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1. Gruenwald N, Demos TC, Lomasney LM, Rapp T: The case. Giant-cell tumor. Orthopedics; 2006 Feb;29(2):94, 167-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The case. Giant-cell tumor.
  • Giant-cell tumor is a benign but locally aggressive primary bone tumor that requires surgical management.
  • Most giant-cell tumors initially are demonstrated on radiographs as distal, subarticular, geographic osteolytic lesions.
  • Abundant giant cells on histology are reactive secondary to a neoplastic fibroblast-like stromal cell.
  • Giant cells are present in many neoplastic and non-neoplastic bone lesions; therefore the diagnosis of giant-cell tumors requires correlation of clinical, imaging, and pathologic data to exclude other lesions that demonstrate a similar histologic pattern.
  • A small number of giant-cell tumors result in lung lesions, many of which have benign histology, can be treated by wedge resection, and do not affect long-term outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiography. Knee

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  • (PMID = 16485448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-7447
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Meyer A, Bastian L, Bruns F: Benign giant cell tumor of the spine: an unusual indication for radiotherapy. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2006 Oct;126(8):517-21
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  • [Title] Benign giant cell tumor of the spine: an unusual indication for radiotherapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumors are rare primary bone tumors.
  • CASE REPORT: We report about a 64-year-old female patient presenting with history of three osseous and one pulmonal manifestation of a benign giant cell tumor that have manifested metachronously within 23 years.
  • The two periphery bone and the one pulmonal manifestation were treated surgically with success.
  • Nine months later, local recurrence of this benign giant cell tumor developed at the thoracic spine and was treated with radiotherapy with a total dose of 45 Gy.
  • Due to neurological deficits a laminectomy and a stabilization of the destroyed sixth vertebra with bone cement was carried out.
  • Histopathological examination again showed benign giant cell tumor without suspicion of malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: In the literature the use of radiation therapy remains an appropriate therapy option in benign giant cell tumors with minimal adverse sequelae if primary surgical treatment is not feasible or fails.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16810546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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3. Tarng YW, Yang SW, Hsu CJ: Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report. J Hand Surg Am; 2009 Feb;34(2):262-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of multifocal giant cell tumor of carpal bones with preservation of wrist function: case report.
  • We report a rare case of multifocal giant cell tumor of bone involving the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and scaphoid with soft tissue extension.
  • Following intralesional resection, an autogenous corticocancellous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill the resultant defect and preserve carpal height and radiocarpal motion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Carpal Bones / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ilium / transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19135808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-6564
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Jakobs M, Häupl T, Krenn V, Guenther R: [MMP- and FAP-mediated non-inflammation-related destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis]. Z Rheumatol; 2009 Oct;68(8):683-94
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  • [Title] [MMP- and FAP-mediated non-inflammation-related destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis].
  • [Transliterated title] MMP- und FAP-vermittelte inflammationsunabhängige Destruktion von Knochen und Knorpel in der rheumatoiden Arthritis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Due to morphological similarities of high-grade synovitis in rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and mesenchymal, semimalignant tumors and the hypothesis that RA progression is not only inflammation-related, but also determined by tumor-like mechanisms, a comparison was made between expression profiles of RA, giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) and normal synovium (ND).
  • The presence of FAP in RA and in stroma of a semimalignant tumor indicates tumor-like tissue destruction in chronic synovitis associated with RA.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / immunology. Bone and Bones / immunology. Cartilage / immunology. Gelatinases / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Receptors, CCR / analysis. Serine Endopeptidases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19593575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1250
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CCR; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / fibroblast activation protein alpha; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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5. Moser A, Hoffmann KM, Walch C, Sovinz P, Lackner H, Schwinger W, Benesch M, Fritz G, Urban C: Intracranial reparative giant cell granuloma secondary to cholesteatoma in a 15-year-old girl. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Dec;30(12):935-7
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  • [Title] Intracranial reparative giant cell granuloma secondary to cholesteatoma in a 15-year-old girl.
  • Imaging studies revealed an intracranial mass of the right temporal bone causing temporal lobe displacement.
  • A first biopsy led to the diagnosis of intracranial giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG), a rare benign tumor of the bone or soft tissue that can show expansive growth.
  • Cholesteatoma should be considered as a trigger for intracranial GCRG growth, especially if adjacent to the temporal bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / etiology. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / complications. Granuloma, Giant Cell / etiology. Temporal Bone

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  • (PMID = 19131785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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6. May SA, Deavers MT, Resetkova E, Johnson D, Albarracin CT: Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Oct;11(5):345-9
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast.
  • Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) arising in breast is exceedingly rare.
  • We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary breast giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone and had a clinically malignant course.
  • Histopathological evaluation revealed a neoplasm composed of mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells resembling giant cell tumor of bone.
  • These features were most consistent with GCT-ST, an uncommon neoplasm of low malignant potential.
  • This case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting clinical behavior of GCT-ST of breast on the basis of histological features and depth of tumor alone.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a GCT-ST arising in the breast associated with a fatal outcome.
  • The distinction of this entity from other more common primary breast tumors with giant cell morphology is also emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17870021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vimentin
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7. Gebre-Medhin S, Broberg K, Jonson T, Gorunova L, von Steyern FV, Brosjö O, Jin Y, Gisselsson D, Panagopoulos I, Mandahl N, Mertens F: Telomeric associations correlate with telomere length reduction and clonal chromosome aberrations in giant cell tumor of bone. Cytogenet Genome Res; 2009;124(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Telomeric associations correlate with telomere length reduction and clonal chromosome aberrations in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is characterized cytogenetically by frequent telomeric associations (tas).
  • Clonal aberrations were found to be restricted to the group with a high level of tas, and the same group showed a significantly larger reduction in telomere length in tumor cells compared to peripheral blood cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Telomere / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19420923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-859X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytogenetic and genome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytogenet. Genome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / POT1 protein, human; 0 / TERF1 protein, human; 0 / TERF2 protein, human; 0 / Telomere-Binding Proteins; 0 / Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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8. Donthineni R, Boriani L, Ofluoglu O, Bandiera S: Metastatic behaviour of giant cell tumour of the spine. Int Orthop; 2009 Apr;33(2):497-501
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  • [Title] Metastatic behaviour of giant cell tumour of the spine.
  • Lung metastases from giant cell tumours (GCT) of the spine have not been specifically addressed in the literature.
  • At the latest follow-up (ranging from 18 to 126 months), two had died of the disease, two had no evidence of the disease, and three were alive with disease.
  • Progression of benign GCT into an aggressive sarcoma has been documented, and the method of management should be altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18461324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-5195
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899057
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9. Bourhaleb Z, Chekrine T, Bouamama I, Bouchbika Z, Benchakroun N, Jouhadi H, Tawfiq N, Sahraoui S, Benider A: [A rare tumor of the infratemporal fossa]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2010 Jun;111(3):165-7
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  • [Title] [A rare tumor of the infratemporal fossa].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur rare de la fosse infratemporale.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumors of bone (GCT) are usually benign and relatively rare.
  • We report a giant cell infratemporal fossa tumor.
  • Surgical excision was incomplete because of the subtemporal tumor localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Middle / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20605177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-257X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. Guo QC, Shen JN, Wang J, Huang G, Zou CY, Jin S, Yin JQ, Liao WM: [Analysis of the factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun 15;44(12):797-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Analysis of the factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical factors affecting the recurrence of giant cell tumors (GCT) of bone.
  • The two factors of surgery method and burst out of bone-envelope appearance were related with the recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16889722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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11. Wootton-Gorges SL: MR imaging of primary bone tumors and tumor-like conditions in children. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am; 2009 Aug;17(3):469-87, vi
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  • [Title] MR imaging of primary bone tumors and tumor-like conditions in children.
  • This article provides a review of the MR imaging features of the major primary malignant and benign bone tumors and tumorlike conditions encountered in the pediatric population.
  • Benign lesions discussed include simple bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, giant cell tumor, osteochondroma, enchondroma, chondroblastoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, nonossifying fibroma, fibrous dysplasia, osteofibrous dysplasia, hemangioma, and histiocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Cysts / diagnosis. Bone Cysts / pathology. Cartilage Diseases / diagnosis. Cartilage Diseases / pathology. Child. Contrast Media. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19524197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9786
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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12. Li WX, Ye ZM, Yang DS, Tao HM, Lin N, Yang ZM: [Endoprosthetic reconstruction after wide resection of primary bone tumor around the knee]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May 15;45(10):665-8
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  • [Title] [Endoprosthetic reconstruction after wide resection of primary bone tumor around the knee].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect and complication of the endoprosthetic reconstruction after wide resection of primary bone tumor around the knee.
  • METHODS: The retrospective analysis was performed on 83 patients undergoing the prosthetic reconstruction after the resection of the primary tumor around the knee between December 1995 and December 2005.
  • All the diagnoses were pathologically confirmed (58 patients with osteosarcoma, 2 with osteosarcomatosis, 1 with parosteal osteosarcoma, 4 with malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 13 with giant cell tumor of bone, 1 with leiomyosarcoma, 2 with Ewing's sarcoma, 2 with chondrosarcoma).
  • After operation, the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score was used to evaluate the recovery of their corresponding functions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the tumor prosthesis gives a satisfactory functional outcome after the tumor around the knee is removed with a lower incidence of complication.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / methods. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Knee

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  • (PMID = 17688816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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13. Wang J, Pei F, Tu C, Zhang H, Qiu X: Serum bone turnover markers in patients with primary bone tumors. Oncology; 2007;72(5-6):338-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Serum bone turnover markers in patients with primary bone tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: It was the aim of this study to investigate parameters of bone turnover such as serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and N-terminal midfragment of osteocalcin (N-MID), as well as serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in patients with primary bone tumors and to investigate their validity in differentiating malignant from benign bone tumors.
  • METHODS: A total of 219 patients with primary bone tumors entered the study.
  • In each group, the patients were divided into several subgroups (osteosarcoma, benign bone tumors or tumor-like lesions, giant cell tumor, and other primary malignant bone tumors).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A high serum BALP level is valuable for the diagnosis of adult osteosarcoma, but its use in the development of a differential diagnosis in the teenage patients is not advised because serum BALP levels are also affected by age, pubertal stage and growth velocity.
  • Both serum N-MID and serum CTX are hardly useful in the differential diagnosis of primary bone tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / blood. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18187955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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14. Singh S, Mak I, Power P, Cunningham M, Turcotte R, Ghert M: Gene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone. Stem Cells Cloning; 2010;3:129-34
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  • [Title] Gene transfection in primary stem-like cells of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The neoplastic stem-like stromal cell of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) survives for multiple passages in primary culture with a stable phenotype, and exhibits multipotent characteristics.
  • The pathophysiology of this tumor has been studied through the primary culture of these cells.

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  • [ErratumIn] Stem Cells Cloning. 2011;4:23. Cunnigham, Melissa [corrected to Cunningham, Melissa]
  • (PMID = 24198518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-6957
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells and cloning : advances and applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells Cloning
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3781737
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TWIST / gene / giant cell tumor / primary cells / transfection
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15. Lee MH, Kim NR, Ryu JA: Cyst-like solid tumors of the musculoskeletal system: an analysis of ultrasound findings. Skeletal Radiol; 2010 Oct;39(10):981-6
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  • Twenty-three masses were identified, of which initial interpretation on gray scale included cystic tumor which pathology revealed to be solid tumors.
  • RESULTS: Of 23 masses, there were 5 giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath, 4 schwannomas, 3 vascular leiomyomas, 2 benign fibrous histiocytomas, 2 dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 2 granular cell tumors, 1 dermatofibroma, 1 fibroma of the tendon sheath, 1 fibromatosis, 1 eccrine spiradenoma, and 1 granulation tissue.

