enabling complete local excision of selected benign or malignant rectal tumors.
  • This study aimed to determine the surgical and oncologic results for rectal tumors excised by TEM.
  • METHODS: From November 2001 to October 2007, 45 patients underwent TEM for excision of adenoma (13 patients), carcinoid tumor (6 patients), and carcinoma (26 patients).
  • RESULTS: The median tumor distance from the anal verge was 7 cm (range, 3-15 cm), and the median tumor size was 17 mm (range, 2-60 mm).
  • No recurrence occurred for six patients with carcinoid tumors.
  • Histologic examination of the carcinomas showed pathologic tumor (pT) stage 0 (ypT0) in 2 patients, pT1 in 17 patients (including ypT1 in 1 patient), pT2 in 6 patients, and pT3 in 1 patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The TEM procedure is a safe and appropriate surgical treatment option for benign rectal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Microsurgery / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Proctoscopy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cancer Care Facilities. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19347399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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63. Pulitzer M, Xu R, Suriawinata AA, Waye JD, Harpaz N: Microcarcinoids in large intestinal adenomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1531-6
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  • Composite adenoma-carcinoid tumors are rare colorectal lesions consisting of intermingled adenomatous and carcinoid components.
  • Unlike other mixed endocrine-glandular colorectal neoplasms, which are generally malignant, their glandular component is histologically benign and their natural history is favorable.
  • The patients' clinical course was benign on the basis of 2 years' median follow-up (range, 6 mo to 10 y).
  • Awareness of microcarcinoids in colonic adenomas should help avert potential diagnostic pitfalls posed by their pleomorphism, basal location, and infiltrative patterns, and may help clarify their natural history and possible relationship to composite glandular-carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestine, Large / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17122508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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64. Gnanasegaran G, Williams R, Mclean E, O' Connell R, Nunan TO, O'Doherty MJ: Lung mass appearing as a dilated left ventricle on Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Sep;34(9):620-1
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  • Several benign and malignant tumors also take up tetrofosmin.
  • The patient underwent thoracotomy with resection of the mass and the histology confirmed atypical carcinoid.
  • This case highlights noncardiac uptake of Tc-99m tetrofosmin in an atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Myocardial Perfusion Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19692829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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65. Vallot T: [Gastric polyps]. Presse Med; 2007 Oct;36(10 Pt 2):1412-7
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  • Gastric polyps exist in a wide variety of types, most often benign.
  • Hyperplastic polyps, adenomas and tumors must be totally resected.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the fundus most often occur in patients with hypergastrinemia during atrophic gastritis of autoimmune origin; they are not serious.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Adenoma. Carcinoid Tumor. Polyps. Precancerous Conditions. Stomach Diseases. Stomach Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / prevention & control. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Stomach / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17482791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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66. Stanley JD, Bell C, Hinkle N, Moore RA, Burns RP: The Ferguson Operating Anoscope as a minimally invasive option for the treatment of rectal tumors. Am Surg; 2010 Aug;76(8):850-6

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  • [Title] The Ferguson Operating Anoscope as a minimally invasive option for the treatment of rectal tumors.
  • Transanal excision of rectal tumors may be performed using the Ferguson Operating Anoscope (FOA).
  • This retrospective case series evaluates the effectiveness of FOA for the excision of selected benign and malignant rectal tumors.
  • The office records of 97 patients with rectal tumors who underwent FOA transanal excision by a single surgeon from 1999 through 2009 were reviewed.
  • In the 97 patients evaluated, 99 FOA transanal excisions were performed for 39 adenocarcinomas, 55 benign tumors, and five carcinoid tumors.
  • The tumors were 0.5 to 13.5 cm in diameter and located an average of 6.9 cm (range, 1 to 15 cm) from the anal verge.
  • In early follow up of adenomas and favorable T1 carcinomas, FOA transanal excision has similar application, morbidity, and recurrence rates as reported for transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors within 15 cm from the anal verge.
  • FOA may be considered a useful option for the minimally invasive treatment of rectal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / instrumentation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20726416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Bergmann F, Breinig M, Höpfner M, Rieker RJ, Fischer L, Köhler C, Esposito I, Kleeff J, Herpel E, Ehemann V, Friess H, Schirmacher P, Kern MA: Expression pattern and functional relevance of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2: novel chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors? Am J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jan;104(1):171-81
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  • [Title] Expression pattern and functional relevance of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2: novel chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors?
  • OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic endocrine tumors represent morphologically and biologically heterogeneous neoplasms.
  • Well-differentiated endocrine tumors (benign or of uncertain behavior) can be distinguished from well-differentiated and poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas.
  • Although many well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas show rather low rates of tumor growth, more than two-thirds of pancreatic endocrine carcinomas display distant metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • METHODS: The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were investigated in 110 clinically and pathomorphologically well-characterized pancreatic endocrine tumors, using immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses.
  • Functional tests were performed using the human pancreas carcinoid cell line BON and the mouse insulinoma cell line beta-TC-3.
  • RESULTS: The expression of EGFR correlated significantly with the grade of malignancy, increasing from low rates of expression in benign tumors and tumors of uncertain behavior to high rates of expression in well- and poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas.
  • The expression of COX-2 was independent of the malignant potential, but was more frequently expressed in primary tumors than in metastases.
  • The treatment of the human pancreas carcinoid cell line BON and the mouse insulinoma cell line beta-TC-3 with EGFR and COX-2 inhibitors (monotherapy and combined therapy) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent reduction of cell viability coupled with increased apoptosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EGFR and COX-2 may represent useful additional chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Celecoxib. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Insulinoma / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Middle Aged. Quinazolines. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19098866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Tyrphostins; 170449-18-0 / tyrphostin AG 1478; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
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68. D'Adda T, Bottarelli L, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Bongiovanni M, Papotti M, Pelosi G, Maisonneuve P, Antonetti T, Rindi G, Bordi C: Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jun;18(6):795-805
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  • [Title] Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors.
  • Association of X chromosome allelic losses with tumor malignancy has been identified in foregut but not in midgut endocrine neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy in lung neuroendocrine tumors, another family of foregut neoplasms comprising four categories with increased malignancy: typical and atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell lung carcinomas.
  • In atypical carcinoids, the presence of losses was associated with larger tumor size, higher pT status and advanced stage.
  • No death occurred in atypical carcinoid patients without deletions on X chromosome, whereas all atypical carcinoid patients who had died from disease showed allelic losses.
  • In conclusion, X chromosome allelic losses, absent in benign 'typical' carcinoids, progressively increased in frequency from intermediate-grade 'atypical' carcinoids to high-grade large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • These results extend the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy, already demonstrated in other foregut endocrine neoplasms, to lung neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The absence of X chromosome allelic losses in small cell lung carcinomas underlines a striking difference from large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, possibly linked to different pathogenetic mechanisms of these two highly aggressive neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15578070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Wagner L, Brandt Sørensen F, Bording Astrup L, Gartner W, Scherübl H, Heine B, Christiansen P, Ørntoft TF: Secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(2):121-38
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  • The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of secretagogin in normal mucosa, adenocarcinomas, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Tissues adjacent to benign hyperplasic polyps and adenomas showed a decreased number of secretagogin-expressing neuroendocrine cells.
  • Secretagogin co-localized with neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin) in neuroendocrine cells in crypts of normal mucosa, and in tumor cells of carcinoids.
  • Secretagogin was strongly expressed in the cytosol and the nucleus of 19 well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoids and carcinoid metastases, as well as in neuroendocrine tumors from the lung, pancreas and adrenal gland.
  • Secretagogin was detected in plasma from carcinoid patients with distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Western. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Peptidylprolyl Isomerase / metabolism. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Secretagogins. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tacrolimus Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16449819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; EC 5.2.1.- / Tacrolimus Binding Proteins; EC 5.2.1.8 / FKBP10 protein, human; EC 5.2.1.8 / Peptidylprolyl Isomerase
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70. Tsai BM, Finne CO, Nordenstam JF, Christoforidis D, Madoff RD, Mellgren A: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery resection of rectal tumors: outcomes and recommendations. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Jan;53(1):16-23
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  • [Title] Transanal endoscopic microsurgery resection of rectal tumors: outcomes and recommendations.
