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1. Sato K, Oda Y, Ueda Y, Katsuda S: Fasciitis ossificans of the breast. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(10):737-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fasciitis ossificans of the breast.
  • We report a rare case of fasciitis ossificans of the breast.
  • A nodule of the breast was incidentally found in a 77-year-old woman without a history of trauma.
  • The painless lesion was located 3 cm from the nipple in the lower outer quadrant of the left breast.
  • To avoid an unnecessarily aggressive treatment, fasciitis ossificans, a benign bone-forming nodule, needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast hard tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fasciitis / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Ossification, Heterotopic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17728072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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2. Valdes EK, Feldman SM, Krassilnik N: Neuroendocrine tumor of the breast. Am Surg; 2006 Feb;72(2):185-7
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumor of the breast.
  • Mammary carcinoid is an uncommon neoplasm.
  • It accounts for approximately 5 per cent of all breast carcinomas.
  • However, it is still controversial whether mammary carcinoid tumors should be considered a distinct clinical entity or be treated as a variant of conventional breast carcinoma.
  • Differentiating these lesions from benign lesions such as epithelial hyperplasia and papillomas can be challenging at times.
  • We present a case of neuroendocrine tumor of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology


3. Beyrouti MI, Beyrouti R, Khabir A, Ben Amar M, Frikha F, Dhieb N, Damak D, Abid M, Affes N, Boujelben S, Frikha M: [Fibrocystic mastopathy and cancer of the breast. About 111 cases]. Tunis Med; 2006 Oct;84(10):626-31
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  • [Title] [Fibrocystic mastopathy and cancer of the breast. About 111 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Mastopathies fibrokystiques et cancers du sein. A propos de 111 cas.
  • METHODS: This work is a retrospective survey of 111 observations of isolated fibrocystic mastopathies or associated to a breast cancer among 542 women admitted for tumor of the breast during one period of 13 active years from 1991 to 2003.
  • The diagnosis has been gotten by anatomo-pathologic exam in 95.5% (106 cas) on the operative piece and 4.5% (5 cas) on a material of biopsy.
  • RESULTS: The fibrocystic mastopathy represented 30% of the set of the benign tumors of the breast.
  • They were associated to a breast cancer in 45 cases (40.5%).
  • The isolated benign fibrocystic mastopathy was observed in 66 cases with a middle age of 37 years, whereas the shapes associated to a breast carcinoma were noted in 45 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The discovery of a mastopathy must search a luteal failure and risk factors of breast cancer notably a proliferative shape of mastopathy with atypies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast. Fibrocystic Breast Disease
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Breast / pathology. Chi-Square Distribution. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Humans. Menopause. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Parity. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Risk Factors. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 17193854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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4. Peng X, Wood S, Bratescu L, Shilkaitis A, Christov K: Retinoids suppress premalignant MCF10AT but not malignant MCF10CA1a breast epithelial cells in vivo. Role of retinoic acid receptor beta2 expression. Cancer Lett; 2005 May 26;222(2):153-63
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  • [Title] Retinoids suppress premalignant MCF10AT but not malignant MCF10CA1a breast epithelial cells in vivo. Role of retinoic acid receptor beta2 expression.
  • Recently we found that retinoic acid receptors (alpha, beta, gamma) and retinoid X receptors (alpha, beta, gamma) are variably expressed in MCF10A model of breast cancer development and progression.
  • In vitro, we found that transformation of the benign MCF10A cells into premalignant MCF10AT and malignant MCF10CA1a cells increased their sensitivity to 4-(Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) but not to 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and LGD1069 and this was associated with loss of induction of RARbeta2 by retinoids.
  • In vivo, when transplanted into the mammary fat pads of nude mice, MCF10A cells did not grow, MCF10AT cells formed slow-growing tumor nodules, and MCF10CA1a cells were highly malignant, grew quickly and infiltrated the surrounding tissues.
  • Of the retinoids used, only 4-HPR suppressed the growth of slow-growing hyperplastic and premalignant MCF10AT but not of the malignant MCF10CA1a tumor nodules.
  • These data may have clinical implication in selecting women with hyperplastic and premalignant breast lesions that may benefit the most from clinical trials with retinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Precancerous Conditions. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / biosynthesis. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / physiology. Retinoids / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15863264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Retinoids; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta
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5. Bock K, Hadji P, Ramaswamy A, Schmidt S, Duda VF: Rationale for a diagnostic chain in gestational breast tumor diagnosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2006 Mar;273(6):337-45
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  • [Title] Rationale for a diagnostic chain in gestational breast tumor diagnosis.
  • Due to the physiological tissue alterations of the breast during pregnancy and lactation the diagnosis of a breast tumor by palpation, imaging and fine-needle biopsy is difficult and often unreliable.
  • The purpose of our study was to review the value of imaging (mammography and ultrasonography) and biopsy techniques in order to work out a reliable protocol for evaluating gestational tumors.
  • We performed a retrospective analysis of 25 patients with clinical diagnosis of gestational breast tumors during a 4-year period from 1995 to 1999.
  • Invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in five patients, malignant lymphoma of the skin in one patient.
  • The tumors in the remaining 19 patients proved benign.
  • Mammography as the most reliable imaging method should be used to evaluate all patients in whom ultrasonographic findings are suspicious for tumor.
  • Nevertheless, all pre-operative methods of diagnosing gestational breast tumors other than core biopsy are unreliable.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mammography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16311748.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Otterbach F, Schmid KW: [Salivary gland-like tumors of the breast]. Pathologe; 2006 Sep;27(5):363-72
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  • [Title] [Salivary gland-like tumors of the breast].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumoren vom Speicheldrüsentyp in der Mamma.
  • A subset of rare benign and malignant breast tumors with and without myoepithelial differentiation are morphologically and histogenetically similar to salivary gland tumors, but may differ in incidence and clinical behavior.
  • The clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and prognostic features of ten salivary gland-like tumor entities of the breast are discussed and compared with their respective counterparts in the salivary glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16896677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Xu C, Jung M, Burkhardt M, Stephan C, Schnorr D, Loening S, Jung K, Dietel M, Kristiansen G: Increased CD59 protein expression predicts a PSA relapse in patients after radical prostatectomy. Prostate; 2005 Feb 15;62(3):224-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Human protectin (CD59) is a regulator of complement activation that inhibits complement-mediated cell lysis, and thus might confer immune resistance to tumor cells.
  • CD59 expression has been described in a variety of human malignancies, including breast cancer.
  • The immunoreactivity of the tumor was evaluated as low versus high for statistical analysis.
  • Additionally, CD59 mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR in matched (tumor/normal) microdissected tissues from 26 cases.
  • RESULTS: Cytoplasmic CD59 immunoreactivity was found in epithelia of prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, benign hyperplasia, atrophic, and normal glands.
  • High rates of CD59 expression were noted in 36% of prostate cancer cases and were significantly associated with tumor pT stage (P = 0.043), Gleason grade (P = 0.013) and earlier biochemical (PSA) relapse in Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.0013).
  • On RNA level, we found an upregulation in 19.2% (five cases), although the general rate of CD59 transcript was significantly lower in tumor tissue (P = 0.03).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Antigens, CD59 / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / immunology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / immunology


8. Kersting C, Kuijper A, Schmidt H, Packeisen J, Liedtke C, Tidow N, Gustmann C, Hinrichs B, Wülfing P, Tio J, Boecker W, van Diest P, Brandt B, Buerger H: Amplifications of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (egfr) are common in phyllodes tumors of the breast and are associated with tumor progression. Lab Invest; 2006 Jan;86(1):54-61
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  • [Title] Amplifications of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (egfr) are common in phyllodes tumors of the breast and are associated with tumor progression.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare biphasic tumors with the potential for invasion and metastatic spread.
  • An important role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in phyllodes tumors has been proposed.
  • We investigated 58 phyllodes tumors of the breast (40 benign, 10 borderline and eight malignant) by means of egfr fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and gene dosage PCR for a regulatory sequence within intron 1 of egfr.
  • Immunopositivity for EGFR was detected in 19% of phyllodes tumors (75% of all malignant tumors) in stromal tumor cells but not in the epithelial component.
  • Whole-gene amplifications were seen by FISH in 15.8% (in stromal cells only) and intron 1 amplifications by gene dosage PCR in as much as 41.8% of all phyllodes tumors.
  • Significant correlations were seen between tumor grade on the one hand and EGFR overexpression (P=0.001) and intron 1 amplifications (P<0.05) on the other.
  • In conclusion, our results show for the first time that activating mutations in and overexpression of egfr are associated with the progression in grade of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics


9. Azab SS, Salama SA, Hassan MH, Khalifa AE, El-Demerdash E, Fouad H, Al-Hendy A, Abdel-Naim AB: 2-Methoxyestradiol reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast tumor xenograft. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Oct;62(5):893-902
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 2-Methoxyestradiol reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast tumor xenograft.
  • This study was designed to investigate the modulatory effect of 2ME on the antitumor effect of doxorubicin (Dox) in resistant breast tumor xenograft.
  • RESULTS: Following 28 days from starting the treatment with Dox alone, the change in tumor volume from first day of treatment was 455.6 +/- 16.2%.
  • Combined Dox and 2ME treatment significantly reduced tumor volume to 20.8 +/- 43%.
  • Also, combined therapy resulted in enhanced tumor apoptotic and reduced proliferative activities relative to Dox alone.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that 2ME reverses Dox resistance, with benign side effects profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18253735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 6I2QW73SR5 / 2-methoxyestradiol; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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10. Bishop JA, Sharma R, Illei PB: Napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in carcinomas of the lung, breast, pancreas, colon, kidney, thyroid, and malignant mesothelioma. Hum Pathol; 2010 Jan;41(1):20-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 expression in carcinomas of the lung, breast, pancreas, colon, kidney, thyroid, and malignant mesothelioma.
  • Immunohistochemistry for thyroid transcription factor-1 is widely used in the diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinomas because it marks approximately 75% of lung adenocarcinomas and is negative in most squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of other organs.
  • We performed immunohistochemistry for napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 using tissue microarrays of 95 adenocarcinomas, 48 squamous cell carcinomas, 6 neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, as well as 5 colonic, 31 pancreatic, and 17 breast adenocarcinomas, 38 malignant mesotheliomas, 118 renal cell carcinomas, and 81 thyroid tumors.
  • The tissue microarrays also included 15 different benign tissues.
  • There were 13 napsin A-positive/thyroid transcription factor-1-negative and 2 thyroid transcription factor-1-positive/napsin A-negative tumors, increasing the number of cases that were positive with at least one of the markers to 81 (85%) of 95.
  • The limited number of neuroendocrine tumors tested was napsin A negative.
  • All squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas of the colon, pancreas and breast, and mesotheliomas were negative for both markers.
  • Of the renal tumors, napsin A was positive in most of papillary renal cell carcinomas (79%), about one third (34%) of clear cell renal cell carcinomas, and in a single case of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (3%).
  • As expected, all renal tumors were thyroid transcription factor-1 negative, and all thyroid tumors, except for one papillary carcinoma, were thyroid transcription factor-1 positive.
  • The combined use of napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 results in improved sensitivity and specificity for identifying pulmonary adenocarcinoma in primary lung tumors and in a metastatic setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Mesothelioma / diagnosis. Mesothelioma / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2012 Jul;43(7):1153-4; author reply 1154 [22703591.001]
  • (PMID = 19740516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.23.- / NAPSA protein, human
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11. Nash JW, Bhardwaj A, Wen P, Frankel WL: Maspin is useful in the distinction of pancreatic adenocarcinoma from chronic pancreatitis: a tissue microarray based study. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Mar;15(1):59-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Maspin, a member of the serpin family of serine protease inhibitors, has been shown to limit invasion and metastases in breast and prostate carcinomas.
  • Cases of chronic pancreatitis showed focal, weak (1 + to 2 +) staining within occasional benign ductal epithelial cells in 29% of cases (7/24).

