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1. Howard B, Ragsdale B, Lundquist K: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: two case reports. Dermatol Online J; 2005;11(2):1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: two case reports.
  • Because of indolent course without mortality, the term "pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma" has been suggested as a replacement for "equine" or "animal-type" melanoma and for the epithelioid blue nevus of the Carney type, from which they are histologically indistinguishable.
  • This paper also contains clinical photographs of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma, unlike prior reports.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16150209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Lobo AZ, Martin RM, Belda W Jr, Michi MM, Arnone M, Festa-Neo C, Sotto MN, Vilela MA, Sanches JA Jr: Disseminated blue naevus and malignant blue naevus associated with excessive aromatase syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Aug;33(5):591-4
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  • [Title] Disseminated blue naevus and malignant blue naevus associated with excessive aromatase syndrome.
  • We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who had a giant congenital blue naevus with multiple satellite pigmented lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Gynecomastia / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Diseases, Metabolic / complications. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18462445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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3. Urso C: Nodal melanocytic nevus with balloon-cell change (nodal balloon-cell nevus). J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):672-6
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  • [Title] Nodal melanocytic nevus with balloon-cell change (nodal balloon-cell nevus).
  • Most nodal nevi are intracapsular and present the morphology of conventional nevi; less frequently, they show the appearance of common and cellular blue nevi.
  • We report a case of an nodal capsular, trabecular and intraparenchymal melanocytic nevus with balloon-cell change in a patient with a malignant melanoma which arose in a pre-existing cutaneous giant congenital nevus, showing balloon-cell degeneration.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18312441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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4. Odashiro AN, Arthurs B, Pereira PR, Filho JP, Belfort E, Burnier MN Jr: Primary orbital melanoma associated with a blue nevus. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 May;21(3):247-8
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  • [Title] Primary orbital melanoma associated with a blue nevus.
  • After surgical excision, the histopathologic examination revealed a malignant melanoma with a predominant epithelioid cell type, probably arising in a blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Orbit Evisceration. Pain / diagnosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vision Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15942508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Birch-Johansen FH, Sjøstrand H, Lock-Andersen J: Malignant melanoma in association with or mimicking blue naevus. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg; 2010 Apr;44(2):118-20
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in association with or mimicking blue naevus.
  • Malignant blue naevus is a rare but highly aggressive form of cutaneous malignant melanoma, which spreads often and early to the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other organs.

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  • (PMID = 20158429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2073
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of plastic and reconstructive surgery and hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Kudva R, Hegde P: Blue nevus of the prostate. Indian J Urol; 2010 Apr;26(2):301-2
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  • [Title] Blue nevus of the prostate.

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  • (PMID = 20877617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2938563
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7. Ojha J, Akers JL, Akers JO, Hassanein AM, Islam NM, Cohen DM, Bhattacharyya I: Intraoral cellular blue nevus: report of a unique histopathologic entity and review of the literature. Cutis; 2007 Sep;80(3):189-92
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  • [Title] Intraoral cellular blue nevus: report of a unique histopathologic entity and review of the literature.
  • The blue nevus is found most frequently on the skin; however, in rare instances, it has been reported on oral mucous membranes.
  • Intramucosal nevi make up more than one half of all reported intraoral melanocytic nevi.
  • The common blue nevus is the second most common variant.
  • Among the 3 variants of blue nevi, the cellular variant occurs less frequently than the common and combined variants.
  • We present a rare case of intraoral cellular blue nevus that occurred on the oral mucosa of the hard palate.
  • Because of the clinical and microscopic resemblance of the cellular blue nevus to melanoma and the rarity of this lesion in the oral cavity, recognition and accurate diagnosis are critical.
  • [MeSH-major] Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17956006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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8. Vetter-Kauczok CS, Becker JC, Bröcker EB: Sclerosing 'mucinous' blue nevus: a clinical simulator of dermatofibroma. Clin Med Pathol; 2008;1:15-6
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  • [Title] Sclerosing 'mucinous' blue nevus: a clinical simulator of dermatofibroma.