  • PURPOSE: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery provides a minimally invasive alternative to radical surgery for excision of benign and malignant rectal tumors.
  • We analyzed patient and operative factors, complications, and tumor recurrence.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-nine patients underwent transanal endoscopic microsurgery for benign (n = 158) and malignant (n = 111) tumors.
  • Local recurrence rates for 121 benign and 83 malignant tumors were 5% for adenomas, 9.8% for T1 adenocarcinoma, 23.5% for T2 adenocarcinoma, 100% for T3 adenocarcinoma, and 0% for carcinoid tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a safe and effective method for excision of benign and malignant rectal tumors.
  • Transanal endoscopic microsurgery can be offered for (1) curative resection of benign tumors, carcinoid tumors, and select T1 adenocarcinomas, (2) histopathologic staging in indeterminate cases, and (3) palliative resection in patients medically unfit or unwilling to undergo radical resection.

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  • (PMID = 20010345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Faith A, Peek E, McDonald J, Urry Z, Richards DF, Tan C, Santis G, Hawrylowicz C: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells from human lung cancer draining lymph nodes induce Tc1 responses. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol; 2007 Mar;36(3):360-7
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  • Dendritic cells (DC) resident in draining lymph nodes (LN) of patients with lung cancer are proposed to have a critical role in stimulating anti-tumor immunity.
  • The present study, therefore, investigated the capacity of plasmacytoid-DC from human lung cancer draining LN to respond to CpG for activation of T cell responses relevant to anti-tumor immunity.
  • There was no significant difference between the responses of plasmacytoid-DC from patients with lung cancer and patients with benign carcinoid tumors with no pathologic LN involvement.

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  • (PMID = 17023687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-1549
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 9; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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72. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • Endocrine tumors (ET) of the digestive tract (formerly called neuroendocrine tumors) are rare.
  • They are classified into two principal types: gastrointestinal ET's (formerly called carcinoid tumors) which are the most common, and pancreaticoduodenal ET's.
  • The surgical goals are to: 1. prolong survival by resecting the primary tumor and any nodal or hepatic metastases, 2. control the symptoms related to hormonal secretion, 3. prevent or treat local complications.
  • The most common sites of gastrointestinal ET's ( carcinoids) are the appendix and the rectum; these are often small (<1 cm), benign, and discovered fortuitously at the time of appendectomy or colonoscopic removal.
  • The carcinoid syndrome (consisting of abdominal pain, flushing, diarrhea, hypertension, bronchospasm, and right sided cardiac vegetations) is caused by the hypersecretion of serotonin into the systemic circulation; it occurs in 10% of cases and is usually associated with hepatic metastases.
  • They are usually malignant and of advanced stage at diagnosis presenting as a palpable or obstructing mass or as liver metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • For gastrinoma with NEM-I, the benefit of surgical resection for tumors less than 2-3 cm in size is not clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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73. de Herder WW, Kwekkeboom DJ, Valkema R, Feelders RA, van Aken MO, Lamberts SW, van der Lely AJ, Krenning EP: Neuroendocrine tumors and somatostatin: imaging techniques. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005;28(11 Suppl International):132-6

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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors and somatostatin: imaging techniques.
  • Tumors and metastases bearing the somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 (SSTR2) or SSTR5 can be visualized in vivo after injection of radiolabeled octapeptide somatostatin analogs like 111In-pentetreotide.
  • The sensitivity of 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy for the detection of carcinoid tumors is 86-95%.
  • The sensitivity of 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy for the detection of gastrinomas, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting tumors, and glucagonomas as well as clinically non-functioning lesions is 75-100%.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy generally has a lower detection rate for benign pheochromocytomas than 123I-MIBG scintigraphy, but it can have a complementary role for the staging of malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy has been successful for the localization of extra-pituitary ACTH-secreting tumors and their metastases, and especially for occult tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Somatostatin
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes. Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16625862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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74. Bubanović G, Pavićević R, Franjević A: Determining the cut-off value of pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) in lung cancer according to population characteristics. Coll Antropol; 2008 Dec;32(4):1155-64
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  • ProGRP serum levels were measured in 273 healthy subjects, 176 patients with benign diseases and tumours, 200 with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 294 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 21 with carcinoid tumour, 93 with undifferentiated lung cancer, 35 with mixed SCLC-NSCLC, and 189 with other malignancies.
