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1. Yanagawa T, Watanabe H, Shinozaki T, Takagishi K: Curettage of benign bone tumors without grafts gives sufficient bone strength. Acta Orthop; 2009 Feb;80(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Curettage of benign bone tumors without grafts gives sufficient bone strength.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The defect that results after curettage of a bone tumor is usually filled in the same way.
  • We report the outcome in patients with benign bone tumors that were treated with curettage but no filling.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 78 patients (mean age at the time of operation was 27 (6-73) years, 44 men) who had had a benign bone tumor curetted with no filling of the defect.
  • The commonest tumor types were giant cell tumor of bone (27), fibrous dysplasia (13), enchondroma (9), and simple bone cyst (7).
  • Local recurrence occurred in 9 patients; 7 of them had a giant cell tumor.
  • INTERPRETATION: Routine filling of curetted bone lesions does not appear to be necessary from a mechanical point of view.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Curettage / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Cysts / surgery. Bone Remodeling / physiology. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Orthop. 2009 Feb;80(1):2-3 [19297784.001]
  • (PMID = 19234882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-3682
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2823236
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2. Malek F, Krueger P, Hatmi ZN, Malayeri AA, Faezipour H, O'Donnell RJ: Local control of long bone giant cell tumour using curettage, burring and bone grafting without adjuvant therapy. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):495-8
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  • [Title] Local control of long bone giant cell tumour using curettage, burring and bone grafting without adjuvant therapy.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) is a benign, but aggressive, primary tumour of the bone.
  • Many surgical techniques have been employed in the treatment of this tumour.
  • In addition to curettage, various adjuvant procedures and packing materials have been advocated in order to control and reconstruct long bone defects secondary to this neoplasm.
  • We report our experience with 40 long bone GCT patients treated with curettage, burring, bone grafting and no adjuvants between 1997 and 2002.
  • The risk of local recurrence in this study is acceptable (within the range that has been historically reported for curettage and bone grafting).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / methods. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Cohort Studies. Developing Countries. Female. Humans. Iran. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16896875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3172751
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3. Forsyth RG, De Boeck G, Baelde JJ, Taminiau AH, Uyttendaele D, Roels H, Praet MM, Hogendoorn PC: CD33+ CD14- phenotype is characteristic of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells in giant cell tumor of bone. J Bone Miner Res; 2009 Jan;24(1):70-7
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  • [Title] CD33+ CD14- phenotype is characteristic of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign bone tumor with a shown clinical behavior of local recurrences and rare distant metastases.
  • GCTB is composed of uniformly distributed osteoclastic giant cells, thought to originate from the fusion of monocyte-macrophage lineage cells, in a background consisting of mononuclear rounded cells and spindle-shaped cells.
  • Several reports showed the specific expression of markers, such as CD14 on the mononuclear rounded cell population, however, lacking osteoclastic giant cells.
  • Nineteen GCTB tumor samples of 19 patients were studied.
  • The mononuclear rounded cell population was positive for RANK, CD51, CD14, and CD33.
  • The osteoclastic giant cell population expressed RANK and CD51, as well as CD33, but was consistently negative for CD14 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD14 / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumors / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Integrin alphaV / biosynthesis. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / biosynthesis. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3

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  • (PMID = 18767926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Integrin alphaV; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3
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4. Peh WC, Koh WL, Kwek JW, Htoo MM, Tan PH: Imaging of painful solitary lesions of the sacrum. Australas Radiol; 2007 Dec;51(6):507-15
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  • Benign lesions include giant cell tumour, neurogenic tumour, insufficiency fracture, infection and giant bone island.
  • Malignant lesions include primary bone tumours, Ewing sarcoma, plasmacytoma, lymphoma and chordoma.
  • Soft tissue tumours adjacent to or involving the sacrum may cause painful symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 17958684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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5. Tarng YW, Yang SW, Hsu CJ: Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report. J Hand Surg Am; 2009 Feb;34(2):262-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report.
  • We report a rare case of multifocal giant cell tumor of bone involving the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and scaphoid with soft tissue extension.
  • Following intralesional resection, an autogenous corticocancellous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill the resultant defect and preserve carpal height and radiocarpal motion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Carpal Bones / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ilium / transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19135808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-6564
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Jakobs M, Häupl T, Krenn V, Guenther R: [MMP- and FAP-mediated non-inflammation-related destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis]. Z Rheumatol; 2009 Oct;68(8):683-94
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  • [Title] [MMP- and FAP-mediated non-inflammation-related destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis].
  • [Transliterated title] MMP- und FAP-vermittelte inflammationsunabhängige Destruktion von Knochen und Knorpel in der rheumatoiden Arthritis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Due to morphological similarities of high-grade synovitis in rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and mesenchymal, semimalignant tumors and the hypothesis that RA progression is not only inflammation-related, but also determined by tumor-like mechanisms, a comparison was made between expression profiles of RA, giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) and normal synovium (ND).
  • The presence of FAP in RA and in stroma of a semimalignant tumor indicates tumor-like tissue destruction in chronic synovitis associated with RA.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / immunology. Bone and Bones / immunology. Cartilage / immunology. Gelatinases / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Receptors, CCR / analysis. Serine Endopeptidases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19593575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1250
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CCR; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / fibroblast activation protein alpha; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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7. Amendolara M, Barbarino C, Bucca D, Guarnieri F, Novello GB, Romano FM, Stevanato G, Ranzato R: [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report]. G Chir; 2008 Mar;29(3):85-8
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  • [Title] [Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma. Case report].
  • The adrenal myelolipoma is a relatively rare benign tumour of adipose cell and bone marrow elements, non functioning and asymptomatic.
  • Giant and bilateral adrenal myelolipoma is quite rare.
  • The Authors report a case of bilateral adrenal myelolipoma, a giant one (> 15 cm) on the left side and a small one (> 4 cm) on the right with constant pain in a 57-year-old man, shown by computerized tomography.
  • The authors agree with the need to remove the giant adrenal myelolipoma, because the lesion > 10 cm have a high risk of cancer and hemorrhagic complication, while for small myelolipoma (< 6 cm) 6-12 months follow-up is the appropriate choice.

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  • (PMID = 18366886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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8. Sawyer JR, Goosen LS, Binz RL, Swanson CM, Nicholas RW: Evidence for telomeric fusions as a mechanism for recurring structural aberrations of chromosome 11 in giant cell tumor of bone. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2005 May;159(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Evidence for telomeric fusions as a mechanism for recurring structural aberrations of chromosome 11 in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign but often aggressive tumor with a tendency toward local recurrence.
  • A third tumor with clonal tas of 11pter showed 2 additional subclones, one with ring chromosome 11 and the other with an extra copy of 1q.
  • To our knowledge, the 2 cases with del(11)(p11) represent the first report of a recurring structural chromosome aberration in GCTB.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Giant Cell Tumors / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Telomere

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  • (PMID = 15860354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Zahid M, Asif N, Sabir AB, Siddiqui YS, Julfiqar M: Metachronous multicentric giant cell tumour of the upper extremity in a skeletally immature girl : A rare presentation. Acta Orthop Belg; 2010 Oct;76(5):694-8
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  • [Title] Metachronous multicentric giant cell tumour of the upper extremity in a skeletally immature girl : A rare presentation.
  • Giant Cell tumour (GCT) or Osteoclastoma is a benign locally aggressive tumour with a tendency for local recurrence.
  • GCT constitutes 5% of all primary bone tumours.
  • Metachronous multicentric giant cell tumour of bone is a rare entity.
  • We report a young girl presenting with metachronous multicentric recurrent benign GCT, with the lesions involving the ipsilateral right hand and distal humerus.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Hand Bones. Humerus. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 21138229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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10. Santiago FR, Del Mar Castellano García M, Montes JL, García MR, Fernández JM: Treatment of bone tumours by radiofrequency thermal ablation. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med; 2009 Mar;2(1):43-50
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  • [Title] Treatment of bone tumours by radiofrequency thermal ablation.
  • Other benign conditions (chondroblastoma, osteoblastoma, giant cell tumour, etc.) can also be treated by this technique, which is less invasive than traditional surgical procedures.
  • In other cases, it is combined with conventional therapies or other percutaneous treatments, e.g., cementoplasty, offering faster pain relief and bone strengthening.

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  • (PMID = 19468917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-973X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2684952
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11. May SA, Deavers MT, Resetkova E, Johnson D, Albarracin CT: Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Oct;11(5):345-9
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast.
  • Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) arising in breast is exceedingly rare.
  • We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary breast giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone and had a clinically malignant course.
  • Histopathological evaluation revealed a neoplasm composed of mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells resembling giant cell tumor of bone.
  • These features were most consistent with GCT-ST, an uncommon neoplasm of low malignant potential.
  • This case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting clinical behavior of GCT-ST of breast on the basis of histological features and depth of tumor alone.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a GCT-ST arising in the breast associated with a fatal outcome.
  • The distinction of this entity from other more common primary breast tumors with giant cell morphology is also emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17870021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vimentin
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12. Gebre-Medhin S, Broberg K, Jonson T, Gorunova L, von Steyern FV, Brosjö O, Jin Y, Gisselsson D, Panagopoulos I, Mandahl N, Mertens F: Telomeric associations correlate with telomere length reduction and clonal chromosome aberrations in giant cell tumor of bone. Cytogenet Genome Res; 2009;124(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Telomeric associations correlate with telomere length reduction and clonal chromosome aberrations in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is characterized cytogenetically by frequent telomeric associations (tas).
  • Clonal aberrations were found to be restricted to the group with a high level of tas, and the same group showed a significantly larger reduction in telomere length in tumor cells compared to peripheral blood cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Telomere / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19420923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-859X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytogenetic and genome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytogenet. Genome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / POT1 protein, human; 0 / TERF1 protein, human; 0 / TERF2 protein, human; 0 / Telomere-Binding Proteins; 0 / Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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13. Guo QC, Shen JN, Wang J, Huang G, Zou CY, Jin S, Yin JQ, Liao WM: [Analysis of the factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun 15;44(12):797-800
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  • [Title] [Analysis of the factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumors (GCT) of bone.
  • The two factors of surgery method and burst out of bone-envelope appearance were related with the recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16889722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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14. Li WX, Ye ZM, Yang DS, Tao HM, Lin N, Yang ZM: [Endoprosthetic reconstruction after wide resection of primary bone tumor around the knee]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May 15;45(10):665-8
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  • [Title] [Endoprosthetic reconstruction after wide resection of primary bone tumor around the knee].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect and complication of the endoprosthetic reconstruction after wide resection of primary bone tumor around the knee.
  • METHODS: The retrospective analysis was performed on 83 patients undergoing the prosthetic reconstruction after the resection of the primary tumor around the knee between December 1995 and December 2005.
  • All the diagnoses were pathologically confirmed (58 patients with osteosarcoma, 2 with osteosarcomatosis, 1 with parosteal osteosarcoma, 4 with malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 13 with giant cell tumor of bone, 1 with leiomyosarcoma, 2 with Ewing's sarcoma, 2 with chondrosarcoma).
  • After operation, the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score was used to evaluate the recovery of their corresponding functions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the tumor prosthesis gives a satisfactory functional outcome after the tumor around the knee is removed with a lower incidence of complication.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / methods. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Knee

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  • (PMID = 17688816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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15. Singh S, Mak I, Power P, Cunningham M, Turcotte R, Ghert M: Gene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone. Stem Cells Cloning; 2010;3:129-34
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  • [Title] Gene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The neoplastic stem-like stromal cell of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) survives for multiple passages in primary culture with a stable phenotype, and exhibits multipotent characteristics.
  • The pathophysiology of this tumor has been studied through the primary culture of these cells.