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  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2003 May;148(5):1064-6 [12786849.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2003 Jun;148(6):1250-2 [12828757.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 2003 Dec;139(12):1696 [14676098.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatology. 1994;188(3):232-5 [8186516.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1996 Dec;132(12):1522-3 [8961894.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Aug;37(2 Pt 2):312-3 [9270535.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Exp Dermatol. 1979 Mar;4(1):49-58 [445877.001]
  • (PMID = 21876647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-1181
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3160009
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; mucin / nevus / sclerotic
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9. Scolyer RA, Murali R, McCarthy SW, Thompson JF: Histologically ambiguous ("borderline") primary cutaneous melanocytic tumors: approaches to patient management including the roles of molecular testing and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Dec;134(12):1770-7
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  • It is well recognized that the pathologic diagnosis of melanocytic tumors can sometimes be difficult.
  • For some atypical melanocytic tumors that do not display clear-cut features of malignancy, it may be difficult or impossible to exclude a diagnosis of melanoma; this includes those showing some resemblance to Spitz nevi, blue nevi, deep penetrating nevi, and possible nevoid melanomas.
  • When there is uncertainty about whether a primary melanocytic tumor is a nevus or a melanoma, we recommend that a second opinion be sought from one or more experienced colleagues.
  • If diagnostic uncertainty persists, the evidence for or against the various differential diagnostic considerations should be presented in the pathology report and a "most likely" or "favored" diagnosis given.
  • Molecular testing of the primary tumor by using techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization or fluorescence in situ hybridization may assist in establishing a diagnosis of melanoma if multiple chromosomal aberrations are identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012 Oct;136(10):1181-3 [23020718.001]
  • (PMID = 21128774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Wang SQ, Dusza SW, Scope A, Braun RP, Kopf AW, Marghoob AA: Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Oct;34(10):1389-95
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  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate whether diagnosis and diagnostic confidence changes when viewing dermoscopic images from NPDs and PDs.
  • Twenty-five pigmented lesions were shown in the study, consisting of 7 seborrheic keratoses (SK), 3 basal cell carcinomas, 2 atypical nevi, 5 malignant melanomas (MM), 3 dermatofibromas, 3 blue nevi, and 2 hemangiomas.
  • Significant differences in the diagnoses were observed for the SK, atypical nevus, and MM images.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Viewing lesions with NPD versus PD can affect the diagnosis and diagnostic confidence of physicians that are novices with dermoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / instrumentation. Skin Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Microscopy, Polarization. Pigmentation Disorders / diagnosis. Pilot Projects. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


11. Iglesias C, Torrelo A, Colmenero I, Mediero IG, Zambrano A, Requena L: Isolated multiple congenital epithelioid blue naevus. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Feb;152(2):391-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated multiple congenital epithelioid blue naevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital

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  • (PMID = 15727672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Bogart MM, Bivens MM, Patterson JW, Russell MA: Blue nevi: a case report and review of the literature. Cutis; 2007 Jul;80(1):42-4
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  • [Title] Blue nevi: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Blue nevi can present clinically as blue, gray, brown, or black solitary nodules or plaques on the skin.
  • We present a case of a cellular blue nevus in a 55-year-old white man that presented as an enlarging blue-gray nodule on the right dorsal foot.
  • These cases can be challenging both clinically and histologically because malignant melanoma or malignant transformation of a blue nevus should be considered.
  • We review the various types of blue nevi and the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17725063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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13. Anderco D, Lazăr E, Tăban S, Miclea F, Dema A: Prostatic blue nevus. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2010;51(3):555-7
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  • [Title] Prostatic blue nevus.
  • The histological routine examination in conjunction with the histochemical (Fontana-Masson) and immunohistochemical (S100, HMB45) reactions established the diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus.