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16. Shirani G, Arshad M, Mohammadi F: Immediate reconstruction of a large mandibular defect of locally invasive benign lesions (a new method). J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Nov;18(6):1422-8
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  • [Title] Immediate reconstruction of a large mandibular defect of locally invasive benign lesions (a new method).
  • Locally invasive benign tumor and large lesions such as ameloblastoma, giant cell granuloma, odontogenic keratocyst, and odontogenic myxoma are a benign, invasive, lesions of the jaws that predominantly affects the mandible.
  • Despite the benign nature of these lesions, there is a high rate of local recurrence after curettage, which usually requires resection.
  • This approach represents a less invasive alternative that provides access to the mandible for curative resection of benign tumors with minimal postoperative sequelae.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Plates. Bone Transplantation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17993894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Morgan T, Atkins GJ, Trivett MK, Johnson SA, Kansara M, Schlicht SL, Slavin JL, Simmons P, Dickinson I, Powell G, Choong PF, Holloway AJ, Thomas DM: Molecular profiling of giant cell tumor of bone and the osteoclastic localization of ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB. Am J Pathol; 2005 Jul;167(1):117-28
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  • [Title] Molecular profiling of giant cell tumor of bone and the osteoclastic localization of ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a generally benign, osteolytic neoplasm comprising stromal cells and osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • The osteoclastic cells, which cause bony destruction, are thought to be recruited from normal monocytic pre-osteoclasts by stromal cell expression of the ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (RANKL).
  • Using expression profiling, we identified both osteoblast and osteoclast signatures within GCTs, including key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and function such as RANKL, a C-type lectin, osteoprotegerin, and the wnt inhibitor SFRP4.
  • These data raise questions regarding the role of RANKL in GCTs that may be relevant to the development of molecularly targeted therapeutics for this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Lineage. DNA Primers. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyosarcoma / genetics. Liposarcoma / genetics. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Proteins / analysis. RANK Ligand. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sarcoma, Synovial / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15972958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / TNFRSF11A protein, human; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1603441
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18. Harrop JS, Schmidt MH, Boriani S, Shaffrey CI: Aggressive "benign" primary spine neoplasms: osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, and giant cell tumor. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2009 Oct 15;34(22 Suppl):S39-47
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  • [Title] Aggressive "benign" primary spine neoplasms: osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, and giant cell tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To define optimal clinical care for primary spinal aggressive "benign" osseous neoplasms using a systematic review with expert opinion.
  • METHODS: Predefined focused questions on treatment of osteoblastomas, aneurysmal bone cysts and giant cell tumors were refined by a panel of spine oncology surgeons, medical and radiation oncologist.
  • The aneurysmal bone cysts initial search revealed 482 articles initially of which 6 were pertinent; and the search on giant cell tumors identified 178 articles of which only 8 were focused on the predefined treatment questions.
  • CONCLUSION: Spinal aggressive benign osseous neoplasms have varying histology.
  • Despite these differences surgical treatment should be directed at gross resection of the tumor, understanding that this may be limited by anatomic confines and the potential for morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy. Osteoblastoma / therapy. Spinal Diseases / therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19829276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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19. Janes S, Cid J, Kaye P, Doran J: Pancreatic osteoclastoma: immunohistochemical evidence of a reactive histiomonocytic origin. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Mar;76(3):198-9
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  • [Title] Pancreatic osteoclastoma: immunohistochemical evidence of a reactive histiomonocytic origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Osteoclasts / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16626367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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20. Ng PK, Tsui SK, Lau CP, Wong CH, Wong WH, Huang L, Kumta SM: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression. J Cell Biochem; 2010 May 15;110(2):438-46
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  • [Title] CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is an aggressive non-cancerous tumor, which consists of multi-nucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, stromal cells, and monocytes.
  • It is believed that stromal cells are the neoplastic component of this tumor.
  • Expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) in the stromal cells stimulates the monocytes to form giant multi-nucleated osteoclast-like cells, causing bone over-resorption at the tumor site.
  • Previously, our group has reported the up-regulation of RANKL in GCT of bone stromal cells, but the mechanism is unknown.
  • Using stromal cell culture of GCT obtained from patients, we demonstrated the up-regulation of the transcriptional activator CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta).
  • To conclude, our study has shown that C/EBPbeta is a RANKL promoter activator in stromal cells of GCT of bone and we have proposed a model in which C/EBPbeta plays an important role in the osteolytic characteristics and pathological causes of GCT of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. RANK Ligand / genetics. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20225273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4644
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta; 0 / CEBPB protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human
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21. Yanagawa T, Watanabe H, Shinozaki T, Takagishi K: Curettage of benign bone tumors without grafts gives sufficient bone strength. Acta Orthop; 2009 Feb;80(1):9-13
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  • [Title] Curettage of benign bone tumors without grafts gives sufficient bone strength.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The defect that results after curettage of a bone tumor is usually filled in the same way.
  • We report the outcome in patients with benign bone tumors that were treated with curettage but no filling.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 78 patients (mean age at the time of operation was 27 (6-73) years, 44 men) who had had a benign bone tumor curetted with no filling of the defect.
  • The commonest tumor types were giant cell tumor of bone (27), fibrous dysplasia (13), enchondroma (9), and simple bone cyst (7).
  • Local recurrence occurred in 9 patients; 7 of them had a giant cell tumor.
  • INTERPRETATION: Routine filling of curetted bone lesions does not appear to be necessary from a mechanical point of view.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Curettage / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Cysts / surgery. Bone Remodeling / physiology. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19234882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-3682
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2823236
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22. Minami A, Iwasaki N, Nishida K, Motomiya M, Yamada K, Momma D: Giant-cell tumor of the distal ulna treated by wide resection and ulnar support reconstruction: a case report. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:871278
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumor of the distal ulna treated by wide resection and ulnar support reconstruction: a case report.
  • Giant-cell tumor of bone occurred in the distal end of the ulna is extremely uncommon.
  • A 23-year-old male had a giant-cell tumor occurred in the distal end of the ulna.
  • After wide resection of the distal segment of the ulna including giant-cell tumor, ulnar components of the wrist joint were reconstructed with modified Sauvé-Kapandji procedure using the iliac bone graft, preserving the triangular fibrocartilage complex and ulnar collateral ligament in order to maintain ulnar support of the wrist, and the proximal stump of the resected ulna was stabilized by tenodesis using the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon.
  • Postoperative X-rays showed no abnormal findings including recurrence of the giant-cell tumor and ulnar translation of the entire carpus.

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  • [Cites] J Trauma. 1979 Apr;19(4):219-26 [439177.001]
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  • (PMID = 20592994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2892703
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23. Cribb GL, Cool P, Hill SO, Mangham DC: Distal tibial giant cell tumour treated with curettage and stabilisation with an Ilizarov frame. Foot Ankle Surg; 2009;15(1):28-32
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  • [Title] Distal tibial giant cell tumour treated with curettage and stabilisation with an Ilizarov frame.
  • Imaging and biopsy confirmed this to be a giant cell tumour of bone.
  • After a prolonged course of rehabilitation he has excellent function and has returned to hill walking and there is no evidence of recurrence of the giant cell tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Curettage. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ilizarov Technique. Tibia

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  • (PMID = 19218062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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24. Fnini S, Labsaili N, Messoudi A, Largab A: [Giant cell tumor of the thumb proximal phalanx: resection-iliac graft and double arthrodesis]. Chir Main; 2008 Feb;27(1):54-7
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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumor of the thumb proximal phalanx: resection-iliac graft and double arthrodesis].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur à cellules géantes de la phalange proximale du pouce: résection-autogreffe iliaque et arthrodèse bipolaire.
  • Giant cell tumours (GCT) of bone are frequent, with variable behaviour, high risk of recurrence and an often benign histological appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Thumb
  • [MeSH-minor] Arthrodesis. Biopsy. Bone Nails. Bone Transplantation. Finger Joint. Follow-Up Studies. Fracture Fixation, Internal / instrumentation. Fractures, Spontaneous / etiology. Fractures, Spontaneous / surgery. Humans. Male. Metacarpophalangeal Joint. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Satisfaction. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18248835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-3203
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgie de la main
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Main
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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25. Wong KC, Kumta SM, Tse LF, Ng EW, Lee KS: Navigation Endoscopic Assisted Tumor (NEAT) surgery for benign bone tumors of the extremities. Comput Aided Surg; 2010;15(1-3):32-9
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  • [Title] Navigation Endoscopic Assisted Tumor (NEAT) surgery for benign bone tumors of the extremities.
  • A novel technique of using both a navigation system and an endoscope in intra-lesional curettage of benign bone tumors enables safe and adequate tumor removal via a minimal access approach.
  • We performed curettage of benign bone tumors in five consecutive patients (4 female, 1 male, mean age 31.4 years) using a commercial CT-based navigation system supplemented by visual guidance through a shoulder arthroscope.
  • The bone defect was filled with bone cement in four patients and with artificial bone substitute in one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Chondroblastoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Extremities / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 20433316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0150
  • [Journal-full-title] Computer aided surgery : official journal of the International Society for Computer Aided Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comput. Aided Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Ngan KW, Chuang WY, Yeh CJ: Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation. Pathology; 2008 Apr;40(3):312-3
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  • [Title] Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18428057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Campbell K, Wodajo F: Case report: two-step malignant transformation of a liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2008 Nov;466(11):2873-7
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  • [Title] Case report: two-step malignant transformation of a liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor of bone.
  • We present the case of a patient with malignant transformation of a liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor.
  • The patient had a histologically confirmed liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor that, during a course of 22 months, spontaneously transformed into a lesion appearing like a benign giant cell reactive lesion and subsequently into a high-grade bone sarcoma.
  • Few such cases of spontaneous malignant transformation of liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor have been reported.
  • We report what we believe to be the first case documenting spontaneous transformation of a liposclerosing myxofibrous tumor into an intermediate lesion with benign-appearing histologic features and then into a high-grade malignant tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18607664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2565027
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28. Muramatsu K, Ihara K, Taguchi T: Treatment of giant cell tumor of long bones: clinical outcome and reconstructive strategy for lower and upper limbs. Orthopedics; 2009 Jul;32(7):491
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  • [Title] Treatment of giant cell tumor of long bones: clinical outcome and reconstructive strategy for lower and upper limbs.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone is a rare and unpredictable lesion.
  • Twenty-three consecutive cases of giant cell tumor of long bones were treated in 10 years.
  • The most common tumor sites were the proximal tibia (10 cases), distal femur (8), and distal radius (3).
  • Functional outcomes as evaluated by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society measure were successful, with an average score of 26.6 points (range, 22-30 points).
  • For giant cell tumor of the upper limb or for young patients, biological reconstruction should be applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Lower Extremity / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Upper Extremity / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19634852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Saikia KC, Bhuyan SK, Saikia SP, Rongphar R, Jitesh P: Resection and arthrodesis of the knee joint for giant cell tumours of bone. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2010 Aug;18(2):208-14
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  • [Title] Resection and arthrodesis of the knee joint for giant cell tumours of bone.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate functional outcomes and complications following resection and arthrodesis of the knee for giant cell tumours (GCTs) of bone, in comparison to treatment by endoprosthetic replacements reported elsewhere.
  • METHODS: 18 men and 14 women aged 18 to 40 (mean, 28) years underwent resection and arthrodesis of the knee for GCTs of bone involving the distal femur (n=17) and proximal tibia (n=15).
  • Cancellous bone grafts were placed transversely along the struts and circumferentially over the host-graft junctions.
  • The mean size of the tumours was 10x8x6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthrodesis / instrumentation. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Plates. Bone Transplantation / methods. Fibula / transplantation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint

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  • (PMID = 20808014.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-4990
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Ulu MO, Biceroglu H, Ozlen F, Oz B, Gazioglu N: Giant cell tumor of the frontal bone in an 18-month-old girl: a case report. Cent Eur Neurosurg; 2010 May;71(2):104-7
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the frontal bone in an 18-month-old girl: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumors (GCT) are benign, but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasms, that frequently occur in the epiphyses of the long bones.
  • CASE REPORT: The authors report the management of a GCT involving the frontal bone in an 18-month-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Frontal Bone / pathology. Frontal Bone / surgery. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 20072990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-4912
  • [Journal-full-title] Central European neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cent Eur Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Balke M, Hardes J: Denosumab: a breakthrough in treatment of giant-cell tumour of bone? Lancet Oncol; 2010 Mar;11(3):218-9
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  • [Title] Denosumab: a breakthrough in treatment of giant-cell tumour of bone?
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. RANK Ligand / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [CommentOn] Lancet Oncol. 2010 Mar;11(3):275-80 [20149736.001]
  • (PMID = 20149737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RANK Ligand; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab
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32. Matsumoto Y, Okada Y, Fukushi J, Kamura S, Fujiwara T, Iida K, Koga M, Matsuda S, Harimaya K, Sakamoto A, Iwamoto Y: Role of the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway in the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction of giant cell tumors of bone. J Orthop Surg Res; 2010;5:85
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  • [Title] Role of the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway in the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction of giant cell tumors of bone.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of bone are primary benign bone tumors that are characterized by a high number of osteoclast-like multinuclear giant cells (MNCs).
  • Recent studies suggest that the spindle-shaped stromal cells in GCTs are tumor cells, while monocyte-like cells and MNCs are reactive osteoclast precursor cells (OPCs) and osteoclasts (OCs), respectively.
  • In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of osteoclastic bone destruction in GCTs by focusing on the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-Flt-1 (type-1 VEGF receptor)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway.
  • METHODS: The motility of OPCs cells was assessed by a chemotaxis assay and the growth of OPCs was examined using a cell proliferation assay.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the VEGF-Flt-1-FAK pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of bone destruction of GCTs.


33. Lang S: [Differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone]. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:245-9
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  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone].
  • The diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions of bone is often problematic even for the experienced pathologist.
  • The diagnostic key lies in multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells and a mononuclear stroma.
  • From the histological picture alone it is often difficult to distinguish between individual entities such as conventional giant-cell tumor of bone, non-ossifying fibroma, giant-cell tumor in hyperparathyroidism or an aneurysmal bone cyst.
  • Furthermore, these lesions can be confused with malignant bone tumors such as giant cell-rich osteosarcoma.
  • In most cases diagnosis is made on the basis of intraoperative frozen-section, but even in this setting, due to the poor quality of the material, it is very difficult to make a correct diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions without X-ray and clinical data.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone and Bones / pathology. Child. Connective Tissue / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology. Young Adult

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • [Cites] Pathologe. 1996 Jan;17(1):1-5 [8685089.001]
  • (PMID = 18836722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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34. Rudic M, Grayeli AB, Cazals-Hatem D, Cyna-Gorse F, Bouccara D, Sterkers O: Temporal bone central giant-cell granuloma presenting as a serous otitis media. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2008 May;265(5):587-91
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  • [Title] Temporal bone central giant-cell granuloma presenting as a serous otitis media.
  • Central giant cell granuloma is a benign intraosseous lesion that most commonly occurs in the facial bones.
  • Its location in the temporal bone is extremely rare and only 20 cases have been reported in the literature.
  • CT-scan and MRI revealed a temporal bone tumor involving the mastoid, and surrounding the right temporo-mandibular joint.
  • Tumor was totally removed after a canal-wall-down mastoidectomy and middle ear exclusion.
  • Pathology revealed a central giant cell granuloma.
  • Central giant cell granuloma is a rare temporal bone lesion, with non specific clinical and imaging signs but characteristic pathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases / diagnosis. Granuloma, Giant Cell / diagnosis. Otitis Media with Effusion / diagnosis. Temporal Bone

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  • (PMID = 18004584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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35. Boneschi V, Parafioriti A, Armiraglio E, Gaiani F, Brambilla L: Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:20-4
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  • [Title] Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration.
  • BACKGROUND: Soft tissue giant cell tumor (GCT-ST) of low malignant potential is an uncommon neoplasm, considered the soft tissue counterpart of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Histologically, this tumor is characterized by a mixture of uniformly scattered osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells intimately admixed with short fascicles of spindled cells.
  • Complete excision with negative surgical margins is associated with a benign clinical course in most cases.
  • RESULTS: Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a multinodular growth pattern with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells admixed with spindle cells partially arranged in a storiform pattern, fibrosis and foci of haemorrhage and mature bone.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed CD68 reactivity of the multinucleated giant cells.
  • CONCLUSION: GCT-ST is a rare neoplasm characterized by benign clinical course if excised adequately, as shown by our case of exceptionally long duration.
  • Emphasis is placed on the importance of differential diagnosis with other giant cell-rich soft tissue neoplasms because clinical behaviour, prognosis and treatment significantly differ.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Groin / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19222697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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36. Liu XM, Wang WC, Liu MH, Zhou QC: [Diagnostic value of 2-dimentional ultrasonography and color Doppler flow imaging in primary bone tumor]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Jun;31(3):420-3
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic value of 2-dimentional ultrasonography and color Doppler flow imaging in primary bone tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnostic value of 2-dimentional ultrasonography and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) in primary bone tumor.
  • METHODS: The hemodynamic parameters such as systolic maximum velocity (Vmax), diastolic minimum velocity (Vmin), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of intratumoral folw in 93 patients with primary bone tumors proved by histopathology were studied using 2-dimentional ultrasonography and CDFI techniques.
  • RESULTS: The bone destruction periosteum response and soft tissue mass were essentially revealed with 2-dimentional ultrasonography techniques.
  • The Vmax and Vmin in malignant bone tumor were significantly higher than those in benign one (P < 0.01).
  • RI and PI in malignant bone tumor were lower than those in benign one (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Observing the features of bone tumor and hemodynamic parameters by 2-dimentional ultrasonography and CDFI has a great clinical value in diagnosing primary bone tumor and distinguishing the malignant and benign bone tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Osteosarcoma / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blood Flow Velocity. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex / methods

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  • (PMID = 16859139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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37. Bhojraj SY, Nene A, Mohite S, Varma R: Giant cell tumor of the spine: A review of 9 surgical interventions in 6 cases. Indian J Orthop; 2007 Apr;41(2):146-50
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the spine: A review of 9 surgical interventions in 6 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the spine is uncommon but most aggressive benign tumor of the spine with unpredictable outcome.
  • We treated six patients with giant cell tumors (GCT) of the spine between 1993 and 2006.
  • Posterior only (n=2), anterior only (n=4) and single-stage back and front (n=3) surgeries were carried out depending on the nature of the tumor.
  • Two out of our four new patients had tumor recurrence and both needed repeat resection.
  • Both have been disease-free at last follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 21139768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5413
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989139
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; GCT / Giant Cell Tumor of the spine / radiotherapy
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38. Nahal A, Ajlan A, Alcindor T, Turcotte R: Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up. Curr Oncol; 2010 Aug;17(4):71-6
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  • [Title] Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign tumour.
  • It can, however, undergo dedifferentiation, either de novo or secondarily after local recurrence or radiation.
  • Whether spontaneously occurring or induced by previous irradiation, this malignant transformation is typically defined as a high-grade anaplastic sarcoma devoid of giant cells.
  • Here, we describe the first case of dedifferentiated GCT in the appearance of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma with distant bone metastases.
  • This disease progression occurred without previous irradiation.
  • We confirm the aggressive behaviour of this tumour despite the deceptively bland appearance of the malignant component.

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  • [Cites] Histopathology. 2007 Dec;51(6):864-6 [18042075.001]
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  • (PMID = 20697518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1718-7729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913833
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumour / dedifferentiation / malignancy / osteogenic sarcoma
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39. Cosso R, Nuzzo V, Zuccoli A, Brandi ML, Falchetti A: Giant cell tumor in a case of Paget's disease of bone: an aggressive benign tumor exhibiting a quick response to an innovative therapeutic agent. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab; 2010 May;7(2):145-52
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor in a case of Paget's disease of bone: an aggressive benign tumor exhibiting a quick response to an innovative therapeutic agent.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone, also called osteoclastoma, is a rare skeletal complication of Paget's disease of bone.
  • We will focus on either a review on this rare bone tumor, including some genetic aspects, or the current established therapies.
  • Finally, we will describe the therapeutic outcomes of this unique complication of Paget's disease of bone as a rapid response to an innovative therapeutic agent.

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  • (PMID = 22460021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-3266
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cases in mineral and bone metabolism : the official journal of the Italian Society of Osteoporosis, Mineral Metabolism, and Skeletal Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004463
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40. Baud'huin M, Renault R, Charrier C, Riet A, Moreau A, Brion R, Gouin F, Duplomb L, Heymann D: Interleukin-34 is expressed by giant cell tumours of bone and plays a key role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. J Pathol; 2010 May;221(1):77-86
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  • [Title] Interleukin-34 is expressed by giant cell tumours of bone and plays a key role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
  • M-CSF, the main ligand for c-fms, is required for osteoclastogenesis and has been already identified as a critical contributor of the pathogenesis of giant cell tumours of bone (GCTs), tumours rich in osteoclasts.
  • According to the key role of M-CSF in osteoclastogenesis and GCTs, the expression of IL-34 in human GCTs was first assessed.
  • In contrast to osteoblasts, bone-resorbing osteoclasts showed very strong staining for IL-34, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of GCTs by facilitating osteoclast formation.
  • IL-34 was able to support RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the absence of M-CSF in all models.
  • IL-34 induced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt through the activation of c-fms, as revealed by the inhibition of signalling by a specific c-fms tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / metabolism. Interleukins / biosynthesis. Osteoclasts / cytology. RANK Ligand / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Anisoles / pharmacology. Antigens, CD11b / analysis. Bone Resorption / metabolism. Bone Resorption / pathology. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20191615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-(3-methoxy-4-((4-methoxybenzyl)oxy)benzyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine; 0 / Anisoles; 0 / Antigens, CD11b; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 0 / interleukin-34, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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41. Liu H, Sun J, Wang Y, Yang X, Zhu E: [Repairing bone defects of benign bone neoplasm by grafting of bioactive glass combined with autologous bone marrow]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov;22(11):1349-53
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  • [Title] [Repairing bone defects of benign bone neoplasm by grafting of bioactive glass combined with autologous bone marrow].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical application of grafting with bioactive glass (BG) and autologous bone marrow for defect after resection and curettage of benign bone neoplasm.
  • METHODS: From January 2004 to May 2007, 34 patients with bone defects were repaired.
  • There were 14 cases of simple bone cysts, 6 cases of fibrous dysplasia, 3 cases of osteoid osteoma, 4 cases of non-ossifying fibroma, 2 cases of enchondroma and 3 cases of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Tumor sizes varied from 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 9.0 cm x 3.0 cm x 2.5 cm.
  • Benign bone neoplasm was removed thoroughly with a curet or osteotome, bone defects ranged from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm x 1.5 cm to 11.0 cm x 3.5 cm x 3.0 cm, which was closed-up with the mixtures of BG and autogenous red bone marrow.
  • The postoperative systemic and local reactions were observed, and the regular X-ray examinations were performed to observe the bone healing.
  • At averaged 16 weeks after operation, patients with bone tumor in lower limbs resumed walking independently and those with bone tumor in upper limbs resumed holding object.
  • There was no tumor recurrence during follow-up.
  • Radiographically, the interface between the implanted bone and host bone became fuzzy 1 month after implantation.
  • Two months after operation, the BG was absorbed gradually, new bone formation could be seen in the defects.
  • Four months after operation, implanted bone and host bone merged together, bone density increased.
  • Six to ten months after operation, the majority of the implanted BG was absorbed and substituted for new bone, bone remodeling was established.
  • CONCLUSION: BG may boast both bone conductive and bone inductive activities.
  • The combined grafting with BG and autologous bone marrow appears to be minimally invasive treatment to repair bone defects of benign bone neoplasm, with rare complications and no significant reverse reaction, and could repair bone defects completely.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Bone Substitutes. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone and Bones / pathology. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glass. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 19068605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes
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42. Matsubayashi S, Nakashima M, Kumagai K, Egashira M, Naruke Y, Kondo H, Hayashi T, Shindo H: Immunohistochemical analyses of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB): a possible role of Wnt pathway in GCTB tumorigenesis. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(9):626-33
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analyses of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB): a possible role of Wnt pathway in GCTB tumorigenesis.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign neoplasm but occasionally shows local recurrence, and histologically consists of osteoclast-like giant cells (GC) and stromal mononuclear cells (SC), which are capable of proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation.
  • Activation of Wnt signaling can induce osteoblast differentiation and osteoclastgenesis during bone resorption process.
  • Since cyclin D1 in GC was never associated with the expression of the well-known proliferative marker Ki-67, cyclin D1 expression might play a role in GC formation instead of promoting cell proliferation during GCTB tumorigenesis.
  • Importantly, it was suggested that the nuclear beta-catenin staining level might be associated with tumor recurrence in GCTB.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19324500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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43. Knowles HJ, Athanasou NA: Canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation. Histol Histopathol; 2009 03;24(3):337-46
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  • Physiological and pathological bone resorption is mediated by osteoclasts, multinucleated cells which are formed by the fusion of monocyte / macrophage precursors.
  • Both canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation play a role in the formation of osteolytic lesions where there is increased osteoclast formation and activity, such as in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytokines / metabolism. Humans. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / physiology. Models, Biological. Osteolysis. RANK Ligand / metabolism. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19130404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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44. Yu XC, Xu M, Song RX, Fu ZH, Liu XP: Long-term outcome of giant cell tumors of bone around the knee treated by en bloc resection of tumor and reconstruction with prosthesis. Orthop Surg; 2010 Aug;2(3):211-7
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of giant cell tumors of bone around the knee treated by en bloc resection of tumor and reconstruction with prosthesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term outcomes and complications of giant cell tumors around the knee treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with prosthesis.
  • The affected limb functions were evaluated by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scoring system.
  • CONCLUSION: En bloc resection and reconstruction with prosthesis is a feasible method for treating giant cell tumor of bone around the knee.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint / surgery. Tibia / surgery

