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1. Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Wagner L, Brandt Sørensen F, Bording Astrup L, Gartner W, Scherübl H, Heine B, Christiansen P, Ørntoft TF: Secretagogin is a novel marker for neuroendocrine differentiation. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(2):121-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the differential expression of secretagogin in normal mucosa, adenocarcinomas, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Tissues adjacent to benign hyperplasic polyps and adenomas showed a decreased number of secretagogin-expressing neuroendocrine cells.
  • Secretagogin co-localized with neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin) in neuroendocrine cells in crypts of normal mucosa, and in tumor cells of carcinoids.
  • Secretagogin was strongly expressed in the cytosol and the nucleus of 19 well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoids and carcinoid metastases, as well as in neuroendocrine tumors from the lung, pancreas and adrenal gland.
  • Secretagogin was detected in plasma from carcinoid patients with distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Western. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Peptidylprolyl Isomerase / metabolism. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Secretagogins. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tacrolimus Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16449819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; EC 5.2.1.- / Tacrolimus Binding Proteins; EC 5.2.1.8 / FKBP10 protein, human; EC 5.2.1.8 / Peptidylprolyl Isomerase
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2. Bhatia P, Srinivasan R, Rajwanshi A, Nijhawan R, Khandelwal N, Wig J, Vasishtha RK: 5-year review and reappraisal of ultrasound-guided percutaneous transabdominal fine needle aspiration of pancreatic lesions. Acta Cytol; 2008 Sep-Oct;52(5):523-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Seven cases (2.6%) yielded insufficient material for diagnosis; 260 cases were classified as benign (n=118) and malignant (n=142) lesions.
  • Of the 118 benign aspirates, the cytodiagnosis was acute/chronic inflammation in 24, tuberculosis in 1, benign cyst in 10 and a benign aspirate, not otherwise specified, in the remaining 83 cases.
  • Of the 142 malignant aspirates, the cytodiagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 126, neuroendocrine/carcinoid tumor in 7, papillary solid epithelial neoplasm in 2, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in 2, acinar cell carcinoma in 1 and metastatic small cell carcinoma in lung in 4 cases.

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Cytol. 2008 Sep-Oct;52(5):521-2 [18833811.001]
  • (PMID = 18833812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Pulitzer M, Xu R, Suriawinata AA, Waye JD, Harpaz N: Microcarcinoids in large intestinal adenomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1531-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Composite adenoma-carcinoid tumors are rare colorectal lesions consisting of intermingled adenomatous and carcinoid components.
  • Unlike other mixed endocrine-glandular colorectal neoplasms, which are generally malignant, their glandular component is histologically benign and their natural history is favorable.
  • The patients' clinical course was benign on the basis of 2 years' median follow-up (range, 6 mo to 10 y).
  • Awareness of microcarcinoids in colonic adenomas should help avert potential diagnostic pitfalls posed by their pleomorphism, basal location, and infiltrative patterns, and may help clarify their natural history and possible relationship to composite glandular-carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestine, Large / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17122508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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4. Yu R, Nissen NN, Dhall D, Wei M: Pheochromocytoma in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis: management and clinical predictors. Endocr Pract; 2008 Nov;14(8):967-72
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  • Pathologic diagnosis, demographic data, clinical history, imaging studies, and laboratory test results were reviewed and compared among patients whose adrenal mass was determined to be metastasis, adenoma, or pheochromocytoma.
  • Of the adrenal masses, 18 (60%) were metastases, 8 (27%) were benign adenomas, and 4 (13%) were pheochromocytomas.
  • Adrenal biopsy was performed without biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma in 9 patients (30%), including 2 subsequently found to have this tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pheochromocytoma occurs frequently in patients suspected of harboring adrenal metastasis, but this tumor is often not considered in clinical practice.

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  • (PMID = 19095594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Sigurdardottir JM, Isaksson HJ, Johannsson KB, Jonsson S, Gudbjartsson T: [Histology does not accurately predict the clinical behaviour of bronchopulmonary carcinoids - results from an Icelandic population-based study]. Laeknabladid; 2008 Feb;94(2):125-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BPC) are rare tumors of neuroendocrine origin.
  • These tumors are histologically classified into two distinctive forms, typical and the more malignant atypical BPC.
  • Average tumor-diameter was 2.5 cm (range 0.4-5.5), with typical histology in 54 (84%) and atypical in 10 patients (16%).
  • CONCLUSION: BPCs usually behave as benign neoplasms, with excellent long-term survival after surgical removal.
  • Therefore, histology (typical vs. atypical) can not be used with certainty to predict the clinical behaviour of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Population Surveillance. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18310777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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6. Fang HQ, Yang J, Zhang FF, Cui Y, Han AJ: Clinicopathological features of gastric glomus tumor. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Sep 28;16(36):4616-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of gastric glomus tumor.
  • AIM: To study the clinicopathological features of gastric glomus tumor and review the related Chinese literature published in 1990-2010.
  • METHODS: A case of gastric glomus tumor was reported.
  • Clinicopathological findings in 56 cases of gastric glomus tumor were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Gastric glomus tumor was far more common in women than in men with a female to male ratio of 1.6:1.
  • The tumor was located in antrum of the stomach.
  • The greatest diameter of the tumor was 0.8-11 cm.
  • Histologically, the tumor was comprised of nests of glomus cells surrounding the capillaries.
  • Vimentin, smooth muscle actin and actin were expressed in the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Gastric glomus tumor is a rare benign mesenchymal neoplasm.
  • Its diagnosis depends on pathologic examination.
  • Differential diagnosis includes gastrointestinal stromal tumor, paraganglioma and carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor. Stomach Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20857536.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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7. Cunningham JL, Grimelius L, Sundin A, Agarwal S, Janson ET: Malignant ileocaecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumours: the presence of a solid growth pattern and/or Ki67 index above 1% identifies patients with a poorer prognosis. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(6):747-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant ileocaecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumours: the presence of a solid growth pattern and/or Ki67 index above 1% identifies patients with a poorer prognosis.
  • Patients with malignant serotonin-producing carcinoid tumours in the jejunum, ileum and caecum generally have long survival expectancy.
  • This study also showed that Ki67 index <2% cannot, as previously suggested, be used to indicate a benign progression for this tumour category.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / physiopathology. Cecal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ileal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Serotonin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis. Disease Progression. Female. Health Status Indicators. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17653896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin
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8. Louthan O: [Neuroendocrine tumours of the appendix]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Nov;55(11):1051-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • According to WHO, neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix (appendiceal carcinoids) are defined as 1. well-differentiated endocrine tumors with benign or uncertain behavior, 2. well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma and 3. goblet cell carcinoma.
  • These tumors are usually diagnosed incidentally during appendectomy.
  • Carcinoid syndrome is rare in appendiceal carcinoid.
  • Tumor size greater than 2 cm is the most important parameter for prognosis.
  • Most patients are cured by appendectomy (appendiceal tumors < or = 2 cm), tumors with a diameter > 2 cm should be managed by right hemicolectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Neuroendocrine Tumors

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  • (PMID = 20017436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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9. De Dosso S, Bajetta E, Procopio G, Cortinovis D, Buzzoni R, Catena L, Platania M, Verzoni E: Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):162-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign.
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, there were 37 metastatic and 11 non-metastatic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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10. Graham RP, Williams NP, West KA: Primary epithelial tumours of the appendix in a black population: a review of cases. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Mar 28;15(12):1472-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine cell tumours (carcinoids, 47.6%) and benign non-endocrine cell tumours (adenomas, 45.2%) were most common with nearly equal frequency.
  • Carcinoid tumours occurred in younger patients (mean age 32 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 1.2:1.
  • A clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis was the most common reason for appendectomy (57.1%) and was histologically confirmed in 75% (18 of 24) of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Appendiceal epithelial tumours are rare in our experience, and are represented principally by carcinoid tumours and adenomas.
  • Carcinoid tumours occurred in younger patients but were slightly more common in men than women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. West Indies / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19322920.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2665141
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11. Kamaya A, Maturen KE, Tye GA, Liu YI, Parti NN, Desser TS: Hypervascular liver lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2009 Oct;30(5):387-407
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies.
  • In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular.
  • While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply.
  • Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / blood supply. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19842564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-2171
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Ultrasound CT MR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 140
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12. Gnanasegaran G, Williams R, Mclean E, O' Connell R, Nunan TO, O'Doherty MJ: Lung mass appearing as a dilated left ventricle on Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Sep;34(9):620-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Several benign and malignant tumors also take up tetrofosmin.
  • The patient underwent thoracotomy with resection of the mass and the histology confirmed atypical carcinoid.
  • This case highlights noncardiac uptake of Tc-99m tetrofosmin in an atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Myocardial Perfusion Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19692829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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13. Hartley N, Rajesh A, Verma R, Sinha R, Sandrasegaran K: Abdominal manifestations of neurofibromatosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Jan-Feb;32(1):4-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mutations of the NF gene lead to abnormal tumor suppression.
  • Consequently, NF is a complex disease, with patients having an increased prevalence of benign and malignant neoplasms throughout the body.
  • We present cases of the most common abdominal presentations: neurofibroma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, pheochromocytoma, carcinoid, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and seminoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Seminoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18303281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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14. Capovilla M, Kambouchner M, Bernier M, Soulier A, Tissier F, Saintigny P: Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid. Clin Lung Cancer; 2007 Mar;8(5):339-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid.
  • Although epithelial bronchial neoplasm is a cancer frequently observed in adult patients, it is rarely observed in patients who are children.
  • The most frequent histologic subtype is well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, or carcinoid.
  • They have a variable biologic behavior, ranging from benign to malignant tumors capable of very late recurrence or metastasis.
  • Liver and lung are frequent sites of carcinoid metastasis, and the central nervous system is exceptionally involved.
  • We report the case of a child with a pulmonary carcinoid initially considered typical, who presented with relapse in the cerebellum and mediastinum 16 years later.
  • After review of the pathology slides, primary and metastatic tumors were reclassified as atypical carcinoid according to the criteria of the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17562235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Liang JJ, Alrawi S, Fuller GN, Tan D: Carcinoid tumors arising in tailgut cysts may be associated with estrogen receptor status: case report and review of the literature. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(6):539-43
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors arising in tailgut cysts may be associated with estrogen receptor status: case report and review of the literature.
  • Complications of tailgut cysts include benign reactive lesions associated with infection and inflammation, and malignant transformation.
  • Six cases of carcinoid tumor arising in tailgut cysts have been reported in the medical literature to date.
  • Here we report another case of carcinoid tumor arising in a tailgut cyst.
  • Because six of seven cases occurred in females, we postulate that these tumors are hormone-associated.
  • We found strong estrogen receptor immunoreactivity of the benign squamous and columnar cyst-lining cells as well as carcinoid tumor cells, in addition to neuroendocrine differentiation in the tumor cells and scattered cyst-lining cells.