  • The presence of melanin in prostatic tissue is an unusual aspect, being encountered three distinct lesions: blue nevus, melanosis and malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20809037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins
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14. Casanova D, Boon LM, Vikkula M: [Venous malformations: clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2006 Aug-Oct;51(4-5):373-87
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  • [Title] [Venous malformations: clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis].
  • Clinical diagnosis of VM is often made in the presence of a bluish cutaneous lesion: however, other lesions can mimick VM.
  • The most frequent anomalies are a blue naevus, a hemorrhagic lymphatic malformation, a sub-cutaneous hemangioma or even the presence of dilated superficial normal veins due to underlying venous stenoses.
  • This chapter will detail the clinical characteristics of venous anomalies and their differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Capillaries / abnormalities. Diagnosis, Differential. Enchondromatosis / diagnosis. Glomus Tumor / diagnosis. Humans. Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome / diagnosis. Lithiasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Vessels / abnormalities. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Syndrome. Varicose Veins / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17007984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0294-1260
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Plast Esthet
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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15. Grosshans E, Bourlond J, Cribier B: [Nevocytic nevi associated elastic fibers hyperplasia: a type of "twin nevus"]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 May;133(5 Pt 1):435-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Nevocytic nevi associated elastic fibers hyperplasia: a type of "twin nevus"].
  • [Transliterated title] Naevus naevocellulaires avec hyperplasie des fibres élastiques: une forme de naevus jumelé.
  • BACKGROUND: In common intradermal or compound nevi, nevocytes may be associated with other kinds of cells, tissues or lesions.
  • CASE-REPORTS AND RESULTS: In 11 nevi (10 intradermal or compound nevi and 1 blue nevus), we observed striking hyperplasia of the elastic fibers strictly limited to the nevi, with normal aspect of the elastic fibers in the surrounding reticular dermis.
  • These fibers were thicker than normal elastic fibers and showed tight connexions with nevus cells.
  • It was correlated neither with the age and sex of patients nor with the site of the excised nevi.
  • It was seen in 0.1% of excised nevi.
  • DISCUSSION: Hyperplasia of elastic fibers in some common nevi is a curiosity which may be classified together with other vascular, nervous, epithelial or connective twin lesions occasionally associated with the nevocytic nevi.
  • It has to be added to the list of so-called "twin nevi".
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16760829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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16. Kazakov DV, Michal M: Melanocytic "ball-in-mitts" and "microalveolar structures" and their role in the development of cellular blue nevi. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Jun;11(3):160-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanocytic "ball-in-mitts" and "microalveolar structures" and their role in the development of cellular blue nevi.
  • To test the hypothesis of whether cellular blue nevi (CBN) may originate from "ordinary" compound and dermal nevi, a total of 275 melanocytic nevi including 59 CBN, 34 ordinary blue nevi, 87 combined nevi (including 43 so-called clonal nevi), 35 deep penetrating nevi, and 60 ordinary compound and dermal nevi (30 of each) were studied for the presence of so-called ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures.
  • Microscopically, ball-in-mitt and microalveolar structures were detected in all types of nevi studied, with the highest incidence in combined nevi (82%), CBN (76%), and ordinary "nonblue" nevi (73%).
  • In CBN, ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures tended to be located in the deeper portion of the lesions, whereas in ordinary nonblue nevi, they were most often found superficially, just below the epidermis; in clonal nevi, these structures were often confined to the "clonal" parts.
  • Our study suggests that some or even most cases of CBN may evolve from ordinary nonblue nevi.
  • This process may involve several steps and is probably reflected by the appearances of combined nevi, deep penetrating nevi, and CBN.
  • These nevi often show a morphological overlap, and ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures found in various stages of their development seem to greatly account for this overlap.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nevus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17498590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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17. Jakobiec FA, Nguyen J, Bhat P, Fay A: Recurrent blue nevus of the corneoscleral limbus. Cornea; 2010 Aug;29(8):947-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent blue nevus of the corneoscleral limbus.
  • PURPOSE: To describe an unusual corneoscleral blue nevus.
