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1. Sabban F, Collinet P, Lucot JP, Boman F, Leroy JL, Vinatier D: [Phyllodes tumor of the breast: analysis of 8 patients]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2005 May;34(3 Pt 1):252-6
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor of the breast: analysis of 8 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs phyllodes du sein: à propose de 8 patientes.
  • INTRODUCTION: Phyllodes tumors of breast are rare and usually benign.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 8 cases of phyllodes tumors and the literature to report the circumstances of occurrence of these tumors, and their specific clinical diagnosis, therapeutic, prognostic features.
  • Mean tumor size was 3.75 cm.
  • Aspiration cytology demonstrated the phyllode tumor in 43% of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16012385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Grenier J, Delbaldo C, Zelek L, Piedbois P: [Phyllodes tumors and breast sarcomas: a review]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Oct;97(10):1197-207
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumors and breast sarcomas: a review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs phyllodes et sarcomes du sein: mise au point.
  • Phyllodes tumors and sarcomas of the breast are non-epithelial tumors of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumors are benign tumors, tumors of intermediate malignancy or malignant tumors.
  • Radiotherapy is recommended in case of high-grade tumor and after conservativetreatment.
  • Breast sarcomas are even rarer.
  • Grade, involved margins and sometimes tumor necrosis are major prognostics factors.
  • In some situations, a conservative treatment can be discussed, based on tumor size, grade and volume of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / secondary. Hemangiosarcoma / therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20855241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. El Hag IA, Aodah A, Kollur SM, Attallah A, Mohamed AA, Al-Hussaini H: Cytological clues in the distinction between phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Feb 25;118(1):33-40
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  • [Title] Cytological clues in the distinction between phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) sensitivity in discriminating between phyllodes tumor and its benign mimicker fibroadenoma (FA) remains low.
  • Because a preoperative categorization of phyllodes tumor is crucial for their appropriate management, the authors undertook this study in an effort to improve the outcome of FNA by identifying reliable distinguishing features.
  • METHODS: FNA smears from 15 and 12 histologically proven cases of phyllodes tumor and FA, respectively, were reviewed.
  • A group of cytological features that may distinguish between phyllodes tumor and FA were identified.
  • Their value and reproducibility in categorizing phyllodes tumor cases were tested.
  • RESULTS: Three major cytological features were exclusively seen in all of, or the vast majority of, the phyllodes tumor cases; fibromyxoid stromal fragments with spindle nuclei (90%), fibroblastic pavements (93%), and appreciable number of spindles cells of fibroblastic nature among dispersed cell population (100%).
  • The identification of these features improved the pick-up rate of phyllodes tumor from 40% to 100% and had substantial (kappa = 0.56-0.73) interobserver and almost perfect (kappa = 0.83) intraobserver reproducibility.
  • There was no significant difference in the epithelial component characteristics between phyllodes tumor and FA.
  • The frequency and degree of atypia in the dispersed cell population correlated well to the histological grade of phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA has proven to be a reliable test in differentiating between phyllodes tumor and FA with high sensitivity and good reproducibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20094997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Pătraşcu A, Popescu CF, Pleşea IE, Bădulescu A, Tănase F, Mateescu G: Clinical and cytopathological aspects in phyllodes tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2009;50(4):605-11
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  • [Title] Clinical and cytopathological aspects in phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • The frequency of mesenchymal breast tumors is very low, being represented mostly by tumors with biphasic proliferation (phyllodes tumors) and less by other types of non-epithelial tumors.
  • From clinical point of view, phyllodes tumors (PT) can mimic a breast carcinoma.
  • In current study, we assessed clinical aspects of 79 phyllodes tumors regarding patient's age and localization of the tumors.
  • The median age of the patients was 46.07-year-old, being progressively higher with grade of the tumors with significant values between benign and borderline tumors (p=0.04954) and between benign and malignant ones (p=0.02890).
  • The preoperative differentiation between a breast phyllodes tumor and a breast carcinoma is extremely important for avoiding of a useless radical surgery for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19942954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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5. Aranda C, Sotelo M, Torres A, Zárate M: [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 Jul;73(7):387-92
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor and pregnancy. A report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes y embarazo. Reporte de un caso.
  • Phyllodes tumor is a rare breast fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast, predominant in females (0.3 to 0.5%).
  • Phyllodes tumor during pregnancy grows fast and its size is relatively big.
  • These tumors can be classified as benign, malignant or neighboring.
  • A 32-year-old patient at 23.4 week of gestation was admitted in the National Institute of Perinatology with a rapidly growing mass in the right breast; diagnosis confirmed by ultrasound study reporting echoic images on right breast, 10 x 10 cm the greatest and 3x3 cm the smallest.
  • A simple mastectomy was performed at the 26.6 week of gestation on the right breast.
  • A possible phyllodes tumour in the right breast was observed during surgery, weight 9.6 pounds, with partial infiltration to major pectoral muscle.
  • Pathology reported a benign phyllodes tumor in the right breast, with surgical borders free of tumor.
  • Phyllodes tumor is rare and can occur during pregnancy.
  • It is unknown if the tumor is hormone-dependent.
  • The growth of a tumor on a subsequent pregnancy is not necessarily associated with recurrency or with a new disorder on the patient, who has had a complete excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic

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  • (PMID = 16304962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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6. Tan PH: 2005 Galloway Memorial Lecture: Breast phyllodes tumours--morphology and beyond. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Dec;34(11):671-7
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  • [Title] 2005 Galloway Memorial Lecture: Breast phyllodes tumours--morphology and beyond.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the predictive role of morphology in a series of breast phyllodes tumours (PTs) in Asian women, and to determine the utility of immunohistochemical expression of p53 and CD117 in the stromal component.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast PTs, diagnosed between January 1992 and December 2002 at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, were classified into benign, borderline and malignant categories.
  • Histologic classification revealed 250 (74.6%) benign, 54 (16.1%) borderline and 31 (9.3%) malignant PTs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involved surgical margins remain a key prognostic parameter in breast PT.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16453039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Lectures; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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7. Laé M, Vincent-Salomon A, Savignoni A, Huon I, Fréneaux P, Sigal-Zafrani B, Aurias A, Sastre-Garau X, Couturier J: Phyllodes tumors of the breast segregate in two groups according to genetic criteria. Mod Pathol; 2007 Apr;20(4):435-44
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast segregate in two groups according to genetic criteria.
  • Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.
  • The pathologic grading of phyllodes tumors based on the aspect of the stromal component, is divided into 2 or 3 grades according to the system used.
  • To determine whether genetic markers could be of use for improving the classification of phyllodes tumors and to provide a better knowledge of the genetic alterations in these tumors, we analyzed chromosomal changes detected by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in comparison with histological data, in a series of 30 cases.
  • Recurrent chromosome imbalances were observed in 55, 91 and 100% of benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, respectively.
  • The mean number of chromosome changes was one in benign, six in borderline, and six in malignant phyllodes tumors.
  • Gains of 1q, present in only one of nine benign tumors, were found in 11/21 (51%) borderline or malignant tumors.
  • Borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors could not be differentiated on the basis of their genomic imbalances (presence and number of chromosomal changes, presence of 1q gain and/or 13q loss).
  • Conversely, benign tumors could be significantly differentiated from the group composed of borderline and malignant tumors (P<0.01).
  • This study reveals two distinct patterns of genomic imbalance in phyllodes tumors: benign, with none or a few chromosome changes and malignant, with numerous recurrent chromosomal changes, in particular 1q gain and 13q loss.
  • Helpful additional pathological criteria for differentiating the two genetic groups of phyllodes tumors are the nuclear size and the mitotic rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17334353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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8. Jara-Lazaro AR, Tan PH: Molecular pathogenesis of progression and recurrence in breast phyllodes tumors. Am J Transl Res; 2009;1(1):23-34
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  • [Title] Molecular pathogenesis of progression and recurrence in breast phyllodes tumors.
  • Breast phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that need to be distinguished from the common morphologically similar fibroadenomas, because phyllodes tumors can recur and progress to malignancy.
  • Their potentially recurring and metastasizing behavior is attributed to their stromal characteristics, for which categorization between benign, borderline and malignant tumors have not been universally established.
  • Previous clonality studies revealing monoclonal stromal cells versus a polyclonal epithelial component theorized that phyllodes tumors are mainly stromal neoplasms, possibly arising from fibroadenomas.
  • Inverse correlations between epithelial and stromal overexpression for various biological markers like estrogen receptor, p53, c-kit, Ki-67, endothelin-1, epidermal growth factor receptor, heparan sulfate, in addition to findings of epithelial Wnt signalling with stromal insulin growth factors and beta-catenin expression, suggest an initial epithelial-stromal interdependence at the benign phase.
  • Acquisition of new genetic imbalances within the tumor consistent with intratumoral heterogeneity, and subclones within histologically benign phyllodes tumors that recur or metastasize are the current theories explaining these tumors' unpredictable clinical behavior.

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  • (PMID = 19966935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-8141
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of translational research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Transl Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2776292
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Molecular pathogenesis / biological markers / epithelial-stromal interactions / genetic alterations / phyllodes tumors / subclones
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9. Orea-Estudillo D, Jaimes-López L, Bernal-Cano J: [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review]. Cir Cir; 2008 Mar-Apr;76(2):165-8
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  • [Title] [Phyllodes tumor in a pediatric patient. Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor phyllodes en un paciente pediátrico. Informe de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors occur with a frequency of 0.3- 0.9% and are rare in young women.
  • We present a phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old female and we reviewed the literature regarding this pathology.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of an 11-year-old female with a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor.
  • Histological report demonstrated benign phyllodes tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small phyllodes tumors can be excised with a 1-cm surgical border, whereas larger phyllodes tumors are treated with simple mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 18492439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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10. Sakurai K, Enomoto K, Amano S: [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2784-5
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  • [Title] [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast].
  • We report that the long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • During ten years, we experienced twenty-eight patients of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • The patients with local recurrence were diagnosed the benign phyllodes tumor of the breast at the first operation.
  • If the pathological diagnosis was benign phyllodes tumor and surgical margin was negative at the first operation, it is necessary to follow up the patients, because there is a risk of local and distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21224712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Büchler T, Vorzilková E, Koukolík F, Melínova H, Abrahámová J: [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):446-8
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  • [Title] [Malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes with brain metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Maligní forma cystosarcoma phyllodes s metastázami do mozku.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an uncommon type of breast tumour.
  • Benign, borderline, and malignant subtypes have been described.
  • Central nervous system metastases of the malignant subtype of cystosarcoma phyllodes are rare and associated with poor prognosis.
  • We report on a patient with malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes who developed metastatic disease six years after resection of the primary breast tumour.
  • Because metastatic malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes are largely resistant to treatment, the most important objective is to provide optimal management of the primary tumour before dissemination occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21351423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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12. Belkacémi Y, Bousquet G, Marsiglia H, Ray-Coquard I, Magné N, Malard Y, Lacroix M, Gutierrez C, Senkus E, Christie D, Drumea K, Lagneau E, Kadish SP, Scandolaro L, Azria D, Ozsahin M: Phyllodes tumor of the breast. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Feb 1;70(2):492-500
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast.
  • Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%).
  • Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size < or = 3 cm and no tumor necrosis for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control.
  • Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17931796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Tse GM, Niu Y, Shi HJ: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: an update.
  • Phyllodes tumor is an uncommon biphasic breast tumor, with the ability to recur and metastasize, and it behaves biologically like a stromal neoplasm.
  • Traditionally, phyllodes tumors are graded by the use of a set of histologic data into benign, borderline, and malignant.
  • In most series, all phyllodes tumors may recur, but only the borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors metastasize.
  • The expression of many biological markers, including p53, hormone receptors, proliferation markers, angiogenesis group of markers, c-kit, CD10 and epidermal growth factor receptor have been explored, and many have been shown to be variably expressed, depending on the grade of the tumor.
  • These markers are, however, of limited value in predicting the behavior of the tumor.
  • Recently investigators have reported a plethora of genetic changes in phyllodes tumors, the most consistent of which seems to be 1q gain by comparative genomic hybridization.
  • It is foreseeable that more exciting data will be generated to help us to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19434472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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14. Roa JC, Tapia O, Carrasco P, Contreras E, Araya JC, Muñoz S, Roa I: Prognostic factors of phyllodes tumor of the breast. Pathol Int; 2006 Jun;56(6):309-14
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • The phyllodes tumor is characterized by its tendency to recur locally and occasionally to metastasize.
  • The purpose of the present paper was to assess the prognostic value of clinical-morphological characteristics in patients with phyllodes tumor.
  • Forty-seven cases of phyllodes tumors was studied; the World Health Organization classification was used and follow up was obtained.
  • A total of 51%, 28% and 21% of the tumors were classified as benign, borderline and malignant, respectively.
  • The adherence (P = 0.01), size >10 cm (P = 0.001), high mitotic activity (P = 0.03), infiltrative tumor margin (P = 0.0002) and type of surgery in malignant tumors (P = 0.02) proved to be good predictors of relapse.
  • Tumoral grade and some clinical-morphological characteristics of patients with phyllodes tumors have a significant impact on the prediction of its biological behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16704494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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15. Fang Y, Gao JD, Tian YT, Xie YQ, Zhen S: [Analysis of the treatment and prognosis of recurrent breast phyllodes tumor]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Jan;31(1):72-4
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  • [Title] [Analysis of the treatment and prognosis of recurrent breast phyllodes tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the methods of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for patients with recurrent breast phyllodes tumor.
  • METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 26 patients with pathologically proven recurrent phyllodes tumors treated from March 1972 to June 2006 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • The primary breast phyllodes tumor was > or = 5 cm in 10 cases with a recurrence rate of 60.0% (6/10 cases); < 5 cm in 16 cases with a recurrence rate of 31.3% 5/16 cases).
  • After surgical removal of the breast primary tumor, the recurrent tumor was > or = 5 cm in 14 cases with a re-recurrence rate of 35.7% (5/14 cases); < 5 cm was in 12 cases with are-recurrence rate of 50.0% (6/12 cases).
  • There was no statistically significant relationship between the (primary and reccurent) tumor size and recurrence rate (P = 0.094, P = 0.383) or prognosis (P = 0.142, P = 0.486).
  • The benign or malignant nature of the breast phyllodes tumor was significantly correlated with the rate of local re-recurrence (P = 0.046) and prognosis (P = 0.028).
  • CONCLUSION: The benign or malignant nature of the breast phyllodes tumor is significantly correlated with the local re-recurrence and prognosis, while the size of the primary breast phyllodes tumor has no significant effect on either re-recrruence or prognosis.
  • The first rescue operation is most important in the treatment of recurrent breast phyllodes tumor.
  • Active surgical treatment can still effectively save the life of the patients with a local re-recurrent tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19538877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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16. Kang Y, Kim JH, Lee TH, Kim TS, Jung WH, Chung HC, Park BW, Sheen SS, Han JH: Expression of anaphase-promoting complex7 in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors of breast. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jan;40(1):98-107
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  • [Title] Expression of anaphase-promoting complex7 in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors of breast.
  • This study investigates anaphase-promoting complex7 expression in spindle cell breast tumors and also includes a comparison between the proliferation antigen Ki-67 and S-phase fraction.
  • The average values of the anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 labeling indices increased in order from benign to malignant within the phyllodes tumor group, and the fibroadenoma and juvenile fibroadenoma exhibited lower levels of anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 expression than did the phyllodes tumor.
  • The frequency of anaphase-promoting complex7-positive stromal cells correlated with Ki-67 expression in phyllodes tumor and in all of the examined breast tumors.
  • In addition, phyllodes tumor can be differentiated from juvenile fibroadenoma with increased mitotic figures mimicking phyllodes tumor by anaphase-promoting complex7 and Ki-67 immunochemistry.
  • Because anaphase-promoting complex7 is expressed at higher levels than is Ki-67, it may overcome the limitations of the Ki-67 labeling index with regard to the differentiation of benign phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18789487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 6.3.2.19 / Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
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17. Tan PH, Jayabaskar T, Chuah KL, Lee HY, Tan Y, Hilmy M, Hung H, Selvarajan S, Bay BH: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: the role of pathologic parameters. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Apr;123(4):529-40
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast: the role of pathologic parameters.
  • We aimed to establish whether morphologic parameters were prognostically important in a large series of breast phyllodes tumors in Asian women.
  • Of 335 phyllodes tumors diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between January 1992 and December 2002, 250 (74.6%) were benign, 54 (16.1%) borderline, and 31 (9.3%) malignant, based on histologic review of archival slides.
  • The 7 women who died of disease during follow-up had malignant phyllodes tumor at the outset and experienced recurrences, and death was preceded by distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Asia. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15743740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Kelly RJ, Barrett C, Swan N, McDermott R: Metastatic phyllodes tumor causing small-bowel obstruction. Clin Breast Cancer; 2009 Aug;9(3):193-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic phyllodes tumor causing small-bowel obstruction.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes is an important but relatively uncommon fibroepithelial breast neoplasm that accounts for 0.5%-1.0% of female breast carcinomas.
  • This report highlights a unique case of a metastatic phyllodes breast tumor leading to small bowel obstruction.
  • Phyllodes tumors are generally classified into histologic subtypes of benign, intermediate, and malignant, using agreed classification systems.
  • The tumor characteristics that can lead to the dedifferentiation of a relatively benign phenotype to an overt malignant process are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 19661046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0666
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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19. Buch A, Rout P, Makhija P: Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):259-61
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  • [Title] Adenomyoepithelioma with phyllodes tumor--a rare combination in a solitary breast lump.
  • An unusual combination of two benign breast neoplasms adenomyoepithelioma and phyllodes tumor presenting as a solitary breast lump have been described.
  • This patient also presented with a recurrent breast neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomyoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;49(3):476
  • (PMID = 16933731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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20. Akin M, Irkorucu O, Koksal H, Gonul II, Gultekin S, Kurukahvecioglu O, Anadol AZ, Tekin E: Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2010;111(5):271-4
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast; a case series.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare neoplasm comprising less than 1% of all breast tumors.
  • Its clinical spectrum ranges from a benign and locally recurrent form of behavior to malignant and metastatic forms.
  • All cases were histologically examined by an experienced breast pathologist, and tumors were classified as benign, borderline malignant or malignant according to standard histological criteria.
  • Seven (70%) of 10 tumors were benign and 3 (30%) were malignant.
  • The median tumor size was 29 mm (range: 12-80 mm).
  • CONCLUSION: PT is a rare neoplasm of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20568416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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21. Ilić I, Randelović P, Ilić R, Katić V, Milentijević M, Velicković L, Krstić M: An approach to malignant mammary phyllodes tumors detection. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2009 Apr;66(4):277-82
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  • [Title] An approach to malignant mammary phyllodes tumors detection.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Mammary phyllodes tumors (MPT) are uncommon fibroepithelial (biphasic) neoplasms whose clinical behavior is difficult to predict on the basis of histological criteria only.
  • They are divided into benign, borderline malignant and malignant groups.
  • A total of 35 cases of MPT were included: 20 benign (57%), 6 borderline malignant (17%) and 9 malignant (26%).
  • The mean size of malignant MPT (7.8 cm) was larger than that of benign MPT (4.5 cm).
  • Significant features of the malignant MPT were: stromal cellularity, stromal cellular atypism, high mitotic activity, atypic mitoses, stromal overgrowth, infiltrative tumor contour and heterologous stromal elements.
  • Benign MPT showed strong enzymohistochemical Leucine Amino Peptidase (LAP) activity in both epithelial and stromal components while it was weak or absent in the epithelial parts of the malignant tumors.
  • Benign MPT had a lower Ki-67 than did borderline malignant MPT (4 versus 28).
  • Malignant MPT had a greater than 8-fold higher Ki-67 activity than did benign tumors (35 versus 4).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19441158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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22. Jones AM, Mitter R, Poulsom R, Gillett C, Hanby AM, Tomlinson IP, Sawyer EJ, Phyllodes Tumour Consortium: mRNA expression profiling of phyllodes tumours of the breast: identification of genes important in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours. J Pathol; 2008 Dec;216(4):408-17
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  • [Title] mRNA expression profiling of phyllodes tumours of the breast: identification of genes important in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast (PTs).
  • Expression profiling of 23 PTs (12 benign, 11 borderline/malignant) was performed using Affymetrix U133A GeneChips. mRNA expression in the borderline/malignant PTs was compared to the benign PTs.
  • PAX3, TGFB2 and HMGA2 were expressed predominantly in borderline/malignant PTs, but showed some expression in benign tumours; they may be important in the transition from the benign to borderline/malignant phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18937276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Investigator] Walker R; Pinder S; Jones L; Ellis I; Tan PH; Macartney J; Green D; Hales S; Harding-Mackean C; Colclough A; MacNeill F; Rowlands D; Smith C; Fentiman I; Cane P; Desai A; Goderya R; Nerurkar A; Kissin M; Jackson P
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23. Yabuuchi H, Soeda H, Matsuo Y, Okafuji T, Eguchi T, Sakai S, Kuroki S, Tokunaga E, Ohno S, Nishiyama K, Hatakenaka M, Honda H: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: correlation between MR findings and histologic grade. Radiology; 2006 Dec;241(3):702-9
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: correlation between MR findings and histologic grade.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of phyllodes tumor of the breast and to compare these findings with the histologic grade.
  • The authors reviewed the MR findings in 30 female patients aged 16-73 years (mean, 40.2 years) with surgically confirmed phyllodes tumors.
  • Analyzed MR findings included tumor shape, margin, internal enhancement, and size; signal intensity (SI) of tumor higher than that of normal breast tissue on T1-weighted images; SI of tumor lower than or equal to that of normal tissue on T2-weighted images; cyst wall appearance; kinetic curve assessment; and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
  • RESULTS: Nineteen benign, six intermediate (characterized by five to nine cell reproductions at 10 high-power fields, pushing or infiltrative margins, moderate stromal cellularity, and atypia and overgrowth), and five malignant phyllodes tumors were assessed.
  • Irregular cyst wall (P = .003), tumor SI lower than or equal to normal tissue SI on T2-weighted images (P = .005), and low ADC (P = .001) correlated significantly with histologic grade.
  • Tumor SI higher than normal tissue SI on T1-weighted images was more frequent in the malignant (in three of five tumors) and intermediate (in three of six tumors) groups than in the benign group (in two of 19 tumors); however, it was not a significant finding (P = .024).
  • Tumor SI higher than normal tissue SI on T1-weighted images and irregular cyst wall corresponded histopathologically to hemorrhagic infarction and necrosis, respectively.
  • Tumor SI lower than or equal to normal tissue SI on T2-weighted images and low ADC corresponded histopathologically to stromal hypercellularity.
  • CONCLUSION: Several MR findings can be used to help determine the histologic grade of phyllodes breast tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2006.
  • (PMID = 17032912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Fajdić J, Gotovac N, Hrgović Z, Kristek J, Horvat V, Kaufmann M: Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):113-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • BACKGROUND: This article compares experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumors from 2 regional institutions with the relevant literature.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 2,848 breast cancer patients were treated in our institutions, 36 (1.44%) for phyllodes tumors.
  • The average tumor size was 5.1 cm (range 1.4-19.6).
  • Wide excision with tumor-free margins was carried out in 29 (80.5%) cases and mastectomy in 7 (19.4%) cases.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed the phyllodes tumors to be benign in 27 (75.0%), malignant in 6 (16.6%), and borderline in 3 (8.3%) cases.
  • In this period, recurrences of 3 (8.3%) malignant and 2 (5.6%) benign phyllodes tumors were diagnosed and treated.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study shows that tumor size, margin infiltration, mitotic activity and degree of cellular atypia are important prognostic factors.
  • Although wide local excision is usually the treatment of choice, tumor recurrence is common.
  • Axillary lymphadenectomy in malignant phyllodes tumors is, in our opinion, still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mammography. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17341897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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25. Kuijper A, de Vos RA, Lagendijk JH, van der Wall E, van Diest PJ: Progressive deregulation of the cell cycle with higher tumor grade in the stroma of breast phyllodes tumors. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 May;123(5):690-8
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  • [Title] Progressive deregulation of the cell cycle with higher tumor grade in the stroma of breast phyllodes tumors.
  • We studied cell cycle-regulating proteins in phyllodes tumor pathogenesis by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67, cyclin A, cyclin D1, retinoblastoma protein (pRb), p53, p16INK4A, bcl-2, and p21waf1 in the epithelium and stroma of 40 primary (benign, 21; borderline, 8; malignant, 11) and 7 recurrent tumors of different grades.
  • Stromal overexpression of p16INK4A, p53, cyclin A, pRb, and p21waf1 correlated significantly with tumor grade.
  • Stromal cyclin A expression was the best separating marker between tumor grades.
  • The stromal component of mammary phyllodes tumors displays an increasing level of cell cycle deregulation with higher tumor grade; the epithelial compartment mostly remains inconspicuous.
  • Several combinations of aberrantly expressed cell cycle proteins seem important in the stromal progression of phyllodes tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis


26. Lv S, Niu Y, Wei L, Liu Q, Wang X, Chen Y: Chromosomal aberrations and genetic relations in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast: a comparative genomic hybridization study. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Dec;112(3):411-8
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  • [Title] Chromosomal aberrations and genetic relations in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast: a comparative genomic hybridization study.
  • Phyllodes tumors are not quite rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast that show a broad spectrum of clinical behaviour.
  • We have used comparative genomic hybridization to analyze chromosomal copy number changes in 36 cases of phyllodes tumors (including benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, 12 cases each).
  • The average number of chromosome copy changes (range) in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors were 5.58 (0-20), 14.08 (3-23), and 12.42 (0-29) respectively.
  • In benign phyllodes tumors the number of gains and losses was in balance (2.50 vs 3.08), while in borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors gains occurred more often than losses (9.25 vs 4.83, 9.5 vs 2.92).
  • The result suggests the molecular cytogenetics of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors is similar, and the most striking difference with benign phyllodes tumors is an increased number of chromosomal gains in a nonrandom distribution.
  • Gains of 4q12 seem especially to be involved in the progression of benign to borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, possibly because of overexpression of oncogenes at these loci.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18189161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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27. Huang KT, Dobrovic A, Yan M, Karim RZ, Lee CS, Lakhani SR, Fox SB: DNA methylation profiling of phyllodes and fibroadenoma tumours of the breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Nov;124(2):555-65
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  • [Title] DNA methylation profiling of phyllodes and fibroadenoma tumours of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumours and cellular fibroadenomas are both fibroepithelial tumours of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumours, unlike fibroadenomas, have the ability to recur and metastasise.