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 22009951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-7861
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopaedic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthop Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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45. Ech-Charif S, Aubert S, Buob D, Verhulst P, Blomme V, Migaud H, Leroy X: [Giant cell tumor of soft tissues. Report of two cases]. Ann Pathol; 2006 Feb;26(1):26-9
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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumor of soft tissues. Report of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur à cellules géantes des tissus mous.
  • We report two cases of giant-cell tumour of soft tissue (TCG-TM).
  • The first case occurred in a 26-year-old woman presenting with a subcutaneous tumour of the left leg.
  • Pathological study revealed a tumour comparable to benign giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Microscopically, the tumour was composed of sheets of mononuclear and multinucleated cells.
  • TCG-TMs are uncommon and represent a distinct entity whose clinical behaviour and histological features are similar to giant-cell tumour of bone.
  • The differential diagnosis includes other tumours rich in osteoclast-like cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16841007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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46. Chou LB, Ho YY, Malawer MM: Tumors of the foot and ankle: experience with 153 cases. Foot Ankle Int; 2009 Sep;30(9):836-41
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  • It is the largest reported series of both bone and soft tissue tumors in the foot and ankle.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1986 and 2006, a retrospective chart review was performed of a total of 2,660 tumors surgically treated in all anatomic sites by a single surgeon at a musculoskeletal tumor referral center.
  • RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three patients (5.75%) with bone and/or soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle were treated.
  • The tissue types included 80 soft tissue and 73 bone tumors.
  • Overall, 60 (39.2%) were malignant, and 93 (60.8%) were benign.
  • The most common diagnosis was giant cell tumor.
  • In addition, giant cell tumor was the most common bone tumor, while pigmented villonodular synovitis and giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath were the most common soft tissue tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of tumors of the foot and ankle in this series of a single surgeon over a 20-year practice was 5.75%.
  • [MeSH-major] Ankle. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Foot Bones. Foot Diseases. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19755066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Forsyth RG, De Boeck G, Bekaert S, De Meyer T, Taminiau AH, Uyttendaele D, Roels H, Praet MM, Hogendoorn PC: Telomere biology in giant cell tumour of bone. J Pathol; 2008 Apr;214(5):555-63
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  • [Title] Telomere biology in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a benign bone tumour known for the unpredictable clinical behaviour of recurrences and, in rare instances, distant metastases.
  • It consists of uniformly distributed osteoclastic giant cells in a background of mononuclear rounded and spindle-shaped cells.
  • GCTB has often been regarded as a polyclonal tumour, but more recently a recurrent specific aberration was reported, which suggests a possible role for disturbed telomere maintenance.
  • Both osteoclastic giant cells and mononuclear cells showed positivity for hTERT and promyelocytic leukaemia body-related antigen.
  • These findings strongly suggest that these aggregates, while activating telomerase, are part of a structural telomere protective-capping mechanism rather than of a telomere-lengthening mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Giant Cell Tumors / genetics. Telomere / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Microscopy, Confocal. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism. Osteoclasts / pathology. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  • (PMID = 18278785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / nucleolin; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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48. Dohi O, Ohtani H, Hatori M, Sato E, Hosaka M, Nagura H, Itoi E, Kokubun S: Histogenesis-specific expression of fibroblast activation protein and dipeptidylpeptidase-IV in human bone and soft tissue tumours. Histopathology; 2009 Oct;55(4):432-40
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  • [Title] Histogenesis-specific expression of fibroblast activation protein and dipeptidylpeptidase-IV in human bone and soft tissue tumours.
  • The aim was to identify cell types that express FAP and DPP-IV in human bone and soft tissue tumours, and to determine whether there are any correlations between the expression of FAP and DPP-IV and the malignant potential of tumours.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: This study analysed in situ expression in 25 malignant and 13 benign human bone and soft tissue tumours.
  • Among benign tumours, non-ossifying fibromas, desmoid tumours and chondroblastomas expressed both FAP and DPP-IV.
  • Giant cells expressed DPP-IV in giant cell tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that FAP and DPP-IV are consistently expressed in bone and soft tissue tumour cells that are histogenetically related to activated fibroblasts and/or myofibroblasts, irrespective of their malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 / metabolism. Gelatinases / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19817894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.14.5 / Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / fibroblast activation protein alpha; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2784039
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49. Ozcan C, Apaydin FD, Görür K, Apa DD: Peripheral giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle presenting as a preauricular mass. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar;262(3):178-81
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  • [Title] Peripheral giant cell granuloma of the mandibular condyle presenting as a preauricular mass.
  • Preauricular mass is a common symptom for patients presenting to the otorhinolaryngologist with parotid disease.
  • Giant cell granuloma (GCG) was first described by Jaffe in 1953.
  • Central GCG (CGCG) is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous lesion generally presenting as an expansible mass with cortical bone defect.
  • The brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism and giant cell tumor must be ruled out because of the microscopic similarities of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15133683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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50. Bhadani PP, Sah SP, Sen R, Singh RK: Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration cytology in gouty tophi: a report of 7 cases. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):101-4
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  • Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, giant cell tumor of bone and metastatic tumor with multicentric involvement of bone were the clinical diagnoses in 1 case each.
  • Bright field microscopy of FNA smears revealed singly scattered or stacks of MSU crystals with variable number of inflammatory cells, with or without foreign body giant cells in 6 cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Crystallization. Diagnosis, Differential. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Polarization. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tendons. Uric Acid / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16514850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 268B43MJ25 / Uric Acid
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51. Dickson BC, Li SQ, Wunder JS, Ferguson PC, Eslami B, Werier JA, Turcotte RE, Kandel RA: Giant cell tumor of bone express p63. Mod Pathol; 2008 Apr;21(4):369-75
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone express p63.
  • p63 contributes to skeletal development and tumor formation; however, little is known regarding its activity in the context of bone and soft tissue neoplasms.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate p63 expression in giant cell tumor of bone and to determine whether it can be used to discriminate between other giant cell-rich tumors.
  • Seventeen cases of giant cell tumor of bone were examined to determine the cell type expressing p63 and identify the isoforms present.
  • Total RNA or cell protein was extracted from mononuclear- or giant cell-enriched fractions or intact giant cell tumor of bone and examined by RT-PCR or western blot, respectively.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate p63 expression in paraffin embedded sections of giant cell tumor of bone and in tumors containing multinucleated giant cells, including: giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondroblastoma, and central giant cell granuloma.
  • The mononuclear cell component in all cases of giant cell tumor of bone was found to express all forms of TAp63 (alpha, beta, and gamma), whereas only low levels of the TAp63 alpha and beta isoforms were detected in multinucleated cells; DeltaNp63 was not detected in these tumors.
  • Western blot analysis identified p63 protein as being predominately localized to mononuclear cells compared to giant cells.
  • This was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tumor sections, with expression identified in all cases of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Only a proportion of cases of aneurysmal bone cyst and chondroblastoma showed p63 immunoreactivity whereas it was not detected in central giant cell granuloma, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, or pigmented villonodular synovitis.
  • The differential expression of p63 in giant cell tumor of bone and central giant cell granuloma suggest that these two tumors may have a different pathogenesis.
  • Moreover, p63 may be a useful biomarker to differentiate giant cell tumor of bone from central giant cell granuloma and other giant cell-rich tumors, such as giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and pigmented villonodular synovitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Protein Isoforms / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18311114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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52. Szalay K, Antal I, Kiss J, Szendroi M: Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):505-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to compare and assess the effect of bone grafting and cementing techniques--two common applications used in the treatment of subchondral giant cell tumours of bone (GCTs)--on the development of degenerative changes in the weight-bearing joints of the lower extremity.
  • Eighty patients were included in this follow-up study, 44 of whom underwent curettage followed by bone grafting, and 36 who had curettage followed by cementation.
  • At the 24-month post-operative examination, significantly less degenerative change was found in patients with bone cement than in those with bone grafting.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / adverse effects. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Joints / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Femur / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Tibia / pathology. Weight-Bearing