  • The Ki-67 proliferation index was very low (0.05%), supporting a benign diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Careful histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of recurrent, incompletely excised, blue nevi can determine if they remain benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Corneal Diseases / surgery. Eye Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nevus, Blue / surgery. Scleral Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20508501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Seidenari S, Pellacani G, Grana C: Colors in atypical nevi: a computer description reproducing clinical assessment. Skin Res Technol; 2005 Feb;11(1):36-41
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  • [Title] Colors in atypical nevi: a computer description reproducing clinical assessment.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Atypical nevi (AN) share some dermoscopic features with early melanoma (MM), and computer elaboration of digital images could represent a useful support to diagnosis to assess automatically colors in AN, and to compare the data with those referring to clearly benign nevi (BN) and MMs.
  • RESULTS: Black, white and blue-gray were more frequently found in AN than in clearly BN, but less frequently than in MMs.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorimetry / methods. Dermoscopy / methods. Expert Systems. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15691257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0909-752X
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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19. Ramírez M, López Gutiérrez JC, Diaz M, Soto C, Miguel M, de la Torre Ramos CA, Barrena S, Ros Z, Tovar JA: [Bean or blue rubber blue nevus syndrome. Presentation of 6 patients]. Cir Pediatr; 2010 Oct;23(4):241-4
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  • [Title] [Bean or blue rubber blue nevus syndrome. Presentation of 6 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de bean o Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. presentación de 6 pacientes.
  • INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Bean or Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (BRBNS) is an uncommon disease characterized by multifocal venous malformations that predominantly affect the skin, soft tissues and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Our objective is to familiarize the pediatric surgeon with this condition, promoting early diagnosis and seriated surgical treatment as therapeutic options.
  • We have reviewed the diagnosis and treatment of 6 patients treated from 1993 to 2009.
  • After, characteristic skin lesions appeared as well as chronic anemia due to digestive bleeding associated to hypofibrinogenemia.
  • The diagnosis of the disease was made by endoscopically.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms. Nevus, Blue. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21520558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome
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20. Ferrara G, Soyer HP, Malvehy J, Piccolo D, Puig S, Sopena J, Zalaudek I, Argenziano G: The many faces of blue nevus: a clinicopathologic study. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jul;34(7):543-51
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  • [Title] The many faces of blue nevus: a clinicopathologic study.
  • BACKGROUND: In recent years, several histopathologic variants of blue nevus have been identified, whose clinical and dermoscopic correlates need further clarification.
  • METHODS: A comparative evaluation of histopathologic and dermoscopic features was carried out on 52 melanocytic proliferations belonging to the morphologic spectrum of blue nevus.
  • RESULTS: On dermoscopy, all lesions showed a homogeneous, structureless pigment pattern, with a curious variety of colors (blue, white-blue, black, brown, and polychromatic).
  • Histopathologically, the majority of blue lesions were common blue nevi (11/19); the majority of white-blue lesions were 'hypochromic' (sclerotic, hypomelanotic, and amelanotic) blue nevi (17/22); all the black lesions were 'compound' blue nevi (2/2); the majority of brown lesions were combined blue nevi (3/4); the unusual polychromatic dermoscopic appearance was often associated with a histopathologic diagnosis of deep penetrating nevus (2/5).
  • CONCLUSION: A dermoscopic-pathologic approach now allows us to identify 'blue' (common) blue nevi, 'white' (hypochromic) blue nevi, 'black' (compound) blue nevi, 'brown' (combined) blue nevi, and 'polychromatic' (deep penetrating) blue nevi.
  • A better recognition of the many dermoscopic faces of blue nevi is expected to give a morphologic guideline for the clinical management of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


21. Antony FC, Sanclemente G, Shaikh H, Trelles AS, Calonje E: Pigment synthesizing melanoma (so-called animal type melanoma): a clinicopathological study of 14 cases of a poorly known distinctive variant of melanoma. Histopathology; 2006 May;48(6):754-62
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  • The clinical diagnosis was of melanoma in seven cases, blue naevus in three cases, benign naevus in three cases and a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in one case.