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  • (PMID = 18787681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480588
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoid tumor / estrogen receptor / tailgut cyst
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16. Bapat U, Mackinnon NA, Spencer MG: Carcinoid tumours of the larynx. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar;262(3):194-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumours of the larynx.
  • The typical carcinoid tumours are well differentiated with a benign course.
  • The atypical carcinoid tumours are poorly differentiated with an aggressive course.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15164214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Saruya S, Nagamine H, Komiya T, Ito S, Iino Y, Kodera K, Imamura T: [Immunohistochemical and clinical features of patients with benign middle ear tumors]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2007 May;110(5):403-9
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemical and clinical features of patients with benign middle ear tumors].
  • The middle ear is a rare site for benign tumors.
  • We report six patients with benign middle ear tumors surgicaly removed: three with carcinoid, one with adenoma, and two with paraganglioma.
  • These tumors showed similar histological features in trabecular and glandular architecture, so further immunohistochemical study was needed to make a definitive histopathological diagnosis.
  • When we analyzed clinical features of patients diagnosed immunohistochemically, the differentiation of two patients with paraganglioma from the remaining four with adenomatous tumors such as adenoma and carcinoid was relatively easy from otomicroscopic findings and enhancement in temporal bone MRI.
  • It was however difficult to differentiate patients with adenomatous tumors from each other because they induced similar clinical symptoms and showed similar findings in images.
  • For a definitive diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct exploratory tympanotomy or removal of the tumors to obtain enough specimen for histological and immunohistochemical studies.
  • Tumors induced no bone destruction or complications.
  • We recommend staged operations for total removal of tumors and for good postoperative hearing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, Middle. Paraganglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17564130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Eick GN, Mane SM, Camp RL: Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed. Ann Surg; 2006 Jul;244(1):52-60
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  • [Title] Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use differential gene expression of candidate markers to discriminate benign appendiceal carcinoids (APCs) from malignant and mixed cell APCs.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy exists in regard to the appropriate surgical management of APCs since it is sometimes difficult to predict tumor behavior using traditional pathologic criteria.
  • METHODS: Total RNA was isolated using TRIzol reagent from 42 appendiceal samples, including appendiceal carcinoids identified at exploration for appendicitis (no evidence of metastasis; n = 16), appendicitis specimens (n = 11), malignant appendiceal tumors (> 1.5 cm, evidence of metastatic invasion; n = 7), and mixed (goblet) cell appendiceal adenocarcinoids (n = 3), normal appendiceal tissue (n = 5), and 5 colorectal cancers.
  • RESULTS: CgA message was elevated (> 1000-fold, P < 0.05) in all tumor types.
  • MAGE-D2 and MTA1 message were significantly elevated (> 10-fold, P < 0.01) in the malignant and goblet cell adenocarcinoid tumors but not in the appendicitis-associated carcinoids or normal mucosa.
  • Elevated CgA transcript and protein levels indicative of a carcinoid tumor were identified in one acute appendicitis sample with no histologic evidence of a tumor.
  • CgA identified all appendiceal tumors as well as covert lesions, which may be more prevalent than previously recognized.
  • The molecular delineation of malignant appendiceal tumor potential provides a scientific basis to define the appropriate surgical management as opposed to morphologic assessment alone.

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  • (PMID = 16794389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097050; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-097050
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / MAGED2 protein, human; 0 / NAP1L1 protein, human; 0 / NLRP1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1570599
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19. Cañizares MA, García-Fontán EM, Rivo JE, Gonzalez-Piñeiro A: Local recurrence and metastatic disease in a typical N1 carcinoid bronchial tumour. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Jun;7(5):216-8
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  • [Title] Local recurrence and metastatic disease in a typical N1 carcinoid bronchial tumour.
  • Typical carcinoid bronchial tumour is a well-known disease that, for years, was considered benign.
  • We present, here, a case of a 19-years-old female diagnosed as having N1-bronchial typical carcinoid tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15960934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. Junaid I, Paz R, Salihu HM, Sharma PP, Aliyu ZY: Pseudo-Meig's syndrome with multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2006 Feb;273(5):315-8
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  • [Title] Pseudo-Meig's syndrome with multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Meig's and Pseudo-Meig's syndromes have been reported in association with several malignancies but the concomitant existence of multiple synchronous benign and malignant tumors in association with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome has not been reported in the published literature.
  • Histological examination confirmed a right ovarian carcinoid tumor embedded within a mature cystic teratoma while the left ovary, fallopian tube and the uterus contained a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first case report of Pseudo-Meig's syndrome in association with ovarian carcinoid tumor and multiple synchronous benign and malignant pelvic tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Asthma / complications. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / complications. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Hydrothorax / complications. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16136360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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21. Ali FN, Ishaque S, Jamil B, Nasir-Ud-Din, Idris M: Sclerosing mesenteritis as a cause of abdominal mass and discomfort in an elderly patient: a case report and literature review. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:625321
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  • Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare benign process that involves inflammation, fat necrosis, and fibrosis of the mesentery.
  • With suspicion of a bowel carcinoid tumor on computed tomography scans, the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy.
  • A diagnosis of sclerosing mesenteritis was made on histological examination.

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  • (PMID = 20671922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2910504
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22. Suzuki H, Furukawa K, Kan H, Tsuruta H, Matsumoto S, Akiya Y, Shinji S, Tajiri T: The role of transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors. J Nippon Med Sch; 2005 Oct;72(5):278-84
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  • [Title] The role of transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal tumors.
  • PURPOSE: The management of rectal tumors is complex, because of the balance between preserving rectoanal function and curing the patient.
  • Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is both an effective treatment for benign rectal tumors and early cancers, and a diagnostic tool for determining tumor depth, or for residual tumors of post endoscopic mucosal resection.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the role of TEM in the management of rectal tumors.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients with rectal tumors underwent TEM from December 2000 through March 2005 in our department.
  • The operations were performed by a single surgeon, and the indications were mainly limited to a) benign tumors for which endoscopic resection was difficult, b) early cancers that had invaded the submucosa within 500 microm of the muscularis mucosae, c) submucosal tumors, i.e., gastrointestinal stromal tumor, carcinoid tumors, d) local excision for diagnosis, and e) palliative resection for high-risk cases.
  • Anesthesia, operation time, sizes of the tumor and of resected specimens, postoperative complications, length of hospitalization, pathological results, and postoperative recurrence rate were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 61.9 years, and the cases included 14 rectal cancers, 7 adenomas, 1 gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and 3 rectal carcinoid tumors.
  • All tumors were resected with horizontal and vertical safety margin.
  • In one case, the tumor had infiltrated the proper muscle layer, as shown by intraoperative frozen sectioning, which necessitated abdominoperineal resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TEM is a minimally invasive surgical procedure for rectal tumors, which allows the whole depth of the rectal wall to be resected with a safety surgical margin.
  • Although TEM requires technical skill and accurate preoperative diagnosis, the procedure is safe, facilitates accurate diagnosis of tumor depth, and limits the need for additional surgery.

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  • (PMID = 16247227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Choi US, Alleman AR, Choi JH, Kim HW, Youn HJ, Lee CW: Cytologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a lung carcinoid in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol; 2008 Jun;37(2):249-52
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  • [Title] Cytologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a lung carcinoid in a dog.
  • Cells were arranged in packets separated by fine fibrovascular stroma, suggestive of a pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasm, specifically a carcinoma/carcinoid.
  • With these findings the tumor was diagnosed as a primary lung carcinoid.
  • Eleven months after resection, there was no evidence of tumor regrowth or metastasis.
  • The absence of necrosis, few mitotic figures, minimal pleomorphism, and benign behavior of this tumor resembled those of a typical carcinoid in humans.


24. Granberg D, Eriksson B, Janson ET, Oberg K, Skogseid B: [Lung carcinoids--not so benign as earlier believed]. Lakartidningen; 2006 Aug 23-29;103(34):2382-4
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  • [Title] [Lung carcinoids--not so benign as earlier believed].
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor. Lung Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16972494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7205
  • [Journal-full-title] Läkartidningen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lakartidningen
  • [Language] swe
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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25. Gartner W, Mineva I, Daneva T, Baumgartner-Parzer S, Niederle B, Vierhapper H, Weissel M, Wagner L: A newly identified RET proto-oncogene polymorphism is found in a high number of endocrine tumor patients. Hum Genet; 2005 Jul;117(2-3):143-53
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  • [Title] A newly identified RET proto-oncogene polymorphism is found in a high number of endocrine tumor patients.
  • To investigate endocrine tumor tissue characteristic RET proto-oncogene expression, we performed quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot and Southern blot analyses of benign and malignant endocrine-derived tissues.
  • We newly describe RET proto-oncogene expression in carcinoid-, gastrinoma- and insulinoma-derived tissue samples.
  • In addition, the presence of a 3'-terminally truncated RET proto-oncogene mRNA variant in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias, as well as in a pheochromocytoma, an ovarian carcinoma and a medullary thyroid carcinoma, is demonstrated.
  • Heterozygous genotypes were found in a significantly higher percentage in samples derived from endocrine tumor patients when compared with those from healthy control subjects.
  • Homozygosity for allele 2 was found exclusively in somatic DNA derived from endocrine tumors with high malignant potential.
  • A heterozygous genotype for this polymorphism is found in a considerable number of endocrine tumor patients.