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  • (PMID = 16969579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3172737
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53. Zhang Z, Zhu B, Sun T: [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):1007-10
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  • [Title] [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features, treatment methods, and recurrence factors of giant cell tumor of the bone and to investigate the surgical therapy choice for the tumor around the knees.
  • METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females; average age 31.1 years, range 14-59 years) with giant cell tumor of the bone were treated and followed up from January 1993 to January 2005.
  • The intralesional excision (curettage) with the bone grafting was performed on 4 patients; the curettage with some adjuvant treatments (high-speed burring, phenol, alcohol, cement, hydrogen peroxide, 50% ZnCl2, 3% iodine tincture, or bone cement) was used in 26 patients; and resection of the whole tumor was performed on 8 patients.
  • RESULTS: The follow-up of the 38 patients for 12-144 months (average, 67 months) revealed that giant cell tumor of the bone was found around the knees in 29 of the 38 patients (13 at the distal femur, 16 at the proximal tibia), at the proximal femur in 2, at the proximal ulna in 2, at the distal radius in 2, at the sacroiliac area in 2, and at lumbar spine in 1.
  • Of the 38 patients, 4 had a recurrence after simple curettage, 8 had no recurrence after resection of the whole tumor, and 8 of the remaining 26 patients had a recurrence after curettage with some adjuvant treatments.
  • Of the patients with the recurrence, 12 underwent reoperations (8 by the total resection of the recurrent tumor, 4 by the curettage with adjuvant treatments), and there was no recurrence after the reoperation.
  • CONCLUSION: Giant cell tumor of the bone usually recurs around the knee joint, especially at the proximal tibia, usually graded as Grade II or III by the Campanacci's radiological grading system.
  • Simple curettage has a higher recurrence rate; therefore, extensive curettage and resection of the lesions combined with some adjuvant treatments after the correct diagnosis can be used to reduce the high recurrence rate of giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17140075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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54. Bharatnur SS, Naik CN, Swethadri GK, Fernandes H, Shekhar JC, Marla NJ: Fine needle aspiration cytology of benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jan-Feb;54(1):89-91
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND; Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) of bone is a very rare tumor, and almost all reported cases were diagnosed after surgical resection by histologic examination.
  • We report a case in which cytologic features of BFH of bone were established preoperatively by fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • To the best of our knowledge, FNA findings of BFH of bone have not been previously reported.
  • Multinucleate giant cells were occasionally seen.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of Giant cell tumor of bone with a BFH component was rendered.
  • Histology revealed a pure BFH of bone.
  • CONCLUSION: The current case reveals the cytomorphologic features of BFH of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20306998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Saikia KC, Borgohain M, Bhuyan SK, Goswami S, Bora A, Ahmed F: Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for giant cell tumor of distal radius. Indian J Orthop; 2010 Jul;44(3):327-32
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  • [Title] Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for giant cell tumor of distal radius.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the distal radius poses problems for reconstruction after resection.
  • Here we have analyzed the results of aggressive benign GCTs of the distal radius treated by resection and reconstruction arthroplasty using autogenous non-vascularized fibular graft.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four cases of giant cell tumor of the distal radius (mean age 32 years, mean follow-up 6.6 years) treated by en-bloc resection and reconstruction arthroplasty using autogenous non-vascularized ipsilateral fibular graft with a minimum followup of two years have been included in this retrospective study.
  • Routine radiographs and clinical assessments regarding pain, instability, recurrence, hand grip strength and functional status were done at regular intervals and functional results were assessed using (musculoskeletal tumor society) MSTS-87 scoring.

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  • (PMID = 20697488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3727
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2911935
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Distal radius / giant cell tumor / resection reconstruction
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56. George S, Merriam P, Maki RG, Van den Abbeele AD, Yap JT, Akhurst T, Harmon DC, Bhuchar G, O'Mara MM, D'Adamo DR, Morgan J, Schwartz GK, Wagner AJ, Butrynski JE, Demetri GD, Keohan ML: Multicenter phase II trial of sunitinib in the treatment of nongastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Jul 01;27(19):3154-60
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  • [Title] Multicenter phase II trial of sunitinib in the treatment of nongastrointestinal stromal tumor sarcomas.
  • PURPOSE To evaluate the potential benefit of continuous daily dosing sunitinib in patients with advanced nongastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) sarcomas.
  • Secondary end points were stable disease at 16 and 24 weeks.
  • One patient (desmoplastic round cell tumor [DSRCT]) achieved a confirmed partial response (PR) and remained on study for 56 weeks.
  • Ten patients (20%) achieved stable disease for at least 16 weeks.
  • Metabolic stable disease was seen in 11 (52%) of 21.
  • The relevance of disease control observed in subtypes with an indolent natural history is unknown, however, the durable disease control observed in DSRCT, solitary fibrous tumor, and giant cell tumor of bone suggests that future evaluation of sunitinib in these subtypes may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


57. Sakayama K, Sugawara Y, Kidani T, Miyawaki J, Fujibuchi T, Kamei S, Aizawa J, Yamamoto H: Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of giant cell tumor in the proximal femur. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2007 Dec;127(10):867-72
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic problems of giant cell tumor in the proximal femur.
  • Primaly giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) in the proximal femur is relatively rare, and can prove difficult to diagnose, and can require therapeutic methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Femoral Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arthrodesis. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / methods. Biopsy. Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Female. Femur / pathology. Femur / surgery. Hip Joint / surgery. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Osteolysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17713773.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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58. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Livadas S, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Lyberopoulos K, Tantalaki E, Palioura H, Giannopoulos A, Kostakis A: Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature. Endocrine; 2007 Dec;32(3):345-9
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  • [Title] Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • The rare appearance of this entity in everyday practice is troublesome for both patients and physicians, because whenever it emerges, diagnosis could be mistaken for a giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • However, clinical, biochemical, and radiologic findings can easily guide the diagnosis if one considers the full continuum of findings and their association with subject's medical history, instead of focusing only on bone lesion.
  • In this report we present a case of brown tumor in the fibula with a short literature review, whose aggressive presentation and unawareness of the skeletal findings of hyperparathyroidism puzzled the caring doctors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18246453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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59. Lim YW, Tan MH: Treatment of benign giant cell tumours of bone in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):235-7
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  • [Title] Treatment of benign giant cell tumours of bone in Singapore.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant cell tumour (GCT) is a distinct neoplasm of undifferentiated cells.
  • The exact cell of origin is unknown.
  • The multinucleated giant cells present are formed from the fusion of mononuclear cells.
  • Giant cell tumour is more common in Southeast Asia than in the West.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with giant cell tumour were treated in the Singapore General Hospital from 1993 to 2001.
  • The tumours were divided into 3 groups.
  • The tumours were graded radiologically after the method of Campanacci et al.
  • All the recurrences had a Campanacci grade II or III tumour.
  • CONCLUSION: Currettage, high-speed burring with added phenol/liquid nitrogen treatment and cementation is a useful and safe method in the treatment of giant cell tumours.
  • Patients who have Campanacci grade I tumours have the highest chance of being disease-free after the first operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Cryotherapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hydrogen Peroxide / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Phenol / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies. Singapore / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15902343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 339NCG44TV / Phenol; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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60. Luther N, Bilsky MH, Härtl R: Giant cell tumor of the spine. Neurosurg Clin N Am; 2008 Jan;19(1):49-55
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the spine.
  • Giant cell tumors are benign but locally aggressive neoplasms that typically affect the extremities.
  • Gross total resection of the tumor with wide margins yields good results in terms of survival.
  • Endovascular tumor embolizations have also been attempted to control unresectable tumors, and have been performed with moderate degrees of success.
  • Outcomes are analyzed outcomes following surgery, radiation therapy, and tumor embolization.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy. Spine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Radiotherapy / methods. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18156047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1349
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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61. Albores-Saavedra J, Grider DJ, Wu J, Henson DE, Goodman ZD: Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;30(4):495-500
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • We report four previously undescribed primary giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree and morphologically compare them with 10 anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells of the gallbladder.
  • Two giant cell tumors were located in the distal common bile duct; one in the cystic duct and one in the gallbladder.
  • The 3 patients with bile duct tumors were male, and the only patient with a gallbladder tumor was a female.
  • The patients with bile duct tumors presented with biliary obstruction, and the patient with a gallbladder tumor presented with symptoms of cholelithiasis and a gallbladder mass.
  • Histologically, the tumors were similar to giant cell tumors of bone.
  • They consisted of a mixture of mononuclear and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • The mononuclear cells showed no atypical features, and their nuclei were similar to those of the multinucleated giant cells.
  • CD163 immunoreactivity was restricted to the mononuclear cells, whereas CD68 and HAM 56 labeled only the multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Follow-up showed that 3 patients were alive and disease-free 3.7 to 7 years after surgery.
  • The anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas contained a fewer number of osteoclast-like giant cells, and their mononuclear cells showed considerable variation in size and shape, marked cytologic atypia, and numerous mitotic figures.
  • The benign osteoclast-like giant cells showed immunoreactivity for CD68 and HAM 56 but were negative for CD163 and cytokeratins.
  • Giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree are benign true histiocytic neoplasms that should be distinguished from the highly lethal anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells by detailed cytologic analysis and immunohistochemical stains for CD163, CD68, HAM 56, and cytokeratins.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Feb;32(2):335-7; author response 337 [18223338.001]
  • (PMID = 16625096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Horvai AE, Kramer MJ, Garcia JJ, O'Donnell RJ: Distribution and prognostic significance of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression in giant-cell tumor of bone. Mod Pathol; 2008 Apr;21(4):423-30
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  • [Title] Distribution and prognostic significance of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression in giant-cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant-cell tumor of bone is considered a benign, locally aggressive and rarely metastasizing neoplasm of bone.
  • However, recent evidence suggests that activity of the telomerase enzyme complex correlates with recurrence in giant-cell tumor, although the subset of cells with telomerase activity in these heterogeneous tumors has not been defined.
  • In the present study, we investigated whether immunostaining for human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a component of the telomerase complex, correlates with outcome in giant-cell tumor and the distribution of telomerase reverse transcriptase staining in these tumors.
  • We analyzed 58 cases of giant-cell tumor for the presence and pattern of telomerase reverse transcriptase immunostaining, presence of soft tissue involvement and the type of initial surgery, and correlated these findings with recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival.
  • Specific staining with telomerase reverse transcriptase was present in 20 out of 58 tumors (35%) in the nuclei of mononuclear cells and, occasionally, osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Therefore, telomerase reverse transcriptase expression may predict recurrence in giant-cell tumor insofar as positive immunostaining correlates with shorter recurrence-free survival and may be a useful prognostic marker to stratify patients to more aggressive treatment protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Neoplasms / enzymology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / enzymology. Telomerase / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18204433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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63. Zheng JP, Shao GL, Chen YT, Fan SF, Yang JM: [Feasibility study on CT guided percutaneous incisional needle biopsy for deep pelvic masses by different puncture approaches]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Oct;31(10):786-9
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  • Their pathological findings and safety were evaluated after follow-up of a period of 1-34 months.
  • Sixty-four malignant lesions were confirmed by pathology, including 30 adenocarcinomas, 19 squamous cell carcinomas, 5 unclassified malignant tumors, 3 small cell carcinomas, 2 malignant giant cell tumors of bone, 2 hepatocellular carcinomas and 3 false negative lesions which were confirmed at the second PINBs as malignant tumors, respectively.
  • Benign neoplasms were confirmed in 8 cases, including fibrosis tissue in 6 lesions, bone tuberculosis in 1 and ovarian cyst in 1.
  • No hematoma, nerve damage, infection, and tumor transplantation in pelvic cavity developed after the PINB procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20021836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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64. Brimo F, Aziz M, Rosen G, Turcotte R, Nahal A: Malignancy in giant cell tumour of bone: is there a reproducible histological threshold? A study of three giant cell tumours with worrisome features. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):864-6
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  • [Title] Malignancy in giant cell tumour of bone: is there a reproducible histological threshold? A study of three giant cell tumours with worrisome features.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18042075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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65. Karpik M: Giant Cell Tumor (tumor gigantocellularis, osteoclastoma) - epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2010 May-Jun;12(3):207-15
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  • [Title] Giant Cell Tumor (tumor gigantocellularis, osteoclastoma) - epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment.
  • The author presents the epidemiology, classification, clinical features and strategies of treatment of Giant Cell Tumor.
  • Giant Cell Tumor of Bone accounts for 4-8% of primary bone tumors.
  • Increasing pain at the tumor site is the most common presenting symptom.
  • The recurrence rate is high (12-50%) during the first 2-3 years after surgery, regardless of pre-operative tumor stage.
  • 5-7% cases of giant cell tumor produce malignant recurrences, usually after five to more than 10 years after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Secondary Prevention. Sex Distribution. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20675862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng; pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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66. Knowles HJ, Athanasou NA: Acute hypoxia and osteoclast activity: a balance between enhanced resorption and increased apoptosis. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):256-64
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  • Osteoclasts are the primary mediators of pathological bone resorption in many conditions in which micro-environmental hypoxia is associated with disease progression.
  • Mature human osteoclasts were differentiated from peripheral blood or obtained from giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Transient reoxygenation returned the percentage of trypan blue-positive cells to normoxic levels, suggesting that osteoclasts can recover from the early stages of cell death.
  • These data suggest that in diseased bone, where the pO(2) may fall to <or=2% O(2), a delicate balance between hypoxia-induced osteoclast activation and hypoxia-induced osteoclast apoptosis mediates pathological bone resorption.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Resorption / pathology. Cell Hypoxia / physiology. Osteoclasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers / analysis. Cathepsin K. Cathepsins / analysis. Cathepsins / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Coloring Agents / analysis. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / analysis. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / genetics. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Oxygen / pharmacology. RNA Interference. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Receptors, Thrombin / analysis. Receptors, Thrombin / metabolism. Trypan Blue / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19291710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Thrombin; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.38 / CTSK protein, human; EC 3.4.22.38 / Cathepsin K; I2ZWO3LS3M / Trypan Blue; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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67. Moskovszky L, Dezsö K, Athanasou N, Szendröi M, Kopper L, Kliskey K, Picci P, Sápi Z: Centrosome abnormalities in giant cell tumour of bone: possible association with chromosomal instability. Mod Pathol; 2010 Mar;23(3):359-66
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  • [Title] Centrosome abnormalities in giant cell tumour of bone: possible association with chromosomal instability.
  • Giant cell tumour of bone, a benign but potentially aggressive neoplasm, shows an increasing rate of chromosomal aneusomy that correlates with clinical course.
  • Mechanisms that generate chromosomal instability in giant cell tumour of bone are poorly understood.
  • To gain an insight into the possible mechanism for the generation of chromosomal instability in giant cell tumour of bone, we analysed 100 cases, including 57 primary nonrecurrent, 35 recurrent and 8 malignant giant cell tumour of bone cases. gamma-Tubulin immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays of 59 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cases, whereas pericentrin and gamma-tubulin fluorescent immunocytochemistry was carried out on 41 frozen smears.
  • Centrosome amplification was significantly higher in recurrent and malignant giant cell tumour of bones compared with nonrecurrent tumours (P<0.001).
  • These findings indicate that centrosome alteration and frequency of aneusomy correlate with clinical behaviour; the lack of an association between centrosome amplification and chromosome number alteration suggests that alternative causative mechanisms produce genetic instability in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Centrosome / pathology. Chromosomal Instability. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20062006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / pericentrin
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68. McGough RL, Rutledge J, Lewis VO, Lin PP, Yasko AW: Impact severity of local recurrence in giant cell tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2005 Sep;438:116-22
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  • [Title] Impact severity of local recurrence in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 183 consecutive patients diagnosed with giant cell tumor at the three most common sites (distal femur, proximal tibia, and distal radius) to determine the pattern of local tumor recurrence and the impact severity of the recurrence on adjacent joint function.
  • The primary tumor was treated in all patients with intralesional excision of tumor by curettage.
  • Forty-five patients developed locally recurrent disease.
  • The intrainstitutional recurrences were salvaged by a repeat curettage (n = 12) or en bloc osteoarticular resection (n = 10) for bone recurrences and wide local excision for soft tissue recurrence (n = 1).
  • The prereferral recurrences were salvaged by a repeat curettage (n = 7) and en bloc osteoarticular resection (n = 15) for bone recurrences.
  • Incomplete initial surgery, a delay in diagnosis of the recurrence of greater than 6 months, and subchondral recurrence of tumor were contributing factors in the failure to salvage the joint.
  • Despite its benign histology, giant cell tumor of bone is an aggressive tumor that demands meticulous attention to surgical detail and close postoperative surveillance for successful local tumor control and durable, joint-preserving function.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Femur / pathology. Femur / radiography. Femur / surgery. Humans. Joints / physiopathology. Joints / surgery. Limb Salvage / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Radius / pathology. Radius / radiography. Radius / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Tibia / pathology. Tibia / radiography. Tibia / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16131879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-921X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Zeng J, Liu H, Song Y: [Total spondylectomy and reconstruction for thoracolumbar spinal tumors with neurological deficit]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May;21(5):445-8
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  • There were 10 cases of primary tumors of spine (4 giant cell tumor of bone, 3 chondrosarcoma, 2 recurrent aneurysmal bone cyst, and 1 osteosarcoma), and 6 cases of solitary metastasis of thoracic or lumbar spine.
  • Among the 10 patients with primary spinal tumor, nine patients survived with tumor-free, and one with osteosarcoma died because of lung metastases 18 months after surgery.
  • Among the 6 patients with spinal metastasis, three patients survived with tumor-free, and lung metastasis occurred in 1 case 10 months after surgery, two died because of multiple metastases of internal organs 10 months and 32 months after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Total spondylectomy and reconstruction is a safe and effective surgery for thoracolumbar spinal tumors with neurological deficit, with pain relief, neurological improvement and minimum tumor recurrence.
  • It will be an optimal choice for patients with primary malignant, aggressive benign, or solitary metastatic bone tumors of the thoracolumbar spine with Tomita surgical classification type 3 to 5.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Transplantation / methods. Chondrosarcoma / mortality. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Chondrosarcoma / surgery. Decompression, Surgical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17578278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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70. Singhal V, Sharma SC, Anil J, Sachan PK, Harsh M, Singhal S, Raghuvanshi S: Giant benign nodular hidradenoma of the shoulder: A rare tumor in orthopedic practice. Int J Shoulder Surg; 2010 Oct;4(4):93-6
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  • [Title] Giant benign nodular hidradenoma of the shoulder: A rare tumor in orthopedic practice.
  • A clear cell hidradenoma is a rare dermal tumor, which is believed to originate from the apical portion of the sweat glands.
  • We present a giant benign nodular hidradenoma presenting as painful restriction of the right shoulder joint in a 35-year-old male.

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  • [Cites] Korean J Radiol. 2010 Jul-Aug;11(4):490-2 [20592936.001]
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  • (PMID = 21655004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-6042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of shoulder surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Shoulder Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3100814
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Axillary mass / nodular hidradenoma
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71. Sawyer JR, Goosen LS, Binz RL, Swanson CM, Nicholas RW: Evidence for telomeric fusions as a mechanism for recurring structural aberrations of chromosome 11 in giant cell tumor of bone. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2005 May;159(1):32-6
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  • [Title] Evidence for telomeric fusions as a mechanism for recurring structural aberrations of chromosome 11 in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign but often aggressive tumor with a tendency toward local recurrence.
  • A third tumor with clonal tas of 11pter showed 2 additional subclones, one with ring chromosome 11 and the other with an extra copy of 1q.
  • To our knowledge, the 2 cases with del(11)(p11) represent the first report of a recurring structural chromosome aberration in GCTB.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Giant Cell Tumors / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Telomere

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  • (PMID = 15860354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Eyesan SU, Ugwoegbulem OA, Obalum DC: Bone cement in the management of cystic tumour defects of bone at National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos. Niger J Clin Pract; 2009 Dec;12(4):367-70
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  • [Title] Bone cement in the management of cystic tumour defects of bone at National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos.
  • BACKGROUND: Cystic bony defects are characteristics of bone tumours especially benign ones e.g.
  • Giant cell tumours of bone [GCT] and some metastatic tumours to bone.
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcome of filling these defects with bone cement augmented with plate and screw for stability.
  • METHOD: A seven year prospective study was carried out in patients presenting with large cystic bony defects secondary to bone tumours at the oncology unit of the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos.
  • Data such as age, sex, anatomic location of lesions, histological type of tumours, x-ray findings, operation performed with the number of packets of bone cement used to fill the resultant bony defects were retrieved from prepared proforma.
  • Giant cell tumour was the most common histological diagnosis 78.6%.
  • Bone cement was effective in meeting the local requirements of limb salvage, early functional recovery and as a temporising measure until the patients can avail themselves of better options.
  • CONCLUSION: Bone cement augmented with appropriate implants has proven valuable as a stop gap in filling large cystic bony defects resulting from tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements. Bone Cysts / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Humerus / surgery. Leg Bones / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20329673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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73. Kudo N, Ogose A, Ariizumi T, Kawashima H, Hotta T, Hatano H, Morita T, Nagata M, Siki Y, Kawai A, Hotta Y, Hoshino M, Endo N: Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in giant cell tumor of bone. Anticancer Res; 2009 Jun;29(6):2219-25
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  • [Title] Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • BACKGROUND: A giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive tumor with a propensity for local recurrence.
  • A characteristic pattern of peripheral bone formation has been described in GCT recurrence in soft tissue, and in some pulmonary metastases from benign GCT.
  • Although the bone formation in GCT in supposedly due to bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), the expression pattern of BMPs in GCT has not been well investigated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of BMPs in GCT tissues, cultured stromal cells from GCT, and osteoclast-like giant cells harvested by laser microdissection (LM), as well as from control osteosarcoma (NOS-1) cells was analyzed using reverse transcriptional-semiquantitative PCR.
  • The osteoclast-like giant cells expressed BMP 2, 3, 5 and 6 and BMP 5 was expressed at the highest level.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lasers. Male. Microdissection. Middle Aged. Osteosarcoma / genetics. Osteosarcoma / metabolism. Osteosarcoma / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19528484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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74. Hashimoto K, Hatori M, Hosaka M, Watanabe M, Hasegawa T, Kokubun S: Osteosarcoma arising from giant cell tumor of bone ten years after primary surgery: a case report and review of the literature. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2006 Feb;208(2):157-62
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  • [Title] Osteosarcoma arising from giant cell tumor of bone ten years after primary surgery: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCT) is a relatively uncommon tumor.
  • It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells.
  • GCT is a primary benign tumor but may evolve into a malignant tumor, usually after irradiation.
  • Roentgenogram revealed a bone tumor in the lateral femoral condyle of the right knee.
  • Histopathological examination demonstrated the features of GCT, and treatment consisted of curettage and bone grafting.
  • However, given the aggressiveness of the malignant tumor, this is unlikely.
  • The recurrence of pain and aggravation of bone destruction many years after the primary treatment suggest malignant transformation of GCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Giant Cell Tumors / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Osteosarcoma / etiology