  • The histological diagnosis of PSM was predicated on the basis of an asymmetrical, predominantly intradermal tumour formed of deeply pigmented, round or short, spindle-shaped dendritic melanocytes with some degree of hyperchromatism and a single nucleolus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Melanocytes / chemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nevus, Blue / metabolism. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16681693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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22. Dhouib RS, Sassi S, Jbeli A, Driss M, Mrad K, Abbes I, Ben Romdhane K: Desmoplastic spitz nevus: report of a case and review of the literature. Pathologica; 2008 Jun;100(3):181-4
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic spitz nevus: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Desmoplastic spitz nevus (DSN) is an uncommon melanocytic lesion.
  • The histologic features of this benign tumour may mimic those of certain benign (dermatofibroma and desmoplastic cellular blue nevus) or malignant (metastatic carcinoma and malignant melanoma) neoplasms.
  • We report the case of a male with a DSN, and also review the clinical characteristics, histologic features and differential diagnosis of this extremely rare lesion.
  • A diagnosis of DSN with free margins was made.
  • The histologic presentation of this benign lesion mimics both benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18841824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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23. Fistarol SK, Itin PH: Plaque-type blue nevus of the oral cavity. Dermatology; 2005;211(3):224-33
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  • [Title] Plaque-type blue nevus of the oral cavity.
  • BACKGROUND: The blue nevus of the oral cavity is a rare lesion with important differential diagnoses.
  • The plaque-type blue nevus is an uncommon variant of the blue nevus.
  • The diagnosis usually requires a biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and histological features of a plaque-type blue nevus of the buccal mucosa in a 20-year-old white woman, to review all intraoral blue nevi and all plaque-type blue nevi reported in the literature so far and to compare the criteria of blue nevi and nevus of Ota.
  • RESULTS: An intraoral blue nevus was described for the first time in 1959.
  • Our case is the first report of a plaque-type blue nevus of the oral cavity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The exceptional widespread intraoral blue nevus described herein can clinically be confused with an intraoral malignant melanoma, and it has a very similar clinical appearance as the intraoral part of nevus of Ota.
  • Apart from the clinical resemblance, there is also some degree of histological overlap of the dermal melanocytoses.
  • Transitional states between blue nevus and nevus of Ota may occur clinically and histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nevus of Ota / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16205067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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24. Antonucci A, Bardazzi F, Balestri R, Misciali C: Atypical presentation of a blue naevus at the tip of the nose. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2010 Jun;35(4):e177-9
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  • [Title] Atypical presentation of a blue naevus at the tip of the nose.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20518907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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25. Urso C, Tinacci G: Angiomatoid cellular blue nevus: a variant of blue nevus with an angioma-like appearance. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 May;32(5):385-7
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  • [Title] Angiomatoid cellular blue nevus: a variant of blue nevus with an angioma-like appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15811128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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26. Garrido-Ríos AA, Carrera C, Puig S, Aguilera P, Salerni G, Malvehy J: Homogeneous blue pattern in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus. Dermatology; 2008;217(4):315-7
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  • [Title] Homogeneous blue pattern in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • Dermoscopy in acquired acral melanocytic nevi has been widely studied.
  • This is in contrast with the little information about the dermoscopic characteristics in congenital acral melanocytic nevi.
  • We report a 46-year-old man who was referred due to a lesion on his right sole present since childhood corresponding to an acral congenital nevus.
  • Dermoscopy showed a homogeneous blue pattern not previously described in acral benign tumors.
  • The homogeneous blue pattern has previously been associated with blue nevus and skin metastasis of melanoma.