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  • (PMID = 15841388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6717
  • [Journal-full-title] Human genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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26. Radotra B, Awasthi A, Joshi K, Das A: Histopatholgical spectrum of thymic neoplasms: twelve-year experience at a referral hospital in north India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jan;49(1):1-6
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  • A total of 96 thymectomy specimens were received during the study period (1992-2004), which consisted of 54 neoplasms and 42 benign lesions.
  • Among the neoplasms there were 48 thymic epithelial tumors, 3 thymolipomas and 3 thymic carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. India. Lipoma / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Myasthenia Gravis. Neoplasm Staging. Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure. Thymectomy. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16625962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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27. Namasivayam S, Martin DR, Saini S: Imaging of liver metastases: MRI. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:2-9
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  • Specific characterization of liver metastases in patients with primary non-hepatic tumors is crucial to avoid unnecessary diagnostic work-up for incidental benign liver lesions.
  • MR contrast agents provide critical tumor characterization and can be safely used in patients with iodine contrast allergy and renal failure.
  • The degree and nature of tumor vascularity form the basis for liver lesion characterization based on enhancement properties.
  • Colon, lung, breast and gastric carcinomas are the most common tumors causing hypovascular liver metastases, and typically show perilesional enhancement.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors including carcinoid and islet cell tumors, renal cell carcinoma, breast, melanoma, and thyroid carcinoma are tumors most commonly causing hypervascular hepatic metastases, which may develop early enhancement with variable degrees of washout and peripheral rim enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17293303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1804118
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28. Yang WL, Zhang XC, Yan ZQ, Zhang HM, Zhao Z, Zhang JG, Wang YJ: [Clinical analysis of primary small intestinal neoplasms in 305 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;29(10):781-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: To summarive the experience in diagnosis and treatment of primary small intestinal neoplasm.
  • METHODS: The data of 305 patients with pathologically confirmed primary small intestinal tumor collected from 6 hospitals around the Songhua River during the past 33 years were analyzed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: There were 42 benign and 263 malignant tumors in this series with a ratio of 1: 6.26.
  • The 263 malignant tumors in this series consisted of 135 adenocarcinomas, 57 malignant stromal tumors, 37 malignant lymphomas, 20 carcinoids, and etc.
  • Chronic occult bleeding, gradual of body weight loss and mild abdominal pain (three obscurities) were the common clinical features and alerting massage of intestinal tumor.
  • Correct preoperative diagnostic rate was only 57.0% (174/305) due to difficulty in early diagnosis, which was 67.2% (92/137) in the duodenal tumors, and 51.9% (82/168) in the jejunoileal tumors.
  • All of the 42 benign tumors were resected completely.
  • For the 263 patients with malignant tumors, radical dissection was performed in 153, palliative resection in 34, and gut by-pass or biopsy in 76.
  • The median survival of the patients who underwent radical resection of their malignant tumors was 92 months, which was significantly higher than that of the other groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis of primary small intestinal tumors is difficult and with a preoperative misdiagnosis rate of 43.0%.
  • Total intestinal barium swallowing, endoscopy and superior mesenteric arteriography are three critical examinations for diagnosis and location.
  • The primary small intestinal tumor should be resected as early as possible if no distant metastasis is detected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / secondary. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / surgery. Jejunal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Jejunal Neoplasms / pathology. Jejunal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18396694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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29. Park CM, Goo JM, Lee HJ, Kim MA, Lee CH, Kang MJ: Tumors in the tracheobronchial tree: CT and FDG PET features. Radiographics; 2009 Jan-Feb;29(1):55-71
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  • [Title] Tumors in the tracheobronchial tree: CT and FDG PET features.
  • A variety of tumors, including primary malignant tumors, secondary malignant tumors, and benign tumors, can occur in the tracheobronchial tree.
  • Primary malignant tumors commonly originate from the surface epithelium or the salivary glands, whereas most benign tumors arise from the mesenchymal tissue.
  • At computed tomography (CT), primary malignant tumors manifest as a polypoid lesion, a focal sessile lesion, eccentric narrowing of the airway lumen, or circumferential wall thickening.
  • Carcinoid tumors commonly show intense enhancement at contrast material-enhanced CT, which can be helpful in making the diagnosis, and usually have lower uptake at FDG PET than would be expected for a malignant tumor.
  • Secondary malignant tumors occur as a result of either hematogenous metastasis or direct invasion by a malignancy from an adjacent structure.
  • Their CT manifestations are similar to those of primary malignant tumors, with uptake at FDG PET depending primarily on the metabolic activity and degree of differentiation of the primary tumor.
  • Among the benign tumors, hamartoma and lipoma can show characteristic CT findings such as "popcorn" calcification or internal fat.
  • However, CT findings in most benign tumors are nonspecific.
  • At FDG PET, benign tumors usually show little or no uptake and can be differentiated from malignant tumors.
  • Knowledge of the characteristic CT and FDG PET findings of tracheobronchial tumors can aid in diagnosis and treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Image Enhancement / methods. Subtraction Technique. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Tracheal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19168836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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30. Valdes EK, Feldman SM, Krassilnik N: Neuroendocrine tumor of the breast. Am Surg; 2006 Feb;72(2):185-7
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumor of the breast.
  • Mammary carcinoid is an uncommon neoplasm.
  • However, it is still controversial whether mammary carcinoid tumors should be considered a distinct clinical entity or be treated as a variant of conventional breast carcinoma.
  • Differentiating these lesions from benign lesions such as epithelial hyperplasia and papillomas can be challenging at times.
  • We present a case of neuroendocrine tumor of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology


31. Granberg D, Wilander E, Oberg K: Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors in lung carcinoids. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(3):153-7
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  • OBJECTIVES: Typical lung carcinoids are usually relatively benign tumors, but distant metastases are seen in up to 12% of the patients.
  • In contrast, atypical carcinoids are more aggressive tumors, displaying metastases in up to 70%.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue from 51 patients with typical lung carcinoids were immunostained with polyclonal antibodies against c-kit, PDGFRalpha, PDGFRbeta and EGFR.
  • RESULTS: Twelve of the tumors stained positive for c-kit, 44 expressed PDGFRalpha, 30 showed positive immunoreactivity for PDGFRbeta and 26 were EGFR immunoreactive.
  • Among the 17 patients with distant metastases, 5 tumors expressed c-kit, 12 were PDGFRalpha immunoreactive, 9 stained positive for PDGFRbeta, and 7 showed positive immunoreactivity for EGFR.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16612146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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32. Buragas M, Kidd M, Modlin IM, Cha C: Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and synchronous ileal carcinoids. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2005 Mar;2(3):166-70; quiz 1 p following 170
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  • [Title] Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors and synchronous ileal carcinoids.
  • His physical examination and medical history were unremarkable except for benign prostatic hypertrophy.
  • Biopsy of the mass revealed an ulcerated tumor composed of spindle cells.
  • A gastric-wedge resection revealed an ulcerated 4.5 cm mass in the stomach, and exploration of the abdomen revealed two ileal carcinoid tumors, jejunal diverticula and reactive mesenteric lymphadenopathy.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors occurring concomitantly with ileal carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Neoplasms, Second Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diverticulum / etiology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors. Hematemesis / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Jejunal Diseases / etiology. Male. Stomach Ulcer / etiology


33. Porter G, Steel J, Paisley K, Watkins R, Holgate C: Incidental breast masses detected by computed tomography: are any imaging features predictive of malignancy? Clin Radiol; 2009 May;64(5):529-33
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  • Women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Of the 34 referred patients a malignant diagnosis was noted in 11 (32%).
  • Conversely, a well-defined mass was suggestive of benign disease [10/24 (42%) versus 0/10 (0%); p=0.015].
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Lobular / radiography. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Melanoma / radiography. Melanoma / secondary. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Radiol. 2009 Oct;64(10):1041-2 [19748012.001]
  • (PMID = 19348850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Soga J: [The life of S. Oberndorfer: the proposer of the term "carcinoid"--the outcome of a seed in the past 100 years]. Nihon Rinsho; 2009 Nov;67(11):2201-6
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  • [Title] [The life of S. Oberndorfer: the proposer of the term "carcinoid"--the outcome of a seed in the past 100 years].
  • Since Siegfried Oberndorfer proposed the term "carcinoid" in 1907, over 100 years have passed.
  • In 1876, he was born at Munich and, in 1907 reported a series of 6 cases of "carcinoids" in the small intestine as benign tumorlets.
  • In 1929, he partly revised his initial concept of carcinoid, pointing out some cases being malignant with metastases.
  • A proposal of the concept of GEP system in 1973 was followed by proposals of the concept of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and the GEP-NET classification based on the WHO histological classification, later developing into the TNM classification by the ENETS (European NET Society), which was founded in 2004.
  • Carcinoids are now included in a corner of the GEP-NET classification with a somewhat confusing expression of "benign biological(clinical) behavior" vs. histological malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / history

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  • (PMID = 19899541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Biography; English Abstract; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Oberndorfer S
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35. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Schmitt A, Perren A, Chetty R: Cytokeratins 7 and 20 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell and classical carcinoids of appendix. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):16-22
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  • Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the vermiform appendix is an uncommon neoplasm and its histogenesis is controversial.
  • Whether GCC represents a morphological variant of classical appendiceal carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is still conjectural.
  • Little is known about the immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratins 7 (CK7) and 20 (CK20) in appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors.
  • In this study, we compared the expression of CK7 and CK20 in 17 cases of appendiceal GCC and 25 cases of classical carcinoid.
  • The tumors were also evaluated for Ki-67 proliferation index, mitotic activity, tumor necrosis, extracellular pools of mucin, obvious intestinal type adenocarcinomatous foci, angiolymphatic permeation, perineural/neural infiltration, and the depth of invasion of the appendix wall.
  • Immunohistochemically, all 17 (100%) of GCC exhibited strong and diffuse immunopositivity for CK20, whereas expression of CK7 was present in 12 cases (70.5%), ranging from 5 to 50% of tumor cells being labeled.
  • On the other hand, 25 cases of classical carcinoid tumors were consistently negative for CK7; however, 4 cases (16%) showed immunolabeling for CK20 in 25-50% of the tumor cells.
  • This study shows that in addition to the morphological differences, GCC (CK7/CK20-positive) and classical carcinoid (CK7/CK20-negative) differ in their expression of CK7 and CK20.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid should be regarded as a crypt cell or an amphicrine carcinoma rather than a variant of carcinoid tumor, a lesion that has benign connotations.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Goblet Cells / metabolism. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17652796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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36. Zhou X, Shang JQ, Zhou JN: [Transsacral local wide resection for mid-lower rectal tumors]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jan;12(1):44-7
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  • [Title] [Transsacral local wide resection for mid-lower rectal tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of transsacral local wide resection for mid-lower rectal tumors.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 133 patients undergone transsacral local wide resection for mid-lower rectal tumors between September 1994 and September 2005 were analyzed retrospectively.
  • Postoperative diagnosis was adenoma in 28 patients, hyperplastic polyp in 3 patients, carcinoid in 8 patients, gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 1 patient,adenoma with intra-mucosal carcinogenesis in 29 patients and adenocarcinoma invading into submucosa in 64 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Transsacral local wide resection is simple and safe for mid-lower rectal tumors, which is an appropriate procedure for mid-lower rectal benign tumor and can serve as a sphincter-saving operation for selected T(1) lower rectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19145503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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37. Hofer MD, Tapia C, Browne TJ, Mirlacher M, Sauter G, Rubin MA: Comprehensive analysis of the expression of the metastasis-associated gene 1 in human neoplastic tissue. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):989-96
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  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze MTA1 expression levels in a wide variety of human tumors.
  • RESULTS: Both analyses show that MTA1 is ubiquitously expressed in benign and malignant tumors.
  • The highest levels of MTA1 expression were observed in diffuse B-cell lymphoma (mean staining intensity, 3.9/4), basal cell carcinomas (3.7/4), and consistently in tumors of neuroendocrine descent such as paraganglioma (3.7/4) and carcinoid tumor (3.1/4).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study characterizes MTA1 expression for the first time across a broad spectrum of primary tumors, demonstrating expression in both benign and malignant neoplasms in addition to showing an association with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Databases, Genetic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Software. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16831056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
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38. Somogyi A, Ruzicska E, Varga T, Rácz K, Nagy G: [Development of silent gastric carcinoid in a type 1 diabetic patient with primer hypothyreosis]. Orv Hetil; 2007 Sep 2;148(35):1667-71
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  • [Title] [Development of silent gastric carcinoid in a type 1 diabetic patient with primer hypothyreosis].
  • ECL hyper/dysplasia is known to increase the likelihood of gastric carcinoid tumor development in affected patients.
  • Gastric carcinoid tumors forming from the hyperplasia of ECL cells are found in 4-9% of patients having autoimmune gastritis or pernicious anemia.
  • The histological examination indicated carcinoid tumor.
  • Non-antral, multiple polyps could cover silent neuroendocrine tumors, which are slowly growing benign endocrine tumors, however, they also might be high malignity endocrine carcinomas.
  • These tumors could be easily recognized in the clinical practice by measuring the serum or tissue chromogranin A level and other markers of tumor growth.
  • Thus screening of gastric endocrine tumors in type 1 diabetic patients with co-morbid autoimmune diseases is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Chromogranin A / blood. Diabetes Complications / diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications. Hypothyroidism / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis


39. Ferlito A, Devaney KO, Rinaldo A: Primary carcinoid tumor of the middle ear: a potentially metastasizing tumor. Acta Otolaryngol; 2006 Mar;126(3):228-31
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumor of the middle ear: a potentially metastasizing tumor.
  • The concept of a carcinoid tumor in the gastrointestinal tract and lung is well established; less often, patients develop carcinoid tumors in the head and neck region.
  • One particularly uncommon site of origin of carcinoid tumors in the head and neck area is the middle ear.
  • Middle ear carcinoids have previously been approached as benign entities, lacking any capacity for metastasizing.
  • A critical review of the literature, however, disclosed a small number of cases in which middle ear carcinoid tumors have given rise to regional (cervical node) metastases.
  • This in turn suggests that, as is the case with pulmonary carcinoid tumors, middle ear carcinoids should be thought of as low-grade malignancies which, while relatively slow-growing, nevertheless possess a limited capacity for spreading to regional lymph nodes.
  • To date, distant metastases have not been associated with middle ear carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, Middle. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16618645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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40. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies.
  • We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions.
  • Two patients had carcinoid syndrome including diarrhea, hot flashes, and palpitations.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • Mitotic figures were rare in primary carcinoid tumors with only 3 cases showing more than 2 per 10 HPF; necrosis was found in only 1 case.
  • Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The other 2 patients with atypical carcinoid and follow-up had no evidence of disease at 68 and 114 months.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.
  • However, lesions with the morphology of atypical carcinoid can occasionally exhibit metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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41. Konishi M, Kinoshita T, Nakagohri T, Takahashi S, Gotohda N, Ryu M: Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy for duodenal neoplasms including malignancies. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Apr-May;54(75):753-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreas-sparing duodenectomy (PSD) represents an attractive operation for benign or premalignant duodenal disease.
  • METHODOLOGY: The present study investigated 16 patients who underwent PSD for duodenal neoplasms including adenoma, cancer, carcinoid and non-epithelial tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17591055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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42. Isidori AM, Lenzi A: Ectopic ACTH syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1217-25
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  • Ectopic adrenocorticotropic secretion (EAS) is responsible for 12-17% of cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and covers a range of tumours, from undetectable benign lesions to widespread metastases.
  • EAS requires a complete workup that includes the establishment of endogenous CS, diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependency, localization of the source of ACTH secretion and rapid biochemical control of hypercortisolaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Abdominal Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Petrosal Sinus Sampling. Thoracic Neoplasms / complications. Thoracic Neoplasms / secretion. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18209859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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43. Cheng NH, Huang HF, Lian LJ, Wu Y: [Ovarian growing teratoma syndrome clinical study of 22 cases]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jun;44(6):426-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the essential points for the correct diagnosis and best treatment for ovarian growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) developed after surgery and chemotherapy for ovarian immature teratoma.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of the clinical characteristics and long term follow up results of 22 cases of ovarian GTS to illustrate the unique biological behavior of the tumor and good prognosis of the disease.
  • RESULTS: Pathological examination of the tumors revealed completely benign mature teratoma with G0 grading in 20 cases.
  • The other 2 cases were found to be G0 mature teratoma with concurrent association of malignant somatic cell tumor: carcinoid and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) respectively.
  • Among the 22 cases of ovarian GTS there are 6 cases with recurrent tumors developed repeatedly, so totally surgical treatments had been performed for 31 times.
  • Such a time factor is of high significance for the diagnosis of ovarian GTS.
  • As the benign behavior of the ovarian GTS together with its poor response to chemotherapy have just been recognized in recent years, they were treated as malignant tumors as their original primary immature teratoma before the year of 1987.
  • The rest 2 patients died of the concurrent association of malignant somatic cell tumors with carcinoid and PNET in 0.1 and 0.3 years respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian GTS is a tumor developed after surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant ovarian immature teratoma.
  • Pathologic grading of the tumors showed retroconversion of the malignancy of the tumor from G3, G2 or G1 to G0 with good prognosis.
  • The tumor usually remained to be quiescent for long periods of time.
  • But there are also some potential of progressive growth, the tumor may grow to huge size and the recurrent tumor may develop repeatedly for several times more than 10 or 20 years later.
  • Surgical removal should be the main treatment either for the primary or the recurrent tumors.
  • Only correct knowledge about the benign biological behavior of the ovarian GTS and reasonable therapeutic regimen can have the disease ends with good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19953942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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44. Zhao ZL, Huang QY, Xu S, Zhang L, Zhao HR: [Expression of promyelocytic leukaemia protein in lung carcinomas and clinical significance thereof]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 19;86(47):3362-6
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  • METHODS: A tumor tissue microarray with lung samples from 148 patients with lung carcinoma and 5 patients with pulmonary benign tumor, and 7 patients with other benign diseases resected during operation.
  • The cases with at least triplicate 0.6-mm cores per tumor or tissue were analyzed.
  • The remaining 144 lung carcinoma cases included 45 cases with squamous cell carcinoma, 62 with adenocarcinoma, 23 with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), 7 with large cell carcinoma, 5 with pleomorphic carcinoma, 1 with carcinoid, and 1 with adenosquamous carcinoma.
  • Among the 5 cases with benign lung tumors, two cases with pulmonary leiomyomas had strong expression of PML.
  • CONCLUSION: As an important suppressor of tumor, PML may be a useful indicator to predict postoperative prognosis in patients with SCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17313836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human
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45. Sousa V, Carvalho L: [Glomic tumor: presentation of an infrequent case]. Rev Port Pneumol; 2006 May-Jun;12(3):269-74
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  • [Title] [Glomic tumor: presentation of an infrequent case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente.
  • Glomic tumours are generally benign.
  • They should be classified as glomic tumor, glomangioma and glomangiomioma according to the relative abundance of glomic cells and of the vascular and muscular components.
  • The differential diagnosis of glomic tumours of the lung includes the carcinoid, hemangioperycitoma, smooth muscle tumours (epithelioid leyomioma) and the paraganglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16967176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-2159
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de pneumologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Pneumol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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46. Zehlicke T, Punke C, Boltze C, Pau HW: Transient facial palsy in two cases of benign, very rare middle ear tumors (carcinoid tumor and myxoma). Neurologist; 2008 Jan;14(1):52-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transient facial palsy in two cases of benign, very rare middle ear tumors (carcinoid tumor and myxoma).
  • OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the clinical features of 2 very rare middle ear tumors in which the guiding symptom was facial palsy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Illustrative case reports about a myxoma and a carcinoid tumor of the middle ear associated with peripheral facial palsy.
  • Moreover, both tumor entities are typically found in organs other than the ear; if located in the middle ear, those neoplasms grow rather superficially.
  • If the facial weakness starts together with symptoms suggesting an inflammatory process, the differential diagnosis may be focused first on diseases like herpes zoster oticus and a severe course of acute purulent otitis media.
  • We report the cases of 2 rare middle ear tumors causing facial palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, Middle / pathology. Facial Paralysis / pathology. Myxoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Facial Nerve / pathology. Facial Nerve / physiopathology. Hearing Loss / etiology. Hearing Loss / pathology. Hearing Loss / radiography. Herpes Zoster Oticus / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Mastoid / pathology. Mastoid / radiography. Mastoid / surgery. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Otitis Media / diagnosis. Petrous Bone / anatomy & histology. Petrous Bone / pathology. Petrous Bone / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vertigo / etiology. Vertigo / pathology. Vertigo / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18195660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-7931
  • [Journal-full-title] The neurologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Ferlito A, Silver CE, Bradford CR, Rinaldo A: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx: an overview. Head Neck; 2009 Dec;31(12):1634-46
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  • Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx are rare but are the most common nonsquamous tumors of this organ.
  • In the past, there has been considerable confusion about the nature and classification of these neoplasms, but the current consensus is that there are 4 different types of laryngeal neuroendocrine tumors composed of paraganglioma, typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid tumor, and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Diagnosis is based primarily on light microscopy and confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
  • Precise diagnosis is essential because the natural history, treatment, and prognosis vary widely for the different neoplastic categories.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors are more common and more aggressive.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly aggressive and should be considered disseminated at initial diagnosis.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors have a 5-year survival rate of approximately 50%, which decreases with time.
  • The biological behavior of laryngeal paraganglioma is generally benign and the prognosis is excellent.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Laryngectomy / methods. Male. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Paraganglioma / mortality. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19536850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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48. Kala Z, Válek V, Kysela P, Svoboda T: A shift in the diagnostics of the small intestine tumors. Eur J Radiol; 2007 May;62(2):160-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A shift in the diagnostics of the small intestine tumors.
  • Primary, secondary, benign or malignant tumorous diseases of the small intestine are rare.
  • This work should answer the question, whether there is a method of making the diagnosis earlier when the disease is limited and easy to cure.
  • METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study comprising 96 patients having undergone surgery for a small intestine tumor in our hospital from 1996 to 2005 is presented.
  • In the year 1998 we changed our philosophy in trying to directly detect the small intestine pathology and not making the diagnosis by the exclusion only.
  • RESULTS: We treated surgically 96 patients with the small intestine tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Intestine, Small / pathology. Intestine, Small / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Abdomen, Acute / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Algorithms. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Czech Republic. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17344005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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49. Lee DH, Cho HH, Cho YB: Typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2007 Dec;34(4):537-9
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  • [Title] Typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity.
  • The nasal cavity is a rare site of origin of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • They can be classified typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid and small cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine type.
  • The tumor histology and prognosis correlate closely.
  • The typical carcinoid tumors are well differentiated with benign course.
  • The treatment of the typical carcinoid is a conservative surgery and the prognosis is good.
  • But, typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity was extremely rare, so the treatment has not been established.
  • We report a case of typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity in a 76-year-old man who treated by conservative surgery using sinus endoscopy.
  • To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on an typical carcinoid in the nasal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17481837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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50. Faith A, Peek E, McDonald J, Urry Z, Richards DF, Tan C, Santis G, Hawrylowicz C: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells from human lung cancer draining lymph nodes induce Tc1 responses. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol; 2007 Mar;36(3):360-7
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  • Dendritic cells (DC) resident in draining lymph nodes (LN) of patients with lung cancer are proposed to have a critical role in stimulating anti-tumor immunity.
  • The present study, therefore, investigated the capacity of plasmacytoid-DC from human lung cancer draining LN to respond to CpG for activation of T cell responses relevant to anti-tumor immunity.
  • There was no significant difference between the responses of plasmacytoid-DC from patients with lung cancer and patients with benign carcinoid tumors with no pathologic LN involvement.