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  • [ErratumIn] Stem Cells Cloning. 2011;4:23. Cunnigham, Melissa [corrected to Cunningham, Melissa]
  • (PMID = 24198518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-6957
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells and cloning : advances and applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells Cloning
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3781737
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TWIST / gene / giant cell tumor / primary cells / transfection
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16. Dridi M, Annabi H, Ben Ghozlen R, Abdelkefi M, Trabelsi M: Giant cell tumour of a phalanx in the foot: a case report. Acta Orthop Belg; 2008 Apr;74(2):273-5
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumour of a phalanx in the foot: a case report.
  • Giant cell tumours are uncommon benign osseous neoplasias with an obscure origin.
  • The authors report a case of giant cell tumour involving a phalangeal bone in the foot and review the presentation, distinctive features and treatment of this tumour when occurring in this location.
  • A 28-year-old female patient was seen with an aggressive giant cell tumour of the first phalangeal bone of the third ray of her left foot.
  • En bloc resection of the third ray was performed without bone grafting.
  • The patient has now been free from disease for 12 years.
  • When giant cell tumour occurs in such a location, it appears to represent a distinct, more aggressive form of tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Toe Phalanges

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  • (PMID = 18564489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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17. Altuntas AO, Slavin J, Smith PJ, Schlict SM, Powell GJ, Ngan S, Toner G, Choong PF: Accuracy of computed tomography guided core needle biopsy of musculoskeletal tumours. ANZ J Surg; 2005 Apr;75(4):187-91
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  • [Title] Accuracy of computed tomography guided core needle biopsy of musculoskeletal tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: The accurate diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumours is important for successful treatment.
  • The aim of the present study is to assess the accuracy of computed tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy of musculoskeletal tumours.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study on a series of 127 patients with a musculoskeletal tumour.
  • The accuracy of the CT-guided core needle biopsy was determined by comparing the histology of the biopsy with the final histology of the specimen obtained at open biopsy or surgical resection of the tumour.
  • The effective accuracy was determined by the accuracy of the biopsy to distinguish between a benign and malignant tumour.
  • The effective accuracy as determined by a malignant versus benign lesion was 89%.
  • There were 86 malignant tumours with a biopsy accuracy of 81.4% and there were 41 benign tumours with a biopsy accuracy of 78%.
  • The positive predictive value (PPV) of a malignant tumour is 98.9% and the PPV of benign tumour 90.2%.
  • The most common site of biopsy was from the femur and thigh, together accounting for 39.4% of the tumours.
  • The most common tumours in this series were liposarcoma (n = 12), osteosarcoma (n = 11) and giant cell tumour (n = 11).
  • CONCLUSION: Computed tomography guided core needle biopsy is a safe and effective procedure that is important in the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal tumours.
  • It should be performed in a specialized institution with a multidisciplinary musculoskeletal tumour team.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Muscle Neoplasms / pathology. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15839962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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18. McGough RL, Rutledge J, Lewis VO, Lin PP, Yasko AW: Impact severity of local recurrence in giant cell tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2005 Sep;438:116-22
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  • [Title] Impact severity of local recurrence in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 183 consecutive patients diagnosed with giant cell tumor at the three most common sites (distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal radius) to determine the pattern of local tumor recurrence and the impact severity of the recurrence on adjacent joint function.
  • The primary tumor was treated in all patients with intralesional excision of tumor by curettage.
  • Forty-five patients developed locally recurrent disease.
  • The intrainstitutional recurrences were salvaged by a repeat curettage (n = 12) or en bloc osteoarticular resection (n = 10) for bone recurrences and wide local excision for soft tissue recurrence (n = 1).
  • The prereferral recurrences were salvaged by a repeat curettage (n = 7) and en bloc osteoarticular resection (n = 15) for bone recurrences.
  • Incomplete initial surgery, a delay in diagnosis of the recurrence of greater than 6 months, and subchondral recurrence of tumor were contributing factors in the failure to salvage the joint.
  • Despite its benign histology, giant cell tumor of bone is an aggressive tumor that demands meticulous attention to surgical detail and close postoperative surveillance for successful local tumor control and durable, joint-preserving function.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Femur / pathology. Femur / radiography. Femur / surgery. Humans. Joints / physiopathology. Joints / surgery. Limb Salvage / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Radius / pathology. Radius / radiography. Radius / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Tibia / pathology. Tibia / radiography. Tibia / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16131879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-921X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Janes S, Cid J, Kaye P, Doran J: Pancreatic osteoclastoma: immunohistochemical evidence of a reactive histiomonocytic origin. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Mar;76(3):198-9
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  • [Title] Pancreatic osteoclastoma: immunohistochemical evidence of a reactive histiomonocytic origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Osteoclasts / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16626367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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20. Ng PK, Tsui SK, Lau CP, Wong CH, Wong WH, Huang L, Kumta SM: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression. J Cell Biochem; 2010 May 15;110(2):438-46
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  • [Title] CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is an aggressive non-cancerous tumor, which consists of multi-nucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, stromal cells, and monocytes.
  • It is believed that stromal cells are the neoplastic component of this tumor.
  • Expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) in the stromal cells stimulates the monocytes to form giant multi-nucleated osteoclast-like cells, causing bone over-resorption at the tumor site.
  • Previously, our group has reported the up-regulation of RANKL in GCT of bone stromal cells, but the mechanism is unknown.
  • Using stromal cell culture of GCT obtained from patients, we demonstrated the up-regulation of the transcriptional activator CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta).
  • To conclude, our study has shown that C/EBPbeta is a RANKL promoter activator in stromal cells of GCT of bone and we have proposed a model in which C/EBPbeta plays an important role in the osteolytic characteristics and pathological causes of GCT of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. RANK Ligand / genetics. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20225273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4644
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta; 0 / CEBPB protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human
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21. Minami A, Iwasaki N, Nishida K, Motomiya M, Yamada K, Momma D: Giant-cell tumor of the distal ulna treated by wide resection and ulnar support reconstruction: a case report. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:871278
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumor of the distal ulna treated by wide resection and ulnar support reconstruction: a case report.
  • Giant-cell tumor of bone occurred in the distal end of the ulna is extremely uncommon.
  • A 23-year-old male had a giant-cell tumor occurred in the distal end of the ulna.
  • After wide resection of the distal segment of the ulna including giant-cell tumor, ulnar components of the wrist joint were reconstructed with modified Sauvé-Kapandji procedure using the iliac bone graft, preserving the triangular fibrocartilage complex and ulnar collateral ligament in order to maintain ulnar support of the wrist, and the proximal stump of the resected ulna was stabilized by tenodesis using the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon.
  • Postoperative X-rays showed no abnormal findings including recurrence of the giant-cell tumor and ulnar translation of the entire carpus.

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  • (PMID = 20592994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2892703
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22. Cribb GL, Cool P, Hill SO, Mangham DC: Distal tibial giant cell tumour treated with curettage and stabilisation with an Ilizarov frame. Foot Ankle Surg; 2009;15(1):28-32
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  • [Title] Distal tibial giant cell tumour treated with curettage and stabilisation with an Ilizarov frame.
  • Imaging and biopsy confirmed this to be a giant cell tumour of bone.
  • After a prolonged course of rehabilitation he has excellent function and has returned to hill walking and there is no evidence of recurrence of the giant cell tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Curettage. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ilizarov Technique. Tibia

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  • (PMID = 19218062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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23. Ngan KW, Chuang WY, Yeh CJ: Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation. Pathology; 2008 Apr;40(3):312-3
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  • [Title] Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18428057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Muramatsu K, Ihara K, Taguchi T: Treatment of giant cell tumor of long bones: clinical outcome and reconstructive strategy for lower and upper limbs. Orthopedics; 2009 Jul;32(7):491
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  • [Title] Treatment of giant cell tumor of long bones: clinical outcome and reconstructive strategy for lower and upper limbs.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone is a rare and unpredictable lesion.
  • Twenty-three consecutive cases of giant cell tumor of long bones were treated in 10 years.
  • The most common tumor sites were the proximal tibia (10 cases), distal femur (8), and distal radius (3).
  • Functional outcomes as evaluated by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society measure were successful, with an average score of 26.6 points (range, 22-30 points).
  • For giant cell tumor of the upper limb or for young patients, biological reconstruction should be applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Lower Extremity / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Upper Extremity / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19634852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Turcotte RE: Giant cell tumor of bone. Orthop Clin North Am; 2006 Jan;37(1):35-51
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor is a common benign bone tumor that possesses specific features including location at the end of long bone, a strong tendency toward local recurrence, and the rare capacity to metastasize to the lungs.
  • Preferred treatment usually consists of extensive curettage and filling of the cavity with bone graft or cement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Fractures, Spontaneous / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Bone Transplantation / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Curettage / methods. Female. Humans. Incidence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16311110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-5898
  • [Journal-full-title] The Orthopedic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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26. Saikia KC, Bhuyan SK, Saikia SP, Rongphar R, Jitesh P: Resection and arthrodesis of the knee joint for giant cell tumours of bone. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2010 Aug;18(2):208-14
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  • [Title] Resection and arthrodesis of the knee joint for giant cell tumours of bone.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate functional outcomes and complications following resection and arthrodesis of the knee for giant cell tumours (GCTs) of bone, in comparison to treatment by endoprosthetic replacements reported elsewhere.
  • METHODS: 18 men and 14 women aged 18 to 40 (mean, 28) years underwent resection and arthrodesis of the knee for GCTs of bone involving the distal femur (n=17) and proximal tibia (n=15).
  • Cancellous bone grafts were placed transversely along the struts and circumferentially over the host-graft junctions.
  • The mean size of the tumours was 10x8x6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthrodesis / instrumentation. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Plates. Bone Transplantation / methods. Fibula / transplantation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint

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  • (PMID = 20808014.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-4990
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Balke M, Hardes J: Denosumab: a breakthrough in treatment of giant-cell tumour of bone? Lancet Oncol; 2010 Mar;11(3):218-9
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  • [Title] Denosumab: a breakthrough in treatment of giant-cell tumour of bone?
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. RANK Ligand / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [CommentOn] Lancet Oncol. 2010 Mar;11(3):275-80 [20149736.001]
  • (PMID = 20149737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RANK Ligand; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab
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28. Lang S: [Differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone]. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:245-9
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  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone].
  • The diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone is often problematic even for the experienced pathologist.
  • The diagnostic key lies in multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells and a mononuclear stroma.
  • From the histological picture alone it is often difficult to distinguish between individual entities such as conventional giant-cell tumor of bone, non-ossifying fibroma, giant-cell tumor in hyperparathyroidism or an aneurysmal bone cyst.
  • Furthermore, these lesions can be confused with malignant bone tumors such as giant cell-rich osteosarcoma.
  • In most cases diagnosis is made on the basis of intraoperative frozen-section, but even in this setting, due to the poor quality of the material, it is very difficult to make a correct diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions without X-ray and clinical data.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone and Bones / pathology. Child. Connective Tissue / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] Pathologe. 1996 Jan;17(1):1-5 [8685089.001]
  • (PMID = 18836722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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29. Bianchi G, Staals EL, Donati D, Mercuri M: The use of unicondylar osteoarticular allografts in reconstructions around the knee. Knee; 2009 Jan;16(1):1-5
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  • Unicondylar osteoarticular allografts (UOA) of the knee are mainly used after bone tumour resections for benign aggressive tumours or small malignant tumours with clearly defined margins.
  • The diagnosis was chondrosarcoma in four cases, giant cell tumour in three, osteosarcoma in three, posttraumatic defect in one, and one failed UOA.
  • One patient died of metastatic disease at 24 months.
  • In selected cases of distal femoral and proximal tibial tumours, UOA reconstructions give good functional outcomes with relatively few major complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Transplantation, Homologous / methods