  • The recognition of this pattern in benign acral congenital nevi is relevant in the clinical decision making concerning acral tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Middle Aged. Nevus, Blue / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18714159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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27. Barnhill RL, Cerroni L, Cook M, Elder DE, Kerl H, LeBoit PE, McCarthy SW, Mihm MC, Mooi WJ, Piepkorn MW, Prieto VG, Scolyer RA: State of the art, nomenclature, and points of consensus and controversy concerning benign melanocytic lesions: outcome of an international workshop. Adv Anat Pathol; 2010 Mar;17(2):73-90
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  • [Title] State of the art, nomenclature, and points of consensus and controversy concerning benign melanocytic lesions: outcome of an international workshop.
  • The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a one-day International Workshop focusing on the histology of benign melanocytic nevi.
  • Areas of controversy identified in 6 focus sessions were the nomenclature and relationships among common nevi including nevi with halo reactions, traumatized nevi, "dysplastic" nevi, and nevi from particular anatomic sites; developmental biology and frequency of malignant transformation associated with congenital nevi; the characterization and biologic nature of atypical spitzoid neoplasms; the basic definition of particular melanocytic cellular phenotypes, and the nomenclature and biologic nature of many candidate blue nevi, combined nevi, and other controversial lesions such as deep penetrating nevus and pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Consensus Development Conferences as Topic. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / classification. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / congenital. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Adv Anat Pathol. 2012 Sep;19(5):348; author reply 348-9 [22885384.001]
  • (PMID = 20179431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Craddock KJ, Bandarchi B, Khalifa MA: Blue nevi of the Müllerian tract: case series and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2007 Oct;11(4):284-9
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  • [Title] Blue nevi of the Müllerian tract: case series and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Blue nevi are rare in the cervix and vagina.
  • Because of their rarity (3 previous cases in the literature), vaginal blue nevi have not previously been studied with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis.
  • DESIGN: We describe 3 cases of blue nevus occurring in the Müllerian tract, 1 in the vagina and 2 in the endocervix.
  • The endocervical blue nevi were incidental findings in hysterectomies performed for leiomyomata and endometrial serous carcinoma in women aged 44 and 57 years, respectively.
  • All 3 cases showed loose aggregates of cytologically benign, pigmented, dendritic spindle cells in the superficial stroma.
  • Compared with the endocervical lesions, the vaginal nevus cells were more heavily pigmented, and on electron microscopy, a greater proportion of stage IV melanosomes were seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings in a vaginal blue nevus, which confirm that it is of a similar nature to the endocervical blue nevi.
  • Ultrastructurally, our results support a melanocytic rather than Schwannian origin for Müllerian blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology


29. Kaplan PA, Griffo MD, Diaz-Arias AA: Melanosis of the uterine cervix: a case report. J Reprod Med; 2005 Nov;50(11):867-70
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  • BACKGROUND: Melanosis of the uterine cervix is a rare, benign, melanocytic lesion of the cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: The existence of this entity is further evidence of a spectrum of melanocytic lesions, including blue nevi and primary melanomas, known to occur within the cervix proper.

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  • (PMID = 16419638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Cerroni L, Borroni RG, Massone C, Kerl H: "Ancient" blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with degenerative stromal changes). Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):1-5
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  • [Title] "Ancient" blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with degenerative stromal changes).
  • Ancient melanocytic nevi are benign melanocytic neoplasms that show degenerative and atypical changes, sometimes leading to a misdiagnosis of melanoma.
  • We describe 6 patients (M:F ratio 4:2; age range, 15-84 years; median, 50 years) who presented with cellular blue nevi showing stromal changes resembling those of ancient melanocytic nevi.
  • Histology revealed the architectural pattern of cellular blue nevi.
  • However, the architecture was strikingly altered by stromal changes like those seen in ancient melanocytic nevi, including increased number of large, dilated vessels with pseudoangiomatous features in 4 cases, hyaline angiopathy in 4 cases, myxoid changes, sclerosis or hyalinization of the stroma in all cases, and variable amounts of edema in 4 cases.