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  • (PMID = 17023687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-1549
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 9; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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51. Jiang X, Dong X, Zhao X, Peng C: Bronchial sleeve resection distal to the main bronchus with complete pulmonary preservation for benign or low-grade malignant tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Oct;84(4):e19-21
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  • [Title] Bronchial sleeve resection distal to the main bronchus with complete pulmonary preservation for benign or low-grade malignant tumors.
  • Three cases are presented with benign or low-grade malignant bronchial tumors managed by bronchial sleeve resection distal to the main bronchus.
  • Bronchial sleeve resection distal to the main bronchus can be successfully performed; this is a safe and effective bronchoplastic technique for benign or low-grade malignant bronchial tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bronchoscopy / methods. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyoma / pathology. Leiomyoma / radiography. Leiomyoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17888950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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52. Risk MC, Porter CR: Management of non-germinal testicular tumors. World J Urol; 2009 Aug;27(4):507-12
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  • [Title] Management of non-germinal testicular tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Non-germinal tumors account for less than 10% of all testicular tumors and consist of a wide array of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Due to their rarity, little is known about the appropriate management of malignant non-germinal testicular tumors.
  • METHODS: A literature review directed at the variety of non-germinal testicular tumors using the Medline/PubMed database was performed.
  • RESULTS: The majority of data on the treatment of non-germinal testicular tumors comes from case series and retrospective reviews; thus the management of many of these diseases is a matter of debate.
  • CONCLUSION: Non-germinal testicular tumors are a diverse group of rare lesions, and as a result their management is often difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19322569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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53. Kim T, Grobmyer SR, Liu C, Hochwald SN: Primary presacral neuroendocrine tumor associated with imperforate anus. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:115
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  • [Title] Primary presacral neuroendocrine tumor associated with imperforate anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Presacral masses are unusual growths that have a limited differential diagnosis, typically not including neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
  • Classically, NETs are well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic tumors of probable benign behavior.
  • These tumors are associated with a typical morphologic pattern and involve the distal colon, rectum, and genitourinary tract; they are considered less aggressive, frequently asymptomatic, and rarely cause carcinoid syndrome, even when metastatic.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the presacral region are extremely rare and few have been described in the literature.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present an interesting case of a woman with a history of imperforate anus that was found to have a primary neuroendocrine tumor of the presacral region with no rectal wall involvement.
  • CONCLUSION: We argue that this is a primary gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor which likely originated from cells of hindgut origin that underwent an abnormal migration during embryonic development.

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  • (PMID = 17931412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2092435
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54. Delle Fave G, Capurso G, Milione M, Panzuto F: Endocrine tumours of the stomach. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):659-73
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  • In fact, type I carcinoids can be considered to be benign lesions, with exceptional risk of metastases.
  • Several other candidates--including Bcl2, p53 and MMP9--have been linked with carcinoid initiation and progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Gastrectomy / methods. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Gastroscopy / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / epidemiology. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / pathology. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery


55. Safioleas MC, Moulakakis KG, Kontzoglou K, Stamoulis J, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Lygidakis NJ: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):123-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are thought to be the most common type of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Although the vast majority of appendiceal carcinoids behave in a benign fashion, they are considered malignant because they all have the potential for invasion, metastasis and production of physiologically active substances.
  • Following confirmation of the diagnosis, secretion of 5-HLAA (5-Hydroxy-Inndole-Acetic Acid) was measured after a 24-hour collection of urine.
  • Also, patients with tumor size more than 1cm underwent a Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (Octreoscan).
  • RESULTS: The most common site for the tumors was the tip of the appendix (18/22).
  • In sixteen patients the tumor size was less than 1cm, in seven patients the tumor diameter was measured to be 1 to 2cm and in one patient the tumor was 3cm.
  • Most of our patients (16/22) underwent only an appendicectomy, while in the rest of them (in the patients with tumor size between 1-2cm and in the patient with invasion of mesoappendix) a right hemicolectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix, in most cases, are found incidentally during appendicectomies, especially in young females and usually are less than 1cm in size, which is probably the reason of the absence of metastases in all cases.
  • Histological examination and size of the tumor are important factors that contribute to the selection of the surgical treatment and both must be estimated by the surgeons to make the final choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15783011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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56. McGregor RJ, West D, Walker WS: Bronchial flap closure of the right lower lobe bronchus. Ann Thorac Surg; 2009 Nov;88(5):1712-3
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  • We have successfully used this technique in an endobronchial carcinoid tumor occurring in a young man.
  • It allowed middle lobe preservation despite a very proximal tumor position within the basal trunk bronchus.
  • Adequate tumor margins were confirmed by on-table frozen section examination.
  • This technique may have particular use in carcinoids or benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchi / surgery. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pneumonectomy. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 19853155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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57. Matsuki M, Inada Y, Nakai G, Tatsugami F, Tanikake M, Narabayashi I, Nishimura H, Iwamoto M, Hiramatsu M, Tanigawa N, Kurisu Y, Tsuji M: CT and MR features of sclerosing mesenteritis mimicking a mesenteric metastasis from the carcinoid tumor. Radiat Med; 2006 Apr;24(3):220-3
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  • [Title] CT and MR features of sclerosing mesenteritis mimicking a mesenteric metastasis from the carcinoid tumor.
  • Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare and benign inflammatory entity characterized by fibrofatty thickening of the mesentery.
  • In this present case, MR imaging demonstrated tissue characterization of fibrosis, and partial maximum intensity projection (MIP) and three-dimensional angiography images obtained using multislice CT clearly revealed the extent of the tumor and the vascular appearance affected by the mass.
  • However, a mesenteric metastasis from the carcinoid tumor may show such imaging features.
  • Therefore, when encountering such a case, we suggest that a tentative diagnosis of sclerosing mesenteritis be made, followed by a biopsy for intraoperative histopathologic analysis to avoid aggressive surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mesentery. Panniculitis, Peritoneal / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male


58. Rivera RE, Eagon JC, Soper NJ, Klingensmith ME, Brunt LM: Experience with laparoscopic gastric resection: results and outcomes for 37 cases. Surg Endosc; 2005 Dec;19(12):1622-6
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  • BACKGROUND: This study aimed to review the authors' technique, results, and outcomes for laparoscopic gastric wedge and segmental resections in patients with benign gastric diseases.
  • The indications for surgery included suspected gastric stromal tumor (GIST) or carcinoid (n = 22), other benign gastric lesions (n = 6), benign gastric outlet obstruction (n = 4), and nonhealing peptic ulcer (n = 5).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic gastric resections can be performed safely in patients with a variety of benign gastric disorders.

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  • (PMID = 16222466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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59. Igaz P: MEN1 clinical background. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2009;668:1-15
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is a rare hereditary tumor syndrome predisposing to tumor development in several endocrine organs.
  • Its major manifestations include hyperparathyroidism, tumors of endocrine pancreas and pituitary.
  • Beside these three, several other endocrine (adrenocortical, foregut carcinoid) and nonendocrine (lipoma, angiofibroma, collagenoma, ependymoma, meningioma) tumors have been described to be associated with this syndrome.
  • The diagnosis of MEN1 can be established if two of the three major manifestations are found in the same patient, whereas the diagnosis of familial MEN1 requires one MEN1 patient and a first degree relative with at least one MEN1 manifestation.
  • Both benign (parathyroid, anterior pituitary) and malignant (gastrinoma, glucagonoma) lesions may develop in MEN1 patients.
  • Several diagnostic modalities can be used to screen for and to examine MEN1-related tumors.
  • The therapy of MEN1-associated tumors requires specific approach in some cases, as multiple tumors and recurrence is frequently observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genetic Testing. Humans. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / physiopathology. Mutation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20175448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Ganai S, Kanumuri P, Rao RS, Alexander AI: Local recurrence after transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal polyps and early cancers. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;13(4):547-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: The study comprises 107 patients presenting for TEM with benign disease and 32 patients with cancer.
  • Pathologic classification of the lesions after TEM was benign adenoma in 45%, adenoma with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in 17%, cancer in 33%, and other in 4%.
  • Recurrence of cancers correlated with the depth of tumor invasion (P<.05).
  • Five-year neoplastic recurrence probabilities were 11% for benign adenomas, 35% for adenomas with HGD, and 20% for cancers (P=.31); invasive recurrence probabilities were 0% for benign adenomas, 15% for adenomas with HGD, and 13% for cancers (P<.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Close endoscopic follow-up is warranted after TEM for both benign and malignant disease, with special attention to lesions with HGD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colonoscopy. Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Intestinal Polyps / surgery. Microsurgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16514476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Han J, Lee SK, Park DH, Choi JS, Lee SS, Seo DW, Kim MH: [Treatment outcome after endoscopic papillectomy of tumors of the major duodenal papilla]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2005 Aug;46(2):110-9
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  • [Title] [Treatment outcome after endoscopic papillectomy of tumors of the major duodenal papilla].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic papillectomy is reported to be relatively safe and reliable for complete resection of benign tumors of the major duodenal papilla.
  • METHODS: Medical records of 22 consecutive patients with tumor of the major duodenal papilla (10 women, 12 men; mean age 55.8+/-2.8 yrs) who have undergone endoscopic papillectomy were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Endoscopic papillectomy was defined the successful when complete excision of the tumor was achieved.
  • Histopathologic evaluation after endoscopic papillectomy revealed adenoma (n=11, 50%), high-grade dysplasia (n=3, 13.6%), adenocarcinoma (n=2, 9.1%), carcinoid (n=1), chronic inflammation (n=3, 13.6%), papillary adenomatous hyperplasia (n=1), and cavernous lymphangioma (n=1).