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  • (PMID = 17536309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / SERPIN-B5; 0 / Serpins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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12. García-Tuñón I, Ricote M, Ruiz A, Fraile B, Paniagua R, Royuela M: Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors in human benign breast lesions and tumors (in situ and infiltrative). Cancer Sci; 2006 Oct;97(10):1044-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptors in human benign breast lesions and tumors (in situ and infiltrative).
  • The aim of the present study was to characterize the expression pattern of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and its receptors in breast samples (benign diseases, in situ carcinomas and infiltrating carcinomas), and to compare these results with those obtained previously for interleukin-6, p53 and p21 using the same samples in order to elucidate the effects of these cytokines on the proliferation-apoptosis equilibrium.
  • The percentage of samples positive for TNF-alpha and TNFRII was higher in in situ carcinoma than in benign breast diseases, and TNFRII was even higher in infiltrating tumors.
  • In the positive samples, immunostaining for TNF-alpha was more intense in infiltrating tumors than in the other two patient groups, whereas immunostaining for both receptors was higher in in situ carcinoma than in benign breast diseases, and even higher in infiltrating tumors.
  • TNF-alpha might be an important factor in breast cancer promotion as its proliferation and survival effects seems to be enhanced through the increased expression of TNFRII.
  • Also, the pro-apoptotic pathway of TNFRI could be inhibited by p21 (which appeared increased in breast cancer), altering TNFRI effects in promoting the expression of several factors, such interleukin-6, which contribute to tumor promotion.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / analysis. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / analysis. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interleukin-6 / analysis. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16984377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II; 0 / TNF protein, human; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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13. Tse GM, Chaiwun B, Lau KM, Scolyer R, Lee CS, Karim RZ, Putti TC, Law BK, Lui PC, Tan PH: Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Sep;60(9):1051-6
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  • [Title] Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelin-1 expression is increased in infiltrating duct carcinoma and is associated with larger tumour size, higher histological grade and lymphovascular permeation.
  • This has not been evaluated in phyllodes tumours, which are uncommon fibroepithelial lesions with potential for local recurrences or distant metastasis.
  • While the grading of phyllodes tumours depends on a combination of histological parameters, prediction of their behaviour remains difficult.
  • METHOD: A large series of 461 phyllodes tumours (291 benign, 115 borderline malignant and 55 frankly malignant) were evaluated for endothelin-1 expression in both the epithelial cells and stromal cells by immunohistochemistry; results were correlated with the tumour grade.
  • RESULTS: For benign phyllodes tumours, the epithelial staining of endothelin was negative, weak, moderate and strong in 6%, 26%, 15% and 53% of cases respectively; results were 4%, 18%, 19% and 59% respectively for borderline and 6%, 18%, 6% and 70% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • For the stromal staining, the negative, weak, moderate and strong staining was 32%, 19%, 18% and 31% respectively for benign phyllodes, 24%, 13%, 10% and 53% respectively for borderline and 8%, 16%, 17% and 59% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations suggest a close relationship between the epithelial and stromal elements in phyllodes tumours; endothelin may play a significant role in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17158636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1972415
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14. Kwon S, Kang SH, Ro J, Jeon CH, Park JW, Lee ES: The melanoma antigen gene as a surveillance marker for the detection of circulating tumor cells in patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Jul 15;104(2):251-6
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  • [Title] The melanoma antigen gene as a surveillance marker for the detection of circulating tumor cells in patients with breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Circulating occult tumors cells could be used for the surveillance of metastases after primary breast carcinoma therapy, but their detection is limited by the lack of specific molecular markers.
  • To date, however, the use of MAGEs in the detection of occult tumor cells using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been limited because of the heterogeneity and low expression of individual MAGEs in tumor tissues.
  • We assessed the ability of the MMRPs to detect the expression of MAGE-A gene subtypes in peripheral blood obtained from patients with benign or malignant breast disease.
  • RESULTS: MAGE-A gene expression was not detected in 32 patients with benign disease but was detected in 1 of 31 patients (3%) patients with negative lymph node breast carcinoma, in 10 of 52 patients (19%) with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, in 11 of 53 patients (21%) with > or = 4 positive lymph nodes, and in 20 of 52 patients (39%) with metastatic disease.
  • The results also showed that the detection of MAGE-A gene expression in the blood predicted tumor progression or recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that MAGE-A gene expression may be used for the surveillance of circulating breast carcinoma cells after primary therapy by RT-nested PCR using MMRPs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15937912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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15. Jaafar H, Mohamad Idris F, Mohd Nafi SN: The association between phenotype and size of breast tumors induced by 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) injection in rats. Med Sci Monit; 2009 May;15(5):BR129-34
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  • [Title] The association between phenotype and size of breast tumors induced by 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) injection in rats.
  • BACKGROUND: Administration of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) is considered a simple and rapid method for inducing breast tumors in rats.
  • While most studies focus on the time frame of tumor development, there are little data on the development of breast tumor in relation to tumor size.
  • Thus the current study was carried out to analyze the phenotype of MNU-induced tumors in relation to tumor size.
  • The entire palpable tumor was excised when the tumor size reached the diameters of 4.0+/-0.5 mm, 8.0+/-0.5 mm, 12.0+/-0.5 mm, and 16.0+/-0.5 mm and then subjected to histopathological assessment.
  • RESULTS: Epithelial inclusion cysts and mammary adenomas made up most of the benign tumors, with four cases occurring together with malignant lesions.
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ was seen in tumor sizes of 4.0+/-0.5 mm or less.
  • Among the malignant tumors, the cribriform type was seen predominantly at tumor sizes of less than 12.0+/-0.5 mm, while those with sizes of 12.0+/-0.5 mm or greater were of papillary type.
  • Infiltrating ductal carcinoma-no special type (IDC-NST) commonly seen in humans was also observed at tumor sizes greater than 12.0+/-0.5 mm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumors were found to be mainly of malignant type and the histological features of the induced tumors underwent changes as the tumor grew in size.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinogens / toxicity. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Methylnitrosourea / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 19396029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea
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16. Dubb M, Michelow P, Grayson W: Cytologic features of trichoblastoma in fine needle aspiration biopsies. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):679-82
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  • OBJECTIVE: To review the cytologic features of trichoblastoma in order to define criteria that may aid in identification of these tumors at the time of aspiration and allow a definitive diagnosis.
  • On fine needle aspiration, the patient was diagnosed as having a benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • RESULTS: The cytologic features of trichoblastoma resembled a cellular fibroadenoma/phyllodes tumor on aspiration, not previously described in the literature.
  • If the cytomorphology of a skin or subcutaneous aspirate appears to resemble that of a fibroadenoma, the diagnosis of a trichoblastoma should be entertained.
  • Peripheral palisading of nuclei at the edges of the basaloid cell sheets and squamous eddy formation are clues to the diagnosis but may be very focal and could be overlooked.
  • If the tumor occurs in the region of the breast, distinction from a fibroadenoma would be difficult if these additional features were not prominent.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the cytologic features of trichoblastoma will allow correct management of the patient and prevent misdiagnosis as other benign or malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20014558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Nonomura K, Shimamoto K, Hatasa K, Mizuno M, Machida K, Mizuno H, Tanaka H, Sakakibara S: Differential diagnosis of breast mass image-forming lesions based on changes in depth-width ratio and internal echo intensity by hand-held probe compression. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2008 Jun;35(2):63-9
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of breast mass image-forming lesions based on changes in depth-width ratio and internal echo intensity by hand-held probe compression.
  • PURPOSE: Regarding mass image-forming lesions, the 2005 Guidelines for Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Breast Diseases, published by the Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine (JSUM), includes the evaluation of tumor compressibility, which is visually assessed by the degree of deformation caused by applying external pressure to the tumor.
  • However, this is only a subjective estimation under real-time observation; consequently, quantitative evaluation of tumor deformation and the percentage change in internal echo intensity was attempted based on changes in the depth-width ratio and in the internal echo intensity on hand-held probe compression.
  • We evaluated the usefulness of these measurements in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors.
  • METHODS: The subjects were 139 patients (89 benign and 50 malignant cases) who underwent breast ultrasonography with a 10-MHz (from 4-to 10-MHz) linear probe.
  • The deformation index (D.I.) of the tumor was defined as: [1 - (depth-width ratio with 3.0 ± 0.6-kg-weighted compression)/(depth-width ratio without compression)] × 100 (%).
  • RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the D.I. between benign lesions (35.5% ± 14.7%) and malignant lesions (15.4% ± 6.2%) (P < 0.001).
  • The cut-off ratio in differentiating benign from malignant lesions was approximately 25%.
  • The rate of change in echo intensity of benign lesions (149.7% ± 34.3%) was significantly higher than that of malignant lesions (122.9% ± 19.9%) (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Using an electronic linear probe, quantitative indexes including the D.I. and the rate of change in internal echo intensity could be obtained with the help of a weight meter, and could prove effective for the differential diagnosis of breast mass-image forming lesions.

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  • (PMID = 27278693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; breast neoplasm / deformation index / mammary / tissue characterization / ultrasonography
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18. Ye C, Shu XO, Wen W, Pierce L, Courtney R, Gao YT, Zheng W, Cai Q: Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial DNA 4977-bp deletion in sporadic breast cancer and benign breast diseases. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Apr;108(3):427-34
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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial DNA 4977-bp deletion in sporadic breast cancer and benign breast diseases.
  • Only a few studies have evaluated DeltamtDNA(4977) mutation in breast cancer tissue, and the findings have been inconsistent, which may be due to methodological differences.
  • In this study, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR assay to assess the level of the DeltamtDNA(4977) mutation in tumor tissue samples from 55 primary breast cancer patients and 21 patients with benign breast disease (BBD).
  • The DeltamtDNA(4977) mutation levels were lower in tumor tissues than in adjacent normal tissues in both breast cancer and BBD subjects.
  • No significant difference between breast cancer and BBD patients was found in the DeltamtDNA(4977) mutation levels of tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues.
  • The DeltamtDNA(4977) mutation levels were not significantly associated with clinicopathological characteristics (age, histology, tumor stage, and ER/PR status) in breast cancer or BBD patients.
  • These results do not support the notion that the mitochondrial DNA 4977-bp deletion plays a major role in breast carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17541740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA064277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 064277
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS526435; NLM/ PMC3836503
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19. Hesek D, Toth M, Meroueh SO, Brown S, Zhao H, Sakr W, Fridman R, Mobashery S: Design and characterization of a metalloproteinase inhibitor-tethered resin for the detection of active MMPs in biological samples. Chem Biol; 2006 Apr;13(4):379-86
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  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), zinc-dependent endopeptidases, are implicated in tumor progression.
  • In our comparison of benign and carcinoma tissue extracts, we detected active MMP-2 and MMP-14 forms only in the cancerous tissue samples, indicating that a pool of the tumor MMPs is free of endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), and is thus likely to contribute to proteolytic events that precipitate tumor metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Drug Design. Female. Gelatinases / analysis. Gelatinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Laryngeal Neoplasms / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinases, Membrane-Associated. Models, Molecular. Molecular Structure. Recombinant Proteins / analysis. Recombinant Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Resins, Synthetic / chemical synthesis. Resins, Synthetic / chemistry

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  • [CommentIn] Chem Biol. 2006 Apr;13(4):347-9 [16632246.001]
  • (PMID = 16632250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-5521
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemistry & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Resins, Synthetic; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases, Membrane-Associated
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20. Beatty JS, Williams HT, Aldridge BA, Hughes MP, Vasudeva VS, Gucwa AL, David GS, Lind DS, Kruse EJ, McLoughlin JM: Incidental PET/CT findings in the cancer patient: how should they be managed? Surgery; 2009 Aug;146(2):274-81
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  • Of the 133 patients evaluated further, clinicians identified a second primary malignancy in 41 patients (31%), benign disease in 62 patients (47%), and metastatic disease from their known malignancy in 30 patients (23%).
  • The most common sites for a proven second primary malignancy were: lung (N = 10), breast (N = 7), and colon (N = 5).
  • In our data, approximately half of these findings were benign, a third were consistent with a second primary malignancy or a metastatic focus, and the remainder were never evaluated due to physician and patient decision.
  • Advanced primary tumors are unlikely to be impacted by a second primary tumor suggesting that this subset of patients will not benefit from further investigation.
  • The timing and route of investigation should be dictated by clinical judgment and the status of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19628085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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21. Brunner AH, Sagmeister T, Kremer J, Riss P, Brustmann H: The accuracy of frozen section analysis in ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy of breast lesions. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:341
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  • [Title] The accuracy of frozen section analysis in ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy of breast lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to evaluate the accuracy of frozen section analysis and ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy of the breast.
  • METHODS: In a retrospective analysis data of 120 consecutive handheldultrasound- guided 14- gauge automated core needle biopsies (CNB) in 109 consecutive patients with breast lesions between 2006 and 2007 were evaluated.
  • In 59/120 (49.2%) cases we compared histological diagnosis on frozen sections with those on paraffin sections of CNB and finally with the result of open biopsy.
  • Of the cases 42/59 (71.2%) were proved to be malignant and 17/59 (28.8%) to be benign in the definitive histology.
  • In cases of malignancy time between diagnosis and definitive treatment could not be reduced due to frozen section analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: The frozen section analysis of suspect breast lesions performed by CNB displays good sensitivity/specificity characteristics.
  • Immediate investigations of CNB is an accurate diagnostic tool and an important step in reducing psychological strain by minimizing the period of uncertainty in patients with breast tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Frozen Sections / methods