  • Ancient blue nevi represent a morphologic variation of cellular blue nevi-Masson neuronevi with degenerative stromal changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Connective Tissue / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18212535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Kutzner H, Schärer L, Requena L: [Epithelioid and hyperpigmented melanocytic tumors. An overview]. Pathologe; 2007 Nov;28(6):411-21
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  • Spindle cell and epithelioid cell differentiation occur in both benign and malignant hyperpigmented melanocytic lesions.
  • Reed nevus is characterized by compact, sharply circumscribed junctional cellular nests composed of slender hyperpigmented melanocytes shaped like spindle cells.
  • Deep penetrating nevus is characterized by a diffuse dermal proliferation composed of small nests and fascicles of pale ovoid and epithelioid melanocytes.
  • Cellular blue nevi often have a characteristic hourglass or dumbbell shape, with sharply circumscribed elongated nests and fascicles of pale, densely layered ovoid melanocytes and adjacent melanophages.
  • Epithelioid blue nevus is characterized by large epithelioid melanocytes with abundant cytoplasm and melanin often concentrated to some degree in the cell membrane.
  • Morphologically, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma combines characteristics of both animal-type melanoma and pigmented epithelioid nevus.
  • Malignant melanoma may occur in conjunction with a preexistent blue nevus.
  • Malignant blue nevus is now regarded as a malignant melanoma mimicking a blue nevus in structure and pattern.
  • It is therefore of paramount importance to view multiple mitoses within a cellular blue nevus-like proliferation as an alarm signal as they are usually indicators of a malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Melanoma, Experimental / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17899087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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32. Harrison-Balestra C, Gugic D, Vincek V: Clinically distinct form of acquired dermal melanocytosis with review of published work. J Dermatol; 2007 Mar;34(3):178-82
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  • [Title] Clinically distinct form of acquired dermal melanocytosis with review of published work.
  • Dermal melanocytosis is most commonly found in the skin of Asians and other darkly pigmented people.
  • It is histologically characterized by the presence of dermal melanocytes, with or without presence of dermal melanophages.
  • Mongolian spot, nevus of Ito, nevus of Ota, nevus of Hori, and blue nevus are most common and represent distinct types of dermal melanocytosis.
  • Other clinical patterns of acquired dermal melanocytosis have also been described.
  • Herein, we report a unique case of acquired dermal melanocytosis diffusely affecting the entire back of a 50-year old African-American male and also review and discuss various patterns of unusual acquired dermal melanocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17291298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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33. Litak J, Behroozan D, Binder S: Co-existing basal cell carcinoma and blue nevus in an African-American woman. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36(10):1114-6
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  • [Title] Co-existing basal cell carcinoma and blue nevus in an African-American woman.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma juxtaposed to a blue nevus.
  • Interestingly, the most common types of cutaneous collision tumors include melanocytic nevus and basal cell carcinoma.
  • This is the first documented case of a basal cell carcinoma co-existing alone with a blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19602062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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34. Conrad DM, Chaplin A, Walsh NM, Pasternak S: Extensive neurocristic hamartoma with bone marrow involvement. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jul;32(5):486-8
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  • In addition to a dermal melanocytic component, NCH can also harbor neurosustentacular and neuromesenchymal components.
  • NCH has many features in common with other dermal melanocytic neoplasm, such as blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Neural Crest / pathology. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20414093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Pellacani G, Bassoli S, Longo C, Cesinaro AM, Seidenari S: Diving into the blue: in vivo microscopic characterization of the dermoscopic blue hue. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Jul;57(1):96-104
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  • [Title] Diving into the blue: in vivo microscopic characterization of the dermoscopic blue hue.
  • BACKGROUND: In dermoscopy the presence of a blue hue is a clue for malignancy, although a blue tint is sometimes observable in benign lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify the in vivo confocal microscopy correlates of the blue hue for improving diagnostic accuracy for melanoma.
  • METHODS: Fifty-seven melanomas, 41 junctional, 88 compound, and 27 Spitz nevi were studied by dermoscopy, confocal microscopy, and histopathology.