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  • (PMID = 16118521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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62. Conlon JM: Granin-derived peptides as diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors. Regul Pept; 2010 Nov 30;165(1):5-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granin-derived peptides as diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors.
  • Chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity (CgA-LI) has been, and remains, the most widely used diagnostic and prognostic marker for endocrine tumors.
  • However, circulating concentrations of CgA-LI are elevated in several non-neoplastic diseases and in patients receiving acid-suppression therapy which may lead to false positive diagnosis.
  • Additionally, certain endocrine tumors, such as rectal carcinoids, do not express the CgA gene so that there is a need for additional markers to complement CgA measurements.
  • Plasma concentrations of the CgA-derived peptide, pancreastatin, measured with antisera of defined regional specificity, have a prognostic value in patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid tumors receiving somatostatin analog therapy or hepatic artery chemoembolization.
  • Other CgA-derived peptides with potential as tumor markers are vasostatin-1, WE-14, catestatin, GE-25, and EL-35 but their value has yet to be fully assessed.
  • Circulating concentrations of chromogranin B-like immunoreactivity (CgB-LI) are not elevated in non-neoplastic diseases and measurements of CCB, the COOH-terminal fragment of CgB, may be useful as a biochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in lung tumors.
  • Antisera to the secretogranin II-derived peptide, secretoneurin detects carcinoid tumors of the appendix with greater frequency than antisera to CgA and are of value in identifying therapy-resistant carcinoma of the prostate (clinical stage D3).
  • Measurement of concentrations of a second secretogranin II-derived peptide, EM-66 in tumor tissue has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • These examples point to a limited although potentially valuable role for granin-derived peptides as tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromogranins / metabolism. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19931574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Secretogranin II
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63. Feo CF, Porcu A, Scanu AM, Ginesu GC, Fancellu A, Lorettu A, Dettori G: Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases. Int Surg; 2009 Jul-Sep;94(3):224-7
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  • [Title] Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases.
  • We report our experience on 10 patients with primary tumors of the appendix treated at our institution from 1998 to 2005.
  • Six tumors were malignant, and the remaining were benign.
  • Two of the four patients with benign tumors died from causes unrelated to the appendiceal neoplasm.
  • The 6 patients with malignant tumors and the other 2 with benign disease were alive and disease free after a mean follow-up of 43 months.
  • Despite the rarity of appendiceal primary tumors, surgeons should be aware of these neoplasms for making correct treatment decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20187516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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64. Klöppel G: Tumour biology and histopathology of neuroendocrine tumours. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;21(1):15-31
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  • In the lung they are called carcinoid and small/large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Their clinical behaviour--ranging from benign and low-grade to high-grade malignancy--can be predicted on the basis of clinicopathological criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / classification. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / classification. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / genetics. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neurosecretory Systems / cytology. Prognosis. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / classification. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / genetics. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17382263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-690X
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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65. Carlo JT, DeMarco D, Smith BA, Livingston S, Wiser K, Kuhn JA, Lamont JP: The utility of capsule endoscopy and its role for diagnosing pathology in the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Surg; 2005 Dec;190(6):886-90
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  • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was the most common reported finding (43.9%), followed by ulcer (24.1%), colon or gastric pathology (14.1%), mass/tumor (9.1%), and stricture (6.9%).
  • Patients with abdominal pain (n = 81) had findings 46.9% of the time including edema/ulcer (47.4%), stricture (10.5%), mass/tumor (26.3%), gastric pathology (10.5%), AVM (2.6%), or sprue (2.6%).
  • Patients with diarrhea (n = 22) had findings 45.5% of the time including edema/ulcer (75%), mass/tumor (12.5%), or sprue (12.5%).
  • Pathology at the retention site included benign strictures or adhesions (n = 9, 75%), Crohn's stricture (n = 1, 8.3%) carcinoid tumor (n = 1, 8.3%), and villous adenoma (n = 1, 8.3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / utilization. Gastrointestinal Diseases / diagnosis. Miniaturization. Telemetry / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 16307940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Kemp CD, Russell RT, Sharp KW: Resection of benign duodenal neoplasms. Am Surg; 2007 Nov;73(11):1086-91
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  • [Title] Resection of benign duodenal neoplasms.
  • Primary small bowel neoplasms (PSBN) are uncommon, accounting for less than 15 per cent of all gastrointestinal tumors.
  • Benign duodenal neoplasms (BDN) are rare, comprising only 10 to 20 per cent of all PSBN.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Duodenoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Lipoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18092639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Eloy-Garcia Carrasco C, Benguigui Benadiva J, Martinez Garcia S, Sanz Trelles A, Palacios S: Atypical primary carcinoid tumour of the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33 Suppl 2:32-4
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  • [Title] Atypical primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • We present a new case of a primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • Literature review showed this to be only the seventh case of primary carcinoid tumour of the skin.
  • Although the number of cases is too small to draw definitive conclusions, information to date suggests that this type of tumour can be expected to have a benign behaviour, despite the presence in some cases of criteria suggestive of uncertainty, such as the presence of mitosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16972951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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68. Tsuchiya S, Li F: Electron microscopic findings for diagnosis of breast lesions. Med Mol Morphol; 2005 Dec;38(4):216-24
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  • [Title] Electron microscopic findings for diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • If the nuclei of the epithelial cells of normal mammary glands and benign breast lesions are compared with those of malignant breast lesions, the latter are primarily oval or circular in shape whereas the former often show marked notches.
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma and carcinoid tumor of the breast are histological types of breast carcinoma that show characteristic features under an electron microscope.
  • Breast carcinoma shows several ultrastructural characteristics that are useful in differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • [Cites] Am J Clin Pathol. 1976 Aug;66(2):291-375 [181979.001]
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  • (PMID = 16378230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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69. Pasieka JL: Carcinoid tumors. Surg Clin North Am; 2009 Oct;89(5):1123-37
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors, which arise from the enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract, encompass a diverse group of neoplasms.
  • Once thought to be "carcinoma-like," these neoplasms exhibit a biologic behavior that varies from an indolent, benign course to an aggressive, rapidly progressive, and deadly disease.
  • Today the term carcinoid is reserved for neuroendocrine tumors arising from the small bowel or neuroendocrine tumors that can cause carcinoid syndrome.
  • For the general surgeon there are several "carcinoid" tumors that he or she must be familiar with because many of these lesions are encountered during emergency laparotomies or incidentally discovered during investigation for vague abdominal pain.
  • This review focuses on the gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors that general surgeons are likely to encounter during their career.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19836488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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70. Strehl MA, Scheich M, Ott I, Müller-Hermelink HK, Hagen R, Völker HU: [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2009 Mar;88(3):186-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Mittelohradenom/Mittelohrkarzinoid--ein unproblematischer Tumor?
  • OBJECTIVES: Adenomas/carcinoid tumors of the middle ear are very rare tumors of young to middle aged patients.
  • The terms adenoma and carcinoid tumor of the middle ear can be used as synonyms, with the WHO favouring the term middle ear adenoma (MEA).
  • These tumors usually present with unspecific clinical symptoms and a long case history.
  • They are classified as benign tumors with only very few reported cases of regional metastasis after years of disease.
  • METHODS AND PATIENTS: This study describes the clinical course and the diagnostic challenges in four cases of this rare tumor entity.
  • In two cases a tumor recurrence was documented with one case recurring six times.
  • The histological differential diagnosis can also be problematic; in one case with a highly atypical morphology it was impossible to arrive at a definite diagnosis during the analysis of a frozen section.
  • The presented cases in this study and the analysis of previously published cases shows that the typical progression described by the current WHO-classification with unproblematic surgical management of the tumor and an uncomplicated further clinical course does not always correspond to reality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, Middle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / diagnosis. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / pathology. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Otoscopy. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19065497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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71. Wolf M, Wunderlich H, Hindermann W, Gajda M, Schreiber G, Schubert J: Case report: primary carcinoid tumor of the testicle without metastases in combination with testicular atrophy and testosterone deficiency. Int Urol Nephrol; 2006;38(3-4):625-8
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  • [Title] Case report: primary carcinoid tumor of the testicle without metastases in combination with testicular atrophy and testosterone deficiency.
  • The first case of testicular carcinoid was represented as an element of a benign cystic teratoma by Simon et al.
  • We report a case of carcinoid of the testis without carcinoid syndrome and metastasis but with testosterone deficiency based on a bilateral testicular atrophy, which has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testis / abnormalities. Testosterone / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 17115244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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72. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • [Title] Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma.
  • This report emphasizes a carcinoid-like pattern, a previously unrecognized feature in cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms.
  • We report 7 patients with sebaceous tumors in which neoplastic cells were arranged in a trabecular and ribbon-like pattern or formed rosettes/pseudorosettes.
  • The cases included 6 men and 1 woman, with their ages at the diagnosis ranging from 43 to 87 years (median age, 59).
  • The carcinoid-like arrangement of neoplastic cells was the sole pattern in 4 cases, and in 3 cases the so-called labyrinthine/sinusoidal and/or rippled patterns were seen in addition.
  • Although the neoplasm appeared benign architecturally, the presence of cytologic atypia qualified 2 tumors as low-grade carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the carcinoid-like pattern is another distinctive pattern indicative of sebaceous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Hughes JH, Young NA, Wilbur DC, Renshaw AA, Mody DR, Cytopathology Resource Committee, College of American Pathologists: Fine-needle aspiration of pulmonary hamartoma: a common source of false-positive diagnoses in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Nongynecologic Cytology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jan;129(1):19-22
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  • The specificity of FNA for making the correct general reference interpretation of benign was 78%.
  • The false-positive rate was 22%, with the most common false-positive diagnoses being carcinoid tumor, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma.
  • The overall accuracy for making the correct specific reference diagnosis of PH was 26%.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytodiagnosis / standards. Diagnostic Errors. Gynecology. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pathology, Clinical / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Databases, Factual. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15628903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Bergmann F, Breinig M, Höpfner M, Rieker RJ, Fischer L, Köhler C, Esposito I, Kleeff J, Herpel E, Ehemann V, Friess H, Schirmacher P, Kern MA: Expression pattern and functional relevance of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2: novel chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors? Am J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jan;104(1):171-81
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  • [Title] Expression pattern and functional relevance of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2: novel chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors?
  • OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic endocrine tumors represent morphologically and biologically heterogeneous neoplasms.
  • Well-differentiated endocrine tumors (benign or of uncertain behavior) can be distinguished from well-differentiated and poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas.
  • Although many well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas show rather low rates of tumor growth, more than two-thirds of pancreatic endocrine carcinomas display distant metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • METHODS: The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 were investigated in 110 clinically and pathomorphologically well-characterized pancreatic endocrine tumors, using immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses.
  • Functional tests were performed using the human pancreas carcinoid cell line BON and the mouse insulinoma cell line beta-TC-3.
  • RESULTS: The expression of EGFR correlated significantly with the grade of malignancy, increasing from low rates of expression in benign tumors and tumors of uncertain behavior to high rates of expression in well- and poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas.
  • The expression of COX-2 was independent of the malignant potential, but was more frequently expressed in primary tumors than in metastases.
  • The treatment of the human pancreas carcinoid cell line BON and the mouse insulinoma cell line beta-TC-3 with EGFR and COX-2 inhibitors (monotherapy and combined therapy) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent reduction of cell viability coupled with increased apoptosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EGFR and COX-2 may represent useful additional chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Celecoxib. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Insulinoma / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Middle Aged. Quinazolines. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19098866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Tyrphostins; 170449-18-0 / tyrphostin AG 1478; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
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75. Loizzi V, Cormio G, Resta L, Fattizzi N, Vicino M, Selvaggi L: Pseudo-Meigs syndrome and elevated CA125 associated with struma ovarii. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):282-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm composed entirely and predominantly of thyroid tissue.
  • CASE: We report an unusual presentation of a postmenopausal woman with benign struma ovarii associated with pseudo-Meigs syndrome, hypertiroidism, and elevated CA125 serum level, and a large complex right pelvic mass thereby mimicking an ovarian cancer.
  • This rare condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with ascites and pleural effusions but with negative cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / blood. Meigs Syndrome / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Struma Ovarii / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / blood