  • It is based on 96.8% specificity in benign diseases which cause problems in differential diagnosis.
  • The sensitivity of ProGRP was 85% at the time of SCLC diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / blood. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / blood. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptide Fragments / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Croatia. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / blood. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19149223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98)
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75. Campana D, Nori F, Pezzilli R, Piscitelli L, Santini D, Brocchi E, Corinaldesi R, Tomassetti P: Gastric endocrine tumors type I: treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogs. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Mar;15(1):337-42
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  • [Title] Gastric endocrine tumors type I: treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogs.
  • Gastric endocrine tumors associated with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (gastric carcinoid type I) are almost exclusively benign lesions with little risk of deep invasion of the gastric parietal wall.
  • Nine patients with more than five type I gastric endocrine tumors each <1 cm in size, without invasion of the muscularis propria and with Ki-67 index lower than 3%, were treated with long-acting somatostatin analogs for 12 months.
  • This therapeutic approach should be considered as a valid option in selected patients with multiple type I gastric endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Gastritis, Atrophic / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18310299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Gastrins; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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76. Graham RP, Williams NP, West KA: Primary epithelial tumours of the appendix in a black population: a review of cases. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Mar 28;15(12):1472-4

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  • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine cell tumours (carcinoids, 47.6%) and benign non-endocrine cell tumours (adenomas, 45.2%) were most common with nearly equal frequency.
  • Carcinoid tumours occurred in younger patients (mean age 32 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 1.2:1.
  • A clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis was the most common reason for appendectomy (57.1%) and was histologically confirmed in 75% (18 of 24) of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Appendiceal epithelial tumours are rare in our experience, and are represented principally by carcinoid tumours and adenomas.
  • Carcinoid tumours occurred in younger patients but were slightly more common in men than women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. West Indies / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2003 Feb 15;97(4):934-59 [12569593.001]
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  • (PMID = 19322920.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2665141
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77. Congregado M, Merchan RJ, Gallardo G, Ayarra J, Loscertales J: Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy: 13 years' experience. Surg Endosc; 2008 Aug;22(8):1852-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The clinical records of all patients were drawn from the hospital archive and data for the following variables were recorded for analysis: age, sex, clinical diagnosis, clinical status, date of surgery, type of surgery, inoperability, conversion to conventional surgery and reasons, duration of surgery and intraoperative complications, postoperative and long-term complications, postoperative stay, diagnosis, definitive status, and mortality.
  • RESULTS: A total of 237 major pulmonary resections were performed, on 203 males and 34 males, with a mean age of 61.43 years (non-small-cell bronchogenic carcinoma: 204, benign processes: 24, carcinoid tumors: 4, and lobectomy due to metastases: 5).
  • In our experience, VATS is currently to be considered ideally indicated for certain benign processes and for T1-T2 N0 M0 bronchogenic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / surgery. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Lung Diseases / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18157567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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78. Delle Fave G, Capurso G, Milione M, Panzuto F: Endocrine tumours of the stomach. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):659-73
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  • In fact, type I carcinoids can be considered to be benign lesions, with exceptional risk of metastases.
  • Several other candidates--including Bcl2, p53 and MMP9--have been linked with carcinoid initiation and progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Gastrectomy / methods. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Gastroscopy / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / epidemiology. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / pathology. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16253892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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79. Bonkhoff H, Fixemer T: [Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer: an unrecognized and therapy resistant phenotype]. Pathologe; 2005 Nov;26(6):453-60
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  • The present review focuses on biological properties of NE tumor cells making them resistant to androgen deprivation and radiation therapy.
  • This particular phenotype consistently lacks the nuclear androgen receptor in both benign and malignant conditions but produces a series of hormonal growth factors exerting mitogenic stimuli on adjacent, exocrine tumor cells.