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  • (PMID = 18954989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0968-0160
  • [Journal-full-title] The Knee
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Knee
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Nnodu OE, Giwa SO, Eyesan SU, Abdulkareem FB: Fine needle aspiration cytology of bone tumours--the experience from the National Orthopaedic and Lagos University Teaching Hospitals, Lagos, Nigeria. Cytojournal; 2006;3:16
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of bone tumours--the experience from the National Orthopaedic and Lagos University Teaching Hospitals, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to difficulty in confirming clinical suspicions of malignancy in patients presenting with bone tumours, the cost of surgical biopsies where hospital charges are borne almost entirely by patients, competition with bone setters and healing homes with high rate of loss to follow up; we set out to find if sufficient material could be obtained to arrive at reliable tissue diagnosis in patients with clinical and radiological evidence of bone tumours in our hospitals.
  • Cytological diagnosis of benign lesions was made in 40 patients and malignant in 47.
  • Of these, 27 were metastases, osteogenic sarcoma 16, giant cell tumour 19, infection 11.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that FNAC can be useful in the pre-operative assessment of bone tumours especially where other diagnostic modalities are unavailable.

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  • [Cites] Acta Cytol. 1998 Jul-Aug;42(4):875-82 [9684571.001]
  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1996 May;78(5):639-43 [8642018.001]
  • [Cites] Cytopathology. 2001 Jun;12(3):157-67 [11380557.001]
  • (PMID = 16776844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1526751
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31. Mendenhall WM, Zlotecki RA, Scarborough MT, Gibbs CP, Mendenhall NP: Giant cell tumor of bone. Am J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb;29(1):96-9
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the treatment and outcomes for giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone.
  • RESULTS: GCT is a rare benign bone lesion most often found in the extremities of women in the third and fourth decades of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Curettage. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 16462511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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32. Baud'huin M, Renault R, Charrier C, Riet A, Moreau A, Brion R, Gouin F, Duplomb L, Heymann D: Interleukin-34 is expressed by giant cell tumours of bone and plays a key role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. J Pathol; 2010 May;221(1):77-86
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  • [Title] Interleukin-34 is expressed by giant cell tumours of bone and plays a key role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
  • M-CSF, the main ligand for c-fms, is required for osteoclastogenesis and has been already identified as a critical contributor of the pathogenesis of giant cell tumours of bone (GCTs), tumours rich in osteoclasts.
  • According to the key role of M-CSF in osteoclastogenesis and GCTs, the expression of IL-34 in human GCTs was first assessed.
  • In contrast to osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts showed very strong staining for IL-34, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of GCTs by facilitating osteoclast formation.
  • IL-34 was able to support RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the absence of M-CSF in all models.
  • IL-34 induced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt through the activation of c-fms, as revealed by the inhibition of signalling by a specific c-fms tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / metabolism. Interleukins / biosynthesis. Osteoclasts / cytology. RANK Ligand / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Anisoles / pharmacology. Antigens, CD11b / analysis. Bone Resorption / metabolism. Bone Resorption / pathology. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20191615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-(3-methoxy-4-((4-methoxybenzyl)oxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine; 0 / Anisoles; 0 / Antigens, CD11b; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 0 / interleukin-34, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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33. Knowles HJ, Athanasou NA: Canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation. Histol Histopathol; 2009 03;24(3):337-46
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  • Physiological and pathological bone resorption is mediated by osteoclasts, multinucleated cells which are formed by the fusion of monocyte / macrophage precursors.
  • Both canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation play a role in the formation of osteolytic lesions where there is increased osteoclast formation and activity, such as in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytokines / metabolism. Humans. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Models, Biological. Osteolysis. RANK Ligand / metabolism. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19130404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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34. Yu XC, Xu M, Song RX, Fu ZH, Liu XP: Long-term outcome of giant cell tumors of bone around the knee treated by en bloc resection of tumor and reconstruction with prosthesis. Orthop Surg; 2010 Aug;2(3):211-7
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of giant cell tumors of bone around the knee treated by en bloc resection of tumor and reconstruction with prosthesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term outcomes and complications of giant cell tumors around the knee treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with prosthesis.
  • The affected limb functions were evaluated by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scoring system.
  • CONCLUSION: En bloc resection and reconstruction with prosthesis is a feasible method for treating giant cell tumor of bone around the knee.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint / surgery. Tibia / surgery

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 22009951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-7861
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopaedic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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35. Moriceau G, Ory B, Gobin B, Verrecchia F, Gouin F, Blanchard F, Redini F, Heymann D: Therapeutic approach of primary bone tumours by bisphosphonates. Curr Pharm Des; 2010;16(27):2981-7
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  • [Title] Therapeutic approach of primary bone tumours by bisphosphonates.
  • Bone tumours can be dissociated in two main categories: i) primary bone tumours (benign or malignant) including mainly osteosarcoma and other sarcomas.ii)and giant cell tumour and bone metastases originate from others cancer (Breast, prostate, kidney cancer, etc).
  • These tumours are able to destroy or/and induce a new calcified matrix.
  • However, the first step of bone tumour development is associated with an induction of bone resorption and the establishment of a vicious cycle between the osteoclasts and the tumour growth.
  • Indeed, bone resorption contributes to the pathogenesis of bone tumour by the release of cytokines (IL6, TNFα) which govern the bone tumour's development and which are trapped into the bone matrix.
  • Bisphosphonates (BPs) are chemical compounds of P-C-P structure with a high affinity for bone hydroxyapatite crystals.
  • Thus, they have been used as a carrier for radio nucleotides to develop novel approaches of bone imaging.
  • BPs exert also indirect anti-tumour activities in vivo.
  • Indeed, BPs directly interfere with the bone microenvironment and target osteoclasts, endothelial cells and immune cells (tumour-associated macrophages, γ9δ2 T cells).
  • BPs induce tumour cell death in vitro and same activity is suspected in vivo.
  • The present review summarizes the mechanisms of actions of BPs as well as their clinical interests in bone primary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / pharmacology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Drug Design
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Density Conservation Agents / pharmacology. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Chondrosarcoma / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Humans. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy


36. Moskovszky L, Szuhai K, Krenács T, Hogendoorn PC, Szendroi M, Benassi MS, Kopper L, Füle T, Sápi Z: Genomic instability in giant cell tumor of bone. A study of 52 cases using DNA ploidy, relocalization FISH, and array-CGH analysis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2009 Jun;48(6):468-79
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  • [Title] Genomic instability in giant cell tumor of bone. A study of 52 cases using DNA ploidy, relocalization FISH, and array-CGH analysis.
  • Genetic instability in relation to clinical behavior was studied in 52 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB).
  • Ploidy was determined in the mononuclear cell population by using native cell smears and image cytometry.
  • Genome-wide alterations were tested using array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) on magnetically separated CD68-negative tumor cells.
  • Random individual-cell aneusomy was significantly (P < 0.001) more frequent in the recurrent groups (36.01 +/- 11.94%) than in the benign nonrecurrent cases (10.65 +/- 3.66%).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Genomic Instability. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Ploidies
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD / genetics. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / genetics. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Centromere / metabolism. Chi-Square Distribution. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Telomere / genetics. Telomere / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. beta Catenin / genetics. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19242928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2264
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin
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37. Bhadani PP, Sah SP, Sen R, Singh RK: Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology in gouty tophi: a report of 7 cases. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):101-4
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  • Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, giant cell tumor of bone and metastatic tumor with multicentric involvement of bone were the clinical diagnoses in 1 case each.
  • Bright field microscopy of FNA smears revealed singly scattered or stacks of MSU crystals with variable number of inflammatory cells, with or without foreign body giant cells in 6 cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Crystallization. Diagnosis, Differential. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Polarization. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tendons. Uric Acid / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16514850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 268B43MJ25 / Uric Acid
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38. Dickson BC, Li SQ, Wunder JS, Ferguson PC, Eslami B, Werier JA, Turcotte RE, Kandel RA: Giant cell tumor of bone express p63. Mod Pathol; 2008 Apr;21(4):369-75
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone express p63.
  • p63 contributes to skeletal development and tumor formation; however, little is known regarding its activity in the context of bone and soft tissue neoplasms.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate p63 expression in giant cell tumor of bone and to determine whether it can be used to discriminate between other giant cell-rich tumors.
  • Seventeen cases of giant cell tumor of bone were examined to determine the cell type expressing p63 and identify the isoforms present.
  • Total RNA or cell protein was extracted from mononuclear- or giant cell-enriched fractions or intact giant cell tumor of bone and examined by RT-PCR or western blot, respectively.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate p63 expression in paraffin embedded sections of giant cell tumor of bone and in tumors containing multinucleated giant cells, including: giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondroblastoma, and central giant cell granuloma.
  • The mononuclear cell component in all cases of giant cell tumor of bone was found to express all forms of TAp63 (alpha, beta, and gamma), whereas only low levels of the TAp63 alpha and beta isoforms were detected in multinucleated cells; DeltaNp63 was not detected in these tumors.
  • Western blot analysis identified p63 protein as being predominately localized to mononuclear cells compared to giant cells.
  • This was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tumor sections, with expression identified in all cases of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Only a proportion of cases of aneurysmal bone cyst and chondroblastoma showed p63 immunoreactivity whereas it was not detected in central giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, or pigmented villonodular synovitis.
  • The differential expression of p63 in giant cell tumor of bone and central giant cell granuloma suggest that these two tumors may have a different pathogenesis.
  • Moreover, p63 may be a useful biomarker to differentiate giant cell tumor of bone from central giant cell granuloma and other giant cell-rich tumors, such as giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and pigmented villonodular synovitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Protein Isoforms / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18311114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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39. Szalay K, Antal I, Kiss J, Szendroi M: Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):505-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to compare and assess the effect of bone grafting and cementing techniques--two common applications used in the treatment of subchondral giant cell tumours of bone (GCTs)--on the development of degenerative changes in the weight-bearing joints of the lower extremity.
  • Eighty patients were included in this follow-up study, 44 of whom underwent curettage followed by bone grafting, and 36 who had curettage followed by cementation.
  • At the 24-month post-operative examination, significantly less degenerative change was found in patients with bone cement than in those with bone grafting.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / adverse effects. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Joints / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Femur / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Tibia / pathology. Weight-Bearing

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  • (PMID = 16969579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3172737
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40. Buric N, Jovanovic G, Pesic Z, Krasic D, Radovanovic Z, Mihailovic D, Tijanic M: Mandible schwannoma (neurilemmoma) presenting as periapical lesion. Dentomaxillofac Radiol; 2009 Mar;38(3):178-81
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  • Schwannoma is a benign nerve tumour that originates from Schwann cells, which cover peripheral nerves.
  • Immunohistochemical examination showed a positive and strong reaction for S-100 protein, characteristic of neural tumours.
  • Radiographically, mandibular intraosseous schwannoma is difficult to differentiate from bone tumours such as ameloblastoma, myxoma, fibrous dysplasia, neurofibroma, central giant cell lesion or periapical lesion, so it should be included in the list of possible periapical pathoses.