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  • (PMID = 15790478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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76. Heyer CM, Kagel T, Lemburg SP, Walter JW, de Zeeuw J, Junker K, Mueller KM, Nicolas V, Bauer TT: Transbronchial biopsy guided by low-dose MDCT: a new approach for assessment of solitary pulmonary nodules. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Oct;187(4):933-9
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  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included 33 consecutive patients (25 men; mean age +/- SD, 64 +/- 9.6 years) with solitary pulmonary nodules at different sites and with a lesion-to-pleura distance of at least 2 cm who previously underwent conventional bronchoscopy that did not result in histologic diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: The diagnostic yield was 24 in 33 selected patients (overall accuracy, 72.7%): 13 (54%) had primary lung cancer and 11 (46%) had benign diagnoses.
  • The final diagnoses of the remaining nine patients in whom transbronchial bronchoscopic biopsy was not diagnostic were non-small cell lung cancer (n = 3); small cell lung cancer (n = 3); and alveolar carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, and hemorrhaged bulla (n = 1 each).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Radiography, Interventional. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16985137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Das-Neves-Pereira JC, de Matos LL, Danel C, Trufelli D, Riquet M: Typical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: a ramifying bronchial presentation with metastatic behavior. Ann Thorac Surg; 2006 Dec;82(6):2265-6
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  • [Title] Typical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: a ramifying bronchial presentation with metastatic behavior.
  • Bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors (BTCT) are neuroendocrine neoplasms with histologic low grade characteristics considered benign.
  • Metastasis occurred despite typical carcinoid microscopic features in 3 female patients of African origin presenting at macroscopic examination as ramifying bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors following the bronchial tree.
  • We suggest that clinical ramifying presentation may be related to metastatic behavior, even for bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors not displaying histologic criteria for atypical carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 17126146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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78. Campana D, Nori F, Pezzilli R, Piscitelli L, Santini D, Brocchi E, Corinaldesi R, Tomassetti P: Gastric endocrine tumors type I: treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogs. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Mar;15(1):337-42
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  • [Title] Gastric endocrine tumors type I: treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogs.
  • Gastric endocrine tumors associated with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (gastric carcinoid type I) are almost exclusively benign lesions with little risk of deep invasion of the gastric parietal wall.
  • Nine patients with more than five type I gastric endocrine tumors each <1 cm in size, without invasion of the muscularis propria and with Ki-67 index lower than 3%, were treated with long-acting somatostatin analogs for 12 months.
  • This therapeutic approach should be considered as a valid option in selected patients with multiple type I gastric endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Gastritis, Atrophic / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18310299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Gastrins; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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79. Papacharalampous GX, Korres S, Tzagaroulakis M, Segas I, Ferekidis E: Paraganglioma of the larynx: a case report. Med Sci Monit; 2007 Dec;13(12):CS145-8
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  • These tumors are generally considered benign.
  • The tumor was entirely removed along with the left aryepiglottic fold with respect to the surrounding tissues.
  • Histopathological examination showed a benign laryngeal paraganglioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Paragangliomas of the larynx are rare neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The differential diagnosis of laryngeal paraganglioma includes typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Although these tumors are generally considered benign, their surgical removal with respect to the surrounding tissues and maximal possible preservation of laryngeal function is the treatment of choice.

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  • (PMID = 18049441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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80. Robertson RG, Geiger WJ, Davis NB: Carcinoid tumors. Am Fam Physician; 2006 Aug 1;74(3):429-34
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine neoplasms that often are indolent and may not become clinically apparent until there has been metastatic spread or evidence of carcinoid syndrome.
  • Recent evidence has revealed that the overall incidence of carcinoid tumors has been steadily increasing, and although the disease was thought to be relatively benign, it is now considered one of increasing malignancy.
  • Carcinoid tumors derive from different embryonic divisions of the gut: foregut carcinoid tumors commonly originate in the lungs, bronchi, or stomach; midgut carcinoid tumors in the small intestine, appendix, or proximal large bowel; and hindgut carcinoid tumors in the distal colon or rectum.
  • Carcinoid syndrome, although rare, is most associated with midgut carcinoid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor often is coincidental with surgery performed for another reason.
  • Treatment and prognosis are dependent on the location of the primary tumor and the degree and extent of metastasis at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / etiology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16913162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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81. Kapur U, Helenowski M, Zayaad A, Ghai R, Vigeneswaran W, Rajan P: Pulmonary glomus tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Dec;11(6):457-9
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  • [Title] Pulmonary glomus tumor.
  • Glomus tumor (GT) is an infrequent but distinct neoplasm.
  • Pulmonary GT is a rare neoplasm with only a few cases reported in the literature.
  • These tumors are usually benign and, although rare, tumors with aggressive behavior have been reported.
  • The tumor size, location, and histomorphological features may be useful in predicting tumor behavior.
  • We present here a case of pulmonary GT that was initially diagnosed as a typical carcinoid tumor.
  • The differential diagnosis as well as the recent classification of GTs is discussed along with a review of literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomus Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Asthma / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Diabetes Mellitus. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Obesity, Morbid / complications

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  • (PMID = 18022133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Adolf K, Wagner L, Bergh A, Stattin P, Ottosen P, Borre M, Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Orntoft TF, Tørring N: Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate. Prostate; 2007 Apr 1;67(5):472-84
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  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer (PCa), promoted by NE cell secreted products, appears to be associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and hormone-refractory disease.
  • We recently reported secretagogin, a hexa-EF-hand Ca(2+) binding protein, as a novel NE marker in carcinoid tumors of the lung and the gastrointestinal tract.
  • METHODS: We analyzed immunoreactivity for secretagogin, chromogranin A (CgA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and synaptophysin (SYN) in consecutive sections from 87 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) benign hyperplastic (n = 10) and prostate adenocarcinoma (n = 77) specimens.
  • RESULTS: Secretagogin is cytoplasmic and nuclear expressed in NE and NE differentiated cells, and to a lesser extent in epithelial cells, in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Secretagogin stained 82% (46/56) of benign and 71% (48/68) of prostate adenocarcinomas and co-localized with the NE markers CgA and NSE.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17285592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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83. Avcu S, Ozen O, Bulut MD, Bora A: Hepatic metastases of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor: A case report with radiological findings. N Am J Med Sci; 2009 Nov;1(6):305-8
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  • [Title] Hepatic metastases of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor: A case report with radiological findings.
  • CONTEXT: Carcinoid tumors represent a group of well-differentiated tumors originating from the diffuse endocrine system outside the pancreas and thyroid.
  • The overall prevalence of carcinoid tumors in the United States is estimated to be one to two cases per 100,000 persons.
  • Various sites of origin of this neoplasm are appendix - 30-45%, small bowel - 25-35% (duodenum 2%, jejunum 7%, ileum 91%, multiple sites 15-35%), rectum 10-15%, caecum - 5%, and stomach - 0.5%.
  • CASE REPORT: Here we report a case of primary jejunal carcinoid tumor in a 66-year-old woman metastasizing to liver with ultrasonography, computed tomography, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) findings.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary jejunal carcinoid tumor is a rare entity.
  • DWI can help in the differential diagnosis of hepatic hypervascular metastatic mass lesions from benign ones, as well as in the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor.

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  • (PMID = 22666712.001).
  • [ISSN] 2250-1541
  • [Journal-full-title] North American journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N Am J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3364631
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoid / diffusion weighted MRI / jejunum / metastases / small bowel
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84. Bonkhoff H, Fixemer T: [Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer: an unrecognized and therapy resistant phenotype]. Pathologe; 2005 Nov;26(6):453-60
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  • The present review focuses on biological properties of NE tumor cells making them resistant to androgen deprivation and radiation therapy.
  • This particular phenotype consistently lacks the nuclear androgen receptor in both benign and malignant conditions but produces a series of hormonal growth factors exerting mitogenic stimuli on adjacent, exocrine tumor cells.
  • The absence of proliferative and apoptotic activity makes NE tumor cells particularly resistant towards cytotoxic drugs and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apoptosis / physiology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Cell Division / physiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Growth Substances / analysis. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / radiotherapy. Prognosis. Prostate / pathology. Prostate / radiation effects. Receptors, Androgen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16195860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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85. Levy AD, Rimola J, Mehrotra AK, Sobin LH: From the archives of the AFIP: benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):245-64
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • Mesenteric fibromatosis, sclerosing mesenteritis, inflammatory pseudotumor, and extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor constitute a loosely associated group of benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery.
  • Mesenteric fibromatosis is a locally aggressive, benign proliferative process that may occur sporadically or in association with familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • Sclerosing mesenteritis is a rare idiopathic disorder that most commonly produces a stellate mass within the mesentery and should be differentiated from metastatic disease, specifically metastatic carcinoid, because it frequently responds to conservative or medical management.
  • Inflammatory pseudotumor (inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor) is a benign, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that manifests as a solid mesenteric mass, indistinguishable from malignancy.
  • Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor is a tumor of submesothelial origin that is identical to the solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura.
  • When located in the mesentery or peritoneal cavity, extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor has an imaging pattern that must be differentiated from metastatic disease, soft-tissue sarcomas, and other benign and malignant neoplasms of the mesentery and peritoneum.
  • Knowledge of this group of benign fibrous tumors and tumorlike lesions of the mesentery is important in the preoperative evaluation of a mesenteric mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesentery. Peritoneal Diseases / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Panniculitis, Peritoneal / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16418255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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86. Luong TV, Salvagni S, Bordi C: Presacral carcinoid tumour. Review of the literature and report of a clinically malignant case. Dig Liver Dis; 2005 Apr;37(4):278-81
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  • [Title] Presacral carcinoid tumour. Review of the literature and report of a clinically malignant case.
  • Carcinoid tumours arising in the presacral region are extremely rare and they are usually benign.
  • We report the case of a 37-year-old black man with a clinically malignant carcinoid tumour (well differentiated endocrine carcinoma) occurring in a sacrococcygeal teratoma and already metastasised to pelvic nodes, liver and bone at the time of the initial diagnosis.
  • Such an aggressive behaviour of the presacral carcinoid tumours has never been described.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15788213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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87. Shimoyama S, Fujishiro M, Takazawa Y: Successful type-oriented endoscopic resection for gastric carcinoid tumors: A case report. World J Gastrointest Endosc; 2010 Dec 16;2(12):408-12
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  • [Title] Successful type-oriented endoscopic resection for gastric carcinoid tumors: A case report.
  • The standard treatment in Japan for gastric carcinoid has been gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy.
  • This report describes the possibility of endoscopic treatment as an appropriate option for gastric carcinoid fulfilling certain conditions.
  • The patient had hypergastrinemia with pernicious anemia and type A chronic atrophic gastritis, suggesting that the tumors were type I in Rindi's classification.
  • Both tumors were located in the mucosal layer with no cellular polymorphism and were chromogranin A positive.
  • Neither tumor recurrence in the stomach nor distant metastases have been documented during the 5 years of follow-up.
  • Although many type I gastric carcinoids may be clinically indolent, reports on successful endoscopic treatment for this carcinoid have been scanty in the literature in Japan, presumably because of the hitherto surgical treatment stance for the disease.
  • This report discusses how the size, number, depth and histological grading of the type I gastric carcinoid could allow the correct identification of a benign or malignant propensity of an individual tumor and how endoscopic resection could be a treatment of choice when these factors render it feasible.
  • This stance could also obviate unnecessary surgical resection for more benign tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21191515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5190
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3010472
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; : Endoscopic resection / Gastric carcinoid / Hypergastrinemia / Pernicious anemia / Type A chronic atrophic gastritis.
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88. Chetty R: Requiem for the term 'carcinoid tumour' in the gastrointestinal tract? Can J Gastroenterol; 2008 Apr;22(4):357-8
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  • [Title] Requiem for the term 'carcinoid tumour' in the gastrointestinal tract?
  • Use of the term 'carcinoid tumour' to describe a unique type of tumour in the gastroenteropancreatic system is endemic in the medical literature and in daily clinical and pathological parlance.
  • The World Health Organization classification scheme recommends the use of the terms neuroendocrine tumours or carcinomas, which may be stratified as well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours with benign or uncertain behaviour, well-differentiated tumours with low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma behaviour and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Thus, the term 'carcinoid' has served its purpose well, but its use should be phased out in favour of 'neuroendocrine tumour' or 'neuroendocrine carcinoma'.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / classification. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18414708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0835-7900
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2662891
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89. Mackley HB, Videtic GM: Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy. Oncology (Williston Park); 2006 Nov;20(12):1537-43; discussion 1544-5, 1549
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy.
  • Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung represent a clinical spectrum of tumors ranging from the relatively benign and slow-growing typical carcinoid to the highly aggressive small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17153907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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90. Schaefer JF, Vollmar J, Wiskirchen J, Erdtmann B, V Renteln D, Vonthein R, Schick F, Claussen CD, Seemann MD: Differentiation between malignant and benign solitary pulmonary nodules with proton density weighted and ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging. Eur J Med Res; 2006 Dec 14;11(12):527-33
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  • [Title] Differentiation between malignant and benign solitary pulmonary nodules with proton density weighted and ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate performance of MRI for differentiating malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) using morphological characteristics.
  • Morphological signs of SPN were determined and compared with previously performed helical-CT, where final diagnosis served as reference with 52% frequency of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / radiography. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Protons. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tuberculoma / diagnosis. Tuberculoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17182365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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91. Bailey AA, Debinski HS, Appleyard MN, Remedios ML, Hooper JE, Walsh AJ, Selby WS: Diagnosis and outcome of small bowel tumors found by capsule endoscopy: a three-center Australian experience. Am J Gastroenterol; 2006 Oct;101(10):2237-43
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and outcome of small bowel tumors found by capsule endoscopy: a three-center Australian experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine diagnosis and outcome in a series of patients with small bowel tumors detected by capsule endoscopy (CE) in three Australian centers.
  • METHODS: Review of prospectively collected data from 416 CEs identified 27 tumors in 26 patients.
  • Clinical parameters, tumor histology, and follow-up are reported.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven tumors were identified in 26 patients (mean age 61 +/- 13.7 yr).
  • Indications for CE were obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (21), suspected tumor (3), abdominal pain (1), diarrhea (1).
  • Nine tumors were proven benign: hamartoma (4), cystic lymphangioma (1), primary amyloid (1), lipoma (1).
  • Seventeen tumors were malignant: five adenocarcinomas, six carcinoids, two melanoma metastases, two gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), one colon carcinoma metastasis, one non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Tumors were surgically resected in 23 patients.
  • Three of the six with carcinoid tumors have had no recurrence up to 51 months postresection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small bowel tumors are a significant finding at CE and are often missed by other methods of investigation.
  • In many patients, detection of a tumor alters management and improves outcome.