  • RESULTS: Confocal microscopy enabled the distinction between blue areas and blue veil, the former characterized by plump cells corresponding to melanophages and inflammatory infiltrate at histology, the latter by the contemporary presence of epidermal and dermal features consistent with diagnosis of melanoma, such as disarranged pattern, pagetoid cells, cytologic and architectural atypias, nonhomogeneous and cerebriform clusters, and dermal nucleated cells.
  • LIMITATIONS: Confocal microscopy failed to accurately distinguish Spitz nevi, because of the presence of cytoarchitectural disarray in the epidermis and the upper dermis.
  • CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy enabled the in vivo identification of characteristic cytological substrates correlated with the blue features in dermoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Color. Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17485141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Seidenari S, Pellacani G, Martella A: Acquired melanocytic lesions and the decision to excise: role of color variegation and distribution as assessed by dermoscopy. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Feb;31(2):184-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Because melanoma may sometimes be difficult to differentiate from nevi with clinical atypia, many benign lesions also undergo surgical removal.
  • METHODS: Overall, 603 images, referring to 112 melanomas and 491 nevi, were retrospectively subdivided into four groups: "clearly benign," "follow-up," "dermoscopic atypical nevi," and "dermoscopic melanomas," according to their dermoscopic aspects.
  • Moreover, the frequency of the presence of black and blue-gray progressively increased from clearly benign lesions to atypical nevi and dermoscopic melanomas.
  • CONCLUSION: In dermoscopic images, color parameters are essential elements for the diagnosis of atypical nevus, which can be differentiated from both a clearly benign lesion and a melanoma.
  • Furthermore, pigmentation asymmetry and the presence of blue-gray represent the main color features, which should lead to the decision to excise.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / surgery. Microscopy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Decision Support Techniques. Humans. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15762212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Titus-Ernstoff L, Perry AE, Spencer SK, Gibson JJ, Cole BF, Ernstoff MS: Pigmentary characteristics and moles in relation to melanoma risk. Int J Cancer; 2005 Aug 10;116(1):144-9
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  • Although benign and atypical moles are considered key melanoma risk factors, previous studies of their influence were small and/or institution-based.
  • Individuals of ages 20-69 with an incident diagnosis of first primary cutaneous melanoma were ascertained through the New Hampshire State Cancer Registry.
  • Our results showed that pigmentary factors, including eye color (OR = 1.57 for blue eyes compared to brown), hair color (OR = 1.85 for blonde/red hair color compared to brown/black), freckles before age 15 (OR = 2.39 for freckles present compared to absent) and sun sensitivity (OR = 2.25 for peeling sunburn followed by no tan or a light tan and 2.42 for sunburn followed by tan compared to tanning immediately), were related to melanoma risk; these associations held after adjustment for sun-related factors and for moles.
  • In analyses confined to skin examination participants, the covariate-adjusted effects of benign and atypical moles were moderately strong.
  • Compared to 0-4 benign moles, risk increased steadily for 5-14 moles (OR = 1.71), 15-24 moles (OR = 3.55) and >or= 25 moles (OR = 4.33).
  • Although risk was highest for those with multiple benign and atypical moles, the interaction was not of statistical significance.
  • Our findings, arising from the first population- and incidence-based study to evaluate atypical moles in relation to melanoma risk, confirm the importance of host susceptibility, represented by pigmentary factors and the tendency to develop benign or atypical moles, in the etiology of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / etiology. Nevus / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Pigmentation

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15761869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA66032
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Price HN, Schaffer JV: Congenital melanocytic nevi-when to worry and how to treat: Facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol; 2010 May-Jun;28(3):293-302
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  • [Title] Congenital melanocytic nevi-when to worry and how to treat: Facts and controversies.
  • Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are evident in 1% to 6% of neonates.
  • In some studies, nevi with clinical, dermatoscopic, and histologic features identical to CMN have had a prevalence of more than 15% in older children and adults, possibly reflecting the "tardive" appearance of nevi programmed from birth.
  • We review the natural history of CMN, including proliferative nodules and erosions during infancy, neurotization, and spontