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1. Jayaram G, Jayalakshmi P, Yip CH: Leiomyosarcoma of the breast: report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytologic, histologic and immunohistochemical features. Acta Cytol; 2005 Nov-Dec;49(6):656-60
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  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of the breast: report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytologic, histologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • BACKGROUND: Leiomyosarcoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm.
  • We present a case of primary leiomyosarcoma of the breast in a middle-aged female in whom fine needle aspiration cytologic features suggested sarcoma.
  • CASE: A 55-year-old female presented with a rapidly growing breast lump of 1 month's duration.
  • On examination, an ulcerating, 12 x 10 cm tumor was seen involving the lower medial and lateral quadrants of the right breast.
  • A single cluster of benign ductal cells was seen.
  • The tumor cells did not express immunocytologic reactivity to estrogen receptor protein.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of sarcoma was given with differential diagnoses of metaplastic carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Leiomyosarcoma of the breast shows fine needle aspiration cytologic features of sarcoma, but specific tumor typing may not be possible, especially when the cytologic material is inadequate for ancillary staining required to distinguish leiomyosarcoma from metaplastic carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Diagn Cytopathol. 2007 Apr;35(4):254-6 [17351941.001]
  • (PMID = 16450908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Kelly RJ, Barrett C, Swan N, McDermott R: Metastatic phyllodes tumor causing small-bowel obstruction. Clin Breast Cancer; 2009 Aug;9(3):193-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic phyllodes tumor causing small-bowel obstruction.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an important but relatively uncommon fibroepithelial breast neoplasm that accounts for 0.5%-1.0% of female breast carcinomas.
  • This report highlights a unique case of a metastatic phyllodes breast tumor leading to small bowel obstruction.
  • Phyllodes tumors are generally classified into histologic subtypes of benign, intermediate, and malignant, using agreed classification systems.
  • The tumor characteristics that can lead to the dedifferentiation of a relatively benign phenotype to an overt malignant process are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 19661046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0666
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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3. Grenier J, Delbaldo C, Zelek L, Piedbois P: [Phyllodes tumors and breast sarcomas: a review]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Oct;97(10):1197-207
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumors and breast sarcomas: a review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs phyllodes et sarcomes du sein: mise au point.
  • Phyllodes tumors and sarcomas of the breast are non-epithelial tumors of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumors are benign tumors, tumors of intermediate malignancy or malignant tumors.
  • Radiotherapy is recommended in case of high-grade tumor and after conservativetreatment.
  • Breast sarcomas are even rarer.
  • Grade, involved margins and sometimes tumor necrosis are major prognostics factors.
  • In some situations, a conservative treatment can be discussed, based on tumor size, grade and volume of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / secondary. Hemangiosarcoma / therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20855241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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4. Ezeome ER, Okafor OC, Nwajiobi CE, Osuagwu CC: Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature. Niger J Clin Pract; 2007 Mar;10(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma Phyllodes is an uncommon disease of the breast with variable clinical behaviour.
  • Its incidence is reported as 1% of all breast tumours.
  • In this communication, we present a case of metachronous bilateral benign cystosarcoma phyllodes presenting in a 24year old nulliparous lady.
  • She had right breast mastectomy after two recurrences following local excision.
  • The left breast lesion developed one year after the treatment of the right lesion, again she had to be treated with mastectomy after 2 recurrences.
  • This case unlike most reported cases of bilateral Phyllodes tumour occurred in a nulliparous lady.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17668718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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5. Kapila K, Pathan SK, Al-Mosawy FA, George SS, Haji BE, Al-Ayadhy B: Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast masses in children and adolescents: experience with 1404 aspirates. Acta Cytol; 2008 Nov-Dec;52(6):681-6
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast masses in children and adolescents: experience with 1404 aspirates.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution and efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of breast lesions in pediatric and adolescent patients.
  • STUDY DESIGN: From January 1993 to December 2006, the cytology reports of 1404 breast aspirates (178 males and 1226 females) performed on children and adolescents (ranging from 1 to 21 years) were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The morphologic spectrum seen in females was inflammatory lesions (4%), benign ductal cells (20%), ductal hyperplasia (0.6%), papillary lesions (0.7%), benign neoplasms (69%), suspicious cytology (0.3%) and cancer (0.3%).
  • Of the benign neoplasms, 98% (831 of 851) were fibroadenomas, with 12 cases of phyllodes (benign), 5 cases of lipoma and 3 cases of adenoma.
  • Only 3% of the male breast aspirates provided a diagnostic challenge, while 89% of them showed benign ductal cells.
  • CONCLUSION: FNAC of children and adolescent breast masses is helpful and can reduce the need for open surgery to prevent later deformity.
  • The aspirates are mostly benign and can be managed conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19068671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Kamate B, Traore CB, Diallo D, Foko I, Sangare F, Malle B, Coulibaly B, Mounkoro N, Bayo S: [Epidemiology and morphology of breast benign tumors in Mali: about 186 cases]. Mali Med; 2008;23(3):36-9
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  • [Title] [Epidemiology and morphology of breast benign tumors in Mali: about 186 cases].
  • Benign tumors are more frequent, and are characterized by a possibility of recurrence or malignant transformation.
  • The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and morphological characteristics of breast benign tumors.
  • The study had concerned all benign tumors confirmed by histology.
  • FINDINGS: In total, 186 benign tumors were diagnosed over 611 mammary pathologies (30.44%).
  • The main complaint was feeling a nodule in the breast (91.9%).
  • The most affected breast was the right side (50.8%).
  • Tumor sizes were variable, and the color changed through white to yellow.
  • Histological aspects were: fibroadenoma (72%), lipoma (8.6%), tubular adenoma (5.9%), papilloma (5.4%), lactating adenoma (3.8%), phyllodes tumor (3.8%), and syringomatous tumor (0.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: Benign tumors are frequent in mammary pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19617151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1993-0836
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Mali médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mali Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mali
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7. Lenhard MS, Kahlert S, Himsl I, Ditsch N, Untch M, Bauerfeind I: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Jun;138(2):217-21
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: The "cystosarcoma phyllodes" of the breast is a rare entity which accounts for 0.5% of all breast neoplasms.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The data of 5270 patients with primary breast neoplasms treated in our department between 1984 and 2005 were retrospectively analysed for the histopathologic diagnosis of a cystosarcoma phyllodes.
  • RESULTS: Retrospective analysis of 5270 patients with primary breast neoplasms revealed 33 patients.
  • In the histopathological analysis, tumour grade was classified as benign in 40%, borderline in 27% and malignant in 33% of patients.
  • Breast conserving surgery was conducted in 58% of the patients, mastectomy in 42%.
  • The local recurrence rate was 50% in malignant, 20% in borderline and only 8% in benign tumours.
  • Distant metastases were seen in three patients (9%) with malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rare Diseases. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17868973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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8. Kuijper A, Snijders AM, Berns EM, Kuenen-Boumeester V, van der Wall E, Albertson DG, van Diest PJ: Genomic profiling by array comparative genomic hybridization reveals novel DNA copy number changes in breast phyllodes tumours. Cell Oncol; 2009;31(1):31-9
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  • [Title] Genomic profiling by array comparative genomic hybridization reveals novel DNA copy number changes in breast phyllodes tumours.
  • Breast phyllodes tumour (PT) is a rare fibroepithelial tumour.
  • 11 PTs and 3 fibroadenomas, a frequently occurring fibroepithelial breast tumour, were analyzed.
  • Recurrent copy number gain was seen on 1q, 2p, 3q, 7p, 8q, 16q, 20.In this study we used array CGH for genomic profiling of fibroepithelial breast tumours.
  • Since copy number change was found in all benign PT, genomic instability may be an early event in PT genesis.

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  • (PMID = 19096148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8606
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 101359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 90421
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4618888
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9. El Hag IA, Aodah A, Kollur SM, Attallah A, Mohamed AA, Al-Hussaini H: Cytological clues in the distinction between phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Feb 25;118(1):33-40
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  • [Title] Cytological clues in the distinction between phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) sensitivity in discriminating between phyllodes tumor and its benign mimicker fibroadenoma (FA) remains low.
  • Because a preoperative categorization of phyllodes tumor is crucial for their appropriate management, the authors undertook this study in an effort to improve the outcome of FNA by identifying reliable distinguishing features.
  • METHODS: FNA smears from 15 and 12 histologically proven cases of phyllodes tumor and FA, respectively, were reviewed.
  • A group of cytological features that may distinguish between phyllodes tumor and FA were identified.
  • Their value and reproducibility in categorizing phyllodes tumor cases were tested.
  • RESULTS: Three major cytological features were exclusively seen in all of, or the vast majority of, the phyllodes tumor cases; fibromyxoid stromal fragments with spindle nuclei (90%), fibroblastic pavements (93%), and appreciable number of spindles cells of fibroblastic nature among dispersed cell population (100%).
  • The identification of these features improved the pick-up rate of phyllodes tumor from 40% to 100% and had substantial (kappa = 0.56-0.73) interobserver and almost perfect (kappa = 0.83) intraobserver reproducibility.
  • There was no significant difference in the epithelial component characteristics between phyllodes tumor and FA.
  • The frequency and degree of atypia in the dispersed cell population correlated well to the histological grade of phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA has proven to be a reliable test in differentiating between phyllodes tumor and FA with high sensitivity and good reproducibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20094997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Tse GM, Niu Y, Shi HJ: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update.
  • Phyllodes tumor is an uncommon biphasic breast tumor, with the ability to recur and metastasize, and it behaves biologically like a stromal neoplasm.
  • Traditionally, phyllodes tumors are graded by the use of a set of histologic data into benign, borderline, and malignant.
  • In most series, all phyllodes tumors may recur, but only the borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors metastasize.
  • The expression of many biological markers, including p53, hormone receptors, proliferation markers, angiogenesis group of markers, c-kit, CD10 and epidermal growth factor receptor have been explored, and many have been shown to be variably expressed, depending on the grade of the tumor.
  • These markers are, however, of limited value in predicting the behavior of the tumor.
  • Recently investigators have reported a plethora of genetic changes in phyllodes tumors, the most consistent of which seems to be 1q gain by comparative genomic hybridization.
  • It is foreseeable that more exciting data will be generated to help us to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis


11. Tea MK, Asseryanis E, Kroiss R, Kubista E, Wagner T: Surgical breast lesions in adolescent females. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Jan;25(1):73-5
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  • [Title] Surgical breast lesions in adolescent females.
  • PURPOSE: Breast diseases in teenage girls are fortunately uncommon, with most presenting masses being benign.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological results of breast lesions excised from adolescent females less than 19 years of age.
  • All data included the patient age, age of menarche, pregnancy, hormonal contraception, family history of breast cancer, size of the breast lesion and its histopathology following surgery.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-seven female patients with an average age of 16 years (ranging 12-18 years) were operated on for breast tumor and/or discharge.
  • Six patients had bilateral breast masses; thus, 43 breast lesions were evaluated following surgical excision.
  • Surprisingly, breast cancer was found in two cases.
  • As breast neoplasm was found in two cases, a malignancy rate of 4.7% was observed.
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of primary breast cancer in adolescent women is low.
  • However, our experience shows the need for compulsory excision of all breast masses and highlighting the importance of histopathological evaluation of all breast tumors including adolescents.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Austria. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Child. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mastectomy. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18985359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Shin SJ, Scamman W, Gopalan A, Rosen PP: Mammary presentation of adult-type "juvenile" xanthogranuloma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jun;29(6):827-31
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  • Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign histiocytic disorder of infants and childhood.
  • Herein, we report an exceptional case of adult xanthogranuloma in a 74-year-old woman who presented with ipsilateral breast masses and also found to have prior cutaneous lesions.
  • This is the first reported case of cutaneous and extracutaneous adult JXG where the latter manifested in the breast as a spindle cell xanthogranuloma.
  • In the breast, the morphologic features of JXG evoked several entities in the differential diagnosis, including spindle cell metaplastic carcinoma, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibromatosis, myofibroblastoma, and phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / pathology


13. Kraemer B, Hoffmann J, Roehm C, Gall C, Wallwiener D, Krainick-Strobel U: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2007 Dec;276(6):649-53
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes (CP), otherwise known as phyllodes tumour (PT) of the breast, is a very rare but locally aggressive fibroepithelial tumour in its malignant form, and accounts for 0.3-1% of all breast neoplasias.
  • Using 4 cases reports with different histological classifications as examples (benign-borderline-malignant), we describe the (differential) diagnosis and treatment options of this tumour entity and give an additional review of the available literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17549503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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14. Ozumba BC, Nzegwu MA, Anyikam A, Okoye I, Okafor OC: Breast disease in children and adolescents in eastern Nigeria--a five-year study. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Jun;22(3):169-72
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  • [Title] Breast disease in children and adolescents in eastern Nigeria--a five-year study.
  • (1) To define the spectrum of breast diseases in the children and adolescents in Eastern Nigeria. (2) To provide where possible, an international comparison of statistical variations of both benign and malignant lesions in these age groups.
  • Virtually all children and adolescents (4-19) years who complained of a breast mass had a biopsy, and results of all excised breast specimens from children and adolescent age groups from 4 to 19 years were included in the study.
  • The case files of these patients were retrieved and reviewed to ascertain the size and duration of the breast lesions.
  • The number of phyllodes tumors seen in the child and adolescent population was compared to those seen in the adult population at the same period.
  • RESULTS: A total of 1050 breast specimens were received in the department of morbid anatomy from all age groups, from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004, out of which 121 (11.5%) were breast specimens from the children and adolescent age groups.
  • On the average most patients with benign breast lesions presented within 3-5 months of their symptoms, which usually was a palpable lump detected in all cases by either the child or the mother.
  • Their sizes vary from 2-3 cm and only ten were multiple but they were all confined to one breast.
  • Those with phyllodes presented typically within 3 months probably because of the faster rate of growth.
  • Phyllodes tumor in this age group constitute 28.6% of all phyllodes seen in this period and were all benign.
  • CONCLUSION: Fibro adenoma, fibrocystic breast disease, and low grade phyllodes tumor were the most common breast lesions seen in our children and adolescent population.
  • Phyllodes tumors were typically larger in size and tended to present earlier.
  • [MeSH-major] African Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data. Breast Diseases / ethnology. Breast Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nigeria / epidemiology. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19539203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kuijper A, de Vos RA, Lagendijk JH, van der Wall E, van Diest PJ: Progressive deregulation of the cell cycle with higher tumor grade in the stroma of breast phyllodes tumors. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 May;123(5):690-8
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  • [Title] Progressive deregulation of the cell cycle with higher tumor grade in the stroma of breast phyllodes tumors.
  • We studied cell cycle-regulating proteins in phyllodes tumor pathogenesis by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67, cyclin A, cyclin D1, retinoblastoma protein (pRb), p53, p16INK4A, bcl-2, and p21waf1 in the epithelium and stroma of 40 primary (benign, 21; borderline, 8; malignant, 11) and 7 recurrent tumors of different grades.
  • Stromal overexpression of p16INK4A, p53, cyclin A, pRb, and p21waf1 correlated significantly with tumor grade.
  • Stromal cyclin A expression was the best separating marker between tumor grades.
  • The stromal component of mammary phyllodes tumors displays an increasing level of cell cycle deregulation with higher tumor grade; the epithelial compartment mostly remains inconspicuous.
  • Several combinations of aberrantly expressed cell cycle proteins seem important in the stromal progression of phyllodes tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis


16. Korula A, Varghese J, Thomas M, Vyas F, Korula A: Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Singapore Med J; 2008 Nov;49(11):e318-21
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis.
  • Phyllodes tumours constitute 2-3 percent of fibroepithelial breast tumours, with a 1-2 percent rate of malignancy.
  • Carcinoma in a phyllodes tumour is distinctly uncommon, but has been known to occur in benign phyllodes tumours.
  • We describe a 51-year-old woman with a malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma within the tumour and adjacent breast tissue.
  • Though the carcinoma was found to be invasive based on the presence of carcinomatous lymph node metastasis, extensive sampling did not yield an invasive component within the breast, probably because of the marked stromal overgrowth of the phyllodes.
  • A malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma and axillary lymph node metastases was diagnosed rather than carcinosarcoma.
  • Coexistence of phyllodes tumour and carcinoma is rare, and extensive sampling may be necessary to find the foci of carcinoma within an extensive and obviously malignant stromal overgrowth.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Breast / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19037540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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17. Tan PH: 2005 Galloway Memorial Lecture: Breast phyllodes tumours--morphology and beyond. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Dec;34(11):671-7
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  • [Title] 2005 Galloway Memorial Lecture: Breast phyllodes tumours--morphology and beyond.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive role of morphology in a series of breast phyllodes tumours (PTs) in Asian women, and to determine the utility of immunohistochemical expression of p53 and CD117 in the stromal component.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast PTs, diagnosed between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, were classified into benign, borderline and malignant categories.
  • Histologic classification revealed 250 (74.6%) benign, 54 (16.1%) borderline and 31 (9.3%) malignant PTs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involved surgical margins remain a key prognostic parameter in breast PT.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16453039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Lectures; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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18. de León DC, Montiel DP, Nemcova J, Mykyskova I, Turcios E, Villavicencio V, Cetina L, Coronel A, Hes O: Human papillomavirus (HPV) in breast tumors: prevalence in a group of Mexican patients. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:26
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV) in breast tumors: prevalence in a group of Mexican patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the main health problems in developed countries, occupying first place in mortality in women.
  • It is well-known that there are risk factors associated with breast cancer development.
  • The aim of this work is investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in patients with breast lesions at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia de Mexico.
  • METHODS: Fifty-one cases of breast cancer were selected from the files of the institute and compared by age and tumor size with 43 cases of non malignant breast lesions (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and phyllodes tumor).
  • RESULTS: All patients were mexican, mean age was 53.3, median age of menarche was 13 and median tumor size 9 cms.
  • In the group of benign conditions all were negative to HPV-DNA.
  • CONCLUSION: Presence of HPV in breast cancer in our group of cases is high in comparison to other authors; larger numbers of cases need to be analyzed in order to establish the exact role of this virus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19161629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2636825
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19. Shah SN: Giant myofibroblastoma of breast: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jul;50(3):583-5
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  • [Title] Giant myofibroblastoma of breast: a case report.
  • Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a very rare benign neoplasm usually seen in elderly male and is of very small size.
  • A 40 year old nulliparous woman was admitted with chief complain of massive enlargement of left breast.
  • The case was clinically diagnosed as Phyllodes tumor Left mastectomy was done.
  • The tumor was histopathologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed as Myofibroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17883145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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20. Udapudi DG, Vasudeva P, Srikantiah R, Virupakshappa E: Massive benign phyllodes tumor. Breast J; 2005 Nov-Dec;11(6):521
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  • [Title] Massive benign phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16297126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Lacroix-Triki M, Geyer FC, Lambros MB, Savage K, Ellis IO, Lee AH, Reis-Filho JS: β-catenin/Wnt signalling pathway in fibromatosis, metaplastic carcinomas and phyllodes tumours of the breast. Mod Pathol; 2010 Nov;23(11):1438-48
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  • [Title] β-catenin/Wnt signalling pathway in fibromatosis, metaplastic carcinomas and phyllodes tumours of the breast.
  • It has been suggested that various spindle cell lesions of the breast may harbour Wnt pathway activation.
  • Given that β-catenin nuclear localization constitutes a good surrogate marker of Wnt canonical pathway activation, we have investigated the distribution of β-catenin in spindle cell lesions of the breast and whether it could be employed in the differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • A total of 52 metaplastic breast carcinomas, eight fibromatoses and 23 phyllodes tumours were retrieved from our institutions' archives.
  • In all, three fibromatoses and 21 metaplastic breast carcinomas were subjected to CTNNB1 (β-catenin encoding gene) mutation analysis by direct gene sequencing.
  • All fibromatoses and 23% of metaplastic breast carcinomas expressed nuclear β-catenin.
  • In fibromatosis, β-catenin was more often diffusely expressed, whereas in metaplastic breast carcinomas, expression was more frequently focal.
  • Membranous β-catenin expression was significantly lower in spindle cell carcinomas than in other subtypes of metaplastic breast carcinomas.
  • In phyllodes tumours, stromal cells of benign and malignant subtypes displayed nuclear β-catenin expression in 94 and 57% of cases, respectively.
  • In conclusion, β-catenin nuclear expression is a common feature in fibromatoses and in the stromal component of phyllodes tumours, but may also be observed in metaplastic breast carcinomas.
  • β-catenin nuclear expression should not be used as a single marker to differentiate fibromatosis from other spindle cell tumours of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Carcinoma / chemistry. Fibroma / chemistry. Phyllodes Tumor / chemistry. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins / analysis. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20693983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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22. Norat F, Dreant N, Riah Y, Lebreton E: [Extraordinary case of malignant phylloid tumor of the breast: surgical reconstruction treatment]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):475-8
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  • [Title] [Extraordinary case of malignant phylloid tumor of the breast: surgical reconstruction treatment].
  • Phyllode tumors of the breast are fibroepithelial tumors similar to fibroadenomas but with a predominant conjunctive tissue component.
  • They are rare with an incidence of less than 1% of all breast neoplasms.
  • They can be divided in three categories: benign, borderline, malignant.
  • The Authors report the case of a 53 years old woman who presented an exceptional 6.5 kg phylloid tumor of the left mamma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20476683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Lv S, Niu Y, Wei L, Liu Q, Wang X, Chen Y: Chromosomal aberrations and genetic relations in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast: a comparative genomic hybridization study. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Dec;112(3):411-8
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  • [Title] Chromosomal aberrations and genetic relations in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast: a comparative genomic hybridization study.
  • Phyllodes tumors are not quite rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast that show a broad spectrum of clinical behaviour.
  • We have used comparative genomic hybridization to analyze chromosomal copy number changes in 36 cases of phyllodes tumors (including benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, 12 cases each).
  • The average number of chromosome copy changes (range) in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors were 5.58 (0-20), 14.08 (3-23), and 12.42 (0-29) respectively.
  • In benign phyllodes tumors the number of gains and losses was in balance (2.50 vs 3.08), while in borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors gains occurred more often than losses (9.25 vs 4.83, 9.5 vs 2.92).
  • The result suggests the molecular cytogenetics of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors is similar, and the most striking difference with benign phyllodes tumors is an increased number of chromosomal gains in a nonrandom distribution.
  • Gains of 4q12 seem especially to be involved in the progression of benign to borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, possibly because of overexpression of oncogenes at these loci.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18189161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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24. Tse GM, Chaiwun B, Lau KM, Scolyer R, Lee CS, Karim RZ, Putti TC, Law BK, Lui PC, Tan PH: Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Sep;60(9):1051-6
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  • [Title] Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • This has not been evaluated in phyllodes tumours, which are uncommon fibroepithelial lesions with potential for local recurrences or distant metastasis.
  • While the grading of phyllodes tumours depends on a combination of histological parameters, prediction of their behaviour remains difficult.
  • METHOD: A large series of 461 phyllodes tumours (291 benign, 115 borderline malignant and 55 frankly malignant) were evaluated for endothelin-1 expression in both the epithelial cells and stromal cells by immunohistochemistry; results were correlated with the tumour grade.
  • RESULTS: For benign phyllodes tumours, the epithelial staining of endothelin was negative, weak, moderate and strong in 6%, 26%, 15% and 53% of cases respectively; results were 4%, 18%, 19% and 59% respectively for borderline and 6%, 18%, 6% and 70% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • For the stromal staining, the negative, weak, moderate and strong staining was 32%, 19%, 18% and 31% respectively for benign phyllodes, 24%, 13%, 10% and 53% respectively for borderline and 8%, 16%, 17% and 59% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations suggest a close relationship between the epithelial and stromal elements in phyllodes tumours; endothelin may play a significant role in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17158636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1972415
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25. Foxcroft LM, Evans EB, Porter AJ: Difficulties in the pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours of the breast: a study of 84 cases. Breast; 2007 Feb;16(1):27-37
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  • [Title] Difficulties in the pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours of the breast: a study of 84 cases.
  • Eighty-four phyllodes tumours (71 benign, eight borderline and five malignant) diagnosed over a 16-year period were studied retrospectively, to assess the diagnostic value of the pre-operative modalities used.
  • The possibility of phyllodes tumour was raised in only 23% on fine needle aspiration cytology, and in 65% on core biopsy.
  • For phyllodes tumours whose growth was measured, almost all had growth rates greater than for growing fibroadenomas.
  • The pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours is difficult, and rapid growth and/or large size of apparent fibroadenomas may be the only imaging findings to suggest phyllodes tumour.
  • Whole breast ultrasound showed that nearly one third of women with phyllodes tumours had concurrent fibroadenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16876413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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26. Villarreal-Colín SP, Soto-Dávalos BA, Bargalló-Rocha JE, Bandera-Delgado A, Zumaran-Cuéllar O, Robles-Vidal CD: [Breast fibromatosis: a lesion mimicking cancer]. Cir Cir; 2008 Mar-Apr;76(2):169-71
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  • [Title] [Breast fibromatosis: a lesion mimicking cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: Breast fibromatosis (BF) is a rare benign pathological entity.
  • The patient was a 17-year-old female with a 20 x 15 cm firm and fixed mass in the right breast.
  • A core-needle biopsy was taken with a pathology report of a phyllodes tumor.
  • The patient was a 49-year-old female with a 7 x 5 cm solid right breast mass located at the medial-upper quadrant and fixed to the pectoralis major muscle.
  • Its clinical and imaging features can mimic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis


27. Uner A, Ozturk B, Benekli M, Coskun U, Kocak S, Kaya AO, Unsal D, Erekul S, Yaman E, Yildiz R, Buyukberber S: Synchronize primary breast osteosarcoma and contralateral benign cystosarcoma phylloides: radiologic and pathologic imaging. Breast J; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):109-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronize primary breast osteosarcoma and contralateral benign cystosarcoma phylloides: radiologic and pathologic imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Osteosarcoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology


28. Mannan AA, Kahvic M, Aziz AH: Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):384-6
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature.
  • Phyllodes tumor occurring in the vulva is extremely rare; only 6 cases have been previously reported in the literature.
  • The histogenetic origin of this tumor is controversial as it is being debated whether such lesions evolve from ectopic breast tissue, cutaneous apocrine glands, and most recently, anogenital mammary-like gland.
  • Microscopic examination revealed morphologic pattern characteristic of benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We also discuss the histogenesis of phyllodes tumor and related lesions occurring in the anogenital region in light of the current literature along with a brief review of the previously reported cases of vulvar phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20514681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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29. Pawlicki J, Król R, Kajor M, Ziaja J: [Case of malignant tumour phyllodes converting to fibrosarcoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 Mar;22(129):215-7
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  • [Title] [Case of malignant tumour phyllodes converting to fibrosarcoma].
  • Tumour phyllodes is rare breast neoplasm.
  • Tumours phyllodes are composed of hypercellular mesenchymal stroma and epithelial elements.
  • They are commonly classified as benign, rarely as borderline or malignant.
  • There is a case of large (28 x 24 cm) malignant tumour phyllodes presented in the article.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17682679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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30. Abdelkrim SB, Trabelsi A, Bouzrara M, Boudagga MZ, Memmi A, Bakir DA, Mokni M: Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast: A Review of 26 Cases. World J Oncol; 2010 Jun;1(3):129-134
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  • [Title] Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast: A Review of 26 Cases.
  • Background: Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare and locally aggressive neoplasms.
  • Methods: The authors analyzed retrospectively clinical, radiological, histopathological and therapeutic features as well as outcome in a series of 26 cases diagnosed as phyllodes tumors of the breast at the Pathology Department of Farhat Hached Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia, from 2003 to 2009.
  • The slides were reviewed in order to classify the tumors into benign, borderline and malignant on the basis of the criteria proposed by the World Health Organization.
  • The analysis of this series showed the following characteristics: mean age at diagnosis was 40 years (19 - 66), tumor size was 1.5 - 40 cm (mean: 7.8 cm); the chief complaint was a mammary mass; the right breast was affected in 14 cases, the upper outer quadrant was the most commonly involved site (42.3%); surgical treatment was used in all cases, 21 patients (80.8%) were treated conservatively (13 benign, 6 borderline, and 2 malignant) and 5 (19.2%) by radical surgery (1 borderline and 4 malignant); seven patients underwent post-operative radiotherapy; in 14/19 cases (73.7%), a good correlation was observed between intraoperative frozen section analysis and definitive histology; the tumor was classed as benign in 13 cases (50%), borderline in 7 cases (27%) and malignant in 6 cases (23%); follow-up data was available in 22 cases; the rate of recurrence was 23% (1 benign, 3 borderline, and 2 malignant) after a mean follow-up of 13.6 months; all the recurrent tumors were initially treated by lumpectomy and were close to margin at the initial pathologic examination; the treatment of recurrences consisted of simple mastectomy in 5 cases, and local excision in one case; three patients developed metastases, one of whom after recurrence<b>;</b> three patients have died.
  • Conclusions: This is a substantial single institution experience of a rare tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast have an unpredictable outcome, thus a wide local excision, with an adequate margin of normal breast tissue, is the preferred initial therapy.

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  • (PMID = 29147192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-454X
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Outcome / Pathology / Phyllodes tumor / Prognosis / Treatment
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31. Yabuuchi H, Soeda H, Matsuo Y, Okafuji T, Eguchi T, Sakai S, Kuroki S, Tokunaga E, Ohno S, Nishiyama K, Hatakenaka M, Honda H: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: correlation between MR findings and histologic grade. Radiology; 2006 Dec;241(3):702-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: correlation between MR findings and histologic grade.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of phyllodes tumor of the breast and to compare these findings with the histologic grade.
  • The authors reviewed the MR findings in 30 female patients aged 16-73 years (mean, 40.2 years) with surgically confirmed phyllodes tumors.
  • Analyzed MR findings included tumor shape, margin, internal enhancement, and size; signal intensity (SI) of tumor higher than that of normal breast tissue on T1-weighted images; SI of tumor lower than or equal to that of normal tissue on T2-weighted images; cyst wall appearance; kinetic curve assessment; and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
  • RESULTS: Nineteen benign, six intermediate (characterized by five to nine cell reproductions at 10 high-power fields, pushing or infiltrative margins, moderate stromal cellularity, and atypia and overgrowth), and five malignant phyllodes tumors were assessed.
  • Irregular cyst wall (P = .003), tumor SI lower than or equal to normal tissue SI on T2-weighted images (P = .005), and low ADC (P = .001) correlated significantly with histologic grade.
  • Tumor SI higher than normal tissue SI on T1-weighted images was more frequent in the malignant (in three of five tumors) and intermediate (in three of six tumors) groups than in the benign group (in two of 19 tumors); however, it was not a significant finding (P = .024).
  • Tumor SI higher than normal tissue SI on T1-weighted images and irregular cyst wall corresponded histopathologically to hemorrhagic infarction and necrosis, respectively.
  • Tumor SI lower than or equal to normal tissue SI on T2-weighted images and low ADC corresponded histopathologically to stromal hypercellularity.
  • CONCLUSION: Several MR findings can be used to help determine the histologic grade of phyllodes breast tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology


32. Franceschini G, D'Ugo D, Masetti R, Palumbo F, D'Alba PF, Mulè A, Costantini M, Belli P, Picciocchi A: Surgical treatment and MRI in phyllodes tumors of the breast: our experience and review of the literature. Ann Ital Chir; 2005 Mar-Apr;76(2):127-40
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment and MRI in phyllodes tumors of the breast: our experience and review of the literature.
  • AIMS: To reassess the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and surgical resection margins in an attempt to address the issue of appropriate surgical management of phyllodes tumors (PT).
  • METHODS: Three female patients with a large palpable mass suspicious for phyllodes tumors were studied by mammography (MX), ultrasound (US) and dynamic MRI and then underwent surgery.
  • Pathological results showed 1 case of benign phylloides tumor, 1 case of borderline phylloides tumor and 1 case of malignant phylloides tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MRI enabled complete visualization of the tumor even in the region close to the chest wall, as well as clear delineation from healthy glandular tissue and may help to define the appropriate surgical management of phylloides tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Breast / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Palpation. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16302651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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33. Kohli K, Jain D: Benign phylloides tumour with leiomyoma breast: a rare occurrence. ANZ J Surg; 2009 Jun;79(6):499-500
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  • [Title] Benign phylloides tumour with leiomyoma breast: a rare occurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19566888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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34. Taira N, Aogi K, Ohsumi S, Takashima S, Kawamura S, Nishimura R: Epidermal inclusion cyst of the breast. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(4):434-7
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  • [Title] Epidermal inclusion cyst of the breast.
  • Epidermal inclusion cysts are uncommon in the breast, but the consequences can be severe when these cysts occur in the breast parenchyma.
  • The patient in case 1 was an 85-year-old woman with a 3-cm palpable mass in the right breast.
  • Mammography revealed a round and smoothly outlined mass, which indicated a benign tumor, and sonography showed an irregularly shaped and heterogeneous hypoechoic mass.
  • Breast cancer was suspected on the basis of the sonographic findings and the age of the patient, but excisional biopsy revealed an epidermal inclusion cyst.
  • The patient in case 2 was a 45-year-old woman with a 9-cm lesion in the left breast.
  • A phyllodes tumor or a giant fibroadenoma was suspected on the basis of clinical and imaging findings, but the resected specimen revealed an epidermal inclusion cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Epidermal Cyst / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 17986812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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35. Giri D: Recurrent challenges in the evaluation of fibroepithelial lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):713-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: The morphologic spectrum of mammary fibroepithelial lesions ranges from fibroadenoma, a common benign neoplasm, to phyllodes tumor, an uncommon lesion that can sometimes recur and metastasize.
  • DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search of the English-language literature identified published reports on fibroepithelial lesions, with a special focus on phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor is usually not problematic, especially in excision specimens.
  • Morphologic predictors of local recurrence of phyllodes tumor include cellularity and cytologic atypia, mitotic activity, positive margins, infiltrative borders, fibroproliferative satellite nodules, and past history of fibroadenoma.
  • Predictors of distant metastasis include size, tumor necrosis, and stromal overgrowth.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 19415945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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36. Anyikam A, Nzegwu MA, Ozumba BC, Okoye I, Olusina DB: Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria. Saudi Med J; 2008 Feb;29(2):241-4
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  • [Title] Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize benign breast diseases in Eastern Nigeria and to highlight the age variations of these lesions as base line data.
  • Seven hundred and twenty-two benign breast specimens were analyzed over 5 years from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004, out of 1050 breast samples received.
  • RESULTS: Of 1050 breast specimens received, 722 (68.8%) were benign.
  • Normal breast in the axillary tail region was seen in 32 cases (4.4%), represented as no pathology, with a mean presentation age of 20-46 years.
  • Low grade Phyllodes tumor had 28 cases (3.9%), presenting at an average mean age of 17-32 years.
  • Benign breast lesions peaked at the 20-24 age range and then declined.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign breast lesions occur more frequently than malignant breast lesions with a ratio of 2.3:1 and were presented 20 years earlier than their malignant counterparts.
  • Fibroadenoma was the most common benign lesion followed by fibrocystic disease, similar to the findings in Western Nigeria.
  • In Northern Nigeria, fibrocystic breast disease was more common.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Fibroadenoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / epidemiology. Gynecomastia / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18246234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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37. Manfrin E, Mariotto R, Remo A, Reghellin D, Falsirollo F, Dalfior D, Bricolo P, Piazzola E, Bonetti F: Benign breast lesions at risk of developing cancer--a challenging problem in breast cancer screening programs: five years' experience of the Breast Cancer Screening Program in Verona (1999-2004). Cancer; 2009 Feb 1;115(3):499-507
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign breast lesions at risk of developing cancer--a challenging problem in breast cancer screening programs: five years' experience of the Breast Cancer Screening Program in Verona (1999-2004).
  • BACKGROUND: Cytology and core-needle biopsies are not always sufficient to exclude malignancy in benign breast lesions (BBL) that are at risk of developing cancer, and open biopsy often is mandatory.
  • In screening programs, open biopsies performed for lesions that are at risk of developing malignancy are considered benign.
  • The authors of this report evaluated the impact of the screen-detected BBL at risk of developing cancer that were counted in the quota of benign breast open biopsies in the Breast Cancer Screening Program of Verona.
  • METHODS: Benign open biopsies were subdivided into 4 groups according to their risk of developing cancer: Histo1, normal histology; Histo2, 'pure' BBL (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, mastitis, adenosis); Histo3, BBL with a low risk of developing cancer (radial scar, papilloma, papillomatosis, phyllodes tumor, mucocele-like lesion); and Histo4, BBL with a high risk of developing cancer (atypical columnar cell hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia).
  • RESULTS: Of 510 open biopsies, 83 biopsies were benign, and the ratio of benign to malignant biopsies was 1:5.
  • Histo1 was observed in 4.8% of all benign open biopsies, Histo2 was observed in 37.4%, Histo3 was observed in 31.3%, and Histo4 was observed 26.5%.
  • It is inappropriate to include BBL at risk of developing cancer in the overall benign open biopsy rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Breast Diseases / complications. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis


38. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • [Title] [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe personnel experience with three unusual cases of low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast.
  • RESULTS: Partial mastectomy and segmentectomy were performed in three women 46, 72 and 74 years-old resp. for tumor, which size ranged from 20-35 mm in maximum diameter (mean 28 mm).
  • There were recognized metastases by one woman in two ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes mimicking benign breast heterotopia in one of them.
  • In two women with aggressive course the original biopsy was falsely interpreted, once as phyllodes tumor and secondly as benign sclerosing pseudotumor.
  • It arises in the deep breast tissue and structurally resembles the microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.
  • The rarity of this neoplasm does not exclude deep knowledge.


39. Bode MK, Rissanen T, Apaja-Sarkkinen M: Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes. Acta Radiol; 2007 Sep;48(7):708-13
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  • [Title] Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of phyllodes tumors of the breast is challenging due to many similarities with common fibroadenomas.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of core needle biopsy in diagnosing phyllodes tumors and to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) features of phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1999 to 2003, 1010 breast lesions underwent imaging-guided core needle biopsy.
  • Of these, 57 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors were removed surgically.
  • The US and needle biopsy results of a total of 64 lesions (52 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors) were further analyzed, compared, and correlated with surgical histological results.
  • RESULTS: The median sonographic sizes of the phyllodes tumors and the fibroadenomas were 3.2 cm and 1.6 cm, respectively.
  • At US, 58% of the phyllodes tumors (7/12) were classified as equivocal or suspicious of malignancy and 42% (5/12) as probably benign, while 54% of the fibroadenomas (28/52) were classified as probably benign and 46% (24/52) as equivocal.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of core needle biopsy histology regarding tumor phyllodes were 83%, 92%, 71%, and 96%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Imaging-guided core needle biopsy was accurate in differentiating between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors.
  • Combined use of US feature analysis and needle biopsy may help to avoid the misinterpretation of phyllodes as fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17728999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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40. Dillon MF, Quinn CM, McDermott EW, O'Doherty A, O'Higgins N, Hill AD: Needle core biopsy in the diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm. Surgery; 2006 Nov;140(5):779-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Needle core biopsy in the diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of phyllodes neoplasms without surgical intervention is difficult, reducing the ability to manage "benign" lumps non-operatively and impacting on the open benign biopsy rate.
  • Needle core biopsy is considered to be a highly accurate technique in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma.
  • Its accuracy in the diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm has not been established.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-three patients had phyllodes neoplasm on excisional biopsy with prior core biopsy findings as follows: phyllodes neoplasm (n=2), "equivocal" for phyllodes neoplasm (n=12), fibroadenoma (n=3), benign (n=6).
  • The false negative rate for phyllodes neoplasm was therefore 39% (n=9/23).
  • Of the total biopsy series, 35 patients had a core biopsy suggesting the possibility of phyllodes neoplasm.
  • Of these, 32% (n=11) were found to be phyllodes neoplasm on excision, 3% (n=1) phyllodes neoplasm with breast carcinoma, 6% (n=2) breast carcinoma, and 3% (n=1) sarcoma.
  • When a preference for phyllodes neoplasm (n=4) was stated on the equivocal core biopsies, excision correlated with the stated preference; this correlation also occurred in 90% (n=9/10) of core biopsies where fibroadenoma was favored.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Needle core biopsy rarely produces a definite preoperative diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm.
  • A diagnosis of fibroadenoma or equivocal phyllodes neoplasm on core biopsy should not prevent excision if clinical suspicion remains.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17084721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. McKenna AM, Pintilie M, Youngson B, Done SJ: Quantification of the morphologic features of fibroepithelial tumors of the breast. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Oct;131(10):1568-73
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  • [Title] Quantification of the morphologic features of fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.
  • CONTEXT: Phyllodes tumors of the breast are uncommon, comprising 0.3% to 0.9% of female primary breast tumors.
  • Owing in part to their rarity, definitive, objective, reproducible morphologic criteria that reliably distinguish benign from low-grade malignant or malignant phyllodes tumors have yet to be established.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use image analysis to quantitate and compare morphologic features of different groups of fibroepithelial tumors (FETs) of the breast.
  • DESIGN: Hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of 41 FETs previously identified as fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, low-grade malignant phyllodes, or high-grade malignant phyllodes were blinded and studied using a Leica DMRA2 microscope and OpenLab Image Analysis software.
  • Features of each case including tumor size, margin status, and the presence of necrosis or heterologous elements were also considered; these data were retrieved from surgical pathology reports.
  • RESULTS: Quantitative measures of stromal cellularity, stromal-epithelial ratio, mitotic rate, stromal overgrowth, and mean nuclear diameter were developed and found to stratify a population of FETs by the current classification system of fibroadenoma, benign, and low-grade or high-grade malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17922594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Moriya T, Kozuka Y, Kanomata N, Tse GM, Tan PH: The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Pathology; 2009 Jan;41(1):68-76
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Immunohistochemistry may be helpful in the diagnosis of various breast lesions.
  • It can be used to assist in distinguishing benign and malignant conditions, or to clarify the histological subtype of invasive carcinomas.
  • High molecular weight cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14, 34betaE12) typically show a mosaic-like pattern of expression in benign papillary/hyperplastic lesions, and are mostly negative in ductal in situ carcinoma, but some exceptions exist.
  • Cytokeratins, especially the antibody 34betaE12, are of value to differentiate spindle cell carcinoma from phyllodes tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods


43. Suzuki-Uematsu S, Shiraishi K, Ito T, Adachi N, Inage Y, Taeda Y, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases. Breast Cancer; 2010 Jul;17(3):218-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases.
  • Here we present a case of malignant phyllodes tumor which was composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component.
  • A 52-year-old Japanese female noted a rapid increase of her right breast tumor.
  • The tumor, 10 x 10 cm in the largest dimension, had somewhat of a pushing margin, and showed a flesh-like appearance with marked necrosis.
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed proliferation of atypical ovoid- or spindle-shaped cells in a myxoid matrix.
  • Multiple sectioning revealed that the tumor had only focal occurrence of elongated tubular structures, and the occurrence of a small component of benign phyllodes tumor, leading to the aforementioned final diagnosis.
  • We reviewed 15 malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases reported in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19350353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Morgan JM, Douglas-Jones AG, Gupta SK: Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):489-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour.
  • AIMS: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) has been replaced by Needle core biopsy (NCB) as the pathological investigation of choice in pre-operative diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Despite the greater yield of material with spatial information, the distinction between fibroepithelial lesions of the breast, fibroadenoma (FA) and benign phyllodes tumour (PT), remains problematic.
  • METHODS: Previously defined histological criteria were applied to 112 NCBs of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20459556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Tan EY, Tan PH, Yong WS, Wong HB, Ho GH, Yeo AW, Wong CY: Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Jun;76(6):476-80
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  • [Title] Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours (PT) of the breast are fibro-epithelial neoplasms that are known to recur locally in up to 19% of patients.
  • It is still debatable as to whether it is necessary to subject the patient to repeat surgery to obtain pathologically negative margins after a diagnosis of a benign or borderline PT is made.
  • Comparisons were made between those with benign, borderline and malignant tumours, as well as between those who developed a malignant recurrence and those who did not.
  • A total of 22 patients were classified as having benign tumour, 9 as having borderline tumour and 6 as having malignant tumour.
  • The majority of recurrent tumours were histologically similar to the initial tumour; however, seven patients (19%) developed a malignant recurrence from an initially benign or borderline tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It may be acceptable to use an expectant management towards benign and borderline tumours that are excised without adequate surgical margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] ANZ J Surg. 2006 Oct;76(10):956. Hoon, Tan Puay [corrected to Tan, Puay Hoon]; Hui, Ho G [corrected to Ho, Gay Hui]
  • (PMID = 16768772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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46. Santosh KV, Sumana BS: Benign intracystic phyllodes tumor of breast. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):385-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign intracystic phyllodes tumor of breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast / pathology. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Microscopy

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  • (PMID = 20551574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
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47. Vargas HI, Vargas MP, Gonzalez K, Burla M, Khalkhali I: Percutaneous excisional biopsy of palpable breast masses under ultrasound visualization. Breast J; 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5 Suppl 2):S218-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Percutaneous excisional biopsy of palpable breast masses under ultrasound visualization.
  • A palpable breast mass is a common reason for surgical consultation.
  • Our goal was to determine whether ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted core biopsy (US-VACB) is safe and effective in completely removing presumed benign palpable breast masses.
  • We conducted a cohort study of 201 consecutive patients with presumed benign palpable masses who underwent removal with US-VACB.
  • Palpable masses were successfully removed with US-VACB in 99% of cases; 2% were cancer and 7.5% were atypical ductal hyperplasia or phyllodes tumor.
  • US-VACB is safe and effective in the initial diagnosis and management of presumed benign palpable breast masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. California / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods. Vacuum

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  • (PMID = 16959005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases. Asian J Surg; 2009 Oct;32(4):224-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to present our experience of dealing with patients with phyllodes tumours (PT) and to correlate the risk of local recurrence with different clinicopathological factors.
  • The histology report was benign, borderline and malignant PT in 28%, 20% and 52% of cases respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19892625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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49. Jara-Lazaro AR, Tan PH: Molecular pathogenesis of progression and recurrence in breast phyllodes tumors. Am J Transl Res; 2009;1(1):23-34
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  • [Title] Molecular pathogenesis of progression and recurrence in breast phyllodes tumors.
  • Breast phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that need to be distinguished from the common morphologically similar fibroadenomas, because phyllodes tumors can recur and progress to malignancy.
  • Their potentially recurring and metastasizing behavior is attributed to their stromal characteristics, for which categorization between benign, borderline and malignant tumors have not been universally established.
  • Previous clonality studies revealing monoclonal stromal cells versus a polyclonal epithelial component theorized that phyllodes tumors are mainly stromal neoplasms, possibly arising from fibroadenomas.
  • Inverse correlations between epithelial and stromal overexpression for various biological markers like estrogen receptor, p53, c-kit, Ki-67, endothelin-1, epidermal growth factor receptor, heparan sulfate, in addition to findings of epithelial Wnt signalling with stromal insulin growth factors and beta-catenin expression, suggest an initial epithelial-stromal interdependence at the benign phase.
  • Acquisition of new genetic imbalances within the tumor consistent with intratumoral heterogeneity, and subclones within histologically benign phyllodes tumors that recur or metastasize are the current theories explaining these tumors' unpredictable clinical behavior.

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  • [ISSN] 1943-8141
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of translational research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Transl Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2776292
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Molecular pathogenesis / biological markers / epithelial-stromal interactions / genetic alterations / phyllodes tumors / subclones
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50. Chung EM, Cube R, Hall GJ, González C, Stocker JT, Glassman LM: From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):907-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • The spectrum of breast lesions in children and adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign.
  • A breast mass in a young boy or girl may arise from normal and abnormal breast development.
  • After onset of puberty, most cases of breast enlargement arise from benign fibroadenoma in girls and gynecomastia in boys.
  • These conditions have specific imaging appearances, although juvenile (often giant) fibroadenoma cannot be distinguished from phyllodes tumor, which can be benign or malignant.
  • A diagnosis of juvenile papillomatosis (a benign lesion) portends later development of breast cancer, and patients with this condition should be closely monitored.
  • Malignant lesions of the breast in children are rare.
  • The most common primary breast malignancy is malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Primary breast carcinoma is exceedingly rare in the pediatric age group, but its imaging appearance in children is the same as seen in adults and is different from that of almost all benign lesions.
  • In girls, diagnostic interventions may injure the developing breast and cause subsequent disfigurement.
  • Given this risk and the low prevalence of malignant disease in this population, a prudent course should be followed in the diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast / abnormalities. Breast / anatomy & histology. Breast / growth & development. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / radiography. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / radiography. Gynecomastia / pathology. Gynecomastia / radiography. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Nipples / abnormalities. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / radiography. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / radiography. Puberty. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19448124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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51. Yamaguchi R, Tanaka M, Kishimoto Y, Ohkuma K, Ishida M, Kojiro M: Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(1):42-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case.
  • Malignant epithelial change within a phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare event.
  • The epithelial element consisted of irregularly dilated ducts with a phyllodes structure that had moderate to severe epithelial hyperplasia, and foci of cribriform ductal carcinoma in situ with comedo necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18085361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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52. Dey D, Nicol A, Singer S: Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies identical to infantile digital fibromatosis. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):198-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign phyllodes tumor of the breast with intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies identical to infantile digital fibromatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroma / pathology. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology


53. Sönmez K, Türkyilmaz Z, Karabulut R, Demiroğullari B, Ozen IO, Moralioğlu S, Başaklar AC, Kale N: Surgical breast lesions in adolescent patients and a review of the literature. Acta Chir Belg; 2006 Jul-Aug;106(4):400-4
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  • [Title] Surgical breast lesions in adolescent patients and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Breast disease in adolescence is uncommon, with most presenting lesions being benign.
  • Breast lesions in adolescent patients are discussed in this article with a review of world literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical records of 30 patients operated upon for breast lesions in our hospital during 18 years were reviewed.
  • Twenty-five female patients were operated on for breast mass and/or discharge, and five male adolescents were operated on for gynaecomastia.
  • The most frequent (n = 27) complaint was palpation of mass in the breast.
  • CONCLUSION: The most frequently encountered breast masses were fibro-adenomas.
  • These lesions are mostly benign in nature and can be treated conservatively but the possibility of precancerous lesion should be considered during follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Child. Female. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Gynecomastia / surgery. Humans. Male. Nipples / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17017692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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54. Khurshid A, Kayani N, Bhurgri Y: Phylloides tumors in adolescent girls and young women in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2006 Oct-Dec;7(4):563-6
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  • The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of phylloides tumor (PT) in adolescent girls and young women (less than and equal to 25 years of age) and to define the clinico-pathological features of PT in this unusual clinical setting.
  • The number of benign (BPT), borderline (BLPT) and malignant (MPT) was identical i.e.
  • High grade PT (BLPT and MPT) is an uncommon mammary tumor in adolescent girls and young women but seems to be occurring with increased frequency in the study population.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17250427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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55. Sabban F, Collinet P, Lucot JP, Boman F, Leroy JL, Vinatier D: [Phyllodes tumor of the breast: analysis of 8 patients]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2005 May;34(3 Pt 1):252-6
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor of the breast: analysis of 8 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs phyllodes du sein: à propose de 8 patientes.
  • INTRODUCTION: Phyllodes tumors of breast are rare and usually benign.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 8 cases of phyllodes tumors and the literature to report the circumstances of occurrence of these tumors, and their specific clinical diagnosis, therapeutic, prognostic features.
  • Mean tumor size was 3.75 cm.
  • Aspiration cytology demonstrated the phyllode tumor in 43% of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16012385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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56. Iyengar P, Cody HS 3rd, Brogi E: Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Dec;33(6):416-20
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast: case report and review of the literature.
  • Pleomorphic adenoma of the breast (PAB) is a very rare neoplasm.
  • On cytologic material, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor should also be considered within the differential diagnosis.
  • Correct identification of this benign mammary neoplasm is important to avoid unnecessarily aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 16299746.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Basu S, Saxena V, Sharma CL, Kumar M: Image of the month. Phyllodes tumor (benign). Arch Surg; 2008 Feb;143(2):207-8
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  • [Title] Image of the month. Phyllodes tumor (benign).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology


58. Tan PH, Jayabaskar T, Yip G, Tan Y, Hilmy M, Selvarajan S, Bay BH: p53 and c-kit (CD117) protein expression as prognostic indicators in breast phyllodes tumors: a tissue microarray study. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1527-34
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  • [Title] p53 and c-kit (CD117) protein expression as prognostic indicators in breast phyllodes tumors: a tissue microarray study.
  • Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms whose clinical behavior is difficult to predict on histology.
  • In this study, we determined if p53 and CD117 (c-kit) protein expression was predictive of behavior in a series of 335 phyllodes tumors diagnosed at the Singapore General Hospital, using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays.
  • Representative areas from 250 (75%) benign, 54 (16%) borderline and 31 (9%) malignant phyllodes tumors were selected for construction of tissue microarrays using the 2 mm punch.
  • Stromal p53 and CD117 protein expression was associated with tumor grade (P < 0.05).
  • We conclude that tissue microarrays are a convenient method for evaluating immunostaining results of large numbers of phyllodes tumors.
  • Although positive p53 stromal immunohistochemical detection may corroborate histologic malignancy, it is CD117 protein expression in phyllodes tumor stromal cells that may be of potential utility in predicting recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16258510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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59. Sando N, Oka K, Moriya T, Saito H, Nagakura S, Mori N, Suzuki T, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Osteosarcoma arising in the breast. APMIS; 2006 Jul-Aug;114(7-8):581-7
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  • [Title] Osteosarcoma arising in the breast.
  • We report on a 49-year-old woman with osteosarcoma arising in the breast.
  • She had undergone two consecutive excision biopsies for right breast tumors at ages 40 and 42 years.
  • The tumors were diagnosed as a fibroadenoma and a benign phyllodes tumor, respectively.
  • At age 46 years, she noticed a gradually enlarging mass in the same breast.
  • The tumor occupied the entire breast and measured 12x9x8.5 cm.
  • The tumor cells were spindle-shaped and pleomorphic, with large, irregular nuclei and distinct nucleoli.
  • Many tumor cells had characteristics of osteoblastic and chondroblastic elements producing osteoid, osseous, and cartilaginous intracellular substances.
  • Tumor cells expressed vimentin, osteopontin, vascular endothelial growth factor, CD10, and alkaline phosphatase, but did not express keratin.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Osteosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16907866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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60. Akin M, Irkorucu O, Koksal H, Gonul II, Gultekin S, Kurukahvecioglu O, Anadol AZ, Tekin E: Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2010;111(5):271-4
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare neoplasm comprising less than 1% of all breast tumors.
  • Its clinical spectrum ranges from a benign and locally recurrent form of behavior to malignant and metastatic forms.
  • All cases were histologically examined by an experienced breast pathologist, and tumors were classified as benign, borderline malignant or malignant according to standard histological criteria.
  • Seven (70%) of 10 tumors were benign and 3 (30%) were malignant.
  • The median tumor size was 29 mm (range: 12-80 mm).
  • CONCLUSION: PT is a rare neoplasm of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20568416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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61. Tomita T, Ren Y, Davis M, Tawfik O: Phyllodes tumor of borderline malignancy: seven year follow up with immunohistochemical study. Pathol Int; 2005 Sep;55(9):585-9
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of borderline malignancy: seven year follow up with immunohistochemical study.
  • The patient was 80 years old when she initially presented with a left breast mass.
  • Originally, a needle biopsy showed benign stromal and ductal cells.
  • Five years later, the breast mass increased in size and a core needle biopsy showed a biphasic intraductal papillomatous tumor with cellular stroma.
  • Eighteen months later, another biopsy was taken from the breast mass, revealing a well-developed phyllodes tumor (PT) of borderline malignancy.
  • Histolopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, including estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67 and p53, performed on tissues from the different biopsy specimens confirmed the progressive transition of the tumor in a 7 year period.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Simple. Mitosis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16143035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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62. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours. Histopathology; 2010 Jun;56(7):868-75
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  • [Title] p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: Control of cell cycling and proliferation is critical to the development of neoplasia and may play a role in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumours (PTs).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-five PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis


63. Kuo YJ, Ho DM, Tsai YF, Hsu CY: Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in phyllodes tumor with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph node. J Chin Med Assoc; 2010 Nov;73(11):602-4
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  • [Title] Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in phyllodes tumor with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph node.
  • Phyllodes tumor (PT) consists of stroma of variable grading and benign ductal epithelium.
  • Although exceptional, carcinomas that arise from the epithelium in PTs do exist, and seem to behave less aggressively than the usually encountered breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21093830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-7731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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64. Aron M, Ray R, Verma K: Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast-cytological features of two cases and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):260-4
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  • [Title] Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast-cytological features of two cases and review of literature.
  • Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a lesion characterized on histology by the presence of anastomosing slit like spaces embedded in a hyalinized fibrous stroma.
  • Till date, the cytological features of PASH have been described in only 12 cases, of which two cases were diagnosed on aspiration cytology as suspicious for carcinoma and in one case, for phyllodes tumor.
  • The first case was diagnosed as a phyllodes tumor and the other case as a benign proliferative breast disease, possibly a fibroadenoma.
  • FNAC findings of PASH are non-specific, and the role of FNAC in PASH is to confirm the benign nature of the lesion, rather than provide a definitive pre-surgical diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomatosis / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010 Jul-Sep;53(3):573-4 [20699535.001]
  • (PMID = 16758690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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65. Resetkova E, Khazai L, Albarracin CT, Arribas E: Clinical and radiologic data and core needle biopsy findings should dictate management of cellular fibroepithelial tumors of the breast. Breast J; 2010 Nov-Dec;16(6):573-80
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  • [Title] Clinical and radiologic data and core needle biopsy findings should dictate management of cellular fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.
  • Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma identified on core needle biopsy (CNB) may prove to be either fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor at excision; therefore, management of these rare lesions is highly controversial.
  • Radiologic findings (mammogram and sonogram) and multiple histologic parameters on CNB specimen were blindly re-evaluated by one experienced breast radiologist and two breast pathologists, respectively, and results were correlated with final diagnosis at excision.
  • Cellular fibroepithelial lesions with indeterminate or suspect imaging findings, with larger size, and with an equivocal comment such as "cannot rule out phyllodes tumor" in the pathology report were excised more frequently (p = 0.05, p = 0.034, and p = 0.01, respectively).
  • Of 43 excised lesions, 13 were classified as benign phyllodes tumors, 23 as fibroadenoma and seven as benign cellular fibroepithelial lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Mammography. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21070433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Gamoudi A, Chargui R, Khomsi F, Mahjoub S, Slimene M, Ben Dhiab T, Hechiche M, Boussen H, Rahal K: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a case series of 106 patients. Am J Surg; 2006 Aug;192(2):141-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a case series of 106 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare, and their prognosis and treatment are still subject of discussion.
  • According to criteria of Azzopardi and Salvadori, tumors were classified into 3 groups: benign (62 cases, 58.4%), borderline (16 cases, 15%), and malignant (28 cases, 26.4%).
  • Eighty-two patients (77.4%) were treated conservatively (62 benign, 11 borderline, and 9 malignant) and 24 (22.6%) by radical surgery (5 borderline and 19 malignant).
  • For malignant PTs treated by enucleation or local excision with or without reexcision of the tumor bed, the 5-year overall and disease-free survivals were 28.5% and 15.6% versus 72.7% and 73.6% when the surgery was radical (mastectomy with or without axillary dissection) (P = .12 and P = .0022).
  • The rate of recurrence was 12.2% (13) after a mean follow-up of 39 months (5 benign, 2 borderline, and 5 malignant).
  • In univariate analysis, age and recurrences are not of prognostic value for survival, whereas tumor size, histotype, necrosis, cytonuclear atypia, tumor margins, and number of mitosis were significant prognostic factors for survival.
  • CONCLUSION: According to our results, we recommend for malignant PT a simple mastectomy, whereas for borderline and benign PT, treatment is based rather on wide excision passing in healthy tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16860620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Sotheran W, Domjan J, Jeffrey M, Wise MH, Perry PM: Phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study from 1982-2000 of 50 cases in Portsmouth. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2005 Sep;87(5):339-44
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study from 1982-2000 of 50 cases in Portsmouth.
  • INTRODUCTION: This study is a retrospective analysis of 50 phyllodes tumours to determine the optimal surgical procedure for these types of tumours.
  • Fifty patients with phyllodes tumours were identified.
  • These comprised 29 benign, 12 borderline and 9 malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • RESULTS: All benign phyllodes tumours were treated with breast-conserving surgery, these included 16 tumours over 40 mm.
  • Borderline and malignant lesions were treated by breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy.
  • Malignant and borderline phyllodes tumours had a recurrence rate of 28%.
  • Breast-conserving surgery appeared to be as effective as mastectomy.
  • Recurrence occurred in 1/29 benign tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast-conserving surgery is the treatment of choice for all benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16176692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1963973
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68. Istvanic S, Fischer AH, Banner BF, Eaton DM, Larkin AC, Khan A: Cell blocks of breast FNAs frequently allow diagnosis of invasion or histological classification of proliferative changes. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 May;35(5):263-9
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  • [Title] Cell blocks of breast FNAs frequently allow diagnosis of invasion or histological classification of proliferative changes.
  • Two major limitations of breast fine needle aspiration (FNA) compared with core needle biopsies (CNB) are the inability to determine whether a cancer is invasive and to classify proliferative lesions.
  • We studied 40 consecutive "rapid cell blocks" from breast FNAs with surgical pathology follow-up to test whether cell blocks can overcome these limitations.
  • One cystosarcoma phyllodes was suspected based on the cell block sections.
  • Cell blocks from 12 of 14 benign breast FNAs showed sufficient cells to assign a histologic diagnosis of no hyperplasia (1 case, confirmed on follow-up) and usual hyperplasia (11 cases; confirmed in eight of 11 on follow-up).
  • Cell blocks complement smears and monolayers and appear to overcome major limitations of breast FNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Ductal, Lobular, and Medullary / pathology. Paraffin Embedding / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papilloma, Intraductal / classification. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / classification. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427225.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Goel NB, Knight TE, Pandey S, Riddick-Young M, de Paredes ES, Trivedi A: Fibrous lesions of the breast: imaging-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6):1547-59
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  • [Title] Fibrous lesions of the breast: imaging-pathologic correlation.
  • Fibroepithelial lesions of the breast are commonly seen in clinical practice.
  • Fibroadenomas, benign lesions that derive from the terminal duct lobular unit, are the most common and are often identified at clinical examination or mammography as circumscribed masses.
  • Benign mesenchymal tumors include focal fibrosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, and fibromatosis or desmoid tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumor, which is similar to fibroadenoma but has increased cellularity in the stroma, is typically benign but has malignant potential.
  • Except for fibromatosis and phyllodes tumor, fibroepithelial lesions need not be excised if the diagnosis is confirmed by the results of histologic analysis at percutaneous biopsy.
  • To correctly differentiate between fibrous breast lesions that are benign and those that should be resected, the physician must be familiar with the correlated radiologic-pathologic findings in the various lesion types.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 16284134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Dubb M, Michelow P, Grayson W: Cytologic features of trichoblastoma in fine needle aspiration biopsies. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):679-82
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  • On fine needle aspiration, the patient was diagnosed as having a benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • RESULTS: The cytologic features of trichoblastoma resembled a cellular fibroadenoma/phyllodes tumor on aspiration, not previously described in the literature.
  • If the tumor occurs in the region of the breast, distinction from a fibroadenoma would be difficult if these additional features were not prominent.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the cytologic features of trichoblastoma will allow correct management of the patient and prevent misdiagnosis as other benign or malignant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20014558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Verma S, Singh RK, Rai A, Pandey CP, Singh M, Mohan N: Extent of surgery in the management of phyllodes tumor of the breast: a retrospective multicenter study from India. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Oct-Dec;6(4):511-5
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  • [Title] Extent of surgery in the management of phyllodes tumor of the breast: a retrospective multicenter study from India.
  • INTRODUCTION: Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare tumor of the breast.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this retrospective study is to study the clinicopathological correlation of phyllodes tumors in North-Central part of the India and also to evaluate efficacy of the various surgical options available for the management of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • RESULTS: The breast masses in our study were particularly large.
  • Histopathological report was benign, borderline, and malignant PT in 62.4%, 20.8%, and 16.8% of the cases, respectively.
  • This study shows that wide local excision for benign and borderline and simple mastectomy with or without reconstruction for the malignant PT of the breast are acceptable best surgical options.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21358091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] India
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72. Orea-Estudillo D, Jaimes-López L, Bernal-Cano J: [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review]. Cir Cir; 2008 Mar-Apr;76(2):165-8
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes en un paciente pediátrico. Informe de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors occur with a frequency of 0.3- 0.9% and are rare in young women.
  • We present a phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old female and we reviewed the literature regarding this pathology.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 11-year-old female with a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor.
  • Histological report demonstrated benign phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small phyllodes tumors can be excised with a 1-cm surgical border, whereas larger phyllodes tumors are treated with simple mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 18492439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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73. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):165-70
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution.
  • The aim of this study was to document the clinical and pathological features of a large single institutional series of ethnically diverse patients with phyllodes tumours (PTs), and to determine which characteristics were predictive of outcome.
  • Sixty five PTs were analysed; 34 were benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant (34 low grade and 31 high grade PTs on a two tiered grading system).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Mastectomy / statistics & numerical data. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / statistics & numerical data. New South Wales / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 19329316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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74. Fang Y, Gao JD, Tian YT, Xie YQ, Zhen S: [Analysis of the treatment and prognosis of recurrent breast phyllodes tumor]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Jan;31(1):72-4
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  • [Title] [Analysis of the treatment and prognosis of recurrent breast phyllodes tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the methods of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for patients with recurrent breast phyllodes tumor.
  • METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 26 patients with pathologically proven recurrent phyllodes tumors treated from March 1972 to June 2006 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • The primary breast phyllodes tumor was > or = 5 cm in 10 cases with a recurrence rate of 60.0% (6/10 cases); < 5 cm in 16 cases with a recurrence rate of 31.3% 5/16 cases).
  • After surgical removal of the breast primary tumor, the recurrent tumor was > or = 5 cm in 14 cases with a re-recurrence rate of 35.7% (5/14 cases); < 5 cm was in 12 cases with are-recurrence rate of 50.0% (6/12 cases).
  • There was no statistically significant relationship between the (primary and reccurent) tumor size and recurrence rate (P = 0.094, P = 0.383) or prognosis (P = 0.142, P = 0.486).
  • The benign or malignant nature of the breast phyllodes tumor was significantly correlated with the rate of local re-recurrence (P = 0.046) and prognosis (P = 0.028).
  • CONCLUSION: The benign or malignant nature of the breast phyllodes tumor is significantly correlated with the local re-recurrence and prognosis, while the size of the primary breast phyllodes tumor has no significant effect on either re-recrruence or prognosis.
  • The first rescue operation is most important in the treatment of recurrent breast phyllodes tumor.
  • Active surgical treatment can still effectively save the life of the patients with a local re-recurrent tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19538877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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75. Fukuoka H, Moriuchi M, Yano H, Nagayasu T, Moriuchi H: No association of mouse mammary tumor virus-related retrovirus with Japanese cases of breast cancer. J Med Virol; 2008 Aug;80(8):1447-51
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  • [Title] No association of mouse mammary tumor virus-related retrovirus with Japanese cases of breast cancer.
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the causative agent of breast tumors in mice.
  • Recently, DNA sequences homologous or closely related to MMTV env gene have been specifically detected in breast cancer tissue from significant numbers of American, Australian, and Tunisian women, suggesting a viral etiology for at least a part of human breast cancer.
  • However, the viral sequences have not been detected from any of breast cancer samples in several subsequent studies.
  • Thus, whether MMTV-related retrovirus is a causative agent of human breast cancer remains controversial.
  • To demonstrate if MMTV-related retrovirus is involved in Japanese cases of breast cancer, breast tissue specimens from 46 breast cancer patients and 3 patients with benign mammary tumors were investigated.
  • Thus, MMTV itself or MMTV-related retrovirus is not associated with breast carcinogenesis in Japanese women, and it is unclear whether this conclusion is merely a reflection of regional differences in its epidemics.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Gene Products, env / genetics. Genes, env. Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / virology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Blotting, Southern. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / virology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / virology. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Fibroadenoma / epidemiology. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Fibroadenoma / virology. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Mice. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Phyllodes Tumor / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18551605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, env
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76. Tse GM, Wong FC, Tsang AK, Lee CS, Lui PC, Lo AW, Law BK, Scolyer RA, Karim RZ, Putti TC: Stromal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression correlates with the grade of mammary phyllodes tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;58(6):600-4
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  • [Title] Stromal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression correlates with the grade of mammary phyllodes tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), particularly endothelial and inducible forms (e/i-NOS), are expressed in various cancers, including breast cancer.
  • In mammary fibroepithelial lesions, NOS expression in stromal cells has been reported to be lower in fibroadenomas than in phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: To investigate NOS expression in phyllodes tumours of varying degrees of malignancy.
  • METHODS: One hundred and sixty seven mammary phyllodes tumours (97 benign, 47 borderline malignant, and 23 frankly malignant) were evaluated for e-NOS and i-NOS expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Stromal expression of e-NOS was absent, weak, moderate, and strong in 43%, 31%, 13%, and 13% of benign tumours; 17%, 26%, 13%, and 44% of borderline malignant tumours; and 17%, 35%, 13%, and 35% of frankly malignant tumours, respectively.
  • Stromal expression of i-NOS was 77%, 18%, 4%, and 1% in benign tumours; 42%, 28%, 19%, and 11% in borderline malignant tumours; and 43%, 13%, 26%, and 18% in frankly malignant tumours, respectively.
  • Stromal expression of both i-NOS and e-NOS was significantly different between the benign and malignant (borderline and frank) groups of phyllodes tumours (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Higher stromal expression of NOS in phyllodes tumours is associated with malignancy, suggesting a possible role in malignant progression, particularly metastasising potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 15917410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS3 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770683
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77. Tsai WC, Jin JS, Yu JC, Sheu LF: CD10, actin, and vimentin expression in breast phyllodes tumors correlates with tumor grades of the WHO grading system. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;14(2):127-31
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  • [Title] CD10, actin, and vimentin expression in breast phyllodes tumors correlates with tumor grades of the WHO grading system.
  • The discrimination of borderline from malignant primary breast phyllodes (PT) tumor is still unclear.
  • In our results, the stromal staining of CD10 was positive in 4 of 6 malignant and 2 of 5 borderline PT cases, but negative in all benign PT cases.
  • Stromal actin and intraglandular vimentin-expressive tumor cells were found in 5 of 6 malignant PT cases but not in borderline and benign PT cases.
  • Besides, the progression of malignant potential breast phyllodes tumor may cause glandular epithelium atypia with loss of polarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neprilysin / biosynthesis. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Vimentin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16703173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vimentin; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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78. Yamamoto H, Okumura K, Toshima S, Mukaisho K, Sugihara H, Hattori T, Kato M, Asano S: FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues. Biol Pharm Bull; 2009 Jul;32(7):1148-54
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  • [Title] FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues.
  • FXYD3, also known as Mat-8 (Mammary tumor 8 kDa), is one of mRNAs highly expressed in mouse and human breast cancers.
  • Here, we newly found that FXYD3 protein was also overexpressed in human breast cancer specimens; invasive ductal carcinomas and intra-ductal carcinomas, whereas its expression was low in benign lesion specimens; mastopathy, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors.
  • Here, we found that FXYD3a mRNA is a major transcript product expressed in human normal tissues as well as in breast, colon, stomach and pancreas cancer cell lines.
  • Cell proliferation rate of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was drastically decreased when FXYD3a and 3b mRNAs were suppressed by the small interfering RNA.
  • These results suggest that FXYD3a protein is highly expressed in breast cancers, and responsible for cancer cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amino Acid Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Alignment. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19571376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FXYD3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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79. Hossain D, Meiers I, Qian J, MacLennan GT, Bostwick DG: Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia: follow-up study of 18 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Nov;132(11):1729-33
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  • RESULTS: Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia consists of 1 or more ill-defined, uncircumscribed, hyperplastic stromal nodules, with variable numbers of atypical, bizarre giant cells, with vacuolated nuclei, smudged chromatin, and frequent multinucleation infiltrating around benign acini.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic stromal hyperplasia with atypia is a rare, benign lesion, composed of degenerative myocytes with atypia that is histologically and clinically reminiscent of benign counterparts in the myometrium, breast, vulva, vagina, and elsewhere.
  • Recognition of this distinctive entity should allow separation from phyllodes tumor and sarcoma of the prostate.
  • The phrase stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential is inappropriate for this benign tumor, and its use is discouraged.

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  • (PMID = 18976007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Vimentin
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80. Chung A, Scharre K, Wilson M: Intraductal fibroadenomatosis: an unusual variant of fibroadenoma. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):193-5
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  • We present a case of a benign breast lesion that contains histopathologic characteristics of fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumor, intraductal adenoma and papilloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18248554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Agabiti S, Gurrera A, Amico P, Vasquez E, Magro G: [Mammary hamartoma with atypical stromal cells: a potential diagnostic dilemma]. Pathologica; 2007 Dec;99(6):434-7
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  • Hamartoma of the breast is a pseudotumoural lesion that does not usually pose diagnostic problems for the pathologist.
  • Although atypical stromal cell (ASCs) can be encountered in several benign and malignant breast lesions, their occurrence in hamartoma has not been reported to date.
  • The authors report a case of breast hamartoma containing numerous atypical mono- or multinucleated stromal cells within the fibro-fatty component.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biomarkers. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroblasts / chemistry. Fibroblasts / pathology. Humans. Lipoma / diagnosis. Liposarcoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Stromal Cells / chemistry. Stromal Cells / pathology. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18416336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Vimentin
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82. Tan PH, Jayabaskar T, Chuah KL, Lee HY, Tan Y, Hilmy M, Hung H, Selvarajan S, Bay BH: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: the role of pathologic parameters. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Apr;123(4):529-40
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast: the role of pathologic parameters.
  • We aimed to establish whether morphologic parameters were prognostically important in a large series of breast phyllodes tumors in Asian women.
  • Of 335 phyllodes tumors diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between January 1992 and December 2002, 250 (74.6%) were benign, 54 (16.1%) borderline, and 31 (9.3%) malignant, based on histologic review of archival slides.
  • The 7 women who died of disease during follow-up had malignant phyllodes tumor at the outset and experienced recurrences, and death was preceded by distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Asia. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15743740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Kersting C, Kuijper A, Schmidt H, Packeisen J, Liedtke C, Tidow N, Gustmann C, Hinrichs B, Wülfing P, Tio J, Boecker W, van Diest P, Brandt B, Buerger H: Amplifications of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (egfr) are common in phyllodes tumors of the breast and are associated with tumor progression. Lab Invest; 2006 Jan;86(1):54-61
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  • [Title] Amplifications of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (egfr) are common in phyllodes tumors of the breast and are associated with tumor progression.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare biphasic tumors with the potential for invasion and metastatic spread.
  • An important role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in phyllodes tumors has been proposed.
  • We investigated 58 phyllodes tumors of the breast (40 benign, 10 borderline and eight malignant) by means of egfr fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and gene dosage PCR for a regulatory sequence within intron 1 of egfr.
  • Immunopositivity for EGFR was detected in 19% of phyllodes tumors (75% of all malignant tumors) in stromal tumor cells but not in the epithelial component.
  • Whole-gene amplifications were seen by FISH in 15.8% (in stromal cells only) and intron 1 amplifications by gene dosage PCR in as much as 41.8% of all phyllodes tumors.
  • Significant correlations were seen between tumor grade on the one hand and EGFR overexpression (P=0.001) and intron 1 amplifications (P<0.05) on the other.
  • In conclusion, our results show for the first time that activating mutations in and overexpression of egfr are associated with the progression in grade of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics


84. Fernández-Aguilar S, Noël JC: [Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with osteoclast-like giant cells: a case report]. Ann Pathol; 2007 Feb;27(1):31-4
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  • [Title] [Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with osteoclast-like giant cells: a case report].
  • Breast tumors, particularly of stromal origin, containing multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells (OLGC) are rarely reported in the literature.
  • We report here the first case of a malignant phyllodes tumor associated with OLGC occurring in a 43 year-old African woman who presented with a painful palpable mass of the outer upper quadrant of the right breast.
  • After surgical excision, histological examination showed a malignant phyllodes tumor in which the stromal component displayed evident sarcomatous changes and was densely populated with benign multinucleated OLGC.
  • This lesion ressembles giant cell tumor of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17568357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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85. Hirose M, Hashizume T, Seino N, Kubota H, Nobusawa H, Gokan T: Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 Mar-Apr;36(2):51-65
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  • [Title] Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has become important not only for assessing the extent of breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery but also for the evaluation and diagnosis of other benign and malignant pathologies.
  • We radiologists therefore need to know the appropriate indications for performing breast MRI and understand the MRI features of breast disease.
  • We herein review and discuss the application of current pulse sequences and the imaging strategies for MRI of breast pathologies.
  • We will illustrate the MRI features of various breast pathologies including malignant tumors such as invasive and noninvasive ductal carcinoma, special types of invasive carcinoma (mucinous, apocrine, lobular carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and so on), inflammatory carcinoma, semimalignant tumor (phyllodes tumor), benign tumors (fibroadenoma, intraductal and intracystic papilloma), inflammatory conditions, and postsurgical changes.
  • We will also demonstrate three-dimensional fusion images of MR ductography and breast MRI of patients with nipple discharge.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17331837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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86. Tomimaru Y, Komoike Y, Egawa C, Motomura K, Inaji H, Kataoka TR, Koyama H: A case of phyllodes tumor of the breast with a lesion mimicking fibroadenoma. Breast Cancer; 2005;12(4):322-6
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  • [Title] A case of phyllodes tumor of the breast with a lesion mimicking fibroadenoma.
  • We report a case of phyllodes tumor (PT) with multiple lesions partly mimicking fibroadenoma (FA).
  • A 43-year-old woman was referred to our institute because of a left breast mass which was diagnosed as FA clinically.
  • On histological examination, the tumor consisted of three different components; a lesion diagnosed as FA, another lesion as benign PT, and the other lesion as borderline PT.
  • Finally, the tumor was diagnosed as borderline PT.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16286914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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87. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Horvath L, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Nov;62(11):1016-20
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  • [Title] Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • A comprehensive analysis of the expression of Wnt signalling pathway proteins in mammary phyllodes tumours (PTs) has not been previously performed.
  • METHODS: 65 PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and 8 malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadherins / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Survival Analysis. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19861560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / SFRP4 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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88. Fajdić J, Gotovac N, Hrgović Z, Kristek J, Horvat V, Kaufmann M: Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):113-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • BACKGROUND: This article compares experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumors from 2 regional institutions with the relevant literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 2,848 breast cancer patients were treated in our institutions, 36 (1.44%) for phyllodes tumors.
  • The average tumor size was 5.1 cm (range 1.4-19.6).
  • Wide excision with tumor-free margins was carried out in 29 (80.5%) cases and mastectomy in 7 (19.4%) cases.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed the phyllodes tumors to be benign in 27 (75.0%), malignant in 6 (16.6%), and borderline in 3 (8.3%) cases.
  • In this period, recurrences of 3 (8.3%) malignant and 2 (5.6%) benign phyllodes tumors were diagnosed and treated.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study shows that tumor size, margin infiltration, mitotic activity and degree of cellular atypia are important prognostic factors.
  • Although wide local excision is usually the treatment of choice, tumor recurrence is common.
  • Axillary lymphadenectomy in malignant phyllodes tumors is, in our opinion, still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mammography. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17341897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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89. Barrio AV, Clark BD, Goldberg JI, Hoque LW, Bernik SF, Flynn LW, Susnik B, Giri D, Polo K, Patil S, Van Zee KJ: Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes of 293 phyllodes tumors of the breast. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2961-70
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes of 293 phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors (PT) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast with unpredictable behavior.
  • All available pathology slides (90%) were rereviewed for margins, borders, fibroproliferation in the surrounding breast tissue, stromal pattern, stromal cellularity, frequency of mitoses, and necrosis.
  • RESULTS: All cases occurred in women, with a median age of 42, with 203 originally categorized as benign and 90 as malignant.
  • These patients constituted 71% of the seven patients who had uniformly aggressive pathologic features, including large tumor size (>or=7.0 cm), infiltrative borders, marked stromal overgrowth, marked stromal cellularity, high mitotic count, and necrosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Positive margins, fibroproliferation in the surrounding breast tissue, and necrosis are associated with a marked increase in LR rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Cell Division / physiology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitosis / physiology. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17562113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Yonemori K, Hasegawa T, Shimizu C, Shibata T, Matsumoto K, Kouno T, Ando M, Katsumata N, Fujiwara Y: Correlation of p53 and MIB-1 expression with both the systemic recurrence and survival in cases of phyllodes tumors of the breast. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(10):705-12
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  • [Title] Correlation of p53 and MIB-1 expression with both the systemic recurrence and survival in cases of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumors are rare primary tumors of the breast.
  • The study aimed at evaluating the immunohistochemical features of phyllodes tumors of the breast that may be useful for predicting the clinical outcome.
  • The study included 41 patients with phyllodes tumor (20 benign, 5 borderline, and 16 malignant).
  • None of the phyllodes tumors was positive for HER2/neu or CD117/c-kit.
  • Positive staining for p53 was seen in 10 phyllodes tumors (24%), and the median MIB-1 index was 10%.
  • Both p53 expression and the MIB-1 index, but not the expression status of EGFR, were significantly correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival. p53 expression status and MIB-1 index may be significant prognostic factors in patients with phyllodes tumors, and careful postoperative follow-up may be important in those cases showing positive expression of p53 and/or MIB-1 index.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate


91. Lien HC, Lu YS, Cheng AL, Chang WC, Jeng YM, Kuo YH, Huang CS, Chang KJ, Yao YT: Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptor in human breast tissues and related neoplasms. J Pathol; 2006 Jul;209(3):317-27
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  • [Title] Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptor in human breast tissues and related neoplasms.
  • Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a steroid hormone receptor that has been shown to play important roles in mammary development and differentiation, and has been implicated in breast tumourigenesis, but its precise biological significance in mammary pathophysiology remains unclear.
  • In order to generate a comprehensive expression profile for GR in normal versus neoplastic breast tissues, GR expression was investigated in situ in 400 human breast tissue samples, comprising normal tissue and a range of benign, pre-invasive, and invasive lesions, using immunohistochemical assays.
  • The novel expression of GR in myoepithelium, not observed in luminal epithelium, not only demonstrates expression patterns exclusive to the alpha form of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and suggests distinctive functions between GR and these two important steroid hormone receptors in the breast, but may also indicate unique physiological and perhaps pathological roles for the myoepithelium in mediating the effects of glucocorticoid hormones in the breast.
  • The strong expression of GR in metaplastic carcinomas (94.4%) and malignant phyllodes tumours (92.3%) suggests a pathogenetic role for GR, and implies that targeting GR in these tumours may have potential therapeutic application.
  • This marked discrepancy warrants a re-examination of the biological roles of GR in the pathophysiology of breast malignancy.
  • The lack of methylation in the promoter region of the GR gene in all 118 non-metaplastic carcinomas, as demonstrated by methylation-specific PCR and bisulphite DNA sequencing analysis, indicates that methylation is less likely to play a role in the reduction of GR expression in non-metaplastic carcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • (PMID = 16639692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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92. Buch A, Rout P, Makhija P: Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):259-61
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  • [Title] Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump.
  • An unusual combination of two benign breast neoplasms adenomyoepithelioma and phyllodes tumor presenting as a solitary breast lump have been described.
  • This patient also presented with a recurrent breast neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;49(3):476
  • (PMID = 16933731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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93. Ferbeyre-Binelfa L, Ramírez-Bollas J, Bautista-Piña V, Espejo-Fonseca R, Ruvalcaba-Limón E, Serratos-Garduño E: [Fibromatosis of the breast. Report of two cases and review of the literature]. Cir Cir; 2009 Jul-Aug;77(4):313-8; 291-6
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  • [Title] [Fibromatosis of the breast. Report of two cases and review of the literature].
  • BACKGROUND: Fibromatosis is a term used to describe a group of lesions characterized by well-differentiated fibroblast proliferation with an usually benign biological behavior but with an infiltrative pattern of growth, frequently recurrent and locally invasive.
  • The presence of this entity in breast tissue is an uncommon clinical situation, comprising approximately 0.2% of breast tumors and very often misdiagnosed as malignant disease or phyllodes tumor.
  • In this rare condition, immunohistochemistry is an important diagnostic tool in anatomopathological differential diagnosis with other spindle cell tumors of the breast.
  • CLINICAL CASES: We present two cases of breast fibromatosis confirmed immunohistochemically and also by biopsy.
  • One case had the clinical and imaging appearance of breast carcinoma with the classic irregular mass presentation and the other case was misdiagnosed as phyllodes tumor because of the size and density of the tumor and the cytology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 83 cases of breast fibromatosis have been reported during the last 30 years, including one male patient.
  • We reviewed clinicopathological features of two cases of fibromatosis of the breast treated at our institute.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19919794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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94. Djordjevic B, Hanna WM: Expression of c-kit in fibroepithelial lesions of the breast is a mast cell phenomenon. Mod Pathol; 2008 Oct;21(10):1238-45
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  • [Title] Expression of c-kit in fibroepithelial lesions of the breast is a mast cell phenomenon.
  • The expression of c-kit, a protooncogene tyrosine kinase receptor (CD117), in phyllodes tumors of the breast has been the subject of recent investigations.
  • We examined stromal c-kit expression by immunohistochemistry in 68 cases comprising fibroadenomas, fibroadenomas with cellular stroma, and benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors.
  • One borderline and one malignant phyllodes tumor showed a diffuse weak stromal signal, which could not be accounted for by toluidine blue and tryptase.
  • Our findings indicate that c-kit is an unlikely player in the pathogenesis of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast.
  • C-kit, therefore, has neither a diagnostic nor a prognostic role in phyllodes tumors, and there is no rationale for the treatment of recurrent of malignant phyllodes tumor patients with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Mast Cells / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18500266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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95. Belkacémi Y, Bousquet G, Marsiglia H, Ray-Coquard I, Magné N, Malard Y, Lacroix M, Gutierrez C, Senkus E, Christie D, Drumea K, Lagneau E, Kadish SP, Scandolaro L, Azria D, Ozsahin M: Phyllodes tumor of the breast. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Feb 1;70(2):492-500
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast.
  • Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%).
  • Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size < or = 3 cm and no tumor necrosis for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control.
  • Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate


96. Jones AM, Mitter R, Poulsom R, Gillett C, Hanby AM, Tomlinson IP, Sawyer EJ, Phyllodes Tumour Consortium: mRNA expression profiling of phyllodes tumours of the breast: identification of genes important in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours. J Pathol; 2008 Dec;216(4):408-17
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  • [Title] mRNA expression profiling of phyllodes tumours of the breast: identification of genes important in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast (PTs).
  • Expression profiling of 23 PTs (12 benign, 11 borderline/malignant) was performed using Affymetrix U133A GeneChips. mRNA expression in the borderline/malignant PTs was compared to the benign PTs.
  • PAX3, TGFB2 and HMGA2 were expressed predominantly in borderline/malignant PTs, but showed some expression in benign tumours; they may be important in the transition from the benign to borderline/malignant phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18937276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Investigator] Walker R; Pinder S; Jones L; Ellis I; Tan PH; Macartney J; Green D; Hales S; Harding-Mackean C; Colclough A; MacNeill F; Rowlands D; Smith C; Fentiman I; Cane P; Desai A; Goderya R; Nerurkar A; Kissin M; Jackson P
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97. Rodríguez Ogando A, Fernández López T, Rodríguez Castaño MJ, Mata Fernández C, Alvarez Bernardi J, Cebollero Presmanes M: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Oct;12(10):704-6
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl.
  • Breast tumors in adolescents are very rare and mostly benign.
  • Fibroadenomas are the most frequent, but within the extensive differential diagnosis, the phyllodes tumor must be mentioned, which accounts for about 1% of breast tumors and the diagnosis of which is very rare in patients younger than 20 years.
  • There are no specific symptoms or radiological images to distinguish phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma; therefore, histological examination is mandatory for diagnosis.
  • Histology also allows the classification of phyllodes tumor into benign, borderline, or malignant types for appropriate surgical treatment: freemargin excision in benign tumors and mastectomy in the other two types.
  • Fortunately, the majority of these tumors are benign, and treatment maximizes breast conservation with free infiltration margins surgery, given that this fact is the most important factor to prevent local recurrence.
  • In this article, we describe a rare case of borderline cystosarcoma phyllodes in a 12-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20947486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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98. Tse GM, Tsang AK, Putti TC, Scolyer RA, Lui PC, Law BK, Karim RZ, Lee CS: Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):185-9
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  • [Title] Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours.
  • In the breast, myoepithelial cells express CD10, but there are few studies of the expression of CD10 in mammary fibroepithelial lesions.
  • METHODS: Stromal CD10 expression was studied in 181 mammary phyllodes tumours (102 benign, 51 borderline malignant, and 28 frankly malignant) and 33 fibroadenomas using immunohistochemistry, to evaluate whether differences in expression correlated with the degree of malignancy.
  • RESULTS: There was a progressive increase in the patients' age and tumour size, from fibroadenoma to phyllodes tumours with an increasing degree of malignancy (p < 0.001).
  • Stromal CD10 expression was positive in one of 33 fibroadenomas, six of 102 benign phyllodes tumours, 16 of 51 borderline malignant phyllodes tumours, and 14 of 28 frankly malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • Stromal CD10 expression had a high specificity (95%) for differentiating between benign lesions (fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumours) and malignant (borderline and frankly malignant) phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Fibroadenoma / immunology. Neprilysin / immunology. Phyllodes Tumor / immunology. Stromal Cells / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15677540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770579
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99. Büchler T, Vorzilková E, Koukolík F, Melínova H, Abrahámová J: [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):446-8
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  • [Title] [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Maligní forma cystosarcoma phyllodes s metastázami do mozku.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an uncommon type of breast tumour.
  • Benign, borderline, and malignant subtypes have been described.
  • Central nervous system metastases of the malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes are rare and associated with poor prognosis.
  • We report on a patient with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes who developed metastatic disease six years after resection of the primary breast tumour.
  • Because metastatic malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes are largely resistant to treatment, the most important objective is to provide optimal management of the primary tumour before dissemination occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21351423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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100. Chen SJ, Cheng KS, Dai YC, Sun YN, Chen YT, Chang KY, Yu SN, Chang TW, Tsai HM, Hsien CC: Quantitatively characterizing the textural features of sonographic images for breast cancer with histopathologic correlation. J Ultrasound Med; 2005 May;24(5):651-61
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  • [Title] Quantitatively characterizing the textural features of sonographic images for breast cancer with histopathologic correlation.
  • A statistical feature matrix was applied to quantify the texture difference (ie, the dissimilarity) of the sonographic images for malignant and benign breast tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: From the experimental results, it is shown that the cellular and fibrous content with spatial distribution of breast masses determine the dissimilarity values on sonographic images.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / ultrasonography. Confidence Intervals. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15840797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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