  • The absence of proliferative and apoptotic activity makes NE tumor cells particularly resistant towards cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apoptosis / physiology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Cell Division / physiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Growth Substances / analysis. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / radiotherapy. Prognosis. Prostate / pathology. Prostate / radiation effects. Receptors, Androgen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16195860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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80. Yu R, Nissen NN, Dhall D, Wei M: Pheochromocytoma in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis: management and clinical predictors. Endocr Pract; 2008 Nov;14(8):967-72
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  • Pathologic diagnosis, demographic data, clinical history, imaging studies, and laboratory test results were reviewed and compared among patients whose adrenal mass was determined to be metastasis, adenoma, or pheochromocytoma.
  • Of the adrenal masses, 18 (60%) were metastases, 8 (27%) were benign adenomas, and 4 (13%) were pheochromocytomas.
  • Adrenal biopsy was performed without biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma in 9 patients (30%), including 2 subsequently found to have this tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pheochromocytoma occurs frequently in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis, but this tumor is often not considered in clinical practice.

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  • (PMID = 19095594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Sigurdardottir JM, Isaksson HJ, Johannsson KB, Jonsson S, Gudbjartsson T: [Histology does not accurately predict the clinical behaviour of bronchopulmonary carcinoids - results from an Icelandic population-based study]. Laeknabladid; 2008 Feb;94(2):125-30
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  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BPC) are rare tumors of neuroendocrine origin.
  • These tumors are histologically classified into two distinctive forms, typical and the more malignant atypical BPC.
  • Average tumor-diameter was 2.5 cm (range 0.4-5.5), with typical histology in 54 (84%) and atypical in 10 patients (16%).
  • CONCLUSION: BPCs usually behave as benign neoplasms, with excellent long-term survival after surgical removal.
  • Therefore, histology (typical vs. atypical) can not be used with certainty to predict the clinical behaviour of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Population Surveillance. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18310777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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82. Kala Z, Válek V, Kysela P, Svoboda T: A shift in the diagnostics of the small intestine tumors. Eur J Radiol; 2007 May;62(2):160-5
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  • [Title] A shift in the diagnostics of the small intestine tumors.
  • Primary, secondary, benign or malignant tumorous diseases of the small intestine are rare.
  • This work should answer the question, whether there is a method of making the diagnosis earlier when the disease is limited and easy to cure.
  • METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study comprising 96 patients having undergone surgery for a small intestine tumor in our hospital from 1996 to 2005 is presented.
  • In the year 1998 we changed our philosophy in trying to directly detect the small intestine pathology and not making the diagnosis by the exclusion only.
  • RESULTS: We treated surgically 96 patients with the small intestine tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Intestine, Small / pathology. Intestine, Small / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Abdomen, Acute / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Algorithms. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Czech Republic. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17344005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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83. Berns S, Pearl G: Middle ear adenoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):1067-9
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  • Middle ear adenoma is a benign tumor of the middle ear that can have exocrine (mucinous) and/or neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Early authors described a separate tumor with predominantly neuroendocrine differentiation as a middle ear carcinoid tumor, but these are now known to be the same tumor.
  • We review the literature of this tumor, including the clinical presentation, gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16831038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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84. Granberg D, Wilander E, Oberg K: Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors in lung carcinoids. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(3):153-7
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  • OBJECTIVES: Typical lung carcinoids are usually relatively benign tumors, but distant metastases are seen in up to 12% of the patients.
  • In contrast, atypical carcinoids are more aggressive tumors, displaying metastases in up to 70%.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue from 51 patients with typical lung carcinoids were immunostained with polyclonal antibodies against c-kit, PDGFRalpha, PDGFRbeta and EGFR.
  • RESULTS: Twelve of the tumors stained positive for c-kit, 44 expressed PDGFRalpha, 30 showed positive immunoreactivity for PDGFRbeta and 26 were EGFR immunoreactive.
  • Among the 17 patients with distant metastases, 5 tumors expressed c-kit, 12 were PDGFRalpha immunoreactive, 9 stained positive for PDGFRbeta, and 7 showed positive immunoreactivity for EGFR.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16612146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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85. Yang WL, Zhang XC, Yan ZQ, Zhang HM, Zhao Z, Zhang JG, Wang YJ: [Clinical analysis of primary small intestinal neoplasms in 305 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;29(10):781-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: To summarive the experience in diagnosis and treatment of primary small intestinal neoplasm.