75. Miller IJ, Blank A, Yin SM, McNickle A, Gray R, Gitelis S: A case of recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with malignant transformation and benign pulmonary metastases. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:62
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  • [Title] A case of recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with malignant transformation and benign pulmonary metastases.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally destructive tumor that occurs predominantly in long bones of post-pubertal adolescents and young adults, where it occurs in the epiphysis.
  • Vascular invasion outside the boundary of the tumor can be seen.
  • Metastasis, with identical morphology to the primary tumor, occurs in a few percent of cases, usually to the lung.
  • On occasion GCTs of bone undergo frank malignant transformation to undifferentiated sarcomas.
  • Here we report a case of GCT of bone that at the time of recurrence was found to have undergone malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tibia / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee. Biopsy. Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Curettage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Reoperation. Thoracoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20860830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2954972
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76. Aggarwal AN, Jain AK, Kumar S, Dhammi IK, Prashad B: Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee. Indian J Orthop; 2007 Apr;41(2):129-33
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  • [Title] Reconstructive procedures for segmental resection of bone in giant cell tumors around the knee.
  • BACKGROUND: Segmental resection of bone in Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) around the knee, in indicated cases, leaves a gap which requires a complex reconstructive procedure.
  • After resection arthrodesis with intercalary autograft and simultaneous lengthening the resultant gap (∼15cm) was partially bridged by intercalary nonvascularized dual fibular strut graft (6-7cm) and additional corticocancellous bone graft from ipsilateral patella.
  • The stress fracture fibula required DCP fixation and bone grafting.
  • CONCLUSION: Resection arthrodesis with intercalary dual fibular autograft and cortico-cancellous bone grafting with simultaneous limb lengthening achieved limb length equalization with relatively short morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 21139765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5413
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989136
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Enbloc resection / giant cell tumor / reconstruction of knee
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77. Niu XH, Hao L, Zhang Q, Ding Y: [Massive allograft replacement in management of bone tumors]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May 15;45(10):677-80
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  • [Title] [Massive allograft replacement in management of bone tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional outcome and the complications of allograft replacement in management of bone tumors.
  • METHODS: Between March 1992 and September 2002 164 patients underwent bone tumor resection and massive allograft reconstruction of bone defects.
  • The resections were classified as marginal or wide resections of the tumor on the basis of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society staging system.
  • Most of the lesions were osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor of bone and located in proximal and distal femur, proximal tibia and humerus.
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 47 months (range, 12 to 168 months) after the operation, 154 of the patients in the study were free of disease and 10 died of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Allografts can be used for reconstruction of bony defects after tumor resection.
  • Allograft has nearly similar shape, strength, osteo-conduction and osteo-induction with host bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Substitutes. Bone Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 17688819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes
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78. Malek F, Krueger P, Hatmi ZN, Malayeri AA, Faezipour H, O'Donnell RJ: Local control of long bone giant cell tumour using curettage, burring and bone grafting without adjuvant therapy. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):495-8
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  • [Title] Local control of long bone giant cell tumour using curettage, burring and bone grafting without adjuvant therapy.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) is a benign, but aggressive, primary tumour of the bone.
  • Many surgical techniques have been employed in the treatment of this tumour.
  • In addition to curettage, various adjuvant procedures and packing materials have been advocated in order to control and reconstruct long bone defects secondary to this neoplasm.
  • We report our experience with 40 long bone GCT patients treated with curettage, burring, bone grafting and no adjuvants between 1997 and 2002.
  • The risk of local recurrence in this study is acceptable (within the range that has been historically reported for curettage and bone grafting).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / methods. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Cohort Studies. Developing Countries. Female. Humans. Iran. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16896875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3172751
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79. Nishimura M, Yuasa K, Mori K, Miyamoto N, Ito M, Tsurudome M, Nishio M, Kawano M, Komada H, Uchida A, Ito Y: Cytological properties of stromal cells derived from giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) which can induce osteoclast formation of human blood monocytes without cell to cell contact. J Orthop Res; 2005 Sep;23(5):979-87
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  • [Title] Cytological properties of stromal cells derived from giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) which can induce osteoclast formation of human blood monocytes without cell to cell contact.
  • When human blood monocytes were cocultured with stromal cells derived from human giant cell tumor of bone (GCTSC) and a Millipore filter (0.4 microm) was interposed between monocytes and GCTSC, multinucleated giant cell formation of monocytes was induced.
  • The multinucleated giant cells have characters as osteoclast-like cells, indicating that a soluble osteoclast-inducing factor(s) is secreted from GCTSC expressing RANK, RANKL/ODF/OPGL and TACE mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Monocytes / cytology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Stromal Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / analysis. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Carrier Proteins / physiology. Cell Communication. Cell Lineage. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Cytokines / genetics. Humans. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology. Osteocalcin / analysis. Osteogenesis. Osteopontin. RANK Ligand. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / genetics. Sialoglycoproteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16024207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASR protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 0 / SPP1 protein, human; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 0 / TNFRSF11A protein, human; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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80. Murphey MD, Rhee JH, Lewis RB, Fanburg-Smith JC, Flemming DJ, Walker EA: Pigmented villonodular synovitis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5):1493-518
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  • Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) represents an uncommon benign neoplastic process that may involve the synovium of the joint diffusely or focally (PVNS) or that may occur extraarticularly in a bursa (pigmented villonodular bursitis [PVNB]) or tendon sheath (pigmented villonodular tenosynovitis [PVNTS]).
  • PVNTS is also referred to as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS).
  • PVNTS is the most common form of this disease by a ratio of approximately 3:1.
  • Radiographs reveal nonspecific features of a joint effusion in PVNS, a focal soft-tissue mass in PVNB or PVNTS, or a normal appearance.
  • Extrinsic erosion of bone (on both sides of the joint) may also be seen and is most frequent with intraarticular involvement of the hip (>90% of cases).
  • Recurrence is more common with diffuse intraarticular disease and is difficult to distinguish, both pathologically and radiologically, from the rare complication of malignant PVNS.


81. Tarrass F, Ayad A, Benjelloun M, Anabi A, Ramdani B, Benghanem MG, Zaid D: Cauda equina compression revealing brown tumor of the spine in a long-term hemodialysis patient. Joint Bone Spine; 2006 Dec;73(6):748-50
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  • [Title] Cauda equina compression revealing brown tumor of the spine in a long-term hemodialysis patient.
  • Brown tumors, or osteoclastomas, are erosive bony lesions arising as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT).
  • In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), brown tumors are classic skeletal manifestations usually seen in severe forms of secondary HPT.
  • We report a long-term hemodialysis case, in which cauda equina compression developed due to a sacral brown tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16650789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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82. Baena-Ocampo Ldel C, Ramirez-Perez E, Linares-Gonzalez LM, Delgado-Chavez R: Epidemiology of bone tumors in Mexico City: retrospective clinicopathologic study of 566 patients at a referral institution. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Feb;13(1):16-21
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  • [Title] Epidemiology of bone tumors in Mexico City: retrospective clinicopathologic study of 566 patients at a referral institution.
  • A retrospective analysis of all bone tumors accessioned at a large referral center (Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion) in Mexico City between 2000 and 2005 is presented.
  • A total of 6216 biopsies and surgical resection specimens were reviewed during this period, of which 566 corresponded to bone tumors.
  • Benign bone tumors accounted for 71.6% of cases and malignant bone tumors for 28.4%.
  • The commonest malignant bone tumors were osteosarcoma (46.6%) and chondrosarcoma (8.7%).
  • Of malignant bone tumors, 18.6% corresponded to metastases of carcinomas from internal organs and 8.1% were multiple myeloma.
  • The most common benign bone tumor was osteochondroma (43.7%) followed by giant cell tumor of bone (14.6%) and enchondroma (10.1%).
  • The age distribution showed a peak in children and adolescents comprised predominantly of benign lesions and a second peak in young adults that corresponded to malignant bone tumors (principally osteosarcoma).
  • Malignant bone tumors most often involved the femur, vertebra, and tibia.
  • Geographic location does not appear to represent a risk factor for any particular type of bone tumor and does not affect the age distribution, location, or histopathologic type of the lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Chondrosarcoma / epidemiology. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Osteosarcoma / epidemiology. Osteosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Chondroma / epidemiology. Chondroma / pathology. Female. Giant Cell Tumors / epidemiology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / secondary. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Osteochondroma / epidemiology. Osteochondroma / pathology. Referral and Consultation. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Urban Population

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  • (PMID = 19118777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Guliaeva SS, Voloshchuk IN, Mokrysheva NG, Rozhinskaia LIa: [Maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor of the bone in a patient with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy]. Arkh Patol; 2009 Sep-Oct;71(5):53-5
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  • [Title] [Maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor of the bone in a patient with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy].
  • The paper describes a case of maldiagnosis of giant-cell tumor in a patient with parathyroid osteodystrophy, in this connection elbow joint resection and replacement were made.
  • Progression of diseases was accompanied by severe bone changes and the development of urolithiasis complicated by chronic renal failure.
  • Thus, the interpretation of bone tissue changes without considering clinical and laboratory data led to the unwarranted surgical intervention and the late diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Differential diagnosis of a giant-cell tumor should be made, by obligatorily considering clinical and laboratory data, including the parameters of calcium metabolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases, Metabolic / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19938706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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84. Beaufour A, Cazals-Hatem D, Regimbeau JM, Ponsot P, Degott C, Belghiti J, Sauvanet A: [Osteoclastic giant cell tumour of the pancreas]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2005 Feb;29(2):197-200
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  • [Title] [Osteoclastic giant cell tumour of the pancreas].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur à cellules géantes ostéoclastiques du pancréas.
  • Osteoclast giant cell tumours are bone tumours that occur in adults, and that are considered benign by WHO but locally aggressive.
  • Strictly identical tumours are described in the pancreas, without simultaneous bone localization.
  • We report the case of a 62-year woman with an osteoclast giant cell tumour of the distal pancreas, without any epithelial component, which was diagnosed after pancreatic resection and with no signs of recurrence after a 24-month follow-up.
  • These pancreatic tumours are rare, with a very poor prognosis, an unclear histogenesis; they are often confused with pleomorphic or undifferentiated pancreatic carcinomas including a component of osteoclast giant cell.
  • These osteoclast giant cell tumours of the pancreas usually present as large cystic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Pancreatic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15795672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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85. Lentini M, Zuccalà V, Fazzari C: Polypoid giant cell tumor of the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Feb;32(1):95-8
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  • [Title] Polypoid giant cell tumor of the skin.
  • Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare neoplasm named for its resemblance to giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The histomorphological features were consistent with the diagnosis of primary giant cell tumor of the skin.
  • Clinical informations and immunohistochemistry are useful in distinguishing this neoplasm from other neoplastic and reactive lesions of the superficial soft tissues containing giant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19915451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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86. Liu HS, Di X: Endoscopic endonasal surgery for biopsy of cavernous sinus lesions. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2009 Apr;52(2):69-73
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  • The pathological diagnosis of the cavernous sinus lesions showed 3 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 2 patients with meningioma, 1 patient with esthesioneuroblastoma, 1 giant cell tumor of bone, 1 small cell carcinoma from the lungs, 1 fungal granuloma, and 1 schwannoma.

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  • (PMID = 19452412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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87. Liao TS, Yurgelun MB, Chang SS, Zhang HZ, Murakami K, Blaine TA, Parisien MV, Kim W, Winchester RJ, Lee FY: Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone. J Orthop Res; 2005 Jan;23(1):203-9
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  • [Title] Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a unique bone lesion that is characterized by an excessive number of multinucleated osteoclasts.
  • GCT consists of neoplastic stromal cells, multinucleated osteoclasts and their precursors, thus serving as a naturally occurring human disease model for the study of osteoclastogenesis.
  • These results suggest that SDF-1 is one of the significant chemoattractant factors involved in the recruitment of hematopoietic osteoclast precursor cells during tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Chemokines, CXC / physiology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15607894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC
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88. Zhang Q, Zhao H, Maheshwari AV, Cai L, Yu F, Niu X: Isolated cardiac metastasis from a histologically "benign" giant-cell tumor of the distal end of the femur: a case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 2010 Nov 17;92(16):2725-31
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  • [Title] Isolated cardiac metastasis from a histologically "benign" giant-cell tumor of the distal end of the femur: a case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Femur / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Heart Failure / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 21084583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-1386
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Moskovszky L, Szuhai K, Krenács T, Hogendoorn PC, Szendroi M, Benassi MS, Kopper L, Füle T, Sápi Z: Genomic instability in giant cell tumor of bone. A study of 52 cases using DNA ploidy, relocalization FISH, and array-CGH analysis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2009 Jun;48(6):468-79
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  • [Title] Genomic instability in giant cell tumor of bone. A study of 52 cases using DNA ploidy, relocalization FISH, and array-CGH analysis.
  • Genetic instability in relation to clinical behavior was studied in 52 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB).
  • Ploidy was determined in the mononuclear cell population by using native cell smears and image cytometry.
  • Genome-wide alterations were tested using array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) on magnetically separated CD68-negative tumor cells.
  • Random individual-cell aneusomy was significantly (P < 0.001) more frequent in the recurrent groups (36.01 +/- 11.94%) than in the benign nonrecurrent cases (10.65 +/- 3.66%).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Genomic Instability. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Ploidies
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD / genetics. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / genetics. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Centromere / metabolism. Chi-Square Distribution. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Telomere / genetics. Telomere / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. beta Catenin / genetics. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19242928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2264
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin
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90. Kafchitsas K, Habermann B, Proschek D, Kurth A, Eberhardt C: Functional results after giant cell tumor operation near knee joint and the cement radiolucent zone as indicator of recurrence. Anticancer Res; 2010 Sep;30(9):3795-9
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  • [Title] Functional results after giant cell tumor operation near knee joint and the cement radiolucent zone as indicator of recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor of bone near the knee joints is a dilemma for the operating surgeon.
  • Curettage and bone grafting have a high recurrence, whereas wide resection has a reduced recurrence rate with the compromise of limb function.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with histologically proven giant cell tumor near the knee joint were treated.
  • All patients underwent surgery, 21 patients were treated with a bone cement filling and additional osteosynthesis after curettage.
  • Seventeen patients were filled with cancellous bone or curettage alone.
  • In the group with bone cement filling after curettage, the recurrence rate was 23.8%, whereas a recurrence rate of 52.9% was detected in the group with cancellous bone filling or curettage alone.
  • Patients with giant cell tumor of bone near the knee joint can be treated satisfactorily with intralesional resection and bone cement packing.
  • The extension of the radiolucent zone after bone cement filling is a reliable indicator for a possible local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Knee Joint / surgery. Recovery of Function
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Orthopedic Procedures / adverse effects. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Osteoarthritis / epidemiology. Osteoarthritis / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20944172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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91. Salerno M, Avnet S, Alberghini M, Giunti A, Baldini N: Histogenetic characterization of giant cell tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2008 Sep;466(9):2081-91
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  • [Title] Histogenetic characterization of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The unpredictable behavior of giant cell tumor (GCT) parallels its controversial histogenesis.
  • Multinucleated giant cells, stromal cells, and CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages are the three elements that interact in GCT.
  • Although stromal cells expressed early osteogenic markers, they were unable to differentiate into osteoblasts but they did express intracellular adhesion molecule-1, a marker of bone-lining cells.
  • They might be secondarily induced to proliferate by a paracrine effect induced by monocyte-macrophages and/or giant cells.
  • The increased number of giant cells in GCT may be secondary to an autocrine circuit mediated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Coculture Techniques. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18543051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2492994
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92. Balke M, Campanacci L, Gebert C, Picci P, Gibbons M, Taylor R, Hogendoorn P, Kroep J, Wass J, Athanasou N: Bisphosphonate treatment of aggressive primary, recurrent and metastatic Giant Cell Tumour of Bone. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:462
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  • [Title] Bisphosphonate treatment of aggressive primary, recurrent and metastatic Giant Cell Tumour of Bone.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is an expansile osteolytic tumour which contains numerous osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • RESULTS: Treatment protocols differed with several different aminobisphosphonates being employed, but stabilisation of disease was achieved in most of these cases which were refractory to conventional treatment.
  • Most inoperable sacral/pelvic tumours did not increase in size and no further recurrence was seen in GCTBs that had repeatedly recurred in bone and soft tissues.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that bisphosphonates may be useful in controlling disease progression in GCTB and that these agents directly inhibit GCTB - derived osteoclast resorption.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Resorption. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Osteoclasts / drug effects. Osteoclasts / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20799989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940802
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93. Balke M, Schremper L, Gebert C, Ahrens H, Streitbuerger A, Koehler G, Hardes J, Gosheger G: Giant cell tumor of bone: treatment and outcome of 214 cases. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Sep;134(9):969-78
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone: treatment and outcome of 214 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Two hundred and fourteen patients with benign giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), treated from 1980 to 2007 at the Department of Orthopedics of the University of Muenster (Germany), were analyzed in a retrospective study.
  • The effects of bone cement (PMMA), burring and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were statistically analyzed and the influence of a subchondral bone graft on the recurrence rate was evaluated.
  • If the tumor reaches close to the articulating surface a subchondral bone graft (n = 42) can be performed without risking a higher recurrence rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Curettage. Female. Humans. Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Polymethyl Methacrylate. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18322700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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94. Sehli H, Daoud L, Ben Mbarek R, Ghorbel R, Ben Abdelghani K, Charfi H, Cheour I, Tarhouni L, Sellami S: [Osteomalacia and giant cell tumor: a rare case]. Tunis Med; 2008 Sep;86(9):836-8
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  • [Title] [Osteomalacia and giant cell tumor: a rare case].
  • [Transliterated title] Ostéomalacie et tumeur a cellule géante: une entité rare.
  • AIM: We have investigated the mechanism by which a giant cell tumor of bone caused biopsy-proved osteomalacia in a 50-year-old woman.
  • CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old woman presented with generalized bone and pelvicrural pain, associated with fatiguability and muscle weakness.
  • The diagnosis of osteomalacia was retained, associated with a giant cell tumor.
  • The coexistence of giant cell tumor of bone and osteomalacia suggested the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia.
  • Resolution of the biochemical abnormalities of the syndrome after tumor resection, established this diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / complications. Osteomalacia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19472787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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95. Puri A, Agarwal MG, Shah M, Srinivas CH, Shukla PJ, Shrikhande SV, Jambhekar NA: Decision making in primary sacral tumors. Spine J; 2009 May;9(5):396-403
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  • Appropriate decision making is crucial to obtain the best possible outcome in terms of maximizing disease control while attempting to minimize neurological dysfunction.
  • PURPOSE: Our study presents the results of a group of patients with primary tumors of the sacrum who were surgically treated by the same multidisciplinary team at a specialist oncology center over a relatively short period of time (5 years).
  • OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated the outcome in terms of local disease control, residual neurological dysfunction, and complications as a result of surgical intervention.
  • The diagnosis included chordoma in six patients, giant cell tumor in seven patients, aneurysmal bone cyst in two patients, and a chondrosarcoma and an osteoblastoma in one patient each.
  • Six benign lesions were treated with curettage.
  • The other two cases in whom the disease extended up to S1 had curettage.
  • CONCLUSION: Wide resection with adequate margins gives the best chance of local control and should be the surgery of choice for all malignant primary sacral tumors and in benign lesions involving lower segments when preservation of both S3 roots is possible.
  • To retain bladder and bowel control and minimize neurological dysfunction, it may be worthwhile managing benign sacral tumors that extend above S3 with serial embolization.
  • The administration of parenteral bisphosphonates may prove beneficial in cases of giant cell tumor managed with serial embolization.

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  • (PMID = 19059810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Cağlar K, Büyük S, Caygür A, Tuğcu S, Ulutekin E: Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor in a 16-year-old boy. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;22(2):175-80
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  • [Title] Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor in a 16-year-old boy.
  • Synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor of the bone is a rare variant of a lesion appearing during childhood.
  • The authors report clinical, radiological, and pathological features of a 16-year-old boy who was diagnosed with synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor, which originated in the right distal femur and the left fibula.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15805004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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97. Eralp L, Toker B, Akgül T, Ozger H, Kocaoğlu M, Hayat S: [Applications of external fixation for management of complications associated with musculoskeletal tumors and related surgery]. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc; 2009 May-Jul;43(3):219-28
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  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the results of, and the course of treatment with, external fixation (EF) in treating complications associated with bone tumors and related surgery.
  • Histologic diagnoses were osteosarcoma (n=3), Ewing's sarcoma (n=3), hereditary multiple exostosis (n=3), chondrosarcoma (n=2), synovial sarcoma (n=2), Ollier's disease, giant cell tumor of bone, desmoid fibroma, chondromyxoid fibroma, and enchondroma.
  • Complications secondary to bone tumors (n=4) and occurring following limb salvage surgery (n=14) were treated with Ilizarov circular EF in nine patients, unilateral EF in six patients, and both in three patients.
  • The second group consisted of six patients who had shortening secondary to tumor surgery.
  • The third group included four patients with deformity and shortening secondary to multiple exostosis (n=3) and Ollier's disease.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of EF in the management of complications associated with bone tumors and related surgery yields successful results especially in young patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. External Fixators / adverse effects. Fracture Fixation / methods. Muscle Neoplasms / surgery. Osteosarcoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19717939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1017-995X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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98. Clements SE, Mellerio JE, Holden ST, McCauley J, McGrath JA: PORCN gene mutations and the protean nature of focal dermal hypoplasia. Br J Dermatol; 2009 May;160(5):1103-9
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  • Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is an X-linked dominant disorder featuring developmental abnormalities of ectodermal and mesodermal tissues.
  • Both new cases showed Blaschko-linear dermal hypoplasia and extensive ectomesodermal abnormalities, including severe limb developmental anomalies and a giant cell tumour of bone in one patient.

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  • (PMID = 19292719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 2.3.1.- / PORCN protein, human
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99. Haque AU, Moatasim A: Giant cell tumor of bone: a neoplasm or a reactive condition? Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(6):489-501
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of bone: a neoplasm or a reactive condition?
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor of young adults.
  • Microscopically areas of frank hemorrhage, numerous multinucleated giant cells and spindly stromal cells are present.
  • While giant cells and stromal cells have been extensively studied, little attention has been paid to the overwhelming hemorrhagic component.
  • If examined carefully intact and partially degenerated red blood cells are almost invariably seen in many giant cells as well as in the stroma.
  • While hemorrhage in many patients may be resolved without leaving any trace over time, in some it gives rise to giant cell formation, and in others it may lead to proliferation of fibroblasts and histiocytes.
  • Malignancy usually does not occur in GCTB and when discover, it usually represents primary bone sarcomas missed at original diagnosis.
  • Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) shares many features with GCTB.
  • There had been unique karyotypic changes in some aneurysmal bone cysts making it distinct from GCTB.
  • However these changes may be in the endothelial cells which are quite different from stromal or giant cells.
  • Enhanced telomerase activity and karyotypic aberrations may be necessary for rapid division of the nuclei of the giant cells in order to be able to deal with significant in situ intraosseous hemorrhage.

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  • (PMID = 18787633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480584
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumor / aneurysmal bone cyst / bone / bone matrix / hemorrhage / osteoclast / osteoclastoma / telomerase
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100. Dudko S, Kusz D, Cieliński L, Nowak M: The application of bone cement to fill the surgical defect after resection of a giant-cell tumor: A case report. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2005 Oct 30;7(5):563-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The application of bone cement to fill the surgical defect after resection of a giant-cell tumor: A case report.
  • Background. A case of a large bone defect treated with bone cement filler is discussed, and the usefulness and advantages of this treatment method are assessed. Case report.
  • A 25-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with an intra-articular pathological fracture of the lateral femoral condyle due to an underlying giant cell tumor (stage I according to the Enneking classification).
  • The tumor was surgically resected, and the walls of the post-operative bone defect were treated with a burr.
  • The defect was then filled with bone cement (PMMA).
  • The tumor was found to be histologically benign.
  • The follow-up period was 7 years, during which time no clinical or radiological signs of tumor recurrence were found.
  • There was visible osteosclerosis surrounding the bone cement filler, which is believed to be a prognostically favorable finding, associated with a low risk of recurrence.
  • Conclusions. The use of bone cement in order to fill a bone defect after tumor excision proved to be an effective and safe method to manage a giant-cell tumor of the bone.
  • This method provided good biomechanical circumstances and allowed for good follow-up, as it enabled easy detection of possible tumor recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 17611450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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