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  • (PMID = 19778424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2759967
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22. Adamkov M, Halasova E, Kajo K, Machalekova K, Vybohova D, Varga I, Rajcany J: Survivin: a promising biomarker in breast carcinoma. Neoplasma; 2010;57(6):572-7
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  • [Title] Survivin: a promising biomarker in breast carcinoma.
  • The antiapoptotic protein survivin can be detected in most types of malignant tumors, but it is rarely expressed in corresponding normal adult tissues.
  • We examined survivin expression in 13 cases of normal breast tissue, 38 cases of fibroadenomas and 80 cases of breast carcinomas by immunohistochemical staining using anti-survivin antibody (DAKO, Clone 12C4).
  • Survivin was detected in 4/13 cases of normal breast tissue (30.7%), in 28/38 cases of fibroadenomas (73.7%), and in 67/80 cases of carcinomas (83.8%).
  • Normal breast tissue showed cytoplasmic positivity only.
  • Subcellular location of survivin between benign and malignant lesions revealed significant differences (p<0,001).
  • We confirm the importance of nuclear staining of survivin antigen in breast carcinoma, which seems to be a notable diagnostic marker for estimation of the degree of neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20845996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins
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23. Zhao X, Lee PP, Yan YK, Chu CK: Synthesis, crystal structures and cytotoxicities of some transition metal complexes with N-[2-{(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)amino}ethyl]acetamide. J Inorg Biochem; 2007 Feb;101(2):321-8
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  • The synthesis and spectroscopic (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR) characterization of new complexes of Pt(II), Pd(II), Cu(II), and Hg(II) with the Schiff base ligand MeCONHCH(2)CH(2)N=CHPy (L) (Py=pyridine) are reported, together with studies on the cytotoxicities of these complexes, L and [ReBr(CO)(3)(L)] against human leukemia (MOLT-4), breast cancer (MCF-7) and Chang Liver (non-cancerous) cells.
  • Of the complexes studied, [Cu(L)Cl(2)] (4) was identified as the most cytotoxic active derivative against cells of neoplastic origin (MOLT-4, and MCF-7), while having low toxicity on cells of benign origin (Chang Liver).
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Crystallography, X-Ray. Female. Humans. Ligands. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Molecular Structure. Schiff Bases / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17140666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0162-0134
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of inorganic biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Inorg. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetamides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Schiff Bases; 0 / Transition Elements
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24. Di Vinci A, Perdelli L, Banelli B, Salvi S, Casciano I, Gelvi I, Allemanni G, Margallo E, Gatteschi B, Romani M: p16(INK4a) promoter methylation and protein expression in breast fibroadenoma and carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2005 Apr 10;114(3):414-21
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  • [Title] p16(INK4a) promoter methylation and protein expression in breast fibroadenoma and carcinoma.
  • The potential role of p16(INK4a) methylation in breast cancer is controversial whereas there are no data on fibroadenoma.
  • To assess if inactivation of p16(INK4a) by promoter hypermethylation occurs in this hyperproliferative benign breast lesion or, on the contrary, it is strictly related to the carcinogenic process, we have tested the different histological components of 15 cases of fibroadenoma and the intraductal and infiltrating components of 15 cases of carcinoma and their adjacent non-tumoral epithelium.
  • Our data demonstrate that hypermethylation of p16(INK4a) promoter is a common event occurring at similar frequency in all the different histological areas of the benign and malignant breast lesions taken into exam.
  • Conversely, protein p16 expression, although heterogeneously distributed within the section, is considerably higher in breast carcinoma as compared to fibroadenoma in both tumoral and non-tumoral epithelia and stroma.
  • Our data demonstrate that the hypermethylation of the p16(INK4a) promoter is not specifically associated with malignancy and that, on the contrary, the overexpression of p16 and its cytoplasmic sequestration is a feature of breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. DNA Methylation. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoplasm / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15578730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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25. Ferbeyre-Binelfa L, Ramírez-Bollas J, Bautista-Piña V, Espejo-Fonseca R, Ruvalcaba-Limón E, Serratos-Garduño E: [Fibromatosis of the breast. Report of two cases and review of the literature]. Cir Cir; 2009 Jul-Aug;77(4):313-8; 291-6
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  • [Title] [Fibromatosis of the breast. Report of two cases and review of the literature].
  • BACKGROUND: Fibromatosis is a term used to describe a group of lesions characterized by well-differentiated fibroblast proliferation with an usually benign biological behavior but with an infiltrative pattern of growth, frequently recurrent and locally invasive.
  • The presence of this entity in breast tissue is an uncommon clinical situation, comprising approximately 0.2% of breast tumors and very often misdiagnosed as malignant disease or phyllodes tumor.
  • In this rare condition, immunohistochemistry is an important diagnostic tool in anatomopathological differential diagnosis with other spindle cell tumors of the breast.
  • CLINICAL CASES: We present two cases of breast fibromatosis confirmed immunohistochemically and also by biopsy.
  • One case had the clinical and imaging appearance of breast carcinoma with the classic irregular mass presentation and the other case was misdiagnosed as phyllodes tumor because of the size and density of the tumor and the cytology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 83 cases of breast fibromatosis have been reported during the last 30 years, including one male patient.
  • We reviewed clinicopathological features of two cases of fibromatosis of the breast treated at our institute.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19919794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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26. Kwak JY, Kim EK, Chung SY, You JK, Oh KK, Lee YH, Kwon TH, Jung HK: Unilateral breast edema: spectrum of etiologies and imaging appearances. Yonsei Med J; 2005 Feb 28;46(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Unilateral breast edema: spectrum of etiologies and imaging appearances.
  • Breast edema is defined as a mammographic pattern of skin thickening, increased parenchymal density, and interstitial marking.
  • It can be caused by benign or malignant diseases, as a result of a tumor in the dermal lymphatics of the breast, lymphatic congestion caused by breast, lymphatic drainage obstruction, or by congestive heart failure.
  • Here we describe several conditions, that cause unilateral breast edema with the aim of familiarizing radiologists with these disease entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / etiology. Breast Diseases / radiography. Edema / etiology. Edema / radiography. Mammography

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  • (PMID = 15744799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 23
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2823034
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27. Tafuri LS, Rocha GF, Gobbi H: Cell cycle related proteins in hyperplasia of usual type in breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer. BMC Cell Biol; 2006;7:29
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  • [Title] Cell cycle related proteins in hyperplasia of usual type in breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyperplasia of usual type (HUT) is a common proliferative lesion associated with a slight elevated risk for subsequent development of breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of cell cycle related proteins in HUT of breast specimens of patients with and without breast cancer, and compare this expression with areas of invasive carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against cell cycle related proteins ER, PR, p53, p21, p63, and Ki-67 in hyperplasia of usual type (HUT) in specimens of aesthetic reduction mammaplasty (ARM), in specimens of mammaplasty contralateral to breast cancer (MCC), and in specimens of invasive mammary carcinomas (IMC) presenting HUT in the adjacent parenchyma.
  • We also found cytoplasmic expression of p21 in benign hyperplastic lesions and in neoplastic cells of IMC.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data failed to demonstrate different expression of cell cycle related proteins in HUT from patients with and without breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology. Hyperplasia / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Menopause / physiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16869981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2121
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1563460
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28. Sartippour MR, Zhang L, Lu M, Wang HJ, Brooks MN: Nipple fluid basic fibroblast growth factor in patients with breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2005 Dec;14(12):2995-8
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  • [Title] Nipple fluid basic fibroblast growth factor in patients with breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: It has been shown that early detection of breast cancer could save lives.
  • Recently, there has been increasing interest in nipple fluid as a potential supplemental avenue for breast cancer diagnosis.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we determined the levels of an angiogenic factor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the nipple fluid of healthy subjects as well as patients with benign breast conditions, those at high risk for breast cancer, and patients with active breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Nipple fluid bFGF levels were as follows (mean +/- SE): 158 +/- 17 pg/mL from benign breasts, 561 +/- 277 pg/mL from high-risk breasts, and 1,343 +/- 441 pg/mL from cancerous breasts.
  • One-way ANOVA showed that the bFGF levels from cancerous breasts were significantly higher than those from benign and high-risk breasts (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0193, respectively).
  • After logarithmic transformation was applied to the data, high-risk breast bFGF levels were higher than those from benign breasts (P = 0.0028).
  • With a cutoff level of 250 pg/mL, the sensitivity was 79.2%, specificity was 82.5%, and correct diagnosis was 66.4%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that nipple fluid bFGF levels are progressively elevated in high-risk and cancerous breasts compared with benign breasts.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of this test are promising compared with current breast cancer screening methods, and this test deserves further studies with larger clinical trials.
  • Potential areas of usefulness include the detection of breast cancer risk or breast cancer, as well as the monitoring and/or prediction of the antiangiogenic effect of preventive therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Body Fluids / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / analysis. Nipples

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  • (PMID = 16365024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 109063
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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29. Min Y, Ren X, Vaught DB, Chen J, Donnelly E, Lynch CC, Lin PC: Tie2 signaling regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer. Cancer Res; 2010 Apr 1;70(7):2819-28
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  • [Title] Tie2 signaling regulates osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer.
  • Breast to bone metastasis is a common occurrence in the majority of patients with advanced breast cancer.
  • Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how metastatic tumor cells induce bone destruction is critically important.
  • We previously reported that Tie2, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is significantly increased in human breast cancer tissues compared with normal and benign breast tumors and regulates tumor angiogenesis.
  • In this study, we identify a new function of Tie2 in osteoclastogenesis and osteolytic bone invasion of breast cancer.
  • Consistently, neutralization of Tie2 activity in vivo significantly inhibited osteolytic bone invasion and tumor growth in a mammary tumor model, which correlated with a significant reduction of osteoclasts and tumor angiogenesis.
  • These findings identify Tie2 as a therapeutic target for controlling not only tumor angiogenesis but also osteolytic bone metastasis in breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20233869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108856; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR053718-04; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR053718; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS45888; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR053718-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108856-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS045888-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108856-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS045888; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS045888-04; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR053718; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108856
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Tek protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, TIE-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS174219; NLM/ PMC2848896
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30. Ohsie SJ, Moatamed NA, Chang HR, Apple SK: Heterotopic breast tissue versus occult metastatic carcinoma in lymph node, a diagnostic dilemma. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Aug;14(4):260-3
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  • [Title] Heterotopic breast tissue versus occult metastatic carcinoma in lymph node, a diagnostic dilemma.
  • Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in women and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States.
  • We report a case of a patient who underwent bilateral simple mastectomies and right sentinel node biopsy for invasive lobular carcinoma in the right breast.
  • Although residual lobular carcinoma was identified in the right breast, no ductal carcinoma was identified in either breast.
  • The differential diagnosis includes heterotopic epithelial inclusions and benign mechanical transport.
  • Mechanical transport of the breast tissue was ruled out because primary tumor type in the breast and the ductal structures in the lymph nodes were of different types.
  • The diagnosis of occult metastatic tumor was based on the lack of the myoepithelial layers associated with the ductal structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Choristoma. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20637431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Ko JM, Nicholas MJ, Mendel JB, Slanetz PJ: Prospective assessment of computer-aided detection in interpretation of screening mammography. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Dec;187(6):1483-91
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  • Data collected for actionable findings included dominant feature (calcification, mass, asymmetry, architectural distortion), detection method (radiologist only, CAD only, or both radiologist and CAD), BI-RADS assessment code, associated histopathology for those undergoing biopsy, and tumor stage for malignant lesions.
  • Of the 124 biopsies performed on actionable findings in the 107 patients, findings in 79 (64%) were benign and in 45 (36%) were in situ or invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Mammography / methods

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  • [CommentIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006 Dec;187(6):1474 [17114539.001]
  • [CommentIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Jan;188(1):234-5 [17179371.001]
  • (PMID = 17114541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Breiting L, Christensen L, Dahlstrøm K, Breiting V, Winther JF: Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Mar;47(3):242-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands.
  • It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract.
  • CONCLUSION: PMCS is a rare, slow-growing tumor which rarely metastasizes and is associated with low mortality.
  • However, the precise number may be higher, since PMCS is an indolent tumor, which may be mistaken for a benign tumor and thus not always examined histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18289323.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Gorringe KL, Choong DY, Visvader JE, Lindeman GJ, Campbell IG: BARD1 variants are not associated with breast cancer risk in Australian familial breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Oct;111(3):505-9
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  • [Title] BARD1 variants are not associated with breast cancer risk in Australian familial breast cancer.
  • Several studies in various populations have suggested that non-synonymous BARD1 variants are associated with increased breast cancer risk.
  • Using DHPLC analysis we screened the coding region of BARD1 for variants in 210 probands of breast cancer families including 129 families with no mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2.
  • These families were ascertained in Australia through the Kathleen Cunningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab).
  • The frequency of five of these variants were evaluated in 258 non-cancer controls and 401 women with sporadic breast cancer.
  • Two variants (Thr598Ile and Ile692Thr) were not detected in any of the 659 sporadic breast cancer cases and controls and were assessed for segregation with breast cancer in the families of the probands.
  • However, neither variant was identified in any other breast cancer case in either family suggesting that these variants are non-pathogenic polymorphisms.
  • We have found no evidence to support involvement of BARD1 in familial breast cancer risk in the Australian population.
  • In addition, three variants previously reported to be pathogenic in other populations are likely to represent benign polymorphisms and therefore we conclude that BARD1 is unlikely to represent a high-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17972171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BARD1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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34. Creaney J, Segal A, Sterrett G, Platten MA, Baker E, Murch AR, Nowak AK, Robinson BW, Millward MJ: Overexpression and altered glycosylation of MUC1 in malignant mesothelioma. Br J Cancer; 2008 May 6;98(9):1562-9
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  • MUC1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in mesothelioma samples than in benign mesothelial cells.
  • CA15.3 (soluble MUC1) levels were significantly higher in the serum of mesothelioma patients than in healthy controls but were not significantly different to levels in patients with benign asbestos-related disease.
  • CA15-3 in effusions could differentiate malignant from benign effusions but were not specific for mesothelioma.
  • Thus, as in other cancers, alterations in MUC1 biology occur in mesothelioma and these results suggest that specific MUC1 characteristics may be useful for mesothelioma diagnosis and should also be investigated as a potential therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Mesothelioma / diagnosis. Mesothelioma / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18454162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2391110
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35. Szubert Z, Sobala W: [Health reasons for work disability among municipal transport drivers]. Med Pr; 2005;56(4):285-93
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  • Diseases of the musculoskeletal system were major causes of sickness absence among female tram drivers (24%), whereas malignant and benign neoplasms of breast and uterine myoma in 24% of female transport service workers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis are in agreement with the literature findings and provide explicit evidence that employment in the municipal transport system is the risk factor responsible for the development of serious diseases such as musculoskeletal disorders and neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Disabled Persons / statistics & numerical data. Occupational Diseases / diagnosis. Occupational Diseases / epidemiology. Transportation
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis. Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Disability Evaluation. Female. Health Status. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Movement Disorders / diagnosis. Movement Disorders / epidemiology. Poland / epidemiology. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Urban Population / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 16457365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0465-5893
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna pracy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Pr
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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36. Sato K, Ueda Y, Shimasaki M, Ozaki M, Nitta N, Chada K, Ishikawa Y, Katsuda S: Pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor) of the breast: a case report and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;201(4):333-9
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor) of the breast: a case report and review of the literature.
  • We report a case of pleomorphic adenoma (benign mixed tumor) of the breast, which is an extremely rare location for this tumor.
  • Examination of a 55-year-old woman unexpectedly revealed a mass measuring 0.8 cm in diameter in the subareolar region of the right breast.
  • Excisional biopsy was performed, and the tumor histologically showed pleomorphic adenoma composed of duct epithelial cells, myoepithelial cells, and a myxochondroid matrix.
  • Sixty-nine cases of this type of tumor arising in the breast have been described previously.
  • Using imaging procedures, the tumor has occasionally been misdiagnosed as malignant clinically and even pathologically in frozen section diagnosis.
  • Careful diagnosis based on paraffin sections is required to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgery, and pathologists should include pleomorphic adenoma in the differential diagnosis of a demarcated, juxtaareolar, small hard mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. HMGA1a Protein / analysis. HMGA2 Protein / analysis. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15991841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 124544-67-8 / HMGA1a Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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37. Gratzinger D, Zhao S, West R, Rouse RV, Vogel H, Gil EC, Levy R, Lossos IS, Natkunam Y: The transcription factor LMO2 is a robust marker of vascular endothelium and vascular neoplasms and selected other entities. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Feb;131(2):264-78
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  • [Title] The transcription factor LMO2 is a robust marker of vascular endothelium and vascular neoplasms and selected other entities.
  • The transcription factor LMO2 is involved in vascular and hematopoietic development and hematolymphoid neoplasia.
  • LMO2 reactivity is otherwise virtually absent in nonhematolymphoid tissues except in breast myoepithelium, prostatic basal cells, and secretory phase endometrial glands.
  • LMO2 is uniformly expressed in benign vascular and lymphatic neoplasms and in most malignant vascular neoplasms with the exception of epithelioid vascular neoplasms of pleura and bone.
  • Among nonvascular neoplasms, LMO2 reactivity is present in giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, juvenile xanthogranuloma, a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, small round blue cell tumors, and myoepithelial-derived neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19141387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA034233; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA34233; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA033399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109335; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109335; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA124435
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / LIM Domain Proteins; 0 / LMO2 protein, human; 0 / Metalloproteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS636776; NLM/ PMC4305438
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38. Volynskaya Z, Haka AS, Bechtel KL, Fitzmaurice M, Shenk R, Wang N, Nazemi J, Dasari RR, Feld MS: Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt; 2008 Mar-Apr;13(2):024012
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  • [Title] Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy.
  • Using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, we have developed an algorithm that successfully classifies normal breast tissue, fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and infiltrating ductal carcinoma in terms of physically meaningful parameters.
  • We acquire 202 spectra from 104 sites in freshly excised breast biopsies from 17 patients within 30 min of surgical excision.
  • All invasive breast cancer specimens are correctly diagnosed.
  • The combination of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy yields promising results for discrimination of breast cancer from benign breast lesions and warrants a prospective clinical study.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods. Photometry / methods. Refractometry / methods. Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods

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  • (PMID = 18465975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-3668
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41-RR-02594
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Suzuki-Uematsu S, Shiraishi K, Ito T, Adachi N, Inage Y, Taeda Y, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases. Breast Cancer; 2010 Jul;17(3):218-24
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases.
  • Here we present a case of malignant phyllodes tumor which was composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component.
  • A 52-year-old Japanese female noted a rapid increase of her right breast tumor.
  • The tumor, 10 x 10 cm in the largest dimension, had somewhat of a pushing margin, and showed a flesh-like appearance with marked necrosis.
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed proliferation of atypical ovoid- or spindle-shaped cells in a myxoid matrix.
  • Multiple sectioning revealed that the tumor had only focal occurrence of elongated tubular structures, and the occurrence of a small component of benign phyllodes tumor, leading to the aforementioned final diagnosis.
  • We reviewed 15 malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases reported in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19350353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Castillo M, Sanjuán A, Pérez N, Zanón G, Bons N, Vilanova M, Vanrell JA, Merino MJ, Fernández PL: Fibrous Histiocytoma-like Spindle-Cell Proliferation in the Nipple After Body-Piercing. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jan;14(1):89-93
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  • We report the case of a 19-year-old pregnant woman who presented with a nipple tumor.
  • Although it showed low mitotic activity, scattered marked atypical cells with prominent nucleoli were identified, thus raising concern about the benign nature of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Piercing / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / etiology. Nipples / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Int J Surg Pathol 14(1):89-93, 2006.
  • (PMID = 16501844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vimentin
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41. Fang ZM, Tse RV, Marjoniemi VM, Kozlov S, Lavin MF, Chen H, Kearsley JH, Graham PH, Clarke RA: Radioresistant malignant myoepithelioma of the breast with high level of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2009 Apr;53(2):234-9
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  • [Title] Radioresistant malignant myoepithelioma of the breast with high level of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein.
  • Malignant myoepithelioma of the breast (MMB) is a rare and often aggressive disease with poor prognosis.
  • We describe the clinical history of a woman following excision of a benign adenomyoepithelioma which recurred years later as a radioresistant malignant myoepithelioma with high levels of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein and mutant p53 (Cys135Phe).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Myoepithelioma / radiotherapy. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19527373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9485
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / ATM protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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42. Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Slater EP, Langer P, Buchholz M, Ramaswamy A, Saeger W, Rothmund M, Fendrich V: Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 2;99(11):1900-7
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  • Increasing evidence suggests that EMT plays a pivotal role in tumour progression and metastatic spread.
  • Seventeen of 26 (65%) ACC tumour samples expressed Snail when assessed by immunohistochemistry.
  • Snail expression was neither detected in normal adrenocortical tissue, nor in benign adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Survival rates were significantly decreased in Snail-positive tumours compared to Snail-negative tumours: 10 out of 16 vs one out of eight patients succumbed to disease after a median follow up of 14.5 and 28.5 months, respectively (P=0.03).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19018264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600683
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43. Atallah D, Checrallah A, Rouzier R, Ghossain MA, Chahine G: Retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyoma mimicking ovarian tumor emerging after tamoxifen therapy. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;108(3 Pt 2):762-4
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyoma mimicking ovarian tumor emerging after tamoxifen therapy.
  • CASE: A 44-year-old premenopausal woman with breast cancer treated with adjuvant tamoxifen presented with abdominal distension.
  • We speculate that tamoxifen treatment may play a role in the development of this benign tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangiomyoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17018494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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44. Aggarwal A, Hunter WJ 3rd, Aggarwal H, Silva ED, Davey MS, Murphy RF, Agrawal DK: Expression of leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF/POKEMON) in human breast carcinoma and other cancers. Exp Mol Pathol; 2010 Oct;89(2):140-8
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  • [Title] Expression of leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF/POKEMON) in human breast carcinoma and other cancers.
  • The functional expression of LRF in human breast carcinoma has not yet been confirmed.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the expression of LRF in human breast cancer tissues and other human tumors.
  • The expression of LRF mRNA transcripts and protein was observed in twenty human benign and malignant breast biopsy tissues.
  • All malignant breast tissues expressed mRNA transcripts and protein for LRF.
  • However, 40% and 15% benign breast biopsy tissues expressed LRF mRNA transcripts and protein, respectively.
  • The overall expression of LRF mRNA transcripts and total protein was significantly more in malignant breast tissues than the benign breast tissues.
  • LRF expression was also observed in the nuclei of human colon, renal, lung, hepatocellular carcinomas and thymoma tumor cells.
  • In general, a significantly higher expression of LRF was seen in malignant tissues than in the corresponding benign or normal tissue.
  • Further studies are warranted to determine the malignant role of LRF in human breast carcinoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20471975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0945
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL073349; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL090580; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL073349
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / ZBTB7A protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS213919; NLM/ PMC2939325
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45. Sanlioglu AD, Koksal IT, Ciftcioglu A, Baykara M, Luleci G, Sanlioglu S: Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors in benign and malignant prostate tissues. J Urol; 2007 Jan;177(1):359-64
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  • [Title] Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors in benign and malignant prostate tissues.
  • PURPOSE: Because TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) selectively kills cancer cells without damaging normal cells, a gene therapy approach using TRAIL is feasible for treating patients with cancer.
  • However, recent publications suggest that significant portions of human tumors appear to be TRAIL resistant.
  • Our recent studies suggest that TRAIL receptor composition is the major modulator of TRAIL sensitivity, as demonstrated using prostate, breast and lung cancer cells.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin embedded prostate tissues of 44 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 28 with organ confined prostate carcinoma and 26 with advanced prostate carcinoma were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining procedures.
  • RESULTS: Significant levels of TRAIL-R4 decoy receptor expression were detected in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and organ confined and advanced prostate carcinoma.
  • All TRAIL markers tested appear to be valuable markers for separating patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from patients with organ confined prostate carcinoma or advanced prostate carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / biosynthesis. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17162091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
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46. Wegiel B, Jiborn T, Abrahamson M, Helczynski L, Otterbein L, Persson JL, Bjartell A: Cystatin C is downregulated in prostate cancer and modulates invasion of prostate cancer cells via MAPK/Erk and androgen receptor pathways. PLoS One; 2009;4(11):e7953
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  • Cystatin C is believed to prevent tumor progression by inhibiting the activities of a family of lysosomal cysteine proteases.
  • In the present study, we examined the expression of cystatin C and its association with matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2) and androgen receptor (AR) in a tissue microarray comparing benign and malignant specimens from 448 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer.
  • Cystatin C expression was significantly lower in cancer specimens than in benign tissues (p<0.001) and there was a statistically significant inverse correlation between expression of cystatin C and MMP2 (r(s) (2) = -0.056, p = 0.05).
  • This suggests that cystatin C may mediate tumor cell invasion by modulating the activity of MAPK/Erk cascades.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystatin C / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


47. Tiling R, Kessler M, Untch M, Sommer H, Linke R, Hahn K: Initial evaluation of breast cancer using Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography. Eur J Radiol; 2005 Feb;53(2):206-12
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  • [Title] Initial evaluation of breast cancer using Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography.
  • AIM: Aim of the study was to elaborate on the diagnostic role of Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) in the initial diagnosis of breast cancer, partially in comparison to MRI.
  • A subgroup of 68 patients with indeterminate preliminary diagnosis underwent additional MRI.
  • Depending on tumor size sensitivity ranged from 60% for stage pT1a,b carcinomas to 94% stage pT1c or higher.
  • In the subgroup with indeterminate preliminary diagnosis sensitivity of SMM decreased to 76% which was lower as compared to MRI (84%).
  • CONCLUSION: SMM has severe limitations in the diagnosis of small carcinoma and therefore should not be used for breast cancer screening.
  • SMM can be used to further evaluate indeterminate or probably benign mammographic findings, especially when conventional mammography is inconclusive due to dense breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15664284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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48. Moon HJ, Kim MJ, Kwak JY, Yoon JH, Kim SJ, Sohn YM, Kim EK: Malignant lesions initially categorized as probably benign breast lesions: retrospective review of ultrasonographic, clinical and pathologic characteristics. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2010 Apr;36(4):551-9
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  • [Title] Malignant lesions initially categorized as probably benign breast lesions: retrospective review of ultrasonographic, clinical and pathologic characteristics.
  • The primary objective of this study was to review the ultrasonographic features of BI-RADS category 3 ("probably benign") lesions that eventually proved to be malignant.
  • Thirty-two (0.8%) of 4000 women with lesions that were initially classified as "probably benign" proved to be malignant and formed the study group.
  • There was no statistical difference in the mean age, mean size of lesions, or tumor stage between patients who underwent early biopsy (n = 19) or biopsy after 6 months (n = 13).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / statistics & numerical data. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ultrasonography, Mammary / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20350681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Stamatakos M, Tsaknaki S, Kontzoglou K, Gogas J, Kostakis A, Safioleas M: Phylloides tumor of the breast: a rare neoplasm, though not that innocent. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2009;6:6
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  • [Title] Phylloides tumor of the breast: a rare neoplasm, though not that innocent.
  • BACKGROUND: Cystosarcoma phylloides (CP) is an extremely rare form of breast cancer with an unpredictable clinical course.
  • The histological characteristics of this neoplasm have not proved to offer much in the estimation of prognosis of these patients.
  • There were 5 cases of malignancy, 15 cases with benign tumors, and two cases histologically characterized as borderline neoplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Independently of its histopathological behavior, CP is a tumor difficult to be treated.
  • Meticulous follow-up is mandatory in order to manage possible recurrence of the neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 19232098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2649148
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50. Bidgoli SA, Ahmadi R, Zavarhei MD: Role of hormonal and environmental factors on early incidence of breast cancer in Iran. Sci Total Environ; 2010 Sep 1;408(19):4056-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of hormonal and environmental factors on early incidence of breast cancer in Iran.
  • Although the probability of having breast cancer increases with the age in general, this malignancy affects Iranian women at least one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries.
  • To conduct the immunohistochemical studies using appropriate monoclonal antibodies, 25 premenopausal invasive ductal carcinoma, 29 postmenopausal invasive ductal carcinoma and 30 breast fibroadenoma were selected retrospectively from 2004 to 2007 in the pathology department of Imam Khomeini hospital complex of Tehran University of Medical Sciences .
  • Higher levels of AhR in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients and breast fibroadenoma emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental-induced tumors.
  • AhR overexpression contributed to ER-/PgR-immunophenotype in young/premenopausal patients but the same pattern was not observed in benign and postmenopausal malignant tumors.
  • It seems that early incidence of breast cancer in Iran is the result of interactions between hormonal and environmental factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Environmental Exposure / statistics & numerical data. Environmental Monitoring. Epidemiological Monitoring. Female. Fibroadenoma / epidemiology. Fibroadenoma / etiology. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Humans. Incidence. Iran / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20541790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1026
  • [Journal-full-title] The Science of the total environment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci. Total Environ.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.6.5.2 / Oncogene Protein p21(ras)
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51. Tanaka K, Akiyama F, Nishikawa N, Kimura K, Gomi N, Oda K, Iwase T: Invasive carcinoma of the breast accompanied by coarse calcification. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Jul;193(1):W70-1
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  • [Title] Invasive carcinoma of the breast accompanied by coarse calcification.
  • OBJECTIVE: We describe the case of a woman with a left breast mass.
  • Histopathology showed fibrosis with partial hyalinization eccentrically placed within the tumor with a large area of calcification at the core.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign calcifications within a breast mass are not diagnostic of a benign process if the imaging characteristics of the mass are suspicious.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Calcinosis / complications. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Mammography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19542387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Swellam M, Arab LR, Bushnak HA: Clinical implications of HER-2/neu overexpression and proteolytic activity imbalance in breast cancer. IUBMB Life; 2007 Jun;59(6):394-401
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  • [Title] Clinical implications of HER-2/neu overexpression and proteolytic activity imbalance in breast cancer.
  • The aggressive biological behavior of invasive and metastatic cancer is considered to be the most insidious and life-threatening aspect for breast cancer patients.
  • It is mostly the result of changes in many molecular characteristics of tumor cells, including alterations in gene expression and the balance of proteolytic activity.
  • Markers were analyzed in 240 tissue samples categorized into 96 benign breast disease and 144 breast cancer patients.
  • Breast cancer patients were followed-up for three years.
  • Positive values for all investigated factors were significantly increased in breast cancer patients compared to benign ones.
  • Mean levels for all investigated factors were significantly correlated with lymph node and hormone receptor status, while MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were correlated with tumor grade (P < 0.05).
  • In Univariate analysis, positive MMP-2, MMP-2/TIMP-2, HER-2/neu overexpression, higher tumor grade, late clinical stages and positive lymph nodes status were significantly associated with relapse.
  • By multivariate analysis, all aforementioned factors apart from tumor grade were independent variables.
  • Thus, the investigated markers are constructive for biologic aggressiveness of breast cancer and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio might be a new significant marker in early diagnosis and estimate prognosis in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17613170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6543
  • [Journal-full-title] IUBMB life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] IUBMB Life
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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53. Moriya T, Kasajima A, Ishida K, Kariya Y, Akahira J, Endoh M, Watanabe M, Sasano H: New trends of immunohistochemistry for making differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Med Mol Morphol; 2006 Mar;39(1):8-13
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  • [Title] New trends of immunohistochemistry for making differential diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Immunohistochemistry is widely used for pathological diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Other than hormone receptors and HER2/neu analysis for primary breast carcinomas, several markers may be useful for differential diagnoses, although in limited situations.
  • However, usual ductal hyperplasia may show the mosaic staining patterns for any of these markers, which may indicate a heterogeneous cell population in benign lesions.
  • Myoepithelial markers (alpha-SMA, myosin, calponin, p63, CD10) are almost consistently positive for benign papillomas but they do not completely distinguish intraductal papillary carcinomas.
  • Preservation of myoepithelial layer is the diagnostic key when looking at benign sclerosing lesions, including carcinoma with pseudoinvasive structures.
  • Comparison with histopathological findings of hematoxylin and eosin is essential to make proper diagnosis in the individual case.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Immunohistochemistry / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology


54. Roberts SS, Mendonça-Torres MC, Jensen K, Francis GL, Vasko V: GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Dec;15(4):645-50
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  • [Title] GABA receptor expression in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Neurotransmitter systems have recently been shown to be involved in multiple malignancies including breast, colon and prostate cancers.
  • To determine the possible involvement of neurotransmitter systems in thyroid carcinogenesis we characterized the patterns of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor expression in normal thyroid and thyroid tumors.
  • We examined the expression patterns of the GABAergic system in 70 human thyroid tumor samples (13 follicular adenomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 43 papillary carcinomas) and adjacent normal thyroid by immunohistochemistry.
  • GABAergic system mRNA expression in thyroid cancer cell lines derived from primary (FTC133) and metastatic tumors (FTC236 and FTC238) was examined by real time PCR.
  • Overall, GABA receptor expression is increased in tumors compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • Expression of GABAA receptor beta2 was detected in the vasculature of normal thyroid and thyroid tumors but not in thyroid cancer cells.
  • GABAA alpha2 was detected in metastatic-derived but not in primary-tumor derived cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptors, GABA / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-A / metabolism. Receptors, GABA-B / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19381877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / GABARAP protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 0 / Receptors, GABA-B
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55. Udapudi DG, Vasudeva P, Srikantiah R, Virupakshappa E: Massive benign phyllodes tumor. Breast J; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):521
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  • [Title] Massive benign phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16297126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Kowalski W, Mierzwa T, Grabiec M, Laskowski R, Walentowicz M: [Problems in diagnosing breast cancer in women younger than 25 years old]. Ginekol Pol; 2006 May;77(5):376-82
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  • [Title] [Problems in diagnosing breast cancer in women younger than 25 years old].
  • OBJECTIVES: There are several challenges in the diagnosis of breast cancer in young women.
  • Special consideration must be given to the woman's fertility and body image issues, but the difficulty in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions in this group of patients still exists.
  • The aim of our study was to show five cases of breast cancer in young women.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on 5 cases of breast cancer in women younger than 25, several methods used in diagnosis in this group of patients were discussed.
  • RESULTS: Diagnosing and treatment of young patients with breast cancer should be performed in specialized oncological centers experienced in dealing with breast cancer in very young women.
  • Because of the possibility of breast cancer in women under 25 years old, each case of breast tumor should be precisely diagnosed, especially by ultrasonography and biopsy (BAC) 2.
  • Each case suspected of breast cancer in young women should be diagnosed in highly equipped and specialized medical center.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mammography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16958227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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57. Dupuis C, Coard KC: A review of granular cell tumours at the University Hospital of the West Indies: 1965-2006. West Indian Med J; 2009 Mar;58(2):138-41
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  • [Title] A review of granular cell tumours at the University Hospital of the West Indies: 1965-2006.
  • OBJECTIVE: Granular cell tumours are uncommon lesions that occur in a wide variety of sites.
  • They are usually benign, but as they are infrequently diagnosed preoperatively, they may be confused clinically with malignant lesions.
  • The objective of this study was to assess the relative frequency and the clinicopathologic characteristics of granular cell tumours identified at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) over a 41-year period.
  • METHODS: The archives of surgical pathology reports in the Department of Pathology at the UHWI from 1965 to 2006 were searched for all cases of granular cell tumour.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and thirty cases of granular cell tumours were found in 122 patients.
  • Lesions ranged in size from 0.2 cm to 10 cm in greatest dimension, the average size being 1.85 cm and were found in a diverse array of anatomic locations, the most common being the vulva, breast and tongue.
  • The correct clinical diagnosis was proffered preoperatively in only one case.
  • In contrast, a malignant diagnosis was suggested in 19 cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other studies, there was a notable difference in the distribution of granular cell tumours in this series.
  • In particular lesions of the tongue accounted for fewer than expected, while lesions of the breast and vulva were considerably increased.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / epidemiology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hospitals, University. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Tongue Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology. West Indies / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21866599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3144
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Indian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Indian Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Jamaica
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58. Uchida K, Toriumi Y, Kawase K, Tabei I, Yamashita A, Nogi H: Percutaneous endoscopy-guided biopsy of an intracystic tumor with a mammary ductoscopy. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(2):215-8
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  • [Title] Percutaneous endoscopy-guided biopsy of an intracystic tumor with a mammary ductoscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Intracystic abnormalities of the breast may result from debris, intracystic papilloma, or rarely breast cancer.
  • Intracystic tumors cannot be diagnosed based on imaging examinations or fine needle aspiration alone, and therefore excisional biopsy must be performed.
  • We have treated many cases who had nipple discharge with mammary ductoscopy since 1992, and we have used this method to diagnose intracystic tumors.
  • METHODS: An endoscope was inserted into the cyst percutaneously, and the intracystic tumor was biopsied using forceps.
  • RESULTS: Six intracystic tumors were biopsied with the endoscope.
  • Four of six cases were cancer, and two were benign papillomas.
  • CONCLUSION: We were able to visualize and accurately biopsy intracystic tumors of the breast using mammary ductoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Breast Cyst / pathology. Endoscopy / methods. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Endoscopes. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Nipples / secretion. Papilloma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17485908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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59. Foschini MP, Krausz T: Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;27(1):77-90
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  • [Title] Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential.
  • Salivary gland-type neoplasms of the breast are uncommon and comprise numerous entities analogous to that more commonly seen in salivary glands.
  • The clinicopathologic spectrum ranges from benign to malignant but there are important differences as compared with those of their salivary counterpart.
  • In the breast, benign adenomyoepithelioma is recognized in addition to malignant one, whereas in the salivary gland a histologically similar tumor is designated as epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma without a separate benign subgroup.
  • Mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma is a low-grade neoplasm compared with its salivary equivalent.
  • It is also important to appreciate that in contrast to "triple negative" conventional breast carcinomas with aggressive course, most salivary-type malignant breast neoplasms behave in a low-grade manner.
  • Most of these tumors are capable of differentiating along both epithelial and myoepithelial lines, but the amount of each lineage-component varies from case to case, contributing to diagnostic difficulties.
  • Another family of salivary gland-type mammary epithelial neoplasms is devoid of myoepithelial cells.
  • The number of cases of salivary gland-type mammary neoplasms in the published data is constantly increasing but some of the rarest subtypes like polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and oncocytic carcinoma are "struggling" to become clinically relevant entities in line with those occurring more frequently in salivary glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / metabolism. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Adenomyoepithelioma / metabolism. Adenomyoepithelioma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20306833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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61. Iqbal J, He G, Biesecker LG, Rosen P, Duray PH, Schwartzentruber D, Beg M, Kahn E: Morphological characterization of the breast in Proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2006;36(4):469-74
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  • [Title] Morphological characterization of the breast in Proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Proteus syndrome (PS) is a severe, variable, and rare disorder with asymmetric and disproportionate overgrowth of body parts, cerebriform connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, dysregulated adipose tissue, and vascular malformations.
  • It is associated with benign and occasionally malignant tumors.
  • We conclude that DCIS may be one of the tumors associated with PS and that the proliferative phenotype serves as an initiator for carcinogenesis.
  • This case highlights the difficulty of recognizing small foci of carcinoma in an asymmetrical overgrowth of the breast in a young woman with PS.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Proteus Syndrome / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Mastectomy

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  • (PMID = 17127737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-7370
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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62. Huang W, Li X, Morris EA, Tudorica LA, Seshan VE, Rooney WD, Tagge I, Wang Y, Xu J, Springer CS: The magnetic resonance shutter speed discriminates vascular properties of malignant and benign breast tumors in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Nov 18;105(46):17943-8
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  • [Title] The magnetic resonance shutter speed discriminates vascular properties of malignant and benign breast tumors in vivo.
  • In analyses of routine DCE-MRI data from 22 patients with suspicious breast lesions initially ruled positive by institutional screening protocols, the SM K(trans) values for benign and malignant lesions exhibit considerable overlap.
  • A form of the shutter-speed model (SSM), which allows for finite exchange kinetics, agrees with the SM K(trans) value for each of the 15 benign lesions.
  • However, it reveals that the SM underestimates K(trans) for each of the seven malignant tumors in this population.
  • The fact that this phenomenon is unique to malignant tumors allows their complete discrimination from the benign lesions, as validated by comparison with gold-standard pathology analyses of subsequent biopsy tissue samples.
  • Likewise, the SM overestimates k(ep), particularly for the benign tumors.
  • Thus, incorporation of the SSM into the screening protocols would have precluded all 68% of the biopsy/pathology procedures that yielded benign findings.

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  • (PMID = 19004780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB-00422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120861; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB000422; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS-40801; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS040801; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-120861
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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63. Laronga C, Drake RR: Proteomic approach to breast cancer. Cancer Control; 2007 Oct;14(4):360-8
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  • [Title] Proteomic approach to breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide.
  • Despite tremendous advances in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, the causes of this disease remain elusive and complex.
  • Proteomics is a rapidly developing field that can explore the heterogeneity of breast cancer and supplement the wealth of information gained from genomics.
  • METHODS: This article serves as an overview of the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization source with a time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) proteomic techniques as applied to breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Mass spectrometry has provided new proteomic approaches to unravel the complexities of clinical specimens relevant to breast cancer diagnostics.
  • In particular, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis has been used to differentiate cancer profiles from benign profiles in samples from sera, plasma, tissue, nipple fluid, and ductal lavage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mass spectrometry applications to breast cancer diagnostics continue to be developed but are evolving faster than bioinformatics/statistical analysis can adapt.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Protein Array Analysis. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 17914336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2359
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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64. Kang Y, Kim JH, Lee TH, Kim TS, Jung WH, Chung HC, Park BW, Sheen SS, Han JH: Expression of anaphase-promoting complex7 in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors of breast. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jan;40(1):98-107
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  • [Title] Expression of anaphase-promoting complex7 in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors of breast.
  • This study investigates anaphase-promoting complex7 expression in spindle cell breast tumors and also includes a comparison between the proliferation antigen Ki-67 and S-phase fraction.
  • The average values of the anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 labeling indices increased in order from benign to malignant within the phyllodes tumor group, and the fibroadenoma and juvenile fibroadenoma exhibited lower levels of anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 expression than did the phyllodes tumor.
  • The frequency of anaphase-promoting complex7-positive stromal cells correlated with Ki-67 expression in phyllodes tumor and in all of the examined breast tumors.
  • In addition, phyllodes tumor can be differentiated from juvenile fibroadenoma with increased mitotic figures mimicking phyllodes tumor by anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 immunochemistry.
  • Because anaphase-promoting complex7 is expressed at higher levels than is Ki-67, it may overcome the limitations of the Ki-67 labeling index with regard to the differentiation of benign phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18789487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 6.3.2.19 / Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
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65. Mannello F, Tonti GA, Papa S: Human gross cyst breast disease and cystic fluid: bio-molecular, morphological, and clinical studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 May;97(2):115-29
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  • [Title] Human gross cyst breast disease and cystic fluid: bio-molecular, morphological, and clinical studies.
  • For more than one and a half century the cystic disease of the breast has been recognized as the most frequent female benign breast lesion.
  • Although some conundrums and controversies exist about the relation between gross cysts and breast cancer, recent evidence suggests that the multidisciplinary study of gross cystic breast disease (GCBD) may be a powerful tool for predicting the natural history of the multifaceted gross cyst pathology.
  • A lot of papers have been published on breast cyst fluids (BCF) concerning biochemical, hormonal and morphological aspects, demonstrating that the intracystic fluid contains a wide variety of components (such as ions, lipids, proteins, enzymes, growth factors and antigens) and suggesting that their profile provides additional knowledge on both physiopathology and etiologic pathways of human gross cystic breast disease.
  • The aim of this overview is the critical evaluation of all data accumulated in the last thirty years, in order to highlight the utility of biochemical and epidemiological studies to identify gross cysts, if any, at higher breast cancer risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Cyst / metabolism. Cyst Fluid / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16331347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 233
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66. Esslimani-Sahla M, Thezenas S, Simony-Lafontaine J, Kramar A, Lavaill R, Chalbos D, Rochefort H: Increased expression of fatty acid synthase and progesterone receptor in early steps of human mammary carcinogenesis. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jan 15;120(2):224-9
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  • Progestins increase the risk of breast cancer in the hormone therapy of menopause, and progesterone receptor-induced fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a potential therapeutical target of breast cancer.
  • In a first attempt to specify in which lesions at risk of breast cancer progestins might be acting, we have compared the progesterone receptor (PR) and FAS expression in preinvasive breast lesions and in adjacent "normal" mammary glands.
  • We used archive paraffin-embedded tissues from 116 patients, with 164 lesions of increasing histological risk from nonproliferative "benign" breast disease (BBD) to in situ breast carcinomas.
  • The increased FAS expression, in lesions parallel to their increased breast cancer risk, suggests further studies to develop new markers of high-risk lesions and to prevent breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Fatty Acid Synthases / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17044016.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.3.1.85 / Fatty Acid Synthases
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67. Taira N, Ohsumi S, Aogi K, Maeba T, Kawamura S, Nishimura R, Takashima S: Nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of mammary stroma in a case showing rapid tumor growth. Breast Cancer; 2005;12(4):331-6
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  • [Title] Nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of mammary stroma in a case showing rapid tumor growth.
  • Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is an uncommon benign breast disease that presents as a localized breast mass.
  • Breast tissue affected by PASH is characterized by a dense, collagenous proliferation of mammary stroma, forming interanastomosing capillary-like spaces.
  • The importance of this benign lesion lies in distinguishing it from low grade angiosarcoma.
  • We report a case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly growing breast tumor.
  • She visited our hospital with a complaint of a painless right breast mass.
  • A fine-needle aspiration sample of the breast mass showed some clusters of epithelial cells with small papillary structures and many scattered stromal cells with naked nuclei.
  • Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made and the patient was followed up.
  • Given the history of rapid growth of the mass, tumor excision was performed.
  • The excised tumor was well demarcated and had a smooth external surface.
  • Histologic examination revealed normal breast ducts and lobules, and specific proliferative epithelial changes were not seen.
  • The lobular and duct structure of the breast parenchyma were separated by an increased amount of stroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Diseases / radiography. Breast Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Stromal Cells / pathology


68. Baltzer PA, Benndorf M, Dietzel M, Gajda M, Runnebaum IB, Kaiser WA: False-positive findings at contrast-enhanced breast MRI: a BI-RADS descriptor study. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jun;194(6):1658-63
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  • [Title] False-positive findings at contrast-enhanced breast MRI: a BI-RADS descriptor study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Breast MRI has high sensitivity in breast cancer detection, and the BI-RADS MRI lexicon was a step toward standardized description of lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible for investigation were all breast MRI examinations from a consecutive 16-month time period that had histopathologic verification and findings classified as BI-RADS category 4-6 in the initial MRI report.
  • Accordingly, 132 patients with 120 malignant and 31 benign lesions were enrolled.
  • Two blinded observers categorized lesions into mass or nonmass and used BI-RADS to identify descriptor distribution differences between the benign and malignant subgroups.
  • RESULTS: The ratio of mass to nonmass lesions differed significantly (p < 0.001) between benign (1.2:1) and malignant (7:1) findings.
  • Among mass lesions, it was possible to differentiate malignant and benign lesions on the basis of margin (smooth, irregular, or spiculated) and dynamic enhancement features (p < 0.05).
  • Tumor diameter had no influence on the correct diagnosis of nonmass lesions (p = 0.301).
  • CONCLUSION: Nonmass lesions were the major cause of false-positive breast MRI findings.
  • BI-RADS descriptors are not sufficient for differentiating benign and malignant nonmass lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 20489110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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69. Chivukula M, Dabbs DJ, O'Connor S, Bhargava R: PAX 2: a novel Müllerian marker for serous papillary carcinomas to differentiate from micropapillary breast carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Nov;28(6):570-8
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  • [Title] PAX 2: a novel Müllerian marker for serous papillary carcinomas to differentiate from micropapillary breast carcinoma.
  • Ovarian serous papillary carcinoma, although rarely metastasizing to the breast, is often challenging based on morphology alone, particularly from the micropapillary variant of breast carcinoma.
  • Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, although a specific marker, can be negative in up to 50% of breast carcinomas.
  • Wilm's tumor gene 1 (WT-1) has been identified as a useful marker to differentiate metastatic ovarian serous papillary carcinoma from primary breast carcinoma; however, it has recently been shown in the micropapillary variant of the primary breast carcinoma making it a less specific marker.
  • In this study of 89 breast carcinoma cases, 26 micropapillary carcinoma, and 63 nonmicropapillary carcinoma types were retrieved from our pathology archives, represented on a single tissue microarray (TMA) with a 3-fold redundancy (TMA-1, TMA-2).
  • In addition, whole tissue sections of a variety of benign and neoplastic müllerian tissues were surveyed with the PAX 2 immunostain.
  • All primary breast carcinomas represented on TMA-1 and TMA-2 were entirely negative for PAX 2 100% (89/89), whereas 100% (5/5) of all metastatic ovarian serous carcinomas showed moderate-to-strong staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. PAX2 Transcription Factor / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19851209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human
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70. Popa I, Welt L, Constantin G, Popa E, Bordea A, Burcoş T, Iosif C, Angelescu N: [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast--two case reports]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2010 Nov-Dec;105(6):827-30
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  • [Title] [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast--two case reports].
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of breast carcinoma with a good prognosis.
  • It represents less than 0,1% of breast carcinomas.
  • The first case is a 66 years old patient with a breast tumor that has clinical and imagistic features compatible with a benign diagnosis.
  • The frozen sections established the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma, confirmed by histopathologic examination of paraffin embedded tissue and immunohistochemistry.
  • The second case is a 68 years old patient with a breast tumor located in the central quadrant of the left breast, with skin infiltration.
  • Preoperatory fine needle aspiration is sugestive of a papillary tumor, so the cytologic exam cannot establish malignancy.
  • The frozen sections established the diagnosis of ductal invasive carcinoma and histopathologic examination of paraffin embedded tissue and immunohistochemistry established the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with ductal invasive carcinoma grade I and adenomyoepitelioma.
  • In both cases the treatment was surgical resection with tumor excision and free resection margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoepithelioma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21355181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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71. Euhus DM, Bu D, Milchgrub S, Xie XJ, Bian A, Leitch AM, Lewis CM: DNA methylation in benign breast epithelium in relation to age and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 May;17(5):1051-9
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  • [Title] DNA methylation in benign breast epithelium in relation to age and breast cancer risk.
  • BACKGROUND: Many established breast cancer risk factors are related to the timing and duration of exposure to reproductive hormones, which are known to drive breast epithelial cell proliferation.
  • The epigenetic molecular clock hypothesis suggests that CpG island methylation records the cell division history of benign epithelium.
  • In proliferative epithelium, such as breast, this may provide an individualized cell-based measure of cancer risk.
  • METHODS: Methylation of cyclin D2, APC, HIN1, RASSF1A, and RAR-beta2 was measured by quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR in 290 benign and malignant breast epithelial cell samples obtained by palpation-directed fine-needle aspiration biopsy from 164 women.
  • Univariate, multivariate, and unsupervised cluster analysis was used to establish the relationship between TSG methylation and a personal history of breast cancer, predicted breast cancer risk, and specific breast cancer risk factors.
  • RESULTS: RASSF1A methylation was highly correlated with breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 5.28; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.95-14.32; P = 0.001], atypical cytology (OR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.30-12.98; P = 0.016), and benign breast disease requiring biopsy (OR, 6.12; 95% CI, 1.41-26.51; P = 0.016).
  • CONCLUSIONS: TSG methylation increases in benign breast epithelium with increasing age.
  • Because it is independently related to a personal history of benign or malignant breast disease and to predicted breast cancer risk, it may have value for breast cancer risk stratification and as a surrogate endpoint marker in prevention trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast / pathology. Cluster Analysis. CpG Islands / genetics. Cyclin D2. Cyclins / genetics. Cytokines / genetics. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Genes, APC. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18483325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND2 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D2; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / SCGB3A1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta
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72. Ahmed N, Latifi A, Riley CB, Findlay JK, Quinn MA: Neuronal transcription factor Brn-3a(l) is over expressed in high-grade ovarian carcinomas and tumor cells from ascites of patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. J Ovarian Res; 2010;3:17
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  • [Title] Neuronal transcription factor Brn-3a(l) is over expressed in high-grade ovarian carcinomas and tumor cells from ascites of patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: In view of the recent association of Brn-3 transcription factors with neuroblastomas, cervical, breast, and prostate cancers we examined the expression of Brn-3a(l) in normal ovaries and in different histological grades of ovarian tumors.
  • The expression of Brn-3a(l) was also evaluated in normal ovarian and cancer cell lines and tumor cells isolated from the ascites of advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients.
  • METHODS: Normal ovaries, benign, borderline, grades 1, 2 and 3 ovarian tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for Brn-3a(l) expression.
  • Brn-3a(l) expression was also evaluated by Western blot in tumor cells isolated from ascites of advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients and also in ovarian cancer cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Nearly 12% of normal and benign ovarian tissues and 57% of borderline ovarian tumors were positive for epithelial Brn-3a(l) expression.
  • Stromal staining was higher and it constituted 40% of normal non-cancerous ovaries compared to 50 and 86% in benign and borderline tumors.
  • On the other hand, 85-100% of grades 1, 2 & 3 ovarian tumors demonstrated nuclear and cytoplasmic Brn-3a(l) staining in the epithelium.
  • Stromal staining in grades1, 2 and 3 tumors constituted 71-88% of total staining.
  • Overall, immunoreactive Brn-3a was present in all grades of ovarian tumors.
  • The extent of epithelial and stromal Brn-3a staining was significantly different between the normal and histological grades of tumors (epithelial-chi2 = 41.01, df = 20, P = 0.004, stromal-chi2 = 24.66. df = 15, P = 0.05).
  • The extent of epithelial staining was significantly higher in grades 1 and 2 ovarian tumors compared to normal ovaries and benign ovarian tumors (p < 0.05).
  • In parallel, stromal staining was significantly higher in grade 3 tumors compared to normal ovaries (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that like other cancers, Brn-3a(l) expression is enhanced in ovarian tumors and its expression is consistent with its known role in inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing tumorigenesis.
  • Specific targeting of Brn-3a may provide a useful strategy for regulating multiple tumor related genes involved with ovarian carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20670407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-2215
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ovarian research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ovarian Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2920243
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73. Shen C, Hu L, Xia L, Li Y: The detection of circulating tumor cells of breast cancer patients by using multimarker (Survivin, hTERT and hMAM) quantitative real-time PCR. Clin Biochem; 2009 Feb;42(3):194-200
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  • [Title] The detection of circulating tumor cells of breast cancer patients by using multimarker (Survivin, hTERT and hMAM) quantitative real-time PCR.
  • OBJECTIVES: To develop a specific, reliable assay for detecting circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: 94 breast cancer patients, 35 patients with benign breast tumor, 40 healthy individuals, and 25 patients with other solid tumors were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) for detecting Survivin, hTERT, and hMAM mRNA in peripheral blood (PB) of breast cancer patients.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity of Survivin, hTERT, and hMAM mRNA in the PB of breast cancer patients was 36.2%, 59.6% and 33.0%, respectively.
  • Survivin and hTERT were detected in the PB patients with solid tumors other than breast cancer, but hMAM mRNA was only detected in breast cancer patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survivin, hTERT and hMAM mRNA assays are powerful methods for detection of CTC of breast cancer patients.
  • With combination of the three markers for detection of CTC of breast cancer, the parallel test increases the sensitivity.
  • This analysis can offer a simple, noninvasive, and promising adjuvant tool for the early detection of micrometastatic tumor cells in breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. RNA, Neoplasm / blood. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 19022237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2933
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / MAML1 protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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74. Rennstam K, Hedenfalk I: High-throughput genomic technology in research and clinical management of breast cancer. Molecular signatures of progression from benign epithelium to metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res; 2006;8(4):213
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  • [Title] High-throughput genomic technology in research and clinical management of breast cancer. Molecular signatures of progression from benign epithelium to metastatic breast cancer.
  • It is generally accepted that early detection of breast cancer has great impact on patient survival, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis.
  • In a widely recognized model of breast cancer development, tumor cells progress through chronological and well defined stages.
  • However, the molecular basis of disease progression in breast cancer remains poorly understood.
  • This review provides a brief summary of recent progress in identifying molecular markers for invasiveness in early breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Genetic Techniques
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Disease Progression. Epithelium / physiopathology. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Research

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  • (PMID = 16895590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 30
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1779477
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75. Niu Y, Yu Q, Yu Y, Ding XM, Shi YR: [Clonality of the peripheral papilloma and cancerous cells of breast]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Feb 27;87(8):542-5
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  • [Title] [Clonality of the peripheral papilloma and cancerous cells of breast].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clonality status of peripheral papilloma (peri-MP), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and normal tissue of the breast using an assay based on inactivation mosaicism of the length-polymorphic X-chromosomes at the androgen receptor (AR) locus and to explore a reliable way to distinguish the benign and malignant (or pre-malignant) cases judged morphologically.
  • METHODS: Specimens of breast tissues were obtained from 26 cases of peri-PM, 25 cases of peri-PM with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and 27 cases pf DCIS, 16 cases of developed canceration, and 20 normal women.
  • RESULTS: Loss of polymorphism at the AR locus was found in all the cases with DCIS and in 10 cases (10/25, 40.0%) of peri-PM with ADH, indicating the monoclonality of the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Normal breast tissue and peri-PM show polyclonality and the peri-PM with ADH shows monoclonality.
  • Clonality analysis may be a useful modality to screen high-risk cases from precancerous lesions or to distinguish between the benign hyperplasia and early carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Clone Cells / metabolism. Clone Cells / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / genetics. X Chromosome Inactivation

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  • (PMID = 17459204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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76. Abdul M, Hoosein N: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in human prostate cancer. J Membr Biol; 2005 Jun;205(3):125-8
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  • Expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and its involvement in cellular proliferation is well-known in tumors of neuronal tissue, such as glioma and neuroblastoma.
  • Of 18 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) specimens, none had stromal NMDAr staining, but 2 had low and 1 had high epithelial NMDAr immunoreactivity.
  • We have also examined the effects of the NMDAr antagonist memantine on the growth of ten human cancer cell lines: four prostate, two breast and four colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / metabolism. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Colonic Neoplasms. Cysteine / analogs & derivatives. Cysteine / pharmacology. Dizocilpine Maleate / pharmacology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Memantine / pharmacology. Prostate / physiology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / physiopathology

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  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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77. Juretzka MM, Crawford CL, Lee C, Wilton A, Schuman S, Chi DS, Sonoda Y, Barakat RR, Abu-Rustum NR: Laparoscopic findings during adnexal surgery in women with a history of nongynecologic malignancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 May;101(2):327-30
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  • Prior cancer history included breast (202, 77.1%), lymphoma/leukemia (16, 6.1%), colorectal (8, 3.0%), lung (7, 2.7%), multiple myeloma (5, 1.9%), head/neck (5, 1.9%), genitourinary (5, 1.9%), upper gastrointestinal (4, 1.5%), and other (10, 3.8%).
  • Median tumor diameter and CA-125 were significantly higher in women found to have a malignancy (4.7 vs. 3.7 cm, and 35 vs. 14 U/mL, respectively).
  • Twenty-one of 49 (42.9%) patients with malignancy were converted to laparotomy compared with 13/213 (6.1%) when benign disease was noted (P < 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexa Uteri / surgery. Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16360202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Kargozaran H, Yuan SY, Breslin JW, Watson KD, Gaudreault N, Breen A, Wu MH: A role for endothelial-derived matrix metalloproteinase-2 in breast cancer cell transmigration across the endothelial-basement membrane barrier. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2007;24(7):495-502
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  • [Title] A role for endothelial-derived matrix metalloproteinase-2 in breast cancer cell transmigration across the endothelial-basement membrane barrier.
  • The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that active MMP-2 derived from endothelial cells facilitated the transmigration of breast cancer cells across the microvascular barrier.
  • Gelatin zymography was used to assess latent and active MMP-2 production in conditioned media from MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) and co-culture of these two cells.
  • We suggest that the interaction between malignant cells and peritumoral benign tissues including the vascular endothelium may serve as an important mechanism in the regulation of tumor invasion and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Basement Membrane / physiology. Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Cell Movement. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / physiology. Neoplasm Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Coculture Techniques. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17653824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0262-0898
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL061507; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL073324; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL084542
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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79. Shin SJ, Scamman W, Gopalan A, Rosen PP: Mammary presentation of adult-type "juvenile" xanthogranuloma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jun;29(6):827-31
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  • Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign histiocytic disorder of infants and childhood.
  • Herein, we report an exceptional case of adult xanthogranuloma in a 74-year-old woman who presented with ipsilateral breast masses and also found to have prior cutaneous lesions.
  • This is the first reported case of cutaneous and extracutaneous adult JXG where the latter manifested in the breast as a spindle cell xanthogranuloma.
  • In the breast, the morphologic features of JXG evoked several entities in the differential diagnosis, including spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibromatosis, myofibroblastoma, and phyllodes tumor.
  • With the aid of immunohistochemical stains and appropriate clinical history, the correct diagnosis of extracutaneous adult JXG manifesting as a spindle cell xanthogranuloma can be made.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / pathology


80. Garza-Guajardo R, Mendez-Olvera N, Flores-Gutierrez JP, Hernandez-Martinez S, Candanosa-Mc Cann M, Ancer-Rodriguez J, Barboza-Quintana O: Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms of the breast. A three-case report. Cytojournal; 2005 Sep 20;2:17
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms of the breast. A three-case report.
  • Metastases to the breast are unusual lesions that make up approximately 2% of all malignant mammary neoplasms and may mimic both benign and malignant primary neoplasms from a clinical point of view, as well as in imaging studies.
  • Arriving at a correct diagnosis is therefore essential in order to establish appropriate management.
  • We present three cases of metastatic neoplasms diagnosed through fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunocytochemistry.
  • The cytological diagnoses were: medulloblastoma in an 18-year-old woman, melanoma in a 26-year-old man, and an exceptional case of ovarian sarcoma originating from a granulosa cell tumor with metastases to both breasts.
  • A metastatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a palpable mass in the breast, especially if there is a history of an extramammary malignant neoplasm.
  • Whenever possible the exam of the material obtained should be compared to the previous biopsy, which is usually enough to arrive at a correct diagnosis, thus preventing unnecessary surgical procedures.

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  • (PMID = 16174298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1253525
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81. Kurihara T, Itoi T, Sofuni A, Itokawa F, Tsuchiya T, Tsuji S, Ishii K, Ikeuchi N, Tsuchida A, Kasuya K, Kawai T, Sakai Y, Moriyasu F: Detection of circulating tumor cells in patients with pancreatic cancer: a preliminary result. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2008;15(2):189-95
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  • [Title] Detection of circulating tumor cells in patients with pancreatic cancer: a preliminary result.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: It has been reported that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be used to predict survival in metastatic breast cancer.
  • CTC was negative in 15 patients with PC (stage II, 1; stage III, 1; stage IVa, 7; and stage IVb, 6) and in the subjects with benign conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18392713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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82. Cunnick GH, Jiang WG, Douglas-Jones T, Watkins G, Gomez KF, Morgan MJ, Subramanian A, Mokbel K, Mansel RE: Lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Mol Cancer; 2008;7:23
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  • [Title] Lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.
  • Using these lymphatic markers, it is possible to explore the relationship between lymphangiogenesis and tumour metastasis.
  • This study indirectly quantified lymphangiogenesis by measuring mRNA expression of all seven lymphatic markers described above in breast cancers and correlated these markers with lymphatic involvement and survival.
  • The cDNA from 153 frozen archived breast samples were analysed with Q-PCR for all seven lymphangiogenic markers.
  • RESULTS: There was significantly greater expression of all 7 markers in malignant compared to benign breast tissue.
  • In addition, there was greater expression in lymph node positive/grade 3 tumours when compared to lymph node negative/grade 1 tumours.
  • In 5 of the markers, there was a greater expression in poor NPI prognostic tumours when compared to favourable prognostic tumours which was not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSION: In summary, the findings from this study show that lymphangiogenesis, measured by specific lymphatic marker expression, is higher in breast cancers than in normal breast tissue.
  • Secondly, breast cancers which have metastasised to the regional lymphatics show higher expression compared to those which have not, although the individual differences for all five markers were not statistically significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangiogenesis / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18325094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2278160
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83. Guo J, Shou C, Meng L, Jiang B, Dong B, Yao L, Xie Y, Zhang J, Chen Y, Budman DR, Shi YE: Neuronal protein synuclein gamma predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer. Int J Cancer; 2007 Sep 15;121(6):1296-305
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  • [Title] Neuronal protein synuclein gamma predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer.
  • Synuclein gamma (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer-specific gene (BCSG1), is highly expressed in breast carcinomas but not in normal epithelium.
  • SNCG regulates many pathways in growth and progression of breast cancer.
  • To determine if SNCG is a biomarker for clinical prognosis of breast cancer, we generated a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human SNCG and correlated SNCG protein expression in 358 clinical breast cancer specimens with clinical outcome.
  • SNCG protein expression was determined in 438 clinical breast specimens by immunohistochemical analysis using mAb 5C5.
  • Expression of SNCG was strongly correlated with the stage, lymph node involvement, metastasis, tumor size and Her-2 status, but its expression was not associated with ER and PR expression status.
  • While 71.4% of advanced breast cancers were positive for SNCG expression, only 26.8% of Stage I/II breast cancers were positive for SNCG expression and 5.2% of benign hyperplasia expressed SNCG.
  • SNCG protein was not detectable in normal tissue adjacent to breast cancer.
  • After a median follow-up of 64 months, patients with an SNCG-positive tumor had a significantly shorter disease-free survival and overall survival and a high probability of death compared no expression of SNCG.
  • SNCG is a new unfavorable prognostic marker for breast cancer progression and a potential target for breast cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. gamma-Synuclein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Blotting, Western. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunoprecipitation. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mice. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17534899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SNCG protein, human; 0 / gamma-Synuclein
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84. Dragoumis DM, Assimaki AS, Tsiftsoglou AP: Solid variant of a pure intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):545-7
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  • [Title] Solid variant of a pure intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast: case report.
  • Intracystic papillary carcinoma (IPC) of the breast is an uncommon malignant breast neoplasm and usually occurs in advanced age.
  • It is characterized by a more benign behavior and a subsequent higher survival rate.
  • We describe such a case of a 58-year-old female, who displayed a gradually growing tumor of the right breast.
  • Mammography, breast ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration cytology failed to obtain a definite diagnosis.
  • Based on the preoperative clinical identification of right axillary lymphadenopathy, the patient eventually underwent segmental resection of the right breast and right axillary nodal dissection.
  • As regards the histological findings, the neoplasm corresponded to a pure intracystic papillary carcinoma of the solid variant.
  • IPC represents a breast tumor with papillary differentiation growing inside a cyst, and excisional biopsy is often necessary to confirm the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Cyst / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19051833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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85. Kushlinskii NE, Shirokii VP, Gershtein ES, Yermilova VD, Chemeris GY, Letyagin VP: Soluble fragment of HER2/neu receptor in the serum of patients with breast cancer with different levels of this protein expression in the tumor. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2007 Apr;143(4):449-51
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  • [Title] Soluble fragment of HER2/neu receptor in the serum of patients with breast cancer with different levels of this protein expression in the tumor.
  • Serum level of soluble HER2/neu in patients with tumors characterized by high expression of this protein (2+/3+ according to immunohistochemical analysis) was significantly higher than in patients with low expression of HER2/neu and in women with benign diseases of the mammary glands.
  • The level of HER2/neu in the serum decreased after removal of the primary tumor in the majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Receptor, ErbB-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / chemistry. Breast / pathology. Breast / surgery. Breast Diseases / blood. Breast Diseases / metabolism. Breast Diseases / pathology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18214297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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86. Goicoechea SM, Bednarski B, García-Mata R, Prentice-Dunn H, Kim HJ, Otey CA: Palladin contributes to invasive motility in human breast cancer cells. Oncogene; 2009 Jan 29;28(4):587-98
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  • [Title] Palladin contributes to invasive motility in human breast cancer cells.
  • In this study, we found that the protein palladin, a molecular scaffold with an important function in actin organization, is expressed at higher overall levels in tumors compared with benign breast tissue, and also expressed significantly higher in four invasive breast cancer cell lines when compared with four non-invasive cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 18978809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009688; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM61743; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM061743; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM061743-04; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM061743-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098240; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA09688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA098240
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / palladin protein, human; 0 / palladin protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS72118; NLM/ PMC2633435
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87. Hatakenaka M, Soeda H, Yabuuchi H, Matsuo Y, Kamitani T, Oda Y, Tsuneyoshi M, Honda H: Apparent diffusion coefficients of breast tumors: clinical application. Magn Reson Med Sci; 2008;7(1):23-9
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  • [Title] Apparent diffusion coefficients of breast tumors: clinical application.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for the differential diagnosis of breast tumors and to determine the relation between ADC and tumor cellularity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six female patients (age range, 17-83 years; average age, 51.7 years) with 140 histologically proven breast tumors underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) using the spin-echo echo-planar technique, and the ADCs of the tumors were calculated using 3 different b values, 0, 500, and 1000 s/mm(2).
  • Tumor cellularity was calculated from surgical specimens.
  • The ADCs of breast tumors and cellularity were compared between different histological types by analysis of variance and Scheffe's post hoc test.
  • The correlation between tumor cellularity and ADC was analyzed by Pearson correlation test.
  • There was an inverse correlation between ADC and tumor cellularity (P<0.01, r(2)=0.451).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ADC may potentially help in differentiating benign and malignant breast tumors.
  • Tumor ADC correlates inversely with tumor cellularity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18460845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medical sciences : MRMS : an official journal of Japan Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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88. Adams LM, Warburton MJ, Hayman AR: Human breast cancer cell lines and tissues express tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Cell Biol Int; 2007 Feb;31(2):191-5
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  • [Title] Human breast cancer cell lines and tissues express tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP).
  • Serum TRAP is a marker of diseases involving excessive bone resorption including metastatic bone disease in breast cancer patients and can be used to monitor responses to treatment.
  • Our aim in this study was to determine whether TRAP is expressed by human breast tumours.
  • Four breast cancer cell lines were assayed for TRAP activity.
  • Immunohistochemistry using a TRAP specific antibody confirmed that both cell lines and human breast tumours express TRAP.
  • Expression was absent in benign tissues and abundant in more aggressive tumours.
  • This work suggests that tumour derived TRAP contributes to the raised enzyme activity found in the serum of breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Phosphatase / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17088078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1065-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell biology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Biol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 3.1.3.- / tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase
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89. El-Sarha AI, Magour GM, Zaki SM, El-Sammak MY: Serum sFas and tumor tissue FasL negatively correlated with survival in Egyptian patients suffering from breast ductal carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Jun;15(2):241-50
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  • [Title] Serum sFas and tumor tissue FasL negatively correlated with survival in Egyptian patients suffering from breast ductal carcinoma.
  • Fas (CD95-APO-1), a member of tumor necrosis factor receptor super-family, exists in two forms, transmembrane and soluble (sFas).
  • It had been suggested that circulating sFas levels and/or tissue FasL may reflect the severity of invasive breast ductal carcinoma.
  • The S-phase fraction (SPF) has been shown to be useful prognostic factor in both node-negative and node-positive tumors.
  • The present work was done to find a correlation between sFas, tissue FasL, ploidy and SPF with prognostic factors and survival of breast ductal carcinoma patients.
  • The present study included two groups; a patients group comprised 30 patients with breast ductal carcinoma and a control group that comprised 15 patients with benign breast swellings.
  • Serum sFas was significantly higher in breast ductal carcinoma group than in the benign breast swelling control group.
  • Serum sFas level, tissue FasL immuno-expression and S-phase fraction are independent prognostic factors in breast ductal carcinoma cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD95 / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Fas Ligand Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. DNA / genetics. Egypt / epidemiology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ploidies. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19015953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / FAS protein, human; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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90. Fukuma E: [Endoscopic breast surgery for breast cancer]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Mar;107(2):64-8
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  • [Title] [Endoscopic breast surgery for breast cancer].
  • Since 1995, endoscopic breast surgery (EBS) has been gradually established in Japan.
  • EBS consisted chiefly of two procedures added to breast and axilla and procedures to breast is classified into three methods according to incisions, axillar, periareolar and combined incisions.
  • With EBS technique, any kind breast surgery, sentinel node biopsy, reconstruction, augmentation, and benign tumor excision, could be performed through same skin incisions.
  • Curability of breast cancer EBS is same as that with conventional method and local recurrence rate after total and partial mastectomy.
  • All breast cancer without skin involvement of cancer would be candidate for EBS.
  • To minimize invasiveness of treatment and maintain cosmetic outcome of breast, combination treatment of ablation treatment, EBS and evolution of radiation therapy would be important.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy. Mastectomy, Segmental

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  • (PMID = 16613205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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91. Sando N, Oka K, Moriya T, Saito H, Nagakura S, Mori N, Suzuki T, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Osteosarcoma arising in the breast. APMIS; 2006 Jul-Aug;114(7-8):581-7
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  • [Title] Osteosarcoma arising in the breast.
  • We report on a 49-year-old woman with osteosarcoma arising in the breast.
  • She had undergone two consecutive excision biopsies for right breast tumors at ages 40 and 42 years.
  • The tumors were diagnosed as a fibroadenoma and a benign phyllodes tumor, respectively.
  • At age 46 years, she noticed a gradually enlarging mass in the same breast.
  • The tumor occupied the entire breast and measured 12x9x8.5 cm.
  • The tumor cells were spindle-shaped and pleomorphic, with large, irregular nuclei and distinct nucleoli.
  • Many tumor cells had characteristics of osteoblastic and chondroblastic elements producing osteoid, osseous, and cartilaginous intracellular substances.
  • Tumor cells expressed vimentin, osteopontin, vascular endothelial growth factor, CD10, and alkaline phosphatase, but did not express keratin.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Osteosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16907866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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92. Xu XD, Yao C, Lin Y, Wang LP, Ma LL, Wang SM: [The relationship between expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and prognosis of breast cancer]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Feb 26;88(8):520-3
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  • [Title] [The relationship between expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and prognosis of breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in breast cancer and to analyze the relationship between MIF expression and clinicopathological features, tumor microvessel density (MVD), and prognosis.
  • METHOD: The expression of MIF in 121 samples of breast cancer, 20 samples of breast benign tumors, and 20 samples of normal breast tissues were examined by tissue microarray using immunohistochemistry.
  • The values of MVD in the breast cancer samples were examined by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34.
  • RESULTS: The MIF positive expression rate of the breast cancer tissues was 29.8%, significantly higher than those of the benign tumors and normal breast tissue (P = 0.031).
  • The survival rate of the patients with positive MIF expression in breast tissues was 80.
  • 6%, not significantly different from that of the negative MIF expression group (87.1%, P = 0.171), however, the tumor-free survival rate of the MIF positive expression group was 72.2%, significantly lower than that of the MIF negative group (87.1%, P = 0.029).
  • CONCLUSION: MIF may predict a poor prognostic factor for human breast cancer, and may be used as a novel molecular marker to predicate the progression of breast cancer.
  • Through promoting the secretion of IL-8, MIF participates in the angiogenesis in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interleukin-8 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18649765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors
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93. Kim HM, Park BW, Han SH, Moon HJ, Kwak JY, Kim MJ, Kim EK: Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma presenting as microcalcification in the nipple on screening mammogram: case report and review of the literature of radiologic features. Clin Imaging; 2010 Nov-Dec;34(6):462-5
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  • Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma (ISA) of the nipple, first described by Rosen in 1983 (Am J Surg Pathol, 1983, 7, 739-745), is a rare benign tumor that can be misdiagnosed as a malignancy.
  • ISA is characterized by its specific location in the subareolar region, its distinct histologic appearance resembling sweat duct or syringomatous tumors, and its locally infiltrating growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Calcinosis / complications. Calcinosis / radiography. Nipples / radiography. Syringoma / complications. Syringoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mammography. Mass Screening. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21092877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Somiari SB, Somiari RI, Heckman CM, Olsen CH, Jordan RM, Russell SJ, Shriver CD: Circulating MMP2 and MMP9 in breast cancer -- potential role in classification of patients into low risk, high risk, benign disease and breast cancer categories. Int J Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;119(6):1403-11
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  • [Title] Circulating MMP2 and MMP9 in breast cancer -- potential role in classification of patients into low risk, high risk, benign disease and breast cancer categories.
  • Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 are involved in cancer invasion and metastasis, and increased levels occur in serum and plasma of breast cancer (BC) patients.
  • In our study, we measured concentration and activity of MMP2/9 in sera of 345 donors classified as low risk (Gail score <1.7), high risk (HR) (Gail score > or =1.7), benign disease or BC.
  • Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney nonparametric tests showed that total-MMP2 concentration is higher in HR compared to control (p = 0.012), benign (p = 0.001) and cancer (p = 0.007).
  • Active MMP2 (aMMP2) concentration is higher in control than benign and cancer (p < 0.001, respectively).
  • Total and aMMP9 concentrations are higher in cancer than benign (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively).
  • Total-MMP2 and total-MMP9 activities are lower in control than benign (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively) and cancer (p < 0.001, respectively).
  • Total-MMP2 and MMP9 activities are also higher in cancer than benign (p = 0.004, p < 0.001) and HR (p = 0.008, p = 0.007, respectively).
  • Our study provides evidence supporting the potential role of serum MMP2/9 as biomarkers for breast disease classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / blood. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast / enzymology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / enzymology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Cancer. 2007 Jul 1;121(1):216-8; author reply 219-23 [17315186.001]
  • (PMID = 16615109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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95. Devi PM, Singh LR, Gatphoh ED: Fibroadenoma with squamous metaplasia. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):682-3
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  • Fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumour in adolescent and young women.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / complications. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Metaplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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96. Yamaguchi R, Tanaka M, Yokoyama T, Nonaka Y, Kojima K, Terasaki H, Yamaguchi M, Fukunaga M, Toh U, Nakashima O, Kage M, Yano H: Clinicocytopathology of breast cancers with a ring-like appearance on ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Pathol Int; 2010 Jan;60(1):22-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicocytopathology of breast cancers with a ring-like appearance on ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • On breast cancer imaging some cancers have an anechoic or high-echoic zone in the tumor on ultrasonography and ring-shaped enhancement on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high intensity in the central area of the tumor on T2-weighted imaging, necessitating their differentiation from benign disease.
  • Thus, nine breast cancers with a ring-like appearance on imaging were analyzed on cytopathology.
  • Histologically the cancer cells of these lesions showing a ring-like appearance were located in the periphery of the tumor, with a central hypocellular zone.
  • The percentage ratio of the cancer-zone width to the tumor diameter was 26.4 +/- 7.8 and 8.0 +/- 3.2 (mean +/- SD), respectively (P= 0.003).
  • In summary, the present series of breast cancers having a ring appearance on imaging did not have uniform cytopathological features.
  • They were classified as MPC or CAC, and cytology was useful in their diagnosis and differentiation in some cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis

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  • [ErratumIn] Pathol Int. 2010 Apr;60(4):336. Nonaka, Hideyuki [corrected to Nonaka, Yasuhide]
  • (PMID = 20055948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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97. Ra SH, Fishbein MC, Baruch-Oren T, Shintaku P, Apple SK, Cameron RB, Lai CK: Mucinous adenocarcinomas of the thymus: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Sep;31(9):1330-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary thymic adenocarcinomas are extremely rare neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: The first case in a 61-year-old woman resembled a mucinous (colloid) carcinoma of other organs such as the breast and colon.
  • It consisted of islands and strips of tumor cells floating in large pools of extracellular mucin.
  • A unique feature of this tumor was the presence of numerous psammoma bodies.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and negative for CD5.
  • The second case in an 82-year-old woman was a mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from a thymic cyst with areas of transition from benign to dysplastic epithelium.
  • The tumor cells formed dilated glands, cords, and small nests that infiltrated the thymic cyst wall and exhibited evidence of mucin production.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for CK 7 and focally positive for both CD5 and CK 5/6.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mucinous adenocarcinoma, with or without, psammoma bodies, may be of primary thymic origin and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of malignant mediastinal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD5 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-5. Keratin-6 / analysis. Keratin-7 / analysis. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17721187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD5; 0 / KRT5 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Keratin-7
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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98. Agyei Frempong MT, Darko E, Addai BW: The use of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 15-3 as a tumor marker in detecting breast cancer. Pak J Biol Sci; 2008 Aug 1;11(15):1945-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 15-3 as a tumor marker in detecting breast cancer.
  • This study was carried out to determine the sensitivity and specificity of serum CA 15-3 as a marker in detecting and monitoring treatment in, breast cancer patients.
  • One hundred and ten patients comprising 35 known breast cancer patients, 75 suspected cases and 20 controls entered the study.
  • There was a significant difference between the concentration of serum CA 15-3 of the 35 known breast cancer patients before and after treatment (p < 0.05).
  • Out of the 75 suspected cases, 46 had breast cancer and 29 had benign breast disease (histologically proven).
  • The mean serum CA 15-3 concentration of the 46 patients (80.6 +/- 70.2 U mL(-1)) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the 29 patients with benign breast disease (12.0 +/- 9.0).
  • The sensitivity and specificity of the serum CA 15-3 in detecting breast cancer was 76.1 and 100%, respectively at a cut-off of 35 U mL(-1).
  • Serum CA 15-3 was found to have a value in the early detection and monitoring of treatment of breast cancer in Ghana.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mucin-1 / blood

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  • (PMID = 18983038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucin-1
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99. Akin M, Irkorucu O, Koksal H, Gonul II, Gultekin S, Kurukahvecioglu O, Anadol AZ, Tekin E: Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2010;111(5):271-4
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare neoplasm comprising less than 1% of all breast tumors.
  • Its clinical spectrum ranges from a benign and locally recurrent form of behavior to malignant and metastatic forms.
  • All cases were histologically examined by an experienced breast pathologist, and tumors were classified as benign, borderline malignant or malignant according to standard histological criteria.
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 45.5 years (range: 21-69 years).
  • Seven (70%) of 10 tumors were benign and 3 (30%) were malignant.
  • The median tumor size was 29 mm (range: 12-80 mm).
  • CONCLUSION: PT is a rare neoplasm of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20568416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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100. Michailidi C, Giaginis C, Stolakis V, Alexandrou P, Klijanienko J, Delladetsima I, Chatzizacharias N, Tsourouflis G, Theocharis S: Evaluation of FAK and Src expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Pathol Oncol Res; 2010 Dec;16(4):497-507
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of FAK and Src expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src have been reported to regulate tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis.
  • The present study aimed to evaluate by immunohistochemistry the clinical significance of FAK and Src expression in 108 patients with benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Total FAK expression provided a distinct discrimination between malignant and benign (p = 0.00001), as well as between papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules thyroid lesions (p = 0.00005), being also associated with follicular cells' proliferative capacity (p = 0.0003).
  • In malignant thyroid lesions, total FAK expression was associated with tumor size (p = 0.0455), and presence of capsular (p = 0.0102) and lymphatic (p = 0.0173) invasion.
  • Total Src expression was borderline increased in cases of papillary carcinoma compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0993), being also correlated with tumor size (p = 0.0169).
  • FAK and Src expression was ascribed to a significant extent to the phosphorylated forms of the enzymes, which provided a better discrimination between malignant and benign thyroid lesions.
  • The current data revealed that FAK and to a lesser extent Src expression could be considered of clinical utility in thyroid neoplasia with potential use as therapeutic targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Adhesion Kinase 1 / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src) / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / enzymology. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Statistics, Nonparametric. Thyroid Diseases / enzymology. Young Adult

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