  • METHODS: The data of 305 patients with pathologically confirmed primary small intestinal tumor collected from 6 hospitals around the Songhua River during the past 33 years were analyzed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: There were 42 benign and 263 malignant tumors in this series with a ratio of 1: 6.26.
  • The 263 malignant tumors in this series consisted of 135 adenocarcinomas, 57 malignant stromal tumors, 37 malignant lymphomas, 20 carcinoids, and etc.
  • Chronic occult bleeding, gradual of body weight loss and mild abdominal pain (three obscurities) were the common clinical features and alerting massage of intestinal tumor.
  • Correct preoperative diagnostic rate was only 57.0% (174/305) due to difficulty in early diagnosis, which was 67.2% (92/137) in the duodenal tumors, and 51.9% (82/168) in the jejunoileal tumors.
  • All of the 42 benign tumors were resected completely.
  • For the 263 patients with malignant tumors, radical dissection was performed in 153, palliative resection in 34, and gut by-pass or biopsy in 76.
  • The median survival of the patients who underwent radical resection of their malignant tumors was 92 months, which was significantly higher than that of the other groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis of primary small intestinal tumors is difficult and with a preoperative misdiagnosis rate of 43.0%.
  • Total intestinal barium swallowing, endoscopy and superior mesenteric arteriography are three critical examinations for diagnosis and location.
  • The primary small intestinal tumor should be resected as early as possible if no distant metastasis is detected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / secondary. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / surgery. Jejunal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Jejunal Neoplasms / pathology. Jejunal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18396694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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86. Ganai S, Kanumuri P, Rao RS, Alexander AI: Local recurrence after transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal polyps and early cancers. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;13(4):547-56
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  • RESULTS: The study comprises 107 patients presenting for TEM with benign disease and 32 patients with cancer.
  • Pathologic classification of the lesions after TEM was benign adenoma in 45%, adenoma with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in 17%, cancer in 33%, and other in 4%.
  • Recurrence of cancers correlated with the depth of tumor invasion (P<.05).
  • Five-year neoplastic recurrence probabilities were 11% for benign adenomas, 35% for adenomas with HGD, and 20% for cancers (P=.31); invasive recurrence probabilities were 0% for benign adenomas, 15% for adenomas with HGD, and 13% for cancers (P<.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Close endoscopic follow-up is warranted after TEM for both benign and malignant disease, with special attention to lesions with HGD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colonoscopy. Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Intestinal Polyps / surgery. Microsurgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16514476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Feo CF, Porcu A, Scanu AM, Ginesu GC, Fancellu A, Lorettu A, Dettori G: Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases. Int Surg; 2009 Jul-Sep;94(3):224-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases.
  • We report our experience on 10 patients with primary tumors of the appendix treated at our institution from 1998 to 2005.
  • Six tumors were malignant, and the remaining were benign.
  • Two of the four patients with benign tumors died from causes unrelated to the appendiceal neoplasm.
  • The 6 patients with malignant tumors and the other 2 with benign disease were alive and disease free after a mean follow-up of 43 months.
  • Despite the rarity of appendiceal primary tumors, surgeons should be aware of these neoplasms for making correct treatment decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20187516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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88. Wakely PE Jr: Fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thymic epithelial neoplasms. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;22(3):433-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thymic epithelial neoplasms.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of thymoma is a demanding diagnostic exercise by the cytopathologist because of an overwhelming, often obscuring population of benign lymphocytes in many cases.
  • Diagnosis requires the presence of a dual population of unequivocal epithelial cells and lymphocytes in the correct clinical-radiologic context.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18514125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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89. Loizzi V, Cormio G, Resta L, Fattizzi N, Vicino M, Selvaggi L: Pseudo-Meigs syndrome and elevated CA125 associated with struma ovarii. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):282-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm composed entirely and predominantly of thyroid tissue.
  • CASE: We report an unusual presentation of a postmenopausal woman with benign struma ovarii associated with pseudo-Meigs syndrome, hypertiroidism, and elevated CA125 serum level, and a large complex right pelvic mass thereby mimicking an ovarian cancer.