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  • (PMID = 19225090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Dento maxillo facial radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dentomaxillofac Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins
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41. Zhang Z, Zhu B, Sun T: [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):1007-10
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  • [Title] [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features, treatment methods, and recurrence factors of giant cell tumor of the bone and to investigate the surgical therapy choice for the tumor around the knees.
  • METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females; average age 31.1 years, range 14-59 years) with giant cell tumor of the bone were treated and followed up from January 1993 to January 2005.
  • The intralesional excision (curettage) with the bone grafting was performed on 4 patients; the curettage with some adjuvant treatments (high-speed burring, phenol, alcohol, cement, hydrogen peroxide, 50% ZnCl2, 3% iodine tincture, or bone cement) was used in 26 patients; and resection of the whole tumor was performed on 8 patients.
  • RESULTS: The follow-up of the 38 patients for 12-144 months (average, 67 months) revealed that giant cell tumor of the bone was found around the knees in 29 of the 38 patients (13 at the distal femur, 16 at the proximal tibia), at the proximal femur in 2, at the proximal ulna in 2, at the distal radius in 2, at the sacroiliac area in 2, and at lumbar spine in 1.
  • Of the 38 patients, 4 had a recurrence after simple curettage, 8 had no recurrence after resection of the whole tumor, and 8 of the remaining 26 patients had a recurrence after curettage with some adjuvant treatments.
  • Of the patients with the recurrence, 12 underwent reoperations (8 by the total resection of the recurrent tumor, 4 by the curettage with adjuvant treatments), and there was no recurrence after the reoperation.
  • CONCLUSION: Giant cell tumor of the bone usually recurs around the knee joint, especially at the proximal tibia, usually graded as Grade II or III by the Campanacci's radiological grading system.
  • Simple curettage has a higher recurrence rate; therefore, extensive curettage and resection of the lesions combined with some adjuvant treatments after the correct diagnosis can be used to reduce the high recurrence rate of giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17140075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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42. George S, Merriam P, Maki RG, Van den Abbeele AD, Yap JT, Akhurst T, Harmon DC, Bhuchar G, O'Mara MM, D'Adamo DR, Morgan J, Schwartz GK, Wagner AJ, Butrynski JE, Demetri GD, Keohan ML: Multicenter phase II trial of sunitinib in the treatment of nongastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Jul 01;27(19):3154-60
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  • [Title] Multicenter phase II trial of sunitinib in the treatment of nongastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas.
  • PURPOSE To evaluate the potential benefit of continuous daily dosing sunitinib in patients with advanced nongastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) sarcomas.
  • Secondary end points were stable disease at 16 and 24 weeks.
  • One patient (desmoplastic round cell tumor [DSRCT]) achieved a confirmed partial response (PR) and remained on study for 56 weeks.
  • Ten patients (20%) achieved stable disease for at least 16 weeks.
  • Metabolic stable disease was seen in 11 (52%) of 21.
  • The relevance of disease control observed in subtypes with an indolent natural history is unknown, however, the durable disease control observed in DSRCT, solitary fibrous tumor, and giant cell tumor of bone suggests that future evaluation of sunitinib in these subtypes may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


43. Sakayama K, Sugawara Y, Kidani T, Miyawaki J, Fujibuchi T, Kamei S, Aizawa J, Yamamoto H: Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of giant cell tumor in the proximal femur. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2007 Dec;127(10):867-72
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of giant cell tumor in the proximal femur.
  • Primaly giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) in the proximal femur is relatively rare, and can prove difficult to diagnose, and can require therapeutic methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Femoral Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arthrodesis. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / methods. Biopsy. Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Female. Femur / pathology. Femur / surgery. Hip Joint / surgery. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Osteolysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17713773.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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44. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Livadas S, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Lyberopoulos K, Tantalaki E, Palioura H, Giannopoulos A, Kostakis A: Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature. Endocrine; 2007 Dec;32(3):345-9
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  • [Title] Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • The rare appearance of this entity in everyday practice is troublesome for both patients and physicians, because whenever it emerges, diagnosis could be mistaken for a giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • However, clinical, biochemical, and radiologic findings can easily guide the diagnosis if one considers the full continuum of findings and their association with subject's medical history, instead of focusing only on bone lesion.
  • In this report we present a case of brown tumor in the fibula with a short literature review, whose aggressive presentation and unawareness of the skeletal findings of hyperparathyroidism puzzled the caring doctors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18246453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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45. Liu H, Sun J, Wang Y, Yang X, Zhu E: [Repairing bone defects of benign bone neoplasm by grafting of bioactive glass combined with autologous bone marrow]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov;22(11):1349-53
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  • [Title] [Repairing bone defects of benign bone neoplasm by grafting of bioactive glass combined with autologous bone marrow].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical application of grafting with bioactive glass (BG) and autologous bone marrow for defect after resection and curettage of benign bone neoplasm.
  • METHODS: From January 2004 to May 2007, 34 patients with bone defects were repaired.
  • There were 14 cases of simple bone cysts, 6 cases of fibrous dysplasia, 3 cases of osteoid osteoma, 4 cases of non-ossifying fibroma, 2 cases of enchondroma and 3 cases of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Tumor sizes varied from 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 9.0 cm x 3.0 cm x 2.5 cm.
  • Benign bone neoplasm was removed thoroughly with a curet or osteotome, bone defects ranged from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm to 11.0 cm x 3.5 cm x 3.0 cm, which was closed-up with the mixtures of BG and autogenous red bone marrow.
  • The postoperative systemic and local reactions were observed, and the regular X-ray examinations were performed to observe the bone healing.
  • At averaged 16 weeks after operation, patients with bone tumor in lower limbs resumed walking independently and those with bone tumor in upper limbs resumed holding object.
  • There was no tumor recurrence during follow-up.
  • Radiographically, the interface between the implanted bone and host bone became fuzzy 1 month after implantation.
  • Two months after operation, the BG was absorbed gradually, new bone formation could be seen in the defects.
  • Four months after operation, implanted bone and host bone merged together, bone density increased.
  • Six to ten months after operation, the majority of the implanted BG was absorbed and substituted for new bone, bone remodeling was established.
  • CONCLUSION: BG may boast both bone conductive and bone inductive activities.
  • The combined grafting with BG and autologous bone marrow appears to be minimally invasive treatment to repair bone defects of benign bone neoplasm, with rare complications and no significant reverse reaction, and could repair bone defects completely.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Bone Substitutes. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone and Bones / pathology. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glass. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 19068605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes
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46. Tse LF, Wong KC, Kumta SM, Huang L, Chow TC, Griffith JF: Bisphosphonates reduce local recurrence in extremity giant cell tumor of bone: a case-control study. Bone; 2008 Jan;42(1):68-73
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  • [Title] Bisphosphonates reduce local recurrence in extremity giant cell tumor of bone: a case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign but locally aggressive tumor that is characterized by the presence of mononuclear stromal cells and multinucleated giant cells.
  • Although topical adjuvants have been used in the past, local recurrence following intralesional excision of GCT of bone continues to remain a problem.
  • The use of bisphosphonates as an anti-osteoclastic agent in the management of osteolytic bone metastases is well accepted.
  • Therefore our clinical study aims to investigate whether the administration of bisphosphonate as an adjuvant can further decrease local recurrence following the surgical treatment of GCT of bone.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinical use of bisphosphonates as an adjuvant therapy for giant cell tumor of bone demonstrated a lower local recurrence rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Diphosphonates / pharmacology. Extremities / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17962092.001).
  • [ISSN] 8756-3282
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
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47. Nahal A, Ajlan A, Alcindor T, Turcotte R: Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up. Curr Oncol; 2010 Aug;17(4):71-6
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  • [Title] Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign tumour.
  • It can, however, undergo dedifferentiation, either de novo or secondarily after local recurrence or radiation.
  • Whether spontaneously occurring or induced by previous irradiation, this malignant transformation is typically defined as a high-grade anaplastic sarcoma devoid of giant cells.
  • Here, we describe the first case of dedifferentiated GCT in the appearance of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma with distant bone metastases.
  • This disease progression occurred without previous irradiation.
  • We confirm the aggressive behaviour of this tumour despite the deceptively bland appearance of the malignant component.