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  • (PMID = 17032187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Berns S, Pearl G: Middle ear adenoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):1067-9
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  • Middle ear adenoma is a benign tumor of the middle ear that can have exocrine (mucinous) and/or neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Early authors described a separate tumor with predominantly neuroendocrine differentiation as a middle ear carcinoid tumor, but these are now known to be the same tumor.
  • We review the literature of this tumor, including the clinical presentation, gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Papilloma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16831038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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93. McDermott JH, Thabit H, Hickey N, Thompson C, Gaffney E, Young V, Sreenan S: ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Ir J Med Sci; 2008 Sep;177(3):269-72
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  • [Title] ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
  • OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion, where the only potential source on conventional imaging was a tiny benign-appearing lung nodule, which failed to take up radiolabelled octreotide.
  • Histological examination of the resected specimen confirmed bronchial carcinoid staining positive for ACTH.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the few cases described where ectopic ACTH secretion secondary to bronchial carcinoid responded to somatostatin analogue therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / etiology. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18516660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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94. Vezzosi D, Bouisson M, Escourrou G, Laurell H, Selves J, Seguin P, Pradayrol L, Caron P, Buscail L: Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jan;64(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Clinical utility of telomerase for the diagnosis of malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The distinction between benign and malignant well-differentiated endocrine tumours is hard to achieve.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether detection of telomerase or quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein subunit (hTERT) differ between benign and malignant endocrine tumours.
  • Based on clinical and histopathological criteria, tumours were categorized with the most recent WHO classification as 'benign' (n = 14), 'uncertain' (n = 5) or 'malignant' (n = 12) with (n = 7) or without (n = 5) metastasis after a mean follow-up of 40.4 +/- 25.8 months (4-122 months).
  • RESULTS: Telomerase activity was detected in 7 malignant and metastatic tumours, in 1 malignant tumour without metastases, in 1 uncertain tumour and in 1 benign tumour. hTERT mRNA levels were significantly higher in malignant endocrine tumours with or without metastases (P = 0.001) when compared to benign tumours.
  • The negative predictive value of hTERT mRNA quantification for the diagnosis of malignancy was 88.9%, whereas the positive predictive value was 68.7%.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clinical Enzyme Tests. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Telomerase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16402930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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95. Nguyen VX, Nguyen CC, Li B, Das A: Digital image analysis is a useful adjunct to endoscopic ultrasonographic diagnosis of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. J Ultrasound Med; 2010 Sep;29(9):1345-51
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  • [Title] Digital image analysis is a useful adjunct to endoscopic ultrasonographic diagnosis of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of digital image analysis in differentiating endoscopic ultrasonographic (EUS) features of potentially malignant gastrointestinal subepithelial lesions (SELs) from those of benign lesions.
  • METHODS: Forty-six patients with histopathologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), carcinoids, and lipomas who had undergone EUS evaluation were identified from our database.
  • [MeSH-minor] Area Under Curve. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / ultrasonography. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / ultrasonography. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Lipoma / ultrasonography. Neural Networks (Computer). Principal Component Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20733191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Agarwal SK, Ozawa A, Mateo CM, Marx SJ: The MEN1 gene and pituitary tumours. Horm Res; 2009 Apr;71 Suppl 2:131-8
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  • Diagnosis in MEN1 carriers during childhood is not directed at cancers but at benign morbid tumours.
  • The MEN1 gene shows biallelic inactivation in 30% of some types of common variety endocrine tumours (e.g. parathyroid adenoma, gastrinoma, insulinoma and bronchial carcinoid), but in only 1-5% of common pituitary tumours.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Gene Knockout Techniques. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Mice. Mutation. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19407509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cdkn1b protein, mouse; 0 / HRPT2 protein, mouse; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Men1 protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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97. Yamauchi N, Watanabe A, Hishinuma M, Ohashi K, Midorikawa Y, Morishita Y, Niki T, Shibahara J, Mori M, Makuuchi M, Hippo Y, Kodama T, Iwanari H, Aburatani H, Fukayama M: The glypican 3 oncofetal protein is a promising diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1591-8
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  • Then, we evaluated the feasibility of GPC3-immunohistochemistry in the pathological diagnosis of benign and malignant hepatocellular lesions by applying these monoclonal antibodies to formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens.
  • GPC3 immunoreactivity was detected in only one of 23 metastatic lesions of colorectal carcinoma, and its expression was entirely absent in the liver cell adenoma (0/7), carcinoid tumor (0/1), and cholangiocellular carcinoma (0/16).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / biosynthesis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Cell Line, Tumor. Glypicans. Hepatoblastoma / metabolism. Hepatoblastoma / pathology. Hepatocytes / metabolism. Hepatocytes / pathology. Humans. Liver / embryology. Liver / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15920546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
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98. D'Adda T, Bottarelli L, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Bongiovanni M, Papotti M, Pelosi G, Maisonneuve P, Antonetti T, Rindi G, Bordi C: Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jun;18(6):795-805
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors.
  • Association of X chromosome allelic losses with tumor malignancy has been identified in foregut but not in midgut endocrine neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy in lung neuroendocrine tumors, another family of foregut neoplasms comprising four categories with increased malignancy: typical and atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell lung carcinomas.
  • In atypical carcinoids, the presence of losses was associated with larger tumor size, higher pT status and advanced stage.
  • No death occurred in atypical carcinoid patients without deletions on X chromosome, whereas all atypical carcinoid patients who had died from disease showed allelic losses.
  • In conclusion, X chromosome allelic losses, absent in benign 'typical' carcinoids, progressively increased in frequency from intermediate-grade 'atypical' carcinoids to high-grade large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • These results extend the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy, already demonstrated in other foregut endocrine neoplasms, to lung neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The absence of X chromosome allelic losses in small cell lung carcinomas underlines a striking difference from large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, possibly linked to different pathogenetic mechanisms of these two highly aggressive neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15578070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Izikson L, English JC 3rd, Zirwas MJ: The flushing patient: differential diagnosis, workup, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Aug;55(2):193-208
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The flushing patient: differential diagnosis, workup, and treatment.
  • Most cases are caused by very common, benign diseases, such as rosacea or climacterum, that are readily apparent after a thorough taking of history and physical examination.
  • However, in some cases, accurate diagnosis requires further laboratory, radiologic, or histopathologic studies to differentiate several important clinicopathologic entities.
  • In particular, the serious diagnoses of carcinoid syndrome, pheochromocytoma, mastocytosis, and anaphylaxis need to be excluded by laboratory studies.
  • If this work-up is unrevealing, rare causes, such as medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pancreatic cell tumor, renal carcinoma, and others, should be considered.
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVE: At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be familiar with the mechanisms of flushing, its clinical differential diagnosis, the approach to establish a definitive diagnosis, and management of various conditions that produce flushing.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Eruptions. Humans. Menopause. Mental Disorders / complications. Nervous System Diseases / complications. Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16844500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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100. Bhosale PR, Patnana M, Viswanathan C, Szklaruk J: The inguinal canal: anatomy and imaging features of common and uncommon masses. Radiographics; 2008 May-Jun;28(3):819-35; quiz 913
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A variety of benign and malignant masses can be found in the inguinal canal (IC).
  • Benign causes of masses in the IC include spermatic cord lipoma, hematoma, abscess, neurofibroma, varicocele, desmoid tumor, air, bowel contrast material, hydrocele, and prostheses.
  • Metastases to the IC can occur from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, monophasic sarcoma, prostate cancer, Wilms tumor, carcinoid tumor, melanoma, or pancreatic cancer.
  • In patients with a known malignancy and peritoneal carcinomatosis, the diagnosis of metastases can be suggested when a mass is detected in the IC.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Inguinal Canal / pathology. Inguinal Canal / radiography. Peritoneal Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18480486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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