  • We sought to evaluate whether DNA promoter methylation profiling using selected genes known to be methylated in cancer would allow us to learn more about the biology of these tumours, and whether it could identify methylation markers that could differentiate phyllodes tumours from fibroadenomas and/or distinguish phyllodes tumours of different grades.
  • Methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) was used to screen promoter DNA methylation changes in 86 phyllodes tumours (15 benign, 28 borderline, 43 malignant) and 26 fibroadenomas.
  • Five of the gene promoters showed some methylation in a proportion of phyllodes tumours; RASSF1A, 45.3%; TWIST1, 10.7%; APC, 4.1%; WIF1, 2.9% and MGMT, 1.3%.
  • However, significant levels of methylation of RASSF1A (24.4%) and TWIST1 (7.1%) was observed in some phyllodes tumours.
  • Elevated RASSF1A and/or TWIST1 methylation was significantly associated with phyllodes tumours compared with fibroadenomas (P = 0.02), TWIST1 methylation correlated with increasing malignancy in phyllodes tumours (P < 0.001).
  • In conclusion, assessment of methylation of RASSF1A and TWIST1 may aid in the diagnosis of phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Genetic Markers. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Australia. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Twist Transcription Factor / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20563638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / TWIST1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor
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28. Wurdinger S, Herzog AB, Fischer DR, Marx C, Raabe G, Schneider A, Kaiser WA: Differentiation of phyllodes breast tumors from fibroadenomas on MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Nov;185(5):1317-21
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  • [Title] Differentiation of phyllodes breast tumors from fibroadenomas on MRI.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the MRI appearance of phyllodes breast tumors and to differentiate them from fibroadenomas.
  • MR images of 23 patients with 24 phyllodes breast tumors (one malignant, 23 benign) were analyzed with respect to morphology and contrast enhancement.
  • RESULTS: Well-defined margins were seen in 87.5% of the phyllodes tumors and 70.4% of the fibroadenomas, and a round or lobulated shape in 100% and 90.1%, respectively.
  • A heterogeneous internal structure was observed in 70.8% of phyllodes tumors and in 49.4% of fibroadenomas.
  • Nonenhancing internal septations were found in 45.8% of phyllodes tumors and 27.2% of fibroadenomas.
  • A significantly greater increase in signal was seen on T2-weighted images in the tissue surrounding phyllodes tumors (21%) compared with fibroadenomas (1.2%).
  • After the administration of contrast material, 33.3% of phyllodes tumors and 22.2% of fibroadenomas showed a suspicious signal intensity-time course.
  • CONCLUSION: Phyllodes breast tumors and other fibroadenomas cannot be precisely differentiated on breast MRI.
  • Phyllodes tumors have benign morphologic features and contrast enhancement characteristics suggestive of malignancy in 33% of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16247156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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29. Fernández-Aguilar S, Noël JC: [Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with osteoclast-like giant cells: a case report]. Ann Pathol; 2007 Feb;27(1):31-4
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  • [Title] [Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with osteoclast-like giant cells: a case report].
  • Breast tumors, particularly of stromal origin, containing multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells (OLGC) are rarely reported in the literature.
  • We report here the first case of a malignant phyllodes tumor associated with OLGC occurring in a 43 year-old African woman who presented with a painful palpable mass of the outer upper quadrant of the right breast.
  • After surgical excision, histological examination showed a malignant phyllodes tumor in which the stromal component displayed evident sarcomatous changes and was densely populated with benign multinucleated OLGC.
  • This lesion ressembles giant cell tumor of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17568357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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30. Pawlicki J, Król R, Kajor M, Ziaja J: [Case of malignant tumour phyllodes converting to fibrosarcoma]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2007 Mar;22(129):215-7
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  • [Title] [Case of malignant tumour phyllodes converting to fibrosarcoma].
  • Tumour phyllodes is rare breast neoplasm.
  • Tumours phyllodes are composed of hypercellular mesenchymal stroma and epithelial elements.
  • They are commonly classified as benign, rarely as borderline or malignant.
  • There is a case of large (28 x 24 cm) malignant tumour phyllodes presented in the article.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17682679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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31. Wang ZC, Buraimoh A, Iglehart JD, Richardson AL: Genome-wide analysis for loss of heterozygosity in primary and recurrent phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma of breast using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Jun;97(3):301-9
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  • [Title] Genome-wide analysis for loss of heterozygosity in primary and recurrent phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma of breast using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast are biphasic stromal and epithelial tumors histologically similar to benign fibroadenomas, but with a neoplastic stromal component.
  • In contrast to fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumors can recur and be locally aggressive or be malignant.
  • This study uses SNP array analysis to present a genome-wide map of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a cohort of phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas.
  • LOH is frequent and sometimes extensive in phyllodes tumors, but is rarely seen in fibroadenomas.
  • There is heterogeneity between phyllodes tumors of different patients and no one LOH marker identifies a majority of these lesions.
  • However, a subset of LOH loci occur in multiple cases of phyllodes tumors and are not found in fibroadenomas.
  • Primary phyllodes tumors and paired recurrences from the same patient share common regions of LOH.
  • Specific LOH loci may be associated with pathologic progression in recurrent phyllodes tumors.
  • In a single case of phyllodes tumor containing a malignant epithelial component the malignant epithelium and stroma partially share an LOH genotype, suggesting a common precursor cell for the biphasic malignant components.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Genome, Human. Humans. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16791486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / NCI P50 CA89393-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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32. Ezeome ER, Okafor OC, Nwajiobi CE, Osuagwu CC: Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature. Niger J Clin Pract; 2007 Mar;10(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral benign phyllodes tumour in a nulliparous woman: a case report and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma Phyllodes is an uncommon disease of the breast with variable clinical behaviour.
  • Its incidence is reported as 1% of all breast tumours.
  • In this communication, we present a case of metachronous bilateral benign cystosarcoma phyllodes presenting in a 24year old nulliparous lady.
  • She had right breast mastectomy after two recurrences following local excision.
  • The left breast lesion developed one year after the treatment of the right lesion, again she had to be treated with mastectomy after 2 recurrences.
  • This case unlike most reported cases of bilateral Phyllodes tumour occurred in a nulliparous lady.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17668718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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33. Suzuki-Uematsu S, Shiraishi K, Ito T, Adachi N, Inage Y, Taeda Y, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases. Breast Cancer; 2010 Jul;17(3):218-24
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component: a case report and review of malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases.
  • Here we present a case of malignant phyllodes tumor which was composed almost exclusively of a fibrosarcomatous component.
  • A 52-year-old Japanese female noted a rapid increase of her right breast tumor.
  • The tumor, 10 x 10 cm in the largest dimension, had somewhat of a pushing margin, and showed a flesh-like appearance with marked necrosis.
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed proliferation of atypical ovoid- or spindle-shaped cells in a myxoid matrix.
  • Multiple sectioning revealed that the tumor had only focal occurrence of elongated tubular structures, and the occurrence of a small component of benign phyllodes tumor, leading to the aforementioned final diagnosis.
  • We reviewed 15 malignant phyllodes tumors with metastases reported in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19350353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. Yamaguchi R, Tanaka M, Kishimoto Y, Ohkuma K, Ishida M, Kojiro M: Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(1):42-5
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  • [Title] Ductal carcinoma in situ arising in a benign phyllodes tumor: report of a case.
  • Malignant epithelial change within a phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare event.
  • The epithelial element consisted of irregularly dilated ducts with a phyllodes structure that had moderate to severe epithelial hyperplasia, and foci of cribriform ductal carcinoma in situ with comedo necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1987 Sep;111(9):873-5 [2820345.001]
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  • (PMID = 18085361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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35. Lacroix-Triki M, Geyer FC, Lambros MB, Savage K, Ellis IO, Lee AH, Reis-Filho JS: β-catenin/Wnt signalling pathway in fibromatosis, metaplastic carcinomas and phyllodes tumours of the breast. Mod Pathol; 2010 Nov;23(11):1438-48
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  • [Title] β-catenin/Wnt signalling pathway in fibromatosis, metaplastic carcinomas and phyllodes tumours of the breast.
  • It has been suggested that various spindle cell lesions of the breast may harbour Wnt pathway activation.
  • Given that β-catenin nuclear localization constitutes a good surrogate marker of Wnt canonical pathway activation, we have investigated the distribution of β-catenin in spindle cell lesions of the breast and whether it could be employed in the differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • A total of 52 metaplastic breast carcinomas, eight fibromatoses and 23 phyllodes tumours were retrieved from our institutions' archives.
  • In all, three fibromatoses and 21 metaplastic breast carcinomas were subjected to CTNNB1 (β-catenin encoding gene) mutation analysis by direct gene sequencing.
  • All fibromatoses and 23% of metaplastic breast carcinomas expressed nuclear β-catenin.
  • In fibromatosis, β-catenin was more often diffusely expressed, whereas in metaplastic breast carcinomas, expression was more frequently focal.
  • Membranous β-catenin expression was significantly lower in spindle cell carcinomas than in other subtypes of metaplastic breast carcinomas.
  • In phyllodes tumours, stromal cells of benign and malignant subtypes displayed nuclear β-catenin expression in 94 and 57% of cases, respectively.
  • In conclusion, β-catenin nuclear expression is a common feature in fibromatoses and in the stromal component of phyllodes tumours, but may also be observed in metaplastic breast carcinomas.
  • β-catenin nuclear expression should not be used as a single marker to differentiate fibromatosis from other spindle cell tumours of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Carcinoma / chemistry. Fibroma / chemistry. Phyllodes Tumor / chemistry. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins / analysis. beta Catenin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20693983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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36. Sorelli PG, Thomas D, Moore A, Khan M, Hoque H: Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old premenarchal girl. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Feb;45(2):e17-20
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumor in an 11-year-old premenarchal girl.
  • Phyllodes tumor is uncommon in children, and the malignant form is rare.
  • There have only been a few cases of benign phyllodes tumor reported in peripubertal children and only one malignant case.
  • We report the second case of malignant phyllodes tumor in a premenarchal 11-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Menarche. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20152333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Tomimaru Y, Komoike Y, Egawa C, Motomura K, Inaji H, Kataoka TR, Koyama H: A case of phyllodes tumor of the breast with a lesion mimicking fibroadenoma. Breast Cancer; 2005;12(4):322-6
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  • [Title] A case of phyllodes tumor of the breast with a lesion mimicking fibroadenoma.
  • We report a case of phyllodes tumor (PT) with multiple lesions partly mimicking fibroadenoma (FA).
  • A 43-year-old woman was referred to our institute because of a left breast mass which was diagnosed as FA clinically.
  • On histological examination, the tumor consisted of three different components; a lesion diagnosed as FA, another lesion as benign PT, and the other lesion as borderline PT.
  • Finally, the tumor was diagnosed as borderline PT.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16286914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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38. Tan EY, Tan PH, Yong WS, Wong HB, Ho GH, Yeo AW, Wong CY: Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Jun;76(6):476-80
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  • [Title] Recurrent phyllodes tumours of the breast: pathological features and clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours (PT) of the breast are fibro-epithelial neoplasms that are known to recur locally in up to 19% of patients.
  • It is still debatable as to whether it is necessary to subject the patient to repeat surgery to obtain pathologically negative margins after a diagnosis of a benign or borderline PT is made.
  • Comparisons were made between those with benign, borderline and malignant tumours, as well as between those who developed a malignant recurrence and those who did not.
  • A total of 22 patients were classified as having benign tumour, 9 as having borderline tumour and 6 as having malignant tumour.
  • The majority of recurrent tumours were histologically similar to the initial tumour; however, seven patients (19%) developed a malignant recurrence from an initially benign or borderline tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It may be acceptable to use an expectant management towards benign and borderline tumours that are excised without adequate surgical margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] ANZ J Surg. 2006 Oct;76(10):956. Hoon, Tan Puay [corrected to Tan, Puay Hoon]; Hui, Ho G [corrected to Ho, Gay Hui]
  • (PMID = 16768772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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39. Tse GM, Tsang AK, Putti TC, Scolyer RA, Lui PC, Law BK, Karim RZ, Lee CS: Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):185-9
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  • [Title] Stromal CD10 expression in mammary fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours.
  • In the breast, myoepithelial cells express CD10, but there are few studies of the expression of CD10 in mammary fibroepithelial lesions.
  • METHODS: Stromal CD10 expression was studied in 181 mammary phyllodes tumours (102 benign, 51 borderline malignant, and 28 frankly malignant) and 33 fibroadenomas using immunohistochemistry, to evaluate whether differences in expression correlated with the degree of malignancy.
  • RESULTS: There was a progressive increase in the patients' age and tumour size, from fibroadenoma to phyllodes tumours with an increasing degree of malignancy (p < 0.001).
  • Stromal CD10 expression was positive in one of 33 fibroadenomas, six of 102 benign phyllodes tumours, 16 of 51 borderline malignant phyllodes tumours, and 14 of 28 frankly malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • Stromal CD10 expression had a high specificity (95%) for differentiating between benign lesions (fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumours) and malignant (borderline and frankly malignant) phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Fibroadenoma / immunology. Neprilysin / immunology. Phyllodes Tumor / immunology. Stromal Cells / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15677540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770579
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40. Barrio AV, Clark BD, Goldberg JI, Hoque LW, Bernik SF, Flynn LW, Susnik B, Giri D, Polo K, Patil S, Van Zee KJ: Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes of 293 phyllodes tumors of the breast. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2961-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes of 293 phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors (PT) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast with unpredictable behavior.
  • All available pathology slides (90%) were rereviewed for margins, borders, fibroproliferation in the surrounding breast tissue, stromal pattern, stromal cellularity, frequency of mitoses, and necrosis.
  • RESULTS: All cases occurred in women, with a median age of 42, with 203 originally categorized as benign and 90 as malignant.
  • These patients constituted 71% of the seven patients who had uniformly aggressive pathologic features, including large tumor size (>or=7.0 cm), infiltrative borders, marked stromal overgrowth, marked stromal cellularity, high mitotic count, and necrosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Positive margins, fibroproliferation in the surrounding breast tissue, and necrosis are associated with a marked increase in LR rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Cell Division / physiology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitosis / physiology. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17562113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Telli ML, Horst KC, Guardino AE, Dirbas FM, Carlson RW: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: natural history, diagnosis, and treatment. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2007 Mar;5(3):324-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast: natural history, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast are unusual fibroepithelial tumors that exhibit a wide range of clinical behavior.
  • These tumors are categorized as benign, borderline, or malignant based on a combination of histologic features.
  • The prognosis of phyllodes tumors is favorable, with local recurrence occurring in approximately 15% of patients overall and distant recurrence in approximately 5% to 10% overall.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 17439760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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42. Kuo YJ, Ho DM, Tsai YF, Hsu CY: Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in phyllodes tumor with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph node. J Chin Med Assoc; 2010 Nov;73(11):602-4
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  • [Title] Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in phyllodes tumor with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph node.
  • Phyllodes tumor (PT) consists of stroma of variable grading and benign ductal epithelium.
  • Although exceptional, carcinomas that arise from the epithelium in PTs do exist, and seem to behave less aggressively than the usually encountered breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21093830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-7731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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43. Tsai WC, Jin JS, Yu JC, Sheu LF: CD10, actin, and vimentin expression in breast phyllodes tumors correlates with tumor grades of the WHO grading system. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;14(2):127-31
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  • [Title] CD10, actin, and vimentin expression in breast phyllodes tumors correlates with tumor grades of the WHO grading system.
  • The discrimination of borderline from malignant primary breast phyllodes (PT) tumor is still unclear.
  • In our results, the stromal staining of CD10 was positive in 4 of 6 malignant and 2 of 5 borderline PT cases, but negative in all benign PT cases.
  • Stromal actin and intraglandular vimentin-expressive tumor cells were found in 5 of 6 malignant PT cases but not in borderline and benign PT cases.
  • Besides, the progression of malignant potential breast phyllodes tumor may cause glandular epithelium atypia with loss of polarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neprilysin / biosynthesis. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Vimentin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16703173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vimentin; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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44. Yonemori K, Hasegawa T, Shimizu C, Shibata T, Matsumoto K, Kouno T, Ando M, Katsumata N, Fujiwara Y: Correlation of p53 and MIB-1 expression with both the systemic recurrence and survival in cases of phyllodes tumors of the breast. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(10):705-12
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  • [Title] Correlation of p53 and MIB-1 expression with both the systemic recurrence and survival in cases of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • Phyllodes tumors are rare primary tumors of the breast.
  • The study aimed at evaluating the immunohistochemical features of phyllodes tumors of the breast that may be useful for predicting the clinical outcome.
  • The study included 41 patients with phyllodes tumor (20 benign, 5 borderline, and 16 malignant).
  • None of the phyllodes tumors was positive for HER2/neu or CD117/c-kit.
  • Positive staining for p53 was seen in 10 phyllodes tumors (24%), and the median MIB-1 index was 10%.
  • Both p53 expression and the MIB-1 index, but not the expression status of EGFR, were significantly correlated with the recurrence-free and overall survival. p53 expression status and MIB-1 index may be significant prognostic factors in patients with phyllodes tumors, and careful postoperative follow-up may be important in those cases showing positive expression of p53 and/or MIB-1 index.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16889904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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45. Anyikam A, Nzegwu MA, Ozumba BC, Okoye I, Olusina DB: Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria. Saudi Med J; 2008 Feb;29(2):241-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign breast lesions in Eastern Nigeria.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize benign breast diseases in Eastern Nigeria and to highlight the age variations of these lesions as base line data.
  • Seven hundred and twenty-two benign breast specimens were analyzed over 5 years from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004, out of 1050 breast samples received.
  • RESULTS: Of 1050 breast specimens received, 722 (68.8%) were benign.
  • Normal breast in the axillary tail region was seen in 32 cases (4.4%), represented as no pathology, with a mean presentation age of 20-46 years.
  • Low grade Phyllodes tumor had 28 cases (3.9%), presenting at an average mean age of 17-32 years.
  • Benign breast lesions peaked at the 20-24 age range and then declined.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign breast lesions occur more frequently than malignant breast lesions with a ratio of 2.3:1 and were presented 20 years earlier than their malignant counterparts.
  • Fibroadenoma was the most common benign lesion followed by fibrocystic disease, similar to the findings in Western Nigeria.
  • In Northern Nigeria, fibrocystic breast disease was more common.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Fibroadenoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / epidemiology. Gynecomastia / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18246234.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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46. Sapino A, Bosco M, Cassoni P, Castellano I, Arisio R, Cserni G, Dei Tos AP, Fortunati N, Catalano MG, Bussolati G: Estrogen receptor-beta is expressed in stromal cells of fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of the breast. Mod Pathol; 2006 Apr;19(4):599-606
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  • [Title] Estrogen receptor-beta is expressed in stromal cells of fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • An estrogen dependency has been suggested for the growth of fibroadenomas: however, thus far, none of the steroid hormone receptors acting on breast tissues has been demonstrated in the stroma of breast fibroepithelial lesions.
  • In this study, the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 33 fibroadenomas and in 30 benign, three borderline and seven malignant phyllodes tumors, all with spindle cell growth and in one distant metastasis.
  • ER-beta was the only hormone receptor expressed by stroma of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, both at protein and mRNA level.
  • The highest percentage of ER-beta was observed in fibroadenomas with cellular stroma and in phyllodes tumors.
  • In contrast, in phyllodes tumors, ER-beta expression was higher in older patients.
  • In conclusion, (i) only ER-beta is detected in the stroma of fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors;.
  • Conversely, the older age of patients with ER-beta-rich phyllodes tumors suggests that mechanisms, probably independent from estrogen stimulation, act on the growth of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Estrogen Receptor beta / genetics. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Cell Line, Tumor. Estrogen Receptor alpha / analysis. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Middle Aged. Muscle, Smooth / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16554735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / calponin
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47. Tomita T, Ren Y, Davis M, Tawfik O: Phyllodes tumor of borderline malignancy: seven year follow up with immunohistochemical study. Pathol Int; 2005 Sep;55(9):585-9
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of borderline malignancy: seven year follow up with immunohistochemical study.
  • The patient was 80 years old when she initially presented with a left breast mass.
  • Originally, a needle biopsy showed benign stromal and ductal cells.
  • Five years later, the breast mass increased in size and a core needle biopsy showed a biphasic intraductal papillomatous tumor with cellular stroma.
  • Eighteen months later, another biopsy was taken from the breast mass, revealing a well-developed phyllodes tumor (PT) of borderline malignancy.
  • Histolopathologic and immunohistochemical studies, including estrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67 and p53, performed on tissues from the different biopsy specimens confirmed the progressive transition of the tumor in a 7 year period.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Simple. Mitosis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16143035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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48. Beier JP, Jaeger K, Horch RE: Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up. Breast; 2006 Aug;15(4):550-3
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  • [Title] Reduction mammaplasty for benign phyllodes tumour in an adolescent female--a 13-year follow up.
  • Phyllodes tumours are rare neoplasms of the female breast, especially among adolescent women.
  • We present the case of a 17-year old female patient with a large benign phyllodes tumour.
  • Symmetry of breast contour and nipple-areola complex position could be restored.
  • Standard plastic surgical techniques like reduction mammaplasty might be applied in treating large benign tumours compromising the aesthetic aspect of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16310356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics
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49. Lenhard MS, Kahlert S, Himsl I, Ditsch N, Untch M, Bauerfeind I: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Jun;138(2):217-21
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: The "cystosarcoma phyllodes" of the breast is a rare entity which accounts for 0.5% of all breast neoplasms.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The data of 5270 patients with primary breast neoplasms treated in our department between 1984 and 2005 were retrospectively analysed for the histopathologic diagnosis of a cystosarcoma phyllodes.
  • RESULTS: Retrospective analysis of 5270 patients with primary breast neoplasms revealed 33 patients.
  • In the histopathological analysis, tumour grade was classified as benign in 40%, borderline in 27% and malignant in 33% of patients.
  • Breast conserving surgery was conducted in 58% of the patients, mastectomy in 42%.
  • The local recurrence rate was 50% in malignant, 20% in borderline and only 8% in benign tumours.
  • Distant metastases were seen in three patients (9%) with malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rare Diseases. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17868973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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50. Chen WH, Cheng SP, Tzen CY, Yang TL, Jeng KS, Liu CL, Liu TP: Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep 1;91(3):185-94
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are uncommon biphasic breast tumors that usually occur in adult females.
  • They are composed of a benign epithelial component and a cellular, spindle cell stroma forming a leaf-like structure.
  • No one morphologic finding is reliable in predicting the clinical behavior of the tumor.
  • Clinical data analyzed included age, presenting symptoms and signs, tumor size, location, type of surgery, time to recurrence, and metastasis.
  • The majority of tumors were found in the upper outer quadrant (46.0%), with an equal propensity to occur in either breast (48.8% vs. 50.0%).
  • The pathologic diagnoses included 131 benign, 12 borderline, and 29 malignant lesions.
  • The initial diagnosis of all 19 recurrent tumors were benign.
  • Stromal cellularity, stromal overgrowth, stromal atypia, mitotic activity, tumor margin, and heterologous stromal elements were significantly correlated with metastases (P = 0.032, 0.00008, 0.000002, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.046, respectively).
  • Mammography and breast echo were not reliable for differentiating PTs from fibroadenomas (6.9% vs. 37.9% and 3.3% vs. 45%, respectively).
  • Fifteen patients in our series had tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity.
  • Patients have tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity are at high risk for metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Taiwan / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16118768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Bhargav PR, Mishra A, Agarwal G, Agarwal A, Verma AK, Mishra SK: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases. Asian J Surg; 2009 Oct;32(4):224-8
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of recurrent vs. non-recurrent cases.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to present our experience of dealing with patients with phyllodes tumours (PT) and to correlate the risk of local recurrence with different clinicopathological factors.
  • The histology report was benign, borderline and malignant PT in 28%, 20% and 52% of cases respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19892625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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52. Korula A, Varghese J, Thomas M, Vyas F, Korula A: Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Singapore Med J; 2008 Nov;49(11):e318-21
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis.
  • Phyllodes tumours constitute 2-3 percent of fibroepithelial breast tumours, with a 1-2 percent rate of malignancy.
  • Carcinoma in a phyllodes tumour is distinctly uncommon, but has been known to occur in benign phyllodes tumours.
  • We describe a 51-year-old woman with a malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma within the tumour and adjacent breast tissue.
  • Though the carcinoma was found to be invasive based on the presence of carcinomatous lymph node metastasis, extensive sampling did not yield an invasive component within the breast, probably because of the marked stromal overgrowth of the phyllodes.
  • A malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma and axillary lymph node metastases was diagnosed rather than carcinosarcoma.
  • Coexistence of phyllodes tumour and carcinoma is rare, and extensive sampling may be necessary to find the foci of carcinoma within an extensive and obviously malignant stromal overgrowth.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Breast / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19037540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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53. Bode MK, Rissanen T, Apaja-Sarkkinen M: Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes. Acta Radiol; 2007 Sep;48(7):708-13
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  • [Title] Ultrasonography and core needle biopsy in the differential diagnosis of fibroadenoma and tumor phyllodes.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of phyllodes tumors of the breast is challenging due to many similarities with common fibroadenomas.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of core needle biopsy in diagnosing phyllodes tumors and to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) features of phyllodes tumors and fibroadenomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1999 to 2003, 1010 breast lesions underwent imaging-guided core needle biopsy.
  • Of these, 57 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors were removed surgically.
  • The US and needle biopsy results of a total of 64 lesions (52 fibroadenomas and 12 phyllodes tumors) were further analyzed, compared, and correlated with surgical histological results.
  • RESULTS: The median sonographic sizes of the phyllodes tumors and the fibroadenomas were 3.2 cm and 1.6 cm, respectively.
  • At US, 58% of the phyllodes tumors (7/12) were classified as equivocal or suspicious of malignancy and 42% (5/12) as probably benign, while 54% of the fibroadenomas (28/52) were classified as probably benign and 46% (24/52) as equivocal.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of core needle biopsy histology regarding tumor phyllodes were 83%, 92%, 71%, and 96%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Imaging-guided core needle biopsy was accurate in differentiating between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors.
  • Combined use of US feature analysis and needle biopsy may help to avoid the misinterpretation of phyllodes as fibroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17728999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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54. Solberg OG, Blom GP, Stavem K: [A patient with pulmonary metastasis of phyllodes tumour of the breast]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2956-7
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  • [Title] [A patient with pulmonary metastasis of phyllodes tumour of the breast].
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumours are rare neoplasms of the female breast.
  • Tumours range from the benign to the highly malignant.
  • Based on histological growth pattern, number of mitoses, pleomorphism and stroma characteristics, tumours are classified as malignant, borderline, or benign.
  • After surgical treatment of malignant phyllodes tumours, ten-year survival of 42% is reported.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present the case history of a 59-year-old woman with a pulmonary metastasis from a malignant phyllodes tumour of the breast.
  • Review of the specimen from a mastectomy 14 months earlier, for what was then considered a benign phyllodes tumour, confirmed a diagnosis of a primary malignant phyllodes tumour with pulmonary metastases.
  • INTERPRETATION: Diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumours require close cooperation between the radiologist, the pathologist and the clinician.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Phyllodes Tumor / secondary

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  • [CommentIn] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 Nov 3;125(21):2958 [16299883.001]
  • (PMID = 16299881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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55. Foxcroft LM, Evans EB, Porter AJ: Difficulties in the pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours of the breast: a study of 84 cases. Breast; 2007 Feb;16(1):27-37
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  • [Title] Difficulties in the pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours of the breast: a study of 84 cases.
  • Eighty-four phyllodes tumours (71 benign, eight borderline and five malignant) diagnosed over a 16-year period were studied retrospectively, to assess the diagnostic value of the pre-operative modalities used.
  • The possibility of phyllodes tumour was raised in only 23% on fine needle aspiration cytology, and in 65% on core biopsy.
  • For phyllodes tumours whose growth was measured, almost all had growth rates greater than for growing fibroadenomas.
  • The pre-operative diagnosis of phyllodes tumours is difficult, and rapid growth and/or large size of apparent fibroadenomas may be the only imaging findings to suggest phyllodes tumour.
  • Whole breast ultrasound showed that nearly one third of women with phyllodes tumours had concurrent fibroadenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16876413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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56. Rodríguez Ogando A, Fernández López T, Rodríguez Castaño MJ, Mata Fernández C, Alvarez Bernardi J, Cebollero Presmanes M: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl. Clin Transl Oncol; 2010 Oct;12(10):704-6
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a case report in a 12-year-old girl.
  • Breast tumors in adolescents are very rare and mostly benign.
  • Fibroadenomas are the most frequent, but within the extensive differential diagnosis, the phyllodes tumor must be mentioned, which accounts for about 1% of breast tumors and the diagnosis of which is very rare in patients younger than 20 years.
  • There are no specific symptoms or radiological images to distinguish phyllodes tumor from fibroadenoma; therefore, histological examination is mandatory for diagnosis.
  • Histology also allows the classification of phyllodes tumor into benign, borderline, or malignant types for appropriate surgical treatment: freemargin excision in benign tumors and mastectomy in the other two types.
  • Fortunately, the majority of these tumors are benign, and treatment maximizes breast conservation with free infiltration margins surgery, given that this fact is the most important factor to prevent local recurrence.
  • In this article, we describe a rare case of borderline cystosarcoma phyllodes in a 12-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2000 Oct 1;89(7):1502-11 [11013364.001]
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  • (PMID = 20947486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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57. Esposito NN, Mohan D, Brufsky A, Lin Y, Kapali M, Dabbs DJ: Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1516-21
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 30 cases.
  • CONTEXT: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are biphasic neoplasms composed of epithelium and a spindle-cell stroma.
  • Currently, PTs are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant based on histopathologic features.
  • DESIGN: Sixteen benign, 8 borderline, and 6 malignant PTs with follow-up were examined for reactivity across a panel of immunohistochemical stains, including c-Kit, endothelin 1, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67.
  • Tumor variables were compared among tumor subgroups and between tumors that did and did not recur.
  • RESULTS: Of the 30 PTs, 4 recurred (1 benign, 2 borderline, 1 malignant).
  • One patient with a malignant tumor died of metastatic disease 34 months after initial diagnosis.
  • The overall positive rate of c-Kit immunoreactivity was 13% in benign, 63% in borderline, and 67% in malignant PTs.
  • Endothelin 1 epithelial cytoplasmic staining was seen in 100% of benign, 50% of borderline, and 17% of malignant PTs.
  • Additionally, p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67 were differentially expressed among benign, borderline, and malignant tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stromal c-Kit positivity and epithelial endothelin 1 negativity are more often associated with malignant PTs; however, only positive margin status is significantly associated with tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease Progression. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Staining and Labeling. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17090194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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58. Hsu SD, Chou SJ, Hsieh HF, Chen TW, Cheng MF, Yu JC: Giant malignant mammary phyllodes tumor: report of a case and review of the literature. Onkologie; 2007 Feb;30(1-2):45-7
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  • [Title] Giant malignant mammary phyllodes tumor: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: To distinguish between a benign and malignant phyllodes tumor before surgery is difficult.
  • Wide excision or mastectomy with adequate free margins is necessary in the case of a malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • However, repairing the skin defect after removal of a giant malignant phyllodes tumor is a great challenge for the breast surgeon.
  • CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 45-year-old Taiwanese woman with a giant malignant phyllodes tumor measuring 30 x 25 x 22 cm.
  • CONCLUSION: Giant malignant phyllodes tumors can be treated by total mastectomy with adequate free margins, using a flap technique to cover the skin defect.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Simple / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 17264525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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59. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Gamoudi A, Chargui R, Khomsi F, Mahjoub S, Slimene M, Ben Dhiab T, Hechiche M, Boussen H, Rahal K: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a case series of 106 patients. Am J Surg; 2006 Aug;192(2):141-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a case series of 106 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare, and their prognosis and treatment are still subject of discussion.
  • According to criteria of Azzopardi and Salvadori, tumors were classified into 3 groups: benign (62 cases, 58.4%), borderline (16 cases, 15%), and malignant (28 cases, 26.4%).
  • Eighty-two patients (77.4%) were treated conservatively (62 benign, 11 borderline, and 9 malignant) and 24 (22.6%) by radical surgery (5 borderline and 19 malignant).
  • For malignant PTs treated by enucleation or local excision with or without reexcision of the tumor bed, the 5-year overall and disease-free survivals were 28.5% and 15.6% versus 72.7% and 73.6% when the surgery was radical (mastectomy with or without axillary dissection) (P = .12 and P = .0022).
  • The rate of recurrence was 12.2% (13) after a mean follow-up of 39 months (5 benign, 2 borderline, and 5 malignant).
  • In univariate analysis, age and recurrences are not of prognostic value for survival, whereas tumor size, histotype, necrosis, cytonuclear atypia, tumor margins, and number of mitosis were significant prognostic factors for survival.
  • CONCLUSION: According to our results, we recommend for malignant PT a simple mastectomy, whereas for borderline and benign PT, treatment is based rather on wide excision passing in healthy tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16860620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Kraemer B, Hoffmann J, Roehm C, Gall C, Wallwiener D, Krainick-Strobel U: Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2007 Dec;276(6):649-53
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  • [Title] Cystosarcoma phyllodes of the breast: a rare diagnosis: case studies and review of literature.
  • Cystosarcoma phyllodes (CP), otherwise known as phyllodes tumour (PT) of the breast, is a very rare but locally aggressive fibroepithelial tumour in its malignant form, and accounts for 0.3-1% of all breast neoplasias.
  • Using 4 cases reports with different histological classifications as examples (benign-borderline-malignant), we describe the (differential) diagnosis and treatment options of this tumour entity and give an additional review of the available literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17549503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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61. Mannan AA, Kahvic M, Aziz AH: Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):384-6
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature.
  • Phyllodes tumor occurring in the vulva is extremely rare; only 6 cases have been previously reported in the literature.
  • The histogenetic origin of this tumor is controversial as it is being debated whether such lesions evolve from ectopic breast tissue, cutaneous apocrine glands, and most recently, anogenital mammary-like gland.
  • Microscopic examination revealed morphologic pattern characteristic of benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We also discuss the histogenesis of phyllodes tumor and related lesions occurring in the anogenital region in light of the current literature along with a brief review of the previously reported cases of vulvar phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20514681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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62. Sotheran W, Domjan J, Jeffrey M, Wise MH, Perry PM: Phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study from 1982-2000 of 50 cases in Portsmouth. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2005 Sep;87(5):339-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast--a retrospective study from 1982-2000 of 50 cases in Portsmouth.
  • INTRODUCTION: This study is a retrospective analysis of 50 phyllodes tumours to determine the optimal surgical procedure for these types of tumours.
  • Fifty patients with phyllodes tumours were identified.
  • These comprised 29 benign, 12 borderline and 9 malignant phyllodes tumours.
  • RESULTS: All benign phyllodes tumours were treated with breast-conserving surgery, these included 16 tumours over 40 mm.
  • Borderline and malignant lesions were treated by breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy.
  • Malignant and borderline phyllodes tumours had a recurrence rate of 28%.
  • Breast-conserving surgery appeared to be as effective as mastectomy.
  • Recurrence occurred in 1/29 benign tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast-conserving surgery is the treatment of choice for all benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16176692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1963973
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63. Dillon MF, Quinn CM, McDermott EW, O'Doherty A, O'Higgins N, Hill AD: Needle core biopsy in the diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm. Surgery; 2006 Nov;140(5):779-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Needle core biopsy in the diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of phyllodes neoplasms without surgical intervention is difficult, reducing the ability to manage "benign" lumps non-operatively and impacting on the open benign biopsy rate.
  • Needle core biopsy is considered to be a highly accurate technique in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma.
  • Its accuracy in the diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm has not been established.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-three patients had phyllodes neoplasm on excisional biopsy with prior core biopsy findings as follows: phyllodes neoplasm (n=2), "equivocal" for phyllodes neoplasm (n=12), fibroadenoma (n=3), benign (n=6).
  • The false negative rate for phyllodes neoplasm was therefore 39% (n=9/23).
  • Of the total biopsy series, 35 patients had a core biopsy suggesting the possibility of phyllodes neoplasm.
  • Of these, 32% (n=11) were found to be phyllodes neoplasm on excision, 3% (n=1) phyllodes neoplasm with breast carcinoma, 6% (n=2) breast carcinoma, and 3% (n=1) sarcoma.
  • When a preference for phyllodes neoplasm (n=4) was stated on the equivocal core biopsies, excision correlated with the stated preference; this correlation also occurred in 90% (n=9/10) of core biopsies where fibroadenoma was favored.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Needle core biopsy rarely produces a definite preoperative diagnosis of phyllodes neoplasm.
  • A diagnosis of fibroadenoma or equivocal phyllodes neoplasm on core biopsy should not prevent excision if clinical suspicion remains.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17084721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Chang DS, McGrath MH: Management of benign tumors of the adolescent breast. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Jul;120(1):13e-19e
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  • [Title] Management of benign tumors of the adolescent breast.
  • Describe the differential diagnosis of breast tumors in adolescent girls.
  • 2. Compare and contrast surgical options for the management of adolescent breast tumors.
  • SUMMARY: Although 99 percent of breast lesions in female adolescents are benign tumors, surgical intervention is commonly required.
  • This article reviews the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management of these benign tumors.
  • A modified surgical technique for resection of large fibroadenomas and reconstruction of the remaining breast is described.
  • The authors review the approach to five specific breast lesions: fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumors, juvenile hypertrophy, inflammatory processes, and premature breast development.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Biopsy, Needle. Esthetics. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008 Aug;122(2):679-80 [18626406.001]
  • (PMID = 17572540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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65. Granić M, Oprić D, Pupić G, Babić D, Ivanović N, Nikolić D, Dikić S, Oprić S: [Surgical methods for the treatment of breast phyllodes tumors--a report of 319 cases]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2006;53(1):57-62
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  • [Title] [Surgical methods for the treatment of breast phyllodes tumors--a report of 319 cases].
  • Breast phyllodes tumors (FT) belong the fibroapitelial group of breast tumors arising in terminal ductulo-lobular unit (TDLU).
  • Their incidence do not exceed 1% of all breast tumors.
  • Biologicaly they can be divided into benign, borderline and malignant group.
  • Incomplete tumor excision can be the reason for local reccurence.
  • METHODS: We analyzed histopathology features of 319 FT of the breast surgicaly removed on Departement of surgery Institut of oncology and radiology of Serbia between 1.1.1985.
  • -31.12.1994. Retrospective study of surgical treatment 84 patients with FT of the breast (69 benign, 4 borderline and 11 malignant) and 5 year follow up after surgery we analysed.
  • RESULTS: local reccurence after surgery was found in 17 (20,2 %) patients(14 benign , 2 borderline and 1 malignant FT), pulmonary metastases in 6 (7,1%) patients with malignant FT.
  • CONCLUSION: According to biological behavior we propose wide excision for benign and borderline forms and simple mastectomy for malignant FT, and voluminous benign and borderline forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16989148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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66. Verma S, Singh RK, Rai A, Pandey CP, Singh M, Mohan N: Extent of surgery in the management of phyllodes tumor of the breast: a retrospective multicenter study from India. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Oct-Dec;6(4):511-5
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  • [Title] Extent of surgery in the management of phyllodes tumor of the breast: a retrospective multicenter study from India.
  • INTRODUCTION: Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare tumor of the breast.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this retrospective study is to study the clinicopathological correlation of phyllodes tumors in North-Central part of the India and also to evaluate efficacy of the various surgical options available for the management of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • RESULTS: The breast masses in our study were particularly large.
  • Histopathological report was benign, borderline, and malignant PT in 62.4%, 20.8%, and 16.8% of the cases, respectively.
  • This study shows that wide local excision for benign and borderline and simple mastectomy with or without reconstruction for the malignant PT of the breast are acceptable best surgical options.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21358091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] India
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67. Taira N, Takabatake D, Aogi K, Ohsumi S, Takashima S, Nishimura R, Teramoto N: Phyllodes tumor of the breast: stromal overgrowth and histological classification are useful prognosis-predictive factors for local recurrence in patients with a positive surgical margin. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct;37(10):730-6
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the breast: stromal overgrowth and histological classification are useful prognosis-predictive factors for local recurrence in patients with a positive surgical margin.
  • BACKGROUND: The local recurrence rate of phyllodes tumors is high and ensuring a sufficient surgical margin is considered important for local control.
  • However, the preoperative diagnosis rate of phyllodes tumors is low and we often encounter cases in which a sufficient surgical margin is not achieved, since in routine medical practice the lesion may not be diagnosed as phyllodes tumor until postoperative biopsy of a mammary mass.
  • Furthermore, there are no established therapeutic guidelines for surgical stump-positive phyllodes tumors.
  • We reviewed the outcomes of excision of phyllodes tumors to investigate factors involved in local recurrence and to determine the indication for re-excision in stump-positive cases.
  • METHODS: The subjects were 45 patients treated for phyllodes tumors at our institution from January 1980 to July 2005.
  • Age, tumor size, surgical method, stromal cellular atypia, mitotic activity, stromal overgrowth, histological classification and surgical stump status were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Median age was 45 years old (range 28-75) and tumor size was 1-17 cm (median 3.5 cm).
  • Pathologic diagnoses were benign, borderline and malignant in 31, five and nine cases, respectively, and the surgical stump was negative in 27 lesions and positive in 15.
  • In univariate analysis, a positive surgical margin, stromal overgrowth and histological classification were predictive factors for local recurrence after breast-conservation surgery (P = 0.0034, 0.0003, 0.026).
  • CONCLUSION: Wide excision is the preferred therapy for phyllodes tumor and preoperative diagnosis is important for good local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17932112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Biondi A, Di Giuntao M, Motta S, Privitera G, Fichera DS, Ciuni R, Basile F: [Benign phylloides tumor of the breast. Considerations on a clinical case]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):471-4
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  • [Title] [Benign phylloides tumor of the breast. Considerations on a clinical case].
  • Phyllodes tumors are unusual biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast, accounting for < 1% of all breast tumors and raising issues of diagnosis and therapeutic choice.
  • We talk about giant phyllodes tumors.
  • Conservative treatment can be effective also in giant tumors depending upon the size of the tumor and the breast if a complete excision with an adequate margin of normal breast tissue can be achieved, so avoiding local recurrence often accompanied by worse histopathology.
  • The Authors report the case of a giant benign phyllode tumor of the breast treated with conservative surgery, quadrantectomy and oncoplasty.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Phyllodes Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20476682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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69. Kersting C, Kuijper A, Schmidt H, Packeisen J, Liedtke C, Tidow N, Gustmann C, Hinrichs B, Wülfing P, Tio J, Boecker W, van Diest P, Brandt B, Buerger H: Amplifications of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (egfr) are common in phyllodes tumors of the breast and are associated with tumor progression. Lab Invest; 2006 Jan;86(1):54-61
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  • [Title] Amplifications of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (egfr) are common in phyllodes tumors of the breast and are associated with tumor progression.
  • Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare biphasic tumors with the potential for invasion and metastatic spread.
  • An important role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in phyllodes tumors has been proposed.
  • We investigated 58 phyllodes tumors of the breast (40 benign, 10 borderline and eight malignant) by means of egfr fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and gene dosage PCR for a regulatory sequence within intron 1 of egfr.
  • Immunopositivity for EGFR was detected in 19% of phyllodes tumors (75% of all malignant tumors) in stromal tumor cells but not in the epithelial component.
  • Whole-gene amplifications were seen by FISH in 15.8% (in stromal cells only) and intron 1 amplifications by gene dosage PCR in as much as 41.8% of all phyllodes tumors.
  • Significant correlations were seen between tumor grade on the one hand and EGFR overexpression (P=0.001) and intron 1 amplifications (P<0.05) on the other.
  • In conclusion, our results show for the first time that activating mutations in and overexpression of egfr are associated with the progression in grade of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics


70. Tse GM, Chaiwun B, Lau KM, Scolyer R, Lee CS, Karim RZ, Putti TC, Law BK, Lui PC, Tan PH: Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Sep;60(9):1051-6
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  • [Title] Endothelin-1 expression correlates with atypical histological features in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • This has not been evaluated in phyllodes tumours, which are uncommon fibroepithelial lesions with potential for local recurrences or distant metastasis.
  • While the grading of phyllodes tumours depends on a combination of histological parameters, prediction of their behaviour remains difficult.
  • METHOD: A large series of 461 phyllodes tumours (291 benign, 115 borderline malignant and 55 frankly malignant) were evaluated for endothelin-1 expression in both the epithelial cells and stromal cells by immunohistochemistry; results were correlated with the tumour grade.
  • RESULTS: For benign phyllodes tumours, the epithelial staining of endothelin was negative, weak, moderate and strong in 6%, 26%, 15% and 53% of cases respectively; results were 4%, 18%, 19% and 59% respectively for borderline and 6%, 18%, 6% and 70% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • For the stromal staining, the negative, weak, moderate and strong staining was 32%, 19%, 18% and 31% respectively for benign phyllodes, 24%, 13%, 10% and 53% respectively for borderline and 8%, 16%, 17% and 59% respectively for frankly malignant tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations suggest a close relationship between the epithelial and stromal elements in phyllodes tumours; endothelin may play a significant role in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17158636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1972415
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71. Morgan JM, Douglas-Jones AG, Gupta SK: Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour. Histopathology; 2010 Mar;56(4):489-500
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  • [Title] Analysis of histological features in needle core biopsy of breast useful in preoperative distinction between fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumour.
  • AIMS: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) has been replaced by Needle core biopsy (NCB) as the pathological investigation of choice in pre-operative diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Despite the greater yield of material with spatial information, the distinction between fibroepithelial lesions of the breast, fibroadenoma (FA) and benign phyllodes tumour (PT), remains problematic.
  • METHODS: Previously defined histological criteria were applied to 112 NCBs of fibroepithelial lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20459556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Abdalla HM, Sakr MA: Predictive factors of local recurrence and survival following primary surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Jun;18(2):125-33
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  • [Title] Predictive factors of local recurrence and survival following primary surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The phyllodes tumor is characterized by its tendency to recur locally and occasionally to metastasize.
  • Local recurrence and death from metastases are occasional, but consistent, theme in reports of patients with phyllodes tumors (PTs).
  • The aim of this study was to determine parameters that influence outcome in this uncommon neoplasm.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 79 patients with phyllodes tumors were reviewed retrospectively, reclassifying the pathological material using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria.
  • The tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 24 cm, with a median of 11 cm.
  • Based on the criteria proposed by WHO, 31 cases were benign tumors (39.2%), 27 borderline tumors (34.2%), and 21 malignant tumors (26.6%).
  • Following local excision, the local recurrence rates were 14.3%, 50%, and 75% in patients with benign, borderline, and malignant tumors; respectively, while after wide local excision the local recurrence rates were 0%, 36.3% and 40%; respectively.
  • Whereas, 0%, 8.3%, and 8.3% of patients with benign, borderline and malignant tumors; respectively, locally recurred after mastectomy.
  • Distant metastases developed in 3.2%, 11.1%, and in 28.6% of patients with benign, borderline and malignant tumors; respectively.
  • The 5-year survival with no evidence of disease was 90% for the patients with benign tumors compared to 69% for borderline and 61% for malignant PTs (p= 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The histotype of phyllodes tumors and resection margins were the principal determinants of local recurrence and distant metastases.
  • Complete surgical excision by either wide local excision or mastectomy if necessary is important in the primary surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17496937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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73. Kim JH, Choi YD, Lee JS, Lee JH, Nam JH, Choi C, Park MH, Yoon JH: Borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors display similar promoter methylation profiles. Virchows Arch; 2009 Dec;455(6):469-75
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  • [Title] Borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors display similar promoter methylation profiles.
  • Mammary phyllodes tumors (PTs) are uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasms.
  • On the basis of histologic criteria, PTs can be divided into benign, borderline, and malignant groups; however, the histologic distinction of PTs is often difficult and arbitrary.
  • In breast cancer, promoter hypermethylation is a common phenomenon, but there are no data available concerning methylation status in PTs.
  • A multiplex, nested, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction approach was used to examine promoter methylation of five genes (GSTP1, HIN-1, RAR-beta, RASSF1A, and Twist) in 87 PTs (54 benign, 23 borderline, and 10 malignant).
  • The methylation frequency of all genes and the mean number of methylated genes in borderline and malignant PTs were higher than those in benign PTs; however, there were no statistically significant differences between borderline and malignant PTs.
  • These results suggest that PTs segregate into only two groups on the basis of their methylation profiles: the benign group and the combined borderline/malignant group.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cytokines / genetics. Cytokines / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glutathione S-Transferase pi / genetics. Glutathione S-Transferase pi / metabolism. Humans. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. Twist-Related Protein 1 / genetics. Twist-Related Protein 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19924440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / SCGB3A1 protein, human; 0 / TWIST1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Twist-Related Protein 1; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTP1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione S-Transferase pi
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74. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Horvath L, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Nov;62(11):1016-20
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  • [Title] Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • A comprehensive analysis of the expression of Wnt signalling pathway proteins in mammary phyllodes tumours (PTs) has not been previously performed.
  • METHODS: 65 PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and 8 malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadherins / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Survival Analysis. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19861560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / SFRP4 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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75. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours. Histopathology; 2010 Jun;56(7):868-75
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  • [Title] p16 and pRb immunohistochemical expression increases with increasing tumour grade in mammary phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: Control of cell cycling and proliferation is critical to the development of neoplasia and may play a role in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumours (PTs).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-five PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20497245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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76. Kuijper A, Snijders AM, Berns EM, Kuenen-Boumeester V, van der Wall E, Albertson DG, van Diest PJ: Genomic profiling by array comparative genomic hybridization reveals novel DNA copy number changes in breast phyllodes tumours. Cell Oncol; 2009;31(1):31-9
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  • [Title] Genomic profiling by array comparative genomic hybridization reveals novel DNA copy number changes in breast phyllodes tumours.
  • Breast phyllodes tumour (PT) is a rare fibroepithelial tumour.
  • 11 PTs and 3 fibroadenomas, a frequently occurring fibroepithelial breast tumour, were analyzed.
  • Recurrent copy number gain was seen on 1q, 2p, 3q, 7p, 8q, 16q, 20.In this study we used array CGH for genomic profiling of fibroepithelial breast tumours.
  • Since copy number change was found in all benign PT, genomic instability may be an early event in PT genesis.

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  • (PMID = 19096148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8606
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 101359; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 90421
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4618888
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77. Jones AM, Mitter R, Springall R, Graham T, Winter E, Gillett C, Hanby AM, Tomlinson IP, Sawyer EJ, Phyllodes Tumour Consortium: A comprehensive genetic profile of phyllodes tumours of the breast detects important mutations, intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity and new genetic changes on recurrence. J Pathol; 2008 Apr;214(5):533-44
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  • [Title] A comprehensive genetic profile of phyllodes tumours of the breast detects important mutations, intra-tumoral genetic heterogeneity and new genetic changes on recurrence.
  • The aims of this study were to identify genetic changes associated with malignant progression of the fibroepithelial neoplasms, phyllodes tumours of the breast (PTs), and to ascertain whether genetic progression occurs when PTs recur locally.
  • A further aim was to assess whether the genetic data support the classification of these tumours into three subtypes, benign, borderline and malignant.
  • 126 PTs (37 benign, 41 borderline, 48 malignant) were analysed by either array-CGH or the Illumina Goldengate assay.
  • Cluster analysis of the array-CGH data supported the division of malignant and borderline PTs into two separate groups, one comprising almost all malignant lesions and the other, benign and borderline tumours.
  • Analysis of paired primary and recurrent tumours showed that recurrent tumours often acquired new genetic changes; in particular, benign tumours tended to acquire changes characteristic of the malignant/borderline phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Cluster Analysis. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Genes, p16. Humans. Mutation. Nucleic Acid Hybridization / methods. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  • (PMID = 18288784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Investigator] Walker R; Pinder S; Jones L; Ellis I; Tan PH; Macartney J; Green D; Hales S; Harding-Mackean C; Colclough A; MacNeill F; Rowlands D; Smith C; Fentiman I; Cane P; Desai A; Goderya R; Nerurkar A; Kissin M; Jackson P
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78. Franceschini G, D'Ugo D, Masetti R, Palumbo F, D'Alba PF, Mulè A, Costantini M, Belli P, Picciocchi A: Surgical treatment and MRI in phyllodes tumors of the breast: our experience and review of the literature. Ann Ital Chir; 2005 Mar-Apr;76(2):127-40
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment and MRI in phyllodes tumors of the breast: our experience and review of the literature.
  • AIMS: To reassess the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and surgical resection margins in an attempt to address the issue of appropriate surgical management of phyllodes tumors (PT).
  • METHODS: Three female patients with a large palpable mass suspicious for phyllodes tumors were studied by mammography (MX), ultrasound (US) and dynamic MRI and then underwent surgery.
  • Pathological results showed 1 case of benign phylloides tumor, 1 case of borderline phylloides tumor and 1 case of malignant phylloides tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MRI enabled complete visualization of the tumor even in the region close to the chest wall, as well as clear delineation from healthy glandular tissue and may help to define the appropriate surgical management of phylloides tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Breast / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Palpation. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16302651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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79. Tan PH, Jayabaskar T, Yip G, Tan Y, Hilmy M, Selvarajan S, Bay BH: p53 and c-kit (CD117) protein expression as prognostic indicators in breast phyllodes tumors: a tissue microarray study. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1527-34
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  • [Title] p53 and c-kit (CD117) protein expression as prognostic indicators in breast phyllodes tumors: a tissue microarray study.
  • Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms whose clinical behavior is difficult to predict on histology.
  • In this study, we determined if p53 and CD117 (c-kit) protein expression was predictive of behavior in a series of 335 phyllodes tumors diagnosed at the Singapore General Hospital, using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays.
  • Representative areas from 250 (75%) benign, 54 (16%) borderline and 31 (9%) malignant phyllodes tumors were selected for construction of tissue microarrays using the 2 mm punch.
  • Stromal p53 and CD117 protein expression was associated with tumor grade (P < 0.05).
  • We conclude that tissue microarrays are a convenient method for evaluating immunostaining results of large numbers of phyllodes tumors.
  • Although positive p53 stromal immunohistochemical detection may corroborate histologic malignancy, it is CD117 protein expression in phyllodes tumor stromal cells that may be of potential utility in predicting recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16258510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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80. Tse GM, Wong FC, Tsang AK, Lee CS, Lui PC, Lo AW, Law BK, Scolyer RA, Karim RZ, Putti TC: Stromal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression correlates with the grade of mammary phyllodes tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;58(6):600-4
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  • [Title] Stromal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression correlates with the grade of mammary phyllodes tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), particularly endothelial and inducible forms (e/i-NOS), are expressed in various cancers, including breast cancer.
  • In mammary fibroepithelial lesions, NOS expression in stromal cells has been reported to be lower in fibroadenomas than in phyllodes tumours.
  • AIMS: To investigate NOS expression in phyllodes tumours of varying degrees of malignancy.
  • METHODS: One hundred and sixty seven mammary phyllodes tumours (97 benign, 47 borderline malignant, and 23 frankly malignant) were evaluated for e-NOS and i-NOS expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Stromal expression of e-NOS was absent, weak, moderate, and strong in 43%, 31%, 13%, and 13% of benign tumours; 17%, 26%, 13%, and 44% of borderline malignant tumours; and 17%, 35%, 13%, and 35% of frankly malignant tumours, respectively.
  • Stromal expression of i-NOS was 77%, 18%, 4%, and 1% in benign tumours; 42%, 28%, 19%, and 11% in borderline malignant tumours; and 43%, 13%, 26%, and 18% in frankly malignant tumours, respectively.
  • Stromal expression of both i-NOS and e-NOS was significantly different between the benign and malignant (borderline and frank) groups of phyllodes tumours (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Higher stromal expression of NOS in phyllodes tumours is associated with malignancy, suggesting a possible role in malignant progression, particularly metastasising potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 15917410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / NOS3 protein, human; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770683
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81. Karim RZ, Gerega SK, Yang YH, Spillane A, Carmalt H, Scolyer RA, Lee CS: Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):165-70
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumours of the breast: a clinicopathological analysis of 65 cases from a single institution.
  • The aim of this study was to document the clinical and pathological features of a large single institutional series of ethnically diverse patients with phyllodes tumours (PTs), and to determine which characteristics were predictive of outcome.
  • Sixty five PTs were analysed; 34 were benign, 23 borderline and eight malignant (34 low grade and 31 high grade PTs on a two tiered grading system).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Mastectomy / statistics & numerical data. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / statistics & numerical data. New South Wales / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 19329316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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82. Hino N, Nakagawa Y, Ikushima Y, Yoshida M, Tsuyuguchi M: A case of a giant phyllodes tumor of the breast with hypoglycemia caused by high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II. Breast Cancer; 2010 Apr;17(2):142-5
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  • [Title] A case of a giant phyllodes tumor of the breast with hypoglycemia caused by high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II.
  • We report the case of a patient who presented with hypoglycemia associated with a giant breast mass and presence of serum high-molecular-weight insulin-like growth factor II (big IGF-II).
  • In July 2005, a 49-year-old woman was admitted because of delirium, transient loss of consciousness, and a giant mass of about 28 cm in diameter on the right breast.
  • Because we suspected that the big IGF-II was produced by the breast tumor and was likely the cause of the hypoglycemia, a mastectomy was performed.
  • A histological examination determined that the mass was a benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We suspected that the patient had non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH), but the behavioral symptoms of the hypoglycemia caused by NICTH were similar to some mental diseases, which made diagnosis based on the behavior alone difficult.
  • We suggest that co-occurrence of symptoms such as recent appearance of mental disease-like behavior, hypoglycemia, and giant breast tumor may help diagnose NICTH caused by big IGF-II.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Phyllodes Tumor / etiology


83. Tse GM, Lui PC, Vong JS, Lau KM, Putti TC, Karim R, Scolyer RA, Lee CS, Yu AM, Ng DC, Tse AK, Tan PH: Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in malignant mammary phyllodes tumors. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Apr;114(3):441-8
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  • [Title] Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in malignant mammary phyllodes tumors.
  • Mammary phyllodes tumors are uncommon stromal-epithelial neoplasms, and are divided into benign, borderline malignant and frankly malignant groups on the basis of their histological features.
  • This study investigated 453 phyllodes tumors (296 benign, 98 borderline, 59 malignant) for EGFR expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for gene amplification.
  • The staining was correlated to tumor margin status, degree of malignancy, stromal cellularity, mitotic activity, nuclear pleomorphism and stromal overgrowth.
  • The overall positive rate for EGFR was 16.2% (48/296), 30.6% (30/98) and 56% (33/59) for benign, borderline malignant and frankly malignant phyllodes tumors, respectively.
  • The results of this study provide strong evidence that EGFR overexpression is involved in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumors, although gene amplification may not be the major underlying mechanism for overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Ligands. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18443904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ligands; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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84. Kamate B, Traore CB, Diallo D, Foko I, Sangare F, Malle B, Coulibaly B, Mounkoro N, Bayo S: [Epidemiology and morphology of breast benign tumors in Mali: about 186 cases]. Mali Med; 2008;23(3):36-9
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  • [Title] [Epidemiology and morphology of breast benign tumors in Mali: about 186 cases].
  • Benign tumors are more frequent, and are characterized by a possibility of recurrence or malignant transformation.
  • The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and morphological characteristics of breast benign tumors.
  • The study had concerned all benign tumors confirmed by histology.
  • FINDINGS: In total, 186 benign tumors were diagnosed over 611 mammary pathologies (30.44%).
  • The main complaint was feeling a nodule in the breast (91.9%).
  • The most affected breast was the right side (50.8%).
  • Tumor sizes were variable, and the color changed through white to yellow.
  • Histological aspects were: fibroadenoma (72%), lipoma (8.6%), tubular adenoma (5.9%), papilloma (5.4%), lactating adenoma (3.8%), phyllodes tumor (3.8%), and syringomatous tumor (0.5%).
  • CONCLUSION: Benign tumors are frequent in mammary pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19617151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1993-0836
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Mali médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mali Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mali
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85. Manfrin E, Mariotto R, Remo A, Reghellin D, Falsirollo F, Dalfior D, Bricolo P, Piazzola E, Bonetti F: Benign breast lesions at risk of developing cancer--a challenging problem in breast cancer screening programs: five years' experience of the Breast Cancer Screening Program in Verona (1999-2004). Cancer; 2009 Feb 1;115(3):499-507
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  • [Title] Benign breast lesions at risk of developing cancer--a challenging problem in breast cancer screening programs: five years' experience of the Breast Cancer Screening Program in Verona (1999-2004).
  • BACKGROUND: Cytology and core-needle biopsies are not always sufficient to exclude malignancy in benign breast lesions (BBL) that are at risk of developing cancer, and open biopsy often is mandatory.
  • In screening programs, open biopsies performed for lesions that are at risk of developing malignancy are considered benign.
  • The authors of this report evaluated the impact of the screen-detected BBL at risk of developing cancer that were counted in the quota of benign breast open biopsies in the Breast Cancer Screening Program of Verona.
  • METHODS: Benign open biopsies were subdivided into 4 groups according to their risk of developing cancer: Histo1, normal histology; Histo2, 'pure' BBL (fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, mastitis, adenosis); Histo3, BBL with a low risk of developing cancer (radial scar, papilloma, papillomatosis, phyllodes tumor, mucocele-like lesion); and Histo4, BBL with a high risk of developing cancer (atypical columnar cell hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia).
  • RESULTS: Of 510 open biopsies, 83 biopsies were benign, and the ratio of benign to malignant biopsies was 1:5.
  • Histo1 was observed in 4.8% of all benign open biopsies, Histo2 was observed in 37.4%, Histo3 was observed in 31.3%, and Histo4 was observed 26.5%.
  • It is inappropriate to include BBL at risk of developing cancer in the overall benign open biopsy rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Breast Diseases / complications. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis


86. Agarwal P, Sparnon AL: Benign breast lesions in adolescent girls: an overview with a case report. Pediatr Surg Int; 2005 May;21(5):381-2
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  • [Title] Benign breast lesions in adolescent girls: an overview with a case report.
  • A wide spectrum of breast disorders occurs in the paediatric and adolescent age groups, but malignant disease is very rare.
  • We report a case in an adolescent girl that was initially diagnosed and treated as fibroadenoma until a histological assessment proved it to be a phyllodes tumour with malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Humans

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg. 1983 Dec;146(6):712-4 [6316797.001]
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  • (PMID = 15742186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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87. Cîmpean AM, Raica M, Nariţa D: Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):123-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the distribution of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin positive myofibroblasts in the stroma of the normal mammary gland, benign and malignant tumors.
  • METHODS: Our study included 112 female patients with suspect breast masses obtained by surgery or biopsy.
  • RESULTS: We have found normal breast tissue, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenomas, fibrocystic diseases, phyllodes tumor, DCIS, ductal invasive, lobular, squamous, medullary, mucinous, and papillary carcinomas.
  • All the normal breast tissues and most of benign lesions were positive for CD34 and negative for SMA.
  • The exceptions were represented by a case of fibroadenoma and the phyllodes tumor, with CD34 positivity and a focal acquisition of SMA; fibrocystic disease with associated apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a squamous carcinoma with loss of CD34 expression and focal acquisition of SMA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although there were some exceptions especially when one of the two markers was interpreted separately and in some cases associated with sclerotic stroma, we conclude that the combined expression of CD34 and a-SMA is of potential diagnostic value in the distinction between benign and malignant tumors in some difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Muscle, Smooth / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Smad Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16286998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Smad Proteins
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88. McKenna AM, Pintilie M, Youngson B, Done SJ: Quantification of the morphologic features of fibroepithelial tumors of the breast. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Oct;131(10):1568-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantification of the morphologic features of fibroepithelial tumors of the breast.
  • CONTEXT: Phyllodes tumors of the breast are uncommon, comprising 0.3% to 0.9% of female primary breast tumors.
  • Owing in part to their rarity, definitive, objective, reproducible morphologic criteria that reliably distinguish benign from low-grade malignant or malignant phyllodes tumors have yet to be established.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use image analysis to quantitate and compare morphologic features of different groups of fibroepithelial tumors (FETs) of the breast.
  • DESIGN: Hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of 41 FETs previously identified as fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, low-grade malignant phyllodes, or high-grade malignant phyllodes were blinded and studied using a Leica DMRA2 microscope and OpenLab Image Analysis software.
  • Features of each case including tumor size, margin status, and the presence of necrosis or heterologous elements were also considered; these data were retrieved from surgical pathology reports.
  • RESULTS: Quantitative measures of stromal cellularity, stromal-epithelial ratio, mitotic rate, stromal overgrowth, and mean nuclear diameter were developed and found to stratify a population of FETs by the current classification system of fibroadenoma, benign, and low-grade or high-grade malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17922594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Uematsu T, Kasami M: MR imaging findings of benign and malignant circumscribed breast masses: part 1. Solid circumscribed masses. Jpn J Radiol; 2009 Dec;27(10):395-404
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  • [Title] MR imaging findings of benign and malignant circumscribed breast masses: part 1. Solid circumscribed masses.
  • The purpose of our study was to review the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings and pathological diagnoses of benign and malignant solid circumscribed breast masses.
  • This article reviews the MR imaging findings of solid circumscribed breast masses.
  • A strategy for the diagnosis of solid circumscribed breast masses with MR imaging is herein presented that incorporates the signal intensity characteristics on T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images with the kinetic curve assessment reflected by the temporal and spatial uptake of contrast medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20035410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-108X
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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90. Norat F, Dreant N, Riah Y, Lebreton E: [Extraordinary case of malignant phylloid tumor of the breast: surgical reconstruction treatment]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):475-8
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  • [Title] [Extraordinary case of malignant phylloid tumor of the breast: surgical reconstruction treatment].
  • Phyllode tumors of the breast are fibroepithelial tumors similar to fibroadenomas but with a predominant conjunctive tissue component.
  • They are rare with an incidence of less than 1% of all breast neoplasms.
  • They can be divided in three categories: benign, borderline, malignant.
  • The Authors report the case of a 53 years old woman who presented an exceptional 6.5 kg phylloid tumor of the left mamma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20476683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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91. Abdallah A, Saklaoui O, Stückle C, Sommerer F, Hatzmann W, Audretsch W, Wesemann A, Zink M, Skoljarev L, Papadopoulos S: [Case reports of operative management of very large, benign phylloid tumors--is a safety margin necessary?]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch; 2009;49(4):320-5
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  • [Title] [Case reports of operative management of very large, benign phylloid tumors--is a safety margin necessary?].
  • The phylloid tumor (PT, formerly called cystosarcoma phylloides) is a rare neoplasia of the female breast.
  • Usually the PT is treated with breast-conserving surgery.
  • In spite of progress in early diagnosis, PTs recur frequently--independently of tumor's degree of malignancy.
  • Especially in cases of malignant PT, complete resection with tumor-free margins is seen as the only predictive marker for tumor recurrence or metastases.
  • Benign PT is also often resected with wide tumor-free margins.
  • Because of the tumor's occasionally enormous dimensions, this therapy concept makes breast-conserving surgery almost impossible.
  • A simple enucleation of benign PT is an option to facilitate the preservation of breast tissue and a cosmetically satisfactory breast reconstruction.
  • In the case of particularly large benign PT, enucleation even without wide margins prevents tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Subcutaneous / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Breast / pathology. Esthetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammaplasty / methods. Mammography. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 20530948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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92. Yoo JL, Woo OH, Kim YK, Cho KR, Yong HS, Seo BK, Kim A, Kang EY: Can MR Imaging contribute in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas? Radiographics; 2010 Oct;30(6):1689-702
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  • [Title] Can MR Imaging contribute in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas?
  • Most well-circumscribed breast masses are benign lesions such as cysts, fibroadenomas, and intramammary lymph nodes.
  • Nevertheless, 10%-20% of breast malignancies are well-circumscribed masses, and these malignancies include papillary, mucinous, medullary, and metaplastic carcinomas, as well as malignant phyllodes tumors.
  • Therefore, it is important to differentiate these well-circumscribed breast malignancies from benign breast lesions, but it is not easy to do so with conventional imaging modalities such as mammography and ultrasonography (US).
  • As an emerging adjunctive imaging method, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has substantial potential in characterizing well-circumscribed breast carcinomas.
  • Analysis of the lesion signal intensity on nonenhanced T2-weighted MR images, determination of the enhancement pattern, and kinetic curve assessment can greatly help differentiate malignant from benign well-circumscribed breast lesions.
  • Therefore, breast MR imaging can play a substantial role in distinguishing between well-circumscribed benign and malignant breast lesions, especially in cases that are difficult to diagnose by using conventional imaging.
  • In this article, the MR imaging findings of the subtypes of well-circumscribed malignant breast lesions-intracystic papillary carcinoma, invasive papillary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, and malignant phyllodes tumor-are described and correlated with the histopathologic, mammographic, and US findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © RSNA, 2010.
  • [CommentIn] Radiographics. 2010 Oct;30(6):1703-4; discussion 1704 [21117281.001]
  • (PMID = 21071383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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93. Fukuoka H, Moriuchi M, Yano H, Nagayasu T, Moriuchi H: No association of mouse mammary tumor virus-related retrovirus with Japanese cases of breast cancer. J Med Virol; 2008 Aug;80(8):1447-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] No association of mouse mammary tumor virus-related retrovirus with Japanese cases of breast cancer.
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the causative agent of breast tumors in mice.
  • Recently, DNA sequences homologous or closely related to MMTV env gene have been specifically detected in breast cancer tissue from significant numbers of American, Australian, and Tunisian women, suggesting a viral etiology for at least a part of human breast cancer.
  • However, the viral sequences have not been detected from any of breast cancer samples in several subsequent studies.
  • Thus, whether MMTV-related retrovirus is a causative agent of human breast cancer remains controversial.
  • To demonstrate if MMTV-related retrovirus is involved in Japanese cases of breast cancer, breast tissue specimens from 46 breast cancer patients and 3 patients with benign mammary tumors were investigated.
  • Thus, MMTV itself or MMTV-related retrovirus is not associated with breast carcinogenesis in Japanese women, and it is unclear whether this conclusion is merely a reflection of regional differences in its epidemics.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Gene Products, env / genetics. Genes, env. Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / virology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Blotting, Southern. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / virology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / virology. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Fibroadenoma / epidemiology. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Fibroadenoma / virology. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Mice. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Phyllodes Tumor / epidemiology. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Phyllodes Tumor / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18551605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, env
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94. Yamamoto H, Okumura K, Toshima S, Mukaisho K, Sugihara H, Hattori T, Kato M, Asano S: FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues. Biol Pharm Bull; 2009 Jul;32(7):1148-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FXYD3 protein involved in tumor cell proliferation is overproduced in human breast cancer tissues.
  • FXYD3, also known as Mat-8 (Mammary tumor 8 kDa), is one of mRNAs highly expressed in mouse and human breast cancers.
  • Here, we newly found that FXYD3 protein was also overexpressed in human breast cancer specimens; invasive ductal carcinomas and intra-ductal carcinomas, whereas its expression was low in benign lesion specimens; mastopathy, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumors.
  • Here, we found that FXYD3a mRNA is a major transcript product expressed in human normal tissues as well as in breast, colon, stomach and pancreas cancer cell lines.
  • Cell proliferation rate of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was drastically decreased when FXYD3a and 3b mRNAs were suppressed by the small interfering RNA.
  • These results suggest that FXYD3a protein is highly expressed in breast cancers, and responsible for cancer cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amino Acid Sequence. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Alignment. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19571376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FXYD3 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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95. Chung EM, Cube R, Hall GJ, González C, Stocker JT, Glassman LM: From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2009 May-Jun;29(3):907-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: breast masses in children and adolescents: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • The spectrum of breast lesions in children and adolescents varies markedly from that for adults, with the former lesions being overwhelmingly benign.
  • A breast mass in a young boy or girl may arise from normal and abnormal breast development.
  • After onset of puberty, most cases of breast enlargement arise from benign fibroadenoma in girls and gynecomastia in boys.
  • These conditions have specific imaging appearances, although juvenile (often giant) fibroadenoma cannot be distinguished from phyllodes tumor, which can be benign or malignant.
  • A diagnosis of juvenile papillomatosis (a benign lesion) portends later development of breast cancer, and patients with this condition should be closely monitored.
  • Malignant lesions of the breast in children are rare.
  • The most common primary breast malignancy is malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Primary breast carcinoma is exceedingly rare in the pediatric age group, but its imaging appearance in children is the same as seen in adults and is different from that of almost all benign lesions.
  • In girls, diagnostic interventions may injure the developing breast and cause subsequent disfigurement.
  • Given this risk and the low prevalence of malignant disease in this population, a prudent course should be followed in the diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Breast / abnormalities. Breast / anatomy & histology. Breast / growth & development. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / radiography. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / radiography. Gynecomastia / pathology. Gynecomastia / radiography. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Nipples / abnormalities. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / radiography. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / radiography. Puberty. Puberty, Precocious / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19448124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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96. Aron M, Ray R, Verma K: Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast-cytological features of two cases and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Apr;48(2):260-4
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  • [Title] Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast-cytological features of two cases and review of literature.
  • Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a lesion characterized on histology by the presence of anastomosing slit like spaces embedded in a hyalinized fibrous stroma.
  • Till date, the cytological features of PASH have been described in only 12 cases, of which two cases were diagnosed on aspiration cytology as suspicious for carcinoma and in one case, for phyllodes tumor.
  • The first case was diagnosed as a phyllodes tumor and the other case as a benign proliferative breast disease, possibly a fibroadenoma.
  • FNAC findings of PASH are non-specific, and the role of FNAC in PASH is to confirm the benign nature of the lesion, rather than provide a definitive pre-surgical diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomatosis / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010 Jul-Sep;53(3):573-4 [20699535.001]
  • (PMID = 16758690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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97. Tea MK, Asseryanis E, Kroiss R, Kubista E, Wagner T: Surgical breast lesions in adolescent females. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Jan;25(1):73-5
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  • [Title] Surgical breast lesions in adolescent females.
  • PURPOSE: Breast diseases in teenage girls are fortunately uncommon, with most presenting masses being benign.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological results of breast lesions excised from adolescent females less than 19 years of age.
  • All data included the patient age, age of menarche, pregnancy, hormonal contraception, family history of breast cancer, size of the breast lesion and its histopathology following surgery.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-seven female patients with an average age of 16 years (ranging 12-18 years) were operated on for breast tumor and/or discharge.
  • Six patients had bilateral breast masses; thus, 43 breast lesions were evaluated following surgical excision.
  • Surprisingly, breast cancer was found in two cases.
  • As breast neoplasm was found in two cases, a malignancy rate of 4.7% was observed.
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of primary breast cancer in adolescent women is low.
  • However, our experience shows the need for compulsory excision of all breast masses and highlighting the importance of histopathological evaluation of all breast tumors including adolescents.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Austria. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Child. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibroadenoma / surgery. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Mastectomy. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18985359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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98. Lien HC, Lu YS, Cheng AL, Chang WC, Jeng YM, Kuo YH, Huang CS, Chang KJ, Yao YT: Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptor in human breast tissues and related neoplasms. J Pathol; 2006 Jul;209(3):317-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptor in human breast tissues and related neoplasms.
  • Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a steroid hormone receptor that has been shown to play important roles in mammary development and differentiation, and has been implicated in breast tumourigenesis, but its precise biological significance in mammary pathophysiology remains unclear.
  • In order to generate a comprehensive expression profile for GR in normal versus neoplastic breast tissues, GR expression was investigated in situ in 400 human breast tissue samples, comprising normal tissue and a range of benign, pre-invasive, and invasive lesions, using immunohistochemical assays.
  • The novel expression of GR in myoepithelium, not observed in luminal epithelium, not only demonstrates expression patterns exclusive to the alpha form of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and suggests distinctive functions between GR and these two important steroid hormone receptors in the breast, but may also indicate unique physiological and perhaps pathological roles for the myoepithelium in mediating the effects of glucocorticoid hormones in the breast.
  • The strong expression of GR in metaplastic carcinomas (94.4%) and malignant phyllodes tumours (92.3%) suggests a pathogenetic role for GR, and implies that targeting GR in these tumours may have potential therapeutic application.
  • This marked discrepancy warrants a re-examination of the biological roles of GR in the pathophysiology of breast malignancy.
  • The lack of methylation in the promoter region of the GR gene in all 118 non-metaplastic carcinomas, as demonstrated by methylation-specific PCR and bisulphite DNA sequencing analysis, indicates that methylation is less likely to play a role in the reduction of GR expression in non-metaplastic carcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phyllodes Tumor / genetics. Phyllodes Tumor / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • (PMID = 16639692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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99. Ahmed HG, Ali AS, Almobarak AO: Frequency of breast cancer among Sudanese patients with breast palpable lumps. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jan-Mar;47(1):23-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequency of breast cancer among Sudanese patients with breast palpable lumps.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer mortality is high in Sudan and most patients are detected at later stages of the disease due to the lack of awareness and absence of screening programs.
  • This study aimed to determine the pattern and frequency of breast cancer among patients presenting with palpable breast lumps within one year duration.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We obtained information (patient's personal data) and Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) materials, for occurrence of 200 breast lesions in patients.
  • RESULTS: The diagnoses of the 200 breast lesions were as follows: 68 (34%) were malignant, 56 cases (28%) were fibroadenoma, 23 cases (11.5%) were fibrocystic change, 22 cases (11%) were inflammatory lesions (including mastitis and abscess formation), 12 cases (6%) were benign cysts and the remaining 19 patients (9.5%) were with lactation changes (8 cases), lipoma (6 cases), gynecomastia (3 cases) and phyllodes tumor (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of advanced breast cancer among patients with breast lesions is high, in this subset of patients, which signals the urgency for implementation of breast screening programs.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sudan / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20071785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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100. Sando N, Oka K, Moriya T, Saito H, Nagakura S, Mori N, Suzuki T, Ueki H, Ohtani H: Osteosarcoma arising in the breast. APMIS; 2006 Jul-Aug;114(7-8):581-7
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Osteosarcoma arising in the breast.
  • We report on a 49-year-old woman with osteosarcoma arising in the breast.
  • She had undergone two consecutive excision biopsies for right breast tumors at ages 40 and 42 years.
  • The tumors were diagnosed as a fibroadenoma and a benign phyllodes tumor, respectively.
  • At age 46 years, she noticed a gradually enlarging mass in the same breast.
  • The tumor occupied the entire breast and measured 12x9x8.5 cm.
  • The tumor cells were spindle-shaped and pleomorphic, with large, irregular nuclei and distinct nucleoli.
  • Many tumor cells had characteristics of osteoblastic and chondroblastic elements producing osteoid, osseous, and cartilaginous intracellular substances.
  • Tumor cells expressed vimentin, osteopontin, vascular endothelial growth factor, CD10, and alkaline phosphatase, but did not express keratin.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Osteosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16907866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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