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  • (PMID = 20697518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1718-7729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913833
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumour / dedifferentiation / malignancy / osteogenic sarcoma
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48. Brimo F, Aziz M, Rosen G, Turcotte R, Nahal A: Malignancy in giant cell tumour of bone: is there a reproducible histological threshold? A study of three giant cell tumours with worrisome features. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):864-6
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  • [Title] Malignancy in giant cell tumour of bone: is there a reproducible histological threshold? A study of three giant cell tumours with worrisome features.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18042075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Yang Q, Li J, Yang Z, Li X, Li Z: Limb sparing surgery for bone tumours of the shoulder girdle: the oncological and functional results. Int Orthop; 2010 Aug;34(6):869-75
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  • [Title] Limb sparing surgery for bone tumours of the shoulder girdle: the oncological and functional results.
  • It is a great challenge to spare the upper limb with a malignant or invasive benign bone tumour of the shoulder girdle.
  • We retrospectively analysed 35 patients with bone tumours of the shoulder girdle treated with various limb salvage procedures.
  • The tumours included 25 primary malignancies, three metastases and seven giant cell tumours which involved the proximal humerus in 21 patients, scapula in 12 and clavicle in two.
  • The reconstruction procedures included eight prosthetic replacements, four devitalised tumorous bone grafts, three osteoarticular allografts, two autogenous fibular grafts, one intramedullary cemented nail, three Tikhoff-Linberg procedures, two replantation of shortened arms, and four humeral head suspensions.
  • Six partial scapulectomies and two lateral clavicectomies needed no bone reconstruction.
  • Nine patients died and 23 remained disease free.
  • The average Musculoskeletal Tumour Society (MSTS) functional score was 77% (range 40-100%) in all patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Limb Salvage / methods. Recovery of Function. Shoulder / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Arthroplasty, Replacement / methods. Bone Transplantation. Child. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19701633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-5195
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989017
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50. Karpik M: Giant Cell Tumor (tumor gigantocellularis, osteoclastoma) - epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2010 May-Jun;12(3):207-15
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  • [Title] Giant Cell Tumor (tumor gigantocellularis, osteoclastoma) - epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment.
  • The author presents the epidemiology, classification, clinical features and strategies of treatment of Giant Cell Tumor.
  • Giant Cell Tumor of Bone accounts for 4-8% of primary bone tumors.
  • Increasing pain at the tumor site is the most common presenting symptom.
  • The recurrence rate is high (12-50%) during the first 2-3 years after surgery, regardless of pre-operative tumor stage.
  • 5-7% cases of giant cell tumor produce malignant recurrences, usually after five to more than 10 years after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Secondary Prevention. Sex Distribution. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20675862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng; pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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51. Knowles HJ, Athanasou NA: Acute hypoxia and osteoclast activity: a balance between enhanced resorption and increased apoptosis. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):256-64
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  • Osteoclasts are the primary mediators of pathological bone resorption in many conditions in which micro-environmental hypoxia is associated with disease progression.
  • Mature human osteoclasts were differentiated from peripheral blood or obtained from giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Transient reoxygenation returned the percentage of trypan blue-positive cells to normoxic levels, suggesting that osteoclasts can recover from the early stages of cell death.
  • These data suggest that in diseased bone, where the pO(2) may fall to <or=2% O(2), a delicate balance between hypoxia-induced osteoclast activation and hypoxia-induced osteoclast apoptosis mediates pathological bone resorption.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Resorption / pathology. Cell Hypoxia / physiology. Osteoclasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers / analysis. Cathepsin K. Cathepsins / analysis. Cathepsins / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Coloring Agents / analysis. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / analysis. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / genetics. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Oxygen / pharmacology. RNA Interference. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Receptors, Thrombin / analysis. Receptors, Thrombin / metabolism. Trypan Blue / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19291710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Thrombin; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.38 / CTSK protein, human; EC 3.4.22.38 / Cathepsin K; I2ZWO3LS3M / Trypan Blue; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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52. George B, Abudu A, Grimer RJ, Carter SR, Tillman RM: The treatment of benign lesions of the proximal femur with non-vascularised autologous fibular strut grafts. J Bone Joint Surg Br; 2008 May;90(5):648-51
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  • [Title] The treatment of benign lesions of the proximal femur with non-vascularised autologous fibular strut grafts.
  • We report our experience of treating 17 patients with benign lesions of the proximal femur with non-vascularised, autologous fibular strut grafts, without osteosynthesis.
  • Histological diagnoses included simple bone cyst, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cysts and giant cell tumour.
  • We conclude that non-vascularised fibular strut grafts are a safe and satisfactory method of treating benign lesions of the proximal femur.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / surgery. Bone Transplantation / methods. Femur / surgery. Fibula / transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18450634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-620X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Br
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Lee CH, Espinosa I, Jensen KC, Subramanian S, Zhu SX, Varma S, Montgomery KD, Nielsen TO, van de Rijn M, West RB: Gene expression profiling identifies p63 as a diagnostic marker for giant cell tumor of the bone. Mod Pathol; 2008 May;21(5):531-9
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling identifies p63 as a diagnostic marker for giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTOB) is a primary bone tumor that occurs mainly in young adults and is capable of locally aggressive growth.
  • Its histologic appearance can resemble a number of benign and malignant tumors but no useful diagnostic marker is known currently.
  • To identify diagnostic markers for this tumor, global gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray was performed on 6 fresh-frozen GCTOB, 3 aneurysmal bone cysts, 4 fibrous dysplasias and 12 giant cell tumors of tendon sheath/diffuse-type giant cell tumors.
  • The diagnostic utility of p63 was subsequently confirmed using anti-p63 antibody on a series of 26 GCTOB, 25 aneurysmal bone cysts, 15 chondroblastomas, 13 giant cell reparative granulomas, 13 chondromyxoid fibromas, 4 brown tumors, 4 fibrous dysplasias, 53 giant cell tumors of tendon sheath/diffuse-type giant cell tumors and 385 additional mesenchymal tumors in tissue microarrays.
  • Strong p63 nuclear staining was present in 18 of 26 (69%) GCTOB, 3 of 15 (20%) chondroblastomas and in 1 of 25 (4%) aneurysmal bone cysts while none of the other tumors commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of GCTOB showed any detectable p63 staining.
  • Strong p63 staining is rare in bone and soft-tissue tumors in general.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18192965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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54. Kind M, Stock N, Coindre JM: Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Oct;72(1):6-15
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  • Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma.
  • There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion.
  • Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy.


55. Aggarwal AN, Jain AK, Kumar S, Dhammi IK, Prashad B: Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee. Indian J Orthop; 2007 Apr;41(2):129-33
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  • [Title] Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee.
  • BACKGROUND: Segmental resection of bone in Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) around the knee, in indicated cases, leaves a gap which requires a complex reconstructive procedure.
  • After resection arthrodesis with intercalary autograft and simultaneous lengthening the resultant gap (∼15cm) was partially bridged by intercalary nonvascularized dual fibular strut graft (6-7cm) and additional corticocancellous bone graft from ipsilateral patella.
  • The stress fracture fibula required DCP fixation and bone grafting.
  • CONCLUSION: Resection arthrodesis with intercalary dual fibular autograft and cortico-cancellous bone grafting with simultaneous limb lengthening achieved limb length equalization with relatively short morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 21139765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5413
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989136
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Enbloc resection / giant cell tumor / reconstruction of knee
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56. Niu XH, Hao L, Zhang Q, Ding Y: [Massive allograft replacement in management of bone tumors]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May 15;45(10):677-80
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  • [Title] [Massive allograft replacement in management of bone tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional outcome and the complications of allograft replacement in management of bone tumors.
  • METHODS: Between March 1992 and September 2002 164 patients underwent bone tumor resection and massive allograft reconstruction of bone defects.
  • The resections were classified as marginal or wide resections of the tumor on the basis of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society staging system.
  • Most of the lesions were osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor of bone and located in proximal and distal femur, proximal tibia and humerus.
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 47 months (range, 12 to 168 months) after the operation, 154 of the patients in the study were free of disease and 10 died of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Allografts can be used for reconstruction of bony defects after tumor resection.
  • Allograft has nearly similar shape, strength, osteo-conduction and osteo-induction with host bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Substitutes. Bone Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 17688819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes
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57. Bello Báez A, López Pino MA, Azorín Cuadrillero D, Sirvent Cerdá S: [Aneurysmatic bone cyst coexisting with osteosarcoma. Radiopathologic discussion]. Radiologia; 2010 May-Jun;52(3):247-50
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  • [Title] [Aneurysmatic bone cyst coexisting with osteosarcoma. Radiopathologic discussion].
  • Aneurysmatic bone cysts are benign lesions of unknown origin.
  • It has been postulated that they might occur in reaction to trauma or to a primary benign (giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, etc.) or malignant (osteosarcoma) bone tumor that results in local hemodynamic changes.
  • We present a case of low grade osteosarcoma with a radiologic progression that was indistinguishable from that of an aneurysmatic bone cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / radiography. Humerus. Osteosarcoma / radiography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20304449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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58. Nishimura M, Yuasa K, Mori K, Miyamoto N, Ito M, Tsurudome M, Nishio M, Kawano M, Komada H, Uchida A, Ito Y: Cytological properties of stromal cells derived from giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) which can induce osteoclast formation of human blood monocytes without cell to cell contact. J Orthop Res; 2005 Sep;23(5):979-87
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  • [Title] Cytological properties of stromal cells derived from giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) which can induce osteoclast formation of human blood monocytes without cell to cell contact.
  • When human blood monocytes were cocultured with stromal cells derived from human giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) and a Millipore filter (0.4 microm) was interposed between monocytes and GCTSC, multinucleated giant cell formation of monocytes was induced.
  • The multinucleated giant cells have characters as osteoclast-like cells, indicating that a soluble osteoclast-inducing factor(s) is secreted from GCTSC expressing RANK, RANKL/ODF/OPGL and TACE mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Monocytes / cytology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Stromal Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / analysis. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / physiology. Cell Communication. Cell Lineage. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Cytokines / genetics. Humans. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology. Osteocalcin / analysis. Osteogenesis. Osteopontin. RANK Ligand. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / genetics. Sialoglycoproteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16024207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASR protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / SPP1 protein, human; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 0 / TNFRSF11A protein, human; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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59. Tarrass F, Ayad A, Benjelloun M, Anabi A, Ramdani B, Benghanem MG, Zaid D: Cauda equina compression revealing brown tumor of the spine in a long-term hemodialysis patient. Joint Bone Spine; 2006 Dec;73(6):748-50
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  • [Title] Cauda equina compression revealing brown tumor of the spine in a long-term hemodialysis patient.
  • Brown tumors, or osteoclastomas, are erosive bony lesions arising as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT).
  • In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), brown tumors are classic skeletal manifestations usually seen in severe forms of secondary HPT.
  • We report a long-term hemodialysis case, in which cauda equina compression developed due to a sacral brown tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16650789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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60. Guliaeva SS, Voloshchuk IN, Mokrysheva NG, Rozhinskaia LIa: [Maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor of the bone in a patient with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy]. Arkh Patol; 2009 Sep-Oct;71(5):53-5
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  • [Title] [Maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor of the bone in a patient with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy].
  • The paper describes a case of maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor in a patient with parathyroid osteodystrophy, in this connection elbow joint resection and replacement were made.
  • Progression of diseases was accompanied by severe bone changes and the development of urolithiasis complicated by chronic renal failure.
  • Thus, the interpretation of bone tissue changes without considering clinical and laboratory data led to the unwarranted surgical intervention and the late diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Differential diagnosis of a giant-cell tumor should be made, by obligatorily considering clinical and laboratory data, including the parameters of calcium metabolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases, Metabolic / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19938706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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61. Cosso R, Nuzzo V, Zuccoli A, Brandi ML, Falchetti A: Giant cell tumor in a case of Paget's disease of bone: an aggressive benign tumor exhibiting a quick response to an innovative therapeutic agent. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab; 2010 May;7(2):145-52
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor in a case of Paget's disease of bone: an aggressive benign tumor exhibiting a quick response to an innovative therapeutic agent.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone, also called osteoclastoma, is a rare skeletal complication of Paget's disease of bone.
  • We will focus on either a review on this rare bone tumor, including some genetic aspects, or the current established therapies.
  • Finally, we will describe the therapeutic outcomes of this unique complication of Paget's disease of bone as a rapid response to an innovative therapeutic agent.

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  • (PMID = 22460021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-3266
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cases in mineral and bone metabolism : the official journal of the Italian Society of Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism, and Skeletal Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004463
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62. Lentini M, Zuccalà V, Fazzari C: Polypoid giant cell tumor of the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Feb;32(1):95-8
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  • [Title] Polypoid giant cell tumor of the skin.
  • Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare neoplasm named for its resemblance to giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The histomorphological features were consistent with the diagnosis of primary giant cell tumor of the skin.
  • Clinical informations and immunohistochemistry are useful in distinguishing this neoplasm from other neoplastic and reactive lesions of the superficial soft tissues containing giant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19915451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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63. Liu HS, Di X: Endoscopic endonasal surgery for biopsy of cavernous sinus lesions. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2009 Apr;52(2):69-73
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  • The pathological diagnosis of the cavernous sinus lesions showed 3 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 2 patients with meningioma, 1 patient with esthesioneuroblastoma, 1 giant cell tumor of bone, 1 small cell carcinoma from the lungs, 1 fungal granuloma, and 1 schwannoma.

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  • (PMID = 19452412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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64. Liao TS, Yurgelun MB, Chang SS, Zhang HZ, Murakami K, Blaine TA, Parisien MV, Kim W, Winchester RJ, Lee FY: Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone. J Orthop Res; 2005 Jan;23(1):203-9
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  • [Title] Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a unique bone lesion that is characterized by an excessive number of multinucleated osteoclasts.
  • GCT consists of neoplastic stromal cells, multinucleated osteoclasts and their precursors, thus serving as a naturally occurring human disease model for the study of osteoclastogenesis.
  • These results suggest that SDF-1 is one of the significant chemoattractant factors involved in the recruitment of hematopoietic osteoclast precursor cells during tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Chemokines, CXC / physiology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15607894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC
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65. Schindler OS, Cannon SR, Briggs TW, Blunn GW: Composite ceramic bone graft substitute in the treatment of locally aggressive benign bone tumours. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2008 Apr;16(1):66-74
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  • [Title] Composite ceramic bone graft substitute in the treatment of locally aggressive benign bone tumours.
  • PURPOSE: To report the use of a composite ceramic bone graft substitute containing calcium sulphate and hydroxyapatite (HA) in the treatment of large expansive osteolytic benign bone tumours.
  • METHODS: 4 women and 9 men aged 8 to 49 (mean, 22) years with aneurysmal bone cysts (n=6) or giant cell tumours (n=7) in the epi- or meta-physeal areas of the lower limbs underwent curettage, phenolisation, and filling with bone graft substitute containing calcium sulphate and HA.
  • The mean tumour size was 38.5 (range, 18-65) ml.
  • Range of movement, Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Rating Score (MTSRS), and haematological and blood biochemical parameters were measured.
  • RESULTS: Two patients had recurrence at 7 and 9 months, both progressed to grade-III giant cell tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: Composite bioceramic osteoconductive grafts, which combine porous HA with calcium sulphate, provide a framework for human osteogenesis and avoid donor-site morbidity (autologous bone graft harvesting).
  • Tumour recurrence remains a major concern especially in young patients, as revision invariably requires removal of additional bone, potentially compromising joint integrity.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Substitutes / therapeutic use. Ceramics / therapeutic use. Durapatite / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Femoral Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tibia / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18453663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5536
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes; 91D9GV0Z28 / Durapatite
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66. Qin H, Cai J, Fang J, Xu H, Gong Y: Could MTA be a novel medicine on the recurrence therapy for GCTB? Med Hypotheses; 2010 Feb;74(2):368-9
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  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign locally aggressive bone tumor with a shown clinical behavior of local recurrences and rare distant metastases.
  • Due to the high rate of pulmonary metastases recurrent GCTB may be considered as a severe disease.
  • If the tumor reaches close to the articulating surface a subchondral bone graft can be performed without risking a higher recurrence rate.
  • MTA is a powder aggregate containing mineral oxides with a good biological action and may facilitate the regeneration of the periodontal ligament and formation of bone.
  • MTA used was able to induce bone regeneration and had its action optimized.
  • For the clinical point of view, we can apply MTA in the GCTB to induce bone production, then to inhibit the recurrent of the cases.
  • MTA may be the therapy of choice for primary as well as recurrent giant cell tumors of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / physiopathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / physiopathology. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19656634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2777
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine
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67. Kafchitsas K, Habermann B, Proschek D, Kurth A, Eberhardt C: Functional results after giant cell tumor operation near knee joint and the cement radiolucent zone as indicator of recurrence. Anticancer Res; 2010 Sep;30(9):3795-9
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  • [Title] Functional results after giant cell tumor operation near knee joint and the cement radiolucent zone as indicator of recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor of bone near the knee joints is a dilemma for the operating surgeon.
  • Curettage and bone grafting have a high recurrence, whereas wide resection has a reduced recurrence rate with the compromise of limb function.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with histologically proven giant cell tumor near the knee joint were treated.
  • All patients underwent surgery, 21 patients were treated with a bone cement filling and additional osteosynthesis after curettage.
  • Seventeen patients were filled with cancellous bone or curettage alone.
  • In the group with bone cement filling after curettage, the recurrence rate was 23.8%, whereas a recurrence rate of 52.9% was detected in the group with cancellous bone filling or curettage alone.
  • Patients with giant cell tumor of bone near the knee joint can be treated satisfactorily with intralesional resection and bone cement packing.
  • The extension of the radiolucent zone after bone cement filling is a reliable indicator for a possible local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint / surgery. Recovery of Function
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Orthopedic Procedures / adverse effects. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Osteoarthritis / epidemiology. Osteoarthritis / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20944172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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68. Salerno M, Avnet S, Alberghini M, Giunti A, Baldini N: Histogenetic characterization of giant cell tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2008 Sep;466(9):2081-91
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  • [Title] Histogenetic characterization of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The unpredictable behavior of giant cell tumor (GCT) parallels its controversial histogenesis.
  • Multinucleated giant cells, stromal cells, and CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages are the three elements that interact in GCT.
  • Although stromal cells expressed early osteogenic markers, they were unable to differentiate into osteoblasts but they did express intracellular adhesion molecule-1, a marker of bone-lining cells.
  • They might be secondarily induced to proliferate by a paracrine effect induced by monocyte-macrophages and/or giant cells.
  • The increased number of giant cells in GCT may be secondary to an autocrine circuit mediated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Coculture Techniques. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18543051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2492994
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69. Balke M, Campanacci L, Gebert C, Picci P, Gibbons M, Taylor R, Hogendoorn P, Kroep J, Wass J, Athanasou N: Bisphosphonate treatment of aggressive primary, recurrent and metastatic Giant Cell Tumour of Bone. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:462
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  • [Title] Bisphosphonate treatment of aggressive primary, recurrent and metastatic Giant Cell Tumour of Bone.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is an expansile osteolytic tumour which contains numerous osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • RESULTS: Treatment protocols differed with several different aminobisphosphonates being employed, but stabilisation of disease was achieved in most of these cases which were refractory to conventional treatment.
  • Most inoperable sacral/pelvic tumours did not increase in size and no further recurrence was seen in GCTBs that had repeatedly recurred in bone and soft tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that bisphosphonates may be useful in controlling disease progression in GCTB and that these agents directly inhibit GCTB - derived osteoclast resorption.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Resorption. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Osteoclasts / drug effects. Osteoclasts / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20799989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940802
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70. Sehli H, Daoud L, Ben Mbarek R, Ghorbel R, Ben Abdelghani K, Charfi H, Cheour I, Tarhouni L, Sellami S: [Osteomalacia and giant cell tumor: a rare case]. Tunis Med; 2008 Sep;86(9):836-8
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  • [Title] [Osteomalacia and giant cell tumor: a rare case].
  • [Transliterated title] Ostéomalacie et tumeur a cellule géante: une entité rare.
  • AIM: We have investigated the mechanism by which a giant cell tumor of bone caused biopsy-proved osteomalacia in a 50-year-old woman.
  • CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old woman presented with generalized bone and pelvicrural pain, associated with fatiguability and muscle weakness.
  • The diagnosis of osteomalacia was retained, associated with a giant cell tumor.
  • The coexistence of giant cell tumor of bone and osteomalacia suggested the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia.
  • Resolution of the biochemical abnormalities of the syndrome after tumor resection, established this diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / complications. Osteomalacia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19472787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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71. Cağlar K, Büyük S, Caygür A, Tuğcu S, Ulutekin E: Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor in a 16-year-old boy. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;22(2):175-80
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  • [Title] Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor in a 16-year-old boy.
  • Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor of the bone is a rare variant of a lesion appearing during childhood.
  • The authors report clinical, radiological, and pathological features of a 16-year-old boy who was diagnosed with synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor, which originated in the right distal femur and the left fibula.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15805004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Beaufour A, Cazals-Hatem D, Regimbeau JM, Ponsot P, Degott C, Belghiti J, Sauvanet A: [Osteoclastic giant cell tumour of the pancreas]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2005 Feb;29(2):197-200
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  • [Title] [Osteoclastic giant cell tumour of the pancreas].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur à cellules géantes ostéoclastiques du pancréas.
  • Osteoclast giant cell tumours are bone tumours that occur in adults, and that are considered benign by WHO but locally aggressive.
  • Strictly identical tumours are described in the pancreas, without simultaneous bone localization.
  • We report the case of a 62-year woman with an osteoclast giant cell tumour of the distal pancreas, without any epithelial component, which was diagnosed after pancreatic resection and with no signs of recurrence after a 24-month follow-up.
  • These pancreatic tumours are rare, with a very poor prognosis, an unclear histogenesis; they are often confused with pleomorphic or undifferentiated pancreatic carcinomas including a component of osteoclast giant cell.
  • These osteoclast giant cell tumours of the pancreas usually present as large cystic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Pancreatic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15795672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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73. Eralp L, Toker B, Akgül T, Ozger H, Kocaoğlu M, Hayat S: [Applications of external fixation for management of complications associated with musculoskeletal tumors and related surgery]. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc; 2009 May-Jul;43(3):219-28
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  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the results of, and the course of treatment with, external fixation (EF) in treating complications associated with bone tumors and related surgery.
  • Histologic diagnoses were osteosarcoma (n=3), Ewing's sarcoma (n=3), hereditary multiple exostosis (n=3), chondrosarcoma (n=2), synovial sarcoma (n=2), Ollier's disease, giant cell tumor of bone, desmoid fibroma, chondromyxoid fibroma, and enchondroma.
  • Complications secondary to bone tumors (n=4) and occurring following limb salvage surgery (n=14) were treated with Ilizarov circular EF in nine patients, unilateral EF in six patients, and both in three patients.
  • The second group consisted of six patients who had shortening secondary to tumor surgery.
  • The third group included four patients with deformity and shortening secondary to multiple exostosis (n=3) and Ollier's disease.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of EF in the management of complications associated with bone tumors and related surgery yields successful results especially in young patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. External Fixators / adverse effects. Fracture Fixation / methods. Muscle Neoplasms / surgery. Osteosarcoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19717939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1017-995X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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74. Forsyth RG, De Boeck G, Bekaert S, De Meyer T, Taminiau AH, Uyttendaele D, Roels H, Praet MM, Hogendoorn PC: Telomere biology in giant cell tumour of bone. J Pathol; 2008 Apr;214(5):555-63
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  • [Title] Telomere biology in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a benign bone tumour known for the unpredictable clinical behaviour of recurrences and, in rare instances, distant metastases.
  • It consists of uniformly distributed osteoclastic giant cells in a background of mononuclear rounded and spindle-shaped cells.
  • GCTB has often been regarded as a polyclonal tumour, but more recently a recurrent specific aberration was reported, which suggests a possible role for disturbed telomere maintenance.
  • Both osteoclastic giant cells and mononuclear cells showed positivity for hTERT and promyelocytic leukaemia body-related antigen.
  • These findings strongly suggest that these aggregates, while activating telomerase, are part of a structural telomere protective-capping mechanism rather than of a telomere-lengthening mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Giant Cell Tumors / genetics. Telomere / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Microscopy, Confocal. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism. Osteoclasts / pathology. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  • (PMID = 18278785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / nucleolin; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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75. Clements SE, Mellerio JE, Holden ST, McCauley J, McGrath JA: PORCN gene mutations and the protean nature of focal dermal hypoplasia. Br J Dermatol; 2009 May;160(5):1103-9
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  • Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked dominant disorder featuring developmental abnormalities of ectodermal and mesodermal tissues.
  • Both new cases showed Blaschko-linear dermal hypoplasia and extensive ectomesodermal abnormalities, including severe limb developmental anomalies and a giant cell tumour of bone in one patient.

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  • (PMID = 19292719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 2.3.1.- / PORCN protein, human
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76. Kumar A, Varshney MK, Trikha V, Rastogi S: An unusual presentation of a rare chest wall tumour: giant cell tumour of bone. Joint Bone Spine; 2007 Jan;74(1):100-2
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  • [Title] An unusual presentation of a rare chest wall tumour: giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Giant cell tumour of bone is an aggressive benign bone tumour.
  • We report a case of giant cell tumour of the anterior end of the rib masquerading as a sub-mammary abscess in lactating women.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Thoracic Wall

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  • (PMID = 17197221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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77. Pazzaglia L, Conti A, Chiechi A, Novello C, Magagnoli G, Astolfi A, Pession A, Krenacs T, Alberghini M, Picci P, Benassi MS: Differential gene expression in classic giant cell tumours of bone: Tenascin C as biological risk factor for local relapses and metastases. Histopathology; 2010 Jul;57(1):59-72
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  • [Title] Differential gene expression in classic giant cell tumours of bone: Tenascin C as biological risk factor for local relapses and metastases.
  • AIMS: To identify candidate prognostic biological markers useful in selecting high-risk patients with classic primary giant cell tumours (GCT).
  • At the protein level, TNC immunoreactivity resulted in a significant difference in the disease-free survival probability curves, providing a stratification for GCT patients, useful for predicting relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Tenascin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20653781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tenascin
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78. Grabellus F, Sheu SY, Schmidt B, von Winterfeld F, Schoenfeld B, Taeger G, Hillen U, Schmid KW: [Giant cell tumors of soft tissue arising in surgical scars]. Pathologe; 2009 Sep;30(5):401-6
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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumors of soft tissue arising in surgical scars].
  • [Transliterated title] Riesenzelltumoren des Weichgewebes (mit niedrig-malignem Potenzial) in Operationsnarben.
  • Giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) is a rare primary soft tissue tumor with low malignant potential.
  • It is clinically and pathologically similar to the giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • Both tumors were initially regarded as tumor relapses of a leiomyosarcoma of deep soft tissue and a dermal in situ squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.
  • The period of time between initial surgical intervention and the development of the GCT-ST seems to be unusually short for the development of a "true" second neoplasm, which may underline the sometimes diffuse border between reactive "pseudosarcomatous" and neoplastic fibro-histiocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cicatrix / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Groin / pathology. Groin / surgery. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Reoperation. Saphenous Vein / pathology. Saphenous Vein / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Venous Thrombosis / pathology. Venous Thrombosis / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19367406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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79. Capote-Moreno A, Acero J, García-Recuero I, Ruiz J, Serrano R, de Paz V: Giant aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible with unusual presentation. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2009 Mar;14(3):E137-40
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  • [Title] Giant aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible with unusual presentation.
  • Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare benign lesions of bone tissue, infrequent in craneofacial skeleton with regard to other structures like long bones or the spine.
  • We present a case of a 29-year-old Caucasian male with a big swelling in the left mandible associated to pain and rapid growth.
  • An incisional biopsy was performed showing a fibrous tissue with blood-filled spaces lesion suggestive of an aneurysmal bone cyst.
  • After selective embolization of the tumour, surgical resection was done with curettage and immediate reconstruction of the defect with an anterior iliac crest graft.
  • Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-neoplastic but locally aggressive tumours with occasional rapid growth that may be differentiated from other multilocular process like ameloblastoma, ossifying fibroma, epithelial cyst, giant cell granuloma and sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / diagnosis. Mandibular Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19242394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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80. Tejera-Vaquerizo A, Ruiz-Molina I, González-Serrano T, Solís-García E: Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue in the finger. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(6):7
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  • [Title] Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue in the finger.
  • Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCTST) arising in a finger is a rare event.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old man with a primary finger giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The magnetic resonance imaging showed no relation between the nodule and bone, tendons or synovial tissues.
  • The distinction of this entity from other more common primary finger tumors with giant cell morphology is emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Fingers / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18713588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Hoch B, Inwards C, Sundaram M, Rosenberg AE: Multicentric giant cell tumor of bone. Clinicopathologic analysis of thirty cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 2006 Sep;88(9):1998-2008
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  • [Title] Multicentric giant cell tumor of bone. Clinicopathologic analysis of thirty cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor of bone accounts for 4% to 5% of primary bone tumors.
  • In this study, we describe the clinicopathologic features of thirty cases of multicentric giant cell tumor.
  • METHODS: Thirty patients who had two or more separate lesions that had been pathologically confirmed to be giant cell tumors were identified.
  • Histologic reexamination was performed to document morphologic features.
  • A minority of the tumors were confined to the metaphysis, had features of a fibro-osseous or bone-forming lesion, or arose in skeletally immature patients.
  • Secondary histopathologic changes including fibrohistiocytic regions, reactive bone formation, or aneurysmal bone cyst-like changes were not uncommon.
  • The recurrence rate was similar to that of solitary giant cell tumors.
  • Metastatic disease developed in three patients, and two patients had malignant transformation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multicentric giant cell tumors occur more often in younger patients than do solitary giant cell tumors, and they frequently present as synchronous lesions around the knee.
  • Some tumors appear as bone-forming or fibro-osseous tumors on imaging studies as a result of fibrohistiocytic regions and reactive bone formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiography. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Curettage. Cytoplasm / pathology. Female. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Femoral Neoplasms / radiography. Femoral Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tibia

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  • (PMID = 16951117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9355
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Jarkiewicz-Kochman E, Gołebiowski M, Swiatkowski J, Pacholec E, Rajewski R: Tumours of the metatarsus. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2007 May-Jun;9(3):319-30
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  • [Title] Tumours of the metatarsus.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumours of the metatarsus are rare and more frequently affect males.
  • Single cases of the following tumours have been discussed: giant cell tumour, metastases (lung, prostate gland), chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, Ewing's sarcoma, clear cell carcinoma, osteosarcoma, intraosseous ganglion, chondromyxoid fibroma and granuloma.
  • We present our own clinical experience with metatarsal tumours during the period of the last 20 years.
  • The aim of the present study was to carry out a systematic examination of metatarsal tumours with regard to methods of diagnosis (location) and morphology.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with metatarsal tumours were diagnosed in the Department of Orthopaedics in Warsaw.
  • RESULTS: Most of the metatarsal tumours were benign.
  • Bone tumours are rarely located in the metatarsus.
  • 2. The presenting clinical and radiological signs of metatarsal tumours are usually not characteristic and may be difficult to detect.
  • 4. The frequently unequivocal presentation of metatarsal tumours requires a multidisciplinary diagnosis involving a clinician, a radiologist and a histopathologist.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Metatarsal Bones / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Osteoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Synovial / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17721430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng; pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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83. Grabellus F, von Winterfeld F, Sheu SY, Metz KA, Jahnke K, Schmid KW: Unusual aggressive course of a giant cell tumor of soft tissue during immunosuppressive therapy. Virchows Arch; 2006 Jun;448(6):847-51
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  • [Title] Unusual aggressive course of a giant cell tumor of soft tissue during immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Giant cell tumor of soft tissue with low malignant potential (GCT-ST) is a low-grade, primary soft tissue sarcoma with histological and clinical features similar to giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • The main tumor localizations are the extremities, but it may also occur in the head and neck region.
  • We report of a GCT-ST of low malignant potential, which developed under long-term immunosuppression in a patient 12 years after heart transplantation.
  • The tumor presented with an unusual aggressive course and metastatic site: the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / secondary. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Postoperative Complications. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Heart Transplantation. Humans. Immunosuppression. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16596381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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84. Rabinovich A, Mak IW, Cowan RW, Turcotte RE, Colterjohn N, Singh G, Ghert M: Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in the Stromal Cell of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Open Bone J; 2009;1:46-52
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  • [Title] Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in the Stromal Cell of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a destructive and potentially metastatic bone tumour in which the characteristic giant cells have classically been considered the culprits in bone destruction.
  • However, the neoplastic element of the tumour consists of propagative osteoblast-like stromal cells that may play a role in bone resorption.
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the expression and activity of the gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, in GCT stromal cells, and to determine if these cells have bone-resorbing capabilities.
  • We performed immunohistochemistry on clinical specimens, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and zymography on cell lysates and conditioned media from cultured clinical GCT specimens in order to evaluate the expression and activity of MMP-2 and-9 in GCT stromal cells.
  • These cells may therefore play a role in bone destruction in GCT.