  • This rare condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with ascites and pleural effusions but with negative cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / blood. Meigs Syndrome / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Struma Ovarii / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / blood

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  • (PMID = 15790478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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90. Nguyen VX, Nguyen CC, Li B, Das A: Digital image analysis is a useful adjunct to endoscopic ultrasonographic diagnosis of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Sep;29(9):1345-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Digital image analysis is a useful adjunct to endoscopic ultrasonographic diagnosis of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of digital image analysis in differentiating endoscopic ultrasonographic (EUS) features of potentially malignant gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions (SELs) from those of benign lesions.
  • METHODS: Forty-six patients with histopathologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), carcinoids, and lipomas who had undergone EUS evaluation were identified from our database.
  • [MeSH-minor] Area Under Curve. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / ultrasonography. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / ultrasonography. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Lipoma / ultrasonography. Neural Networks (Computer). Principal Component Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20733191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Vezzosi D, Bouisson M, Escourrou G, Laurell H, Selves J, Seguin P, Pradayrol L, Caron P, Buscail L: Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jan;64(1):63-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The distinction between benign and malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours is hard to achieve.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether detection of telomerase or quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein subunit (hTERT) differ between benign and malignant endocrine tumours.
  • Based on clinical and histopathological criteria, tumours were categorized with the most recent WHO classification as 'benign' (n = 14), 'uncertain' (n = 5) or 'malignant' (n = 12) with (n = 7) or without (n = 5) metastasis after a mean follow-up of 40.4 +/- 25.8 months (4-122 months).
  • RESULTS: Telomerase activity was detected in 7 malignant and metastatic tumours, in 1 malignant tumour without metastases, in 1 uncertain tumour and in 1 benign tumour. hTERT mRNA levels were significantly higher in malignant endocrine tumours with or without metastases (P = 0.001) when compared to benign tumours.
  • The negative predictive value of hTERT mRNA quantification for the diagnosis of malignancy was 88.9%, whereas the positive predictive value was 68.7%.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clinical Enzyme Tests. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Telomerase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16402930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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92. Isidori AM, Lenzi A: Ectopic ACTH syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1217-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ectopic adrenocorticotropic secretion (EAS) is responsible for 12-17% of cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and covers a range of tumours, from undetectable benign lesions to widespread metastases.
  • EAS requires a complete workup that includes the establishment of endogenous CS, diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependency, localization of the source of ACTH secretion and rapid biochemical control of hypercortisolaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Abdominal Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Petrosal Sinus Sampling. Thoracic Neoplasms / complications. Thoracic Neoplasms / secretion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18209859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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93. Risk MC, Porter CR: Management of non-germinal testicular tumors. World J Urol; 2009 Aug;27(4):507-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of non-germinal testicular tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Non-germinal tumors account for less than 10% of all testicular tumors and consist of a wide array of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Due to their rarity, little is known about the appropriate management of malignant non-germinal testicular tumors.
  • METHODS: A literature review directed at the variety of non-germinal testicular tumors using the Medline/PubMed database was performed.
  • RESULTS: The majority of data on the treatment of non-germinal testicular tumors comes from case series and retrospective reviews; thus the management of many of these diseases is a matter of debate.
  • CONCLUSION: Non-germinal testicular tumors are a diverse group of rare lesions, and as a result their management is often difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19322569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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94. Hofer MD, Tapia C, Browne TJ, Mirlacher M, Sauter G, Rubin MA: Comprehensive analysis of the expression of the metastasis-associated gene 1 in human neoplastic tissue. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):989-96
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze MTA1 expression levels in a wide variety of human tumors.
  • RESULTS: Both analyses show that MTA1 is ubiquitously expressed in benign and malignant tumors.
  • The highest levels of MTA1 expression were observed in diffuse B-cell lymphoma (mean staining intensity, 3.9/4), basal cell carcinomas (3.7/4), and consistently in tumors of neuroendocrine descent such as paraganglioma (3.7/4) and carcinoid tumor (3.1/4).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study characterizes MTA1 expression for the first time across a broad spectrum of primary tumors, demonstrating expression in both benign and malignant neoplasms in addition to showing an association with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Databases, Genetic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Software. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16831056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
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95. Radotra B, Awasthi A, Joshi K, Das A: Histopatholgical spectrum of thymic neoplasms: twelve-year experience at a referral hospital in north India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jan;49(1):1-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thymus Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A total of 96 thymectomy specimens were received during the study period (1992-2004), which consisted of 54 neoplasms and 42 benign lesions.
  • Among the neoplasms there were 48 thymic epithelial tumors, 3 thymolipomas and 3 thymic carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. India. Lipoma / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Myasthenia Gravis. Neoplasm Staging. Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure. Thymectomy. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16625962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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96. Louthan O: [Neuroendocrine tumours of the appendix]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Nov;55(11):1051-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • According to WHO, neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix (appendiceal carcinoids) are defined as 1. well-differentiated endocrine tumors with benign or uncertain behavior, 2. well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma and 3. goblet cell carcinoma.
  • These tumors are usually diagnosed incidentally during appendectomy.
  • Carcinoid syndrome is rare in appendiceal carcinoid.
  • Tumor size greater than 2 cm is the most important parameter for prognosis.
  • Most patients are cured by appendectomy (appendiceal tumors < or = 2 cm), tumors with a diameter > 2 cm should be managed by right hemicolectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Neuroendocrine Tumors

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  • (PMID = 20017436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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97. Porter G, Steel J, Paisley K, Watkins R, Holgate C: Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy? Clin Radiol; 2009 May;64(5):529-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%).
  • Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p=0.015].
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Lobular / radiography. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Melanoma / radiography. Melanoma / secondary. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Radiol. 2009 Oct;64(10):1041-2 [19748012.001]
  • (PMID = 19348850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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98. Zhao ZL, Huang QY, Xu S, Zhang L, Zhao HR: [Expression of promyelocytic leukaemia protein in lung carcinomas and clinical significance thereof]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 19;86(47):3362-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A tumor tissue microarray with lung samples from 148 patients with lung carcinoma and 5 patients with pulmonary benign tumor, and 7 patients with other benign diseases resected during operation.
  • The cases with at least triplicate 0.6-mm cores per tumor or tissue were analyzed.
  • The remaining 144 lung carcinoma cases included 45 cases with squamous cell carcinoma, 62 with adenocarcinoma, 23 with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), 7 with large cell carcinoma, 5 with pleomorphic carcinoma, 1 with carcinoid, and 1 with adenosquamous carcinoma.
  • Among the 5 cases with benign lung tumors, two cases with pulmonary leiomyomas had strong expression of PML.
  • CONCLUSION: As an important suppressor of tumor, PML may be a useful indicator to predict postoperative prognosis in patients with SCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17313836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human
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99. Hartley N, Rajesh A, Verma R, Sinha R, Sandrasegaran K: Abdominal manifestations of neurofibromatosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Jan-Feb;32(1):4-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mutations of the NF gene lead to abnormal tumor suppression.
  • Consequently, NF is a complex disease, with patients having an increased prevalence of benign and malignant neoplasms throughout the body.
  • We present cases of the most common abdominal presentations: neurofibroma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, pheochromocytoma, carcinoid, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and seminoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Seminoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18303281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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100. Adolf K, Wagner L, Bergh A, Stattin P, Ottosen P, Borre M, Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Orntoft TF, Tørring N: Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate. Prostate; 2007 Apr 1;67(5):472-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer (PCa), promoted by NE cell secreted products, appears to be associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and hormone-refractory disease.
  • We recently reported secretagogin, a hexa-EF-hand Ca(2+) binding protein, as a novel NE marker in carcinoid tumors of the lung and the gastrointestinal tract.
  • METHODS: We analyzed immunoreactivity for secretagogin, chromogranin A (CgA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and synaptophysin (SYN) in consecutive sections from 87 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) benign hyperplastic (n = 10) and prostate adenocarcinoma (n = 77) specimens.
  • RESULTS: Secretagogin is cytoplasmic and nuclear expressed in NE and NE differentiated cells, and to a lesser extent in epithelial cells, in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Secretagogin stained 82% (46/56) of benign and 71% (48/68) of prostate adenocarcinomas and co-localized with the NE markers CgA and NSE.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17285592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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