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  • (PMID = 22287999.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] The Open bone journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Bone J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / 93755; United States / PHS HHS / / 93755
  • [Publication-type] JOURNAL ARTICLE
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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85. Slesarenko YA, Sampson SP, Gould ES: Giant cell tumour of the distal phalanx of the hand. Hand Surg; 2005;10(2-3):289-91
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumour of the distal phalanx of the hand.
  • Giant cell tumour of bone in the phalanx of the hand is extremely rare.
  • A case of giant cell tumour of distal phalanx treated with a ray amputation is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Fingers. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16568530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0218-8104
  • [Journal-full-title] Hand surgery : an international journal devoted to hand and upper limb surgery and related research : journal of the Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hand Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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86. Miszczyk L, Spindel J, Blamek S, Syguła M, Koczy B: [Lung dissemination of giant cell tumor of femur. The case report]. Przegl Lek; 2005;62(9):944-6
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  • [Title] [Lung dissemination of giant cell tumor of femur. The case report].
  • The case of 32 years old patient suffering for giant cell bone tumor of left femur was reported.
  • After surgery (curettage and filling of tumor bed with bone cement followed by arthroplasty), a dissemination to lungs was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Femur / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiography. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radiography. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16541735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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87. Kyrgidis A, Toulis K: Safety and efficacy of denosumab in giant-cell tumour of bone. Lancet Oncol; 2010 Jun;11(6):513-4
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  • [Title] Safety and efficacy of denosumab in giant-cell tumour of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. RANK Ligand / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2010 Sep;11(9):815 [20816372.001]
  • [CommentOn] Lancet Oncol. 2010 Mar;11(3):275-80 [20149736.001]
  • (PMID = 20522379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RANK Ligand; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab
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88. Suzuki Y, Nishida Y, Yamada Y, Tsukushi S, Sugiura H, Nakashima H, Ishiguro N: Re-operation results in osteoarthritic change of knee joints in patients with giant cell tumor of bone. Knee; 2007 Oct;14(5):369-74
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  • [Title] Re-operation results in osteoarthritic change of knee joints in patients with giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone occasionally results in secondary osteoarthritic changes in adjacent joints.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with the development of degenerative arthritis in surgically treated patients with giant cell tumor of the distal femur or proximal tibia and the effect of residual subchondral bone thickness on the location of recurrent giant cell tumor.
  • We retrospectively studied 30 patients with giant cell tumor of bone arising around the knee joint treated with intralesional curettage, high-speed burring, and electrocauterization, followed by filling with polymethylmethacrylate or autogenous bone graft.
  • There was no significant difference in factors of age, gender, tumor location, residual thickness of subchondral bone, or Campanacci grade correlated with the recurrence.
  • Less than 5 mm of residual thickness of subchondral bone was correlated with recurrence on the articular side (p=0.038).
  • Less residual thickness of subchondral bone tended to be associated with secondary osteoarthritis (p=0.068).
  • These data support the contention that the residual thickness of subchondral bone could be a factor predicting the location of recurrence, and operative procedure to avoid re-operation might be critical to preserve knee function.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Osteoarthritis, Knee / etiology. Osteoarthritis, Knee / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Female. Femoral Fractures / surgery. Femur / pathology. Femur / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymethyl Methacrylate / therapeutic use. Postoperative Complications. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Tibia / pathology. Tibia / surgery. Tibial Fractures / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17601737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0968-0160
  • [Journal-full-title] The Knee
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Knee
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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89. Blackwell JB, Curnow MN: Benign bone tumours in Western Australia, 1972-1996. Pathology; 2007 Dec;39(6):567-74
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  • [Title] Benign bone tumours in Western Australia, 1972-1996.
  • AIMS: To review the benign bone tumours accessioned by the Bone Tumour Registry (BTR) of Western Australia (WA) during the years 1972-1996 and to determine the incidence of the more common types.
  • RESULTS: During the 25 year period, 849 benign tumours were accessioned and incidence rates have been calculated for 86 chondromas, 68 osteoid osteomas, 47 giant cell tumours, 32 chondroblastomas, 15 periosteal chondromas and 13 chondromyxoid fibromas.
  • CONCLUSION: The BTR provides a valuable resource for the study of primary bone tumours.
  • This review has established reliable incidence rates for the six most common benign tumours.
  • Such information is rarely available for benign tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Registries
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Western Australia / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18027260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Dhillon MS, Prasad P: Multicentric giant cell tumour of bone. Acta Orthop Belg; 2007 Jun;73(3):289-99
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  • [Title] Multicentric giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Although giant cell tumour (GCT) is seen quite frequently, multicentric giant cell tumour (MCGCT) is a rare entity occurring in less than 1% of patients with GCT.
  • The pathogenesis of MCGCT is debated; various mechanisms have been postulated, including contiguous spread, iatrogenic tumour cell seeding, benign metastasis, malignant transformation and de novo formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17715717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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91. Trabelsi A, Hammedi F, Slama A, Abdelkarim SB, Beïzig N, Khochtali H, Taher YM, Korbi S: Giant cell tumor of soft tissue of neck: a case report. N Am J Med Sci; 2009 Nov;1(6):319-20
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of soft tissue of neck: a case report.
  • CONTEXT: Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare primary soft tissue tumor with low malignant potential.
  • It is clinically and pathologically similar to the giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 28-year-old man complaining of a painless solitary nodule arising in the spinal muscle of the neck.
  • Computed tomography suggested a neurogenic tumor, but the diagnosis of giant cell tumor was confirmed after detailed pathological examination.
  • The patient remains disease free five months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: It is important to recognize this pathological entity in order to avoid misdiagnosis with other fibrous tumors associated with giant cells.

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  • [Cites] J Pathol. 1972 May;107(1):27-39 [4262633.001]
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  • (PMID = 22666716.001).
  • [ISSN] 2250-1541
  • [Journal-full-title] North American journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N Am J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3364635
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumor / histopathology / soft tissue neck
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92. Dohi O, Ohtani H, Hatori M, Sato E, Hosaka M, Nagura H, Itoi E, Kokubun S: Histogenesis-specific expression of fibroblast activation protein and dipeptidylpeptidase-IV in human bone and soft tissue tumours. Histopathology; 2009 Oct;55(4):432-40
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  • [Title] Histogenesis-specific expression of fibroblast activation protein and dipeptidylpeptidase-IV in human bone and soft tissue tumours.
  • The aim was to identify cell types that express FAP and DPP-IV in human bone and soft tissue tumours, and to determine whether there are any correlations between the expression of FAP and DPP-IV and the malignant potential of tumours.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: This study analysed in situ expression in 25 malignant and 13 benign human bone and soft tissue tumours.
  • Among benign tumours, non-ossifying fibromas, desmoid tumours and chondroblastomas expressed both FAP and DPP-IV.
  • Giant cells expressed DPP-IV in giant cell tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that FAP and DPP-IV are consistently expressed in bone and soft tissue tumour cells that are histogenetically related to activated fibroblasts and/or myofibroblasts, irrespective of their malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 / metabolism. Gelatinases / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19817894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.14.5 / Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / fibroblast activation protein alpha; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2784039
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93. Li HT, Wang WJ, Zhu GD, Lai RQ: [Giant cell tumor of temporal bone and mandibular condyle: a case report]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;28(4):450-1
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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumor of temporal bone and mandibular condyle: a case report].
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) seldom occurs in the head or face.
  • This article reported a case that GCTB occurred simultaneously in the temporal bone and mandibular condyle, and analyzed their clinical and pathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Mandibular Condyle / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms. Temporal Bone / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20848946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-1182
  • [Journal-full-title] Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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94. Li D, Zhang Z, Huang M: [Prosthesis replacement of proximal humerus after resection of malignant tumor]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):996-8
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  • [Title] [Prosthesis replacement of proximal humerus after resection of malignant tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the operative effect and complication of the prosthesis replacement of the proximal humerus with malignant tumor.
  • METHODS: From October 1998 to August 2003, the prosthesis replacement was performed to treat the proximal femur with malignant tumor in 4 patients, including 2 patients with osteosarcoma (Enneking staging, I A) and 2 patients with giant cell tumor of the bone (II A, II B).
  • By the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) criterion, the 2 cases of osteosarcoma were preoperatively scored as 4 and 5 points, and 2 cases of giant cell tumor of the bone were scored as 9 and 11 points.
  • By the criterion formulated by the ISOLS, the postoperative score for assessing the 2 patients with osteosarcoma was increased by 16 points when compared with the preoperative score; the score for the 2 patients with giant cell tumor of the bone was increased by 9.5 points.
  • CONCLUSION: The prosthesis replacement to treat the malignant tumor of the proximal humerus is the good method of choice and has a good therapeutic result; however, there are more complications and so the method should be cautiously employed in the clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Humerus
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Artificial Limbs. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cell Tumors / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteosarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17140072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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95. Anchan C: Giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. Int J Shoulder Surg; 2008 Jul;2(3):68
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst.

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  • [Cites] Histol Histopathol. 2001 Jan;16(1):297-307 [11193206.001]
  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1987 Jan;69(1):106-14 [3805057.001]
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  • (PMID = 20300319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-6042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of shoulder surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Shoulder Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2840825
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96. Chand K, Bhardwaj RK, Rappai TJ: Study of 7 Cases of Giant Cell Tumor of Soft Tissue. Med J Armed Forces India; 2006 Apr;62(2):138-40
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  • [Title] Study of 7 Cases of Giant Cell Tumor of Soft Tissue.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary giant cell tumour of soft tissues is a distinct but uncommon group of neoplasms morphologically identical to osseous giant cell tumor.
  • METHODS: 7 patients with painless growing soft tissue mass, having no attachment to underlying bone, were identified in a four years retrospective study from two zonal hospitals of armed forces.
  • Histopathology of these lesions revealed admixture of multinucleated giant cell with mononuclear cells.
  • Histologic transition between benign and malignant lesion was present in only one of the 7 patients that recurred after three months of surgery for which she had to be operated again.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary giant cell tumour of soft tissues usually present as a painless mass and needs to be differentiated from other giant cell rich soft tissue tumors.
  • Benign clinical course is expected if the lesion is excised adequately.

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  • (PMID = 27407881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-1237
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical journal, Armed Forces India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med J Armed Forces India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4921971
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumour of bone / Giant cell tumour of soft tissue / Malignant fibrous histiocytoma
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97. Huda N, Bhardwaj S, Abbas M, Asif N: Giant cell reaction of a metatarsal bone: a case report. Acta Orthop Belg; 2007 Apr;73(2):279-81
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  • [Title] Giant cell reaction of a metatarsal bone: a case report.
  • A rare, non-neoplastic lesion involving the 1st metatarsal bone in a 5-year-old female is described.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology showed it to be a benign giant cell lesion.
  • The tumour was excised en bloc and the metatarsal replaced by a free fibular graft of adequate length.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis as giant cell reaction of bone.
  • The lesion is said to arise as a local tissue response to bleeding as evidenced by the clustering of giant cells in areas of haemorrhage.
  • The entity should be differentiated from aneurismal bone cyst, brown tumours of hyperparathyroidism giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, non-ossifying fibroma etc.
  • Treatment usually consists of curettage or excision of the involved bone with or without bone grafting.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cells / pathology. Metatarsal Bones / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17515247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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98. Wang J, Chen A, Luo Y: [Surgical management of limb salvage for osteogenic malignant tumors around knees]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):975-7
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  • METHODS: From January 1989 to December 2001, 42 patients (19 males and 18 females, aged 12-46) with osteogenic malignant tumors around the knees underwent surgical management of the limb salvage, including prosthesis replacement, allogenous bone grafting, and bone cement with adriamycin filled.
  • Based on the pathological examination, osteosarcoma was found in 11 patients, synoviosarcoma in 4 patients, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 3 patients, and giant cell tumor of the bone in 19 patients.
  • All the patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy for 1-2 courses before operation except the patients with giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • The patients underwent prosthesis replacement, allogenous bone grafting, bone cement with adriamycin filled, and postoperative chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: According to the follow-up for 3-11 years (mean, 5.6 years) in the 37 patients, 2 patients had recurrence and metastasis of the tumor, and died 3 and 4 years after operation, respectively.
  • One patient underwent amputation of the limb for local recurrence of the tumor.
  • Two patients had amputation of the limb for the rejection of the allogenous bone graft and the formation of the fistula.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prosthesis Implantation. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17140066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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99. Sethi A, Passey JC, Mrig S, Sareen D, Sharma P: Giant cell tumour (osteoclastoma) of the zygoma: an extremely unusual neoplasm. Acta Otolaryngol; 2006 Mar;126(3):327-9
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumour (osteoclastoma) of the zygoma: an extremely unusual neoplasm.
  • We report an extremely rare case of a giant cell tumour of the zygomatic bone in a 36-year-old female.
  • The tumour was excised with healthy margins.
  • To our knowledge, this is only the third reported case of this tumour occurring in the zygomatic bone in the medical literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Skull Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / surgery. Zygoma

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  • (PMID = 16618665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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100. Jones KB, DeYoung BR, Morcuende JA, Buckwalter JA: Ethanol as a local adjuvant for giant cell tumor of bone. Iowa Orthop J; 2006;26:69-76
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  • [Title] Ethanol as a local adjuvant for giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor is an aggressive benign neoplasm of bone.
  • No report on its use in a group of patients with giant cell tumor is available.
  • Records were retrospectively reviewed for all giant cell tumors treated by intralesional curettage and high concentration ethanol irrigation as the only chemical adjuvant.
  • Twenty-five primary excisional curettages and 12 repeat curettages for giant cell tumors of bone were performed in 31 patients.
  • Only use of a high-speed burr and lower Campanacci staging correlated with reduced recurrence rate, and these were not statistically significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Ethanol / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16789453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-5457
  • [Journal-full-title] The Iowa orthopaedic journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Iowa Orthop J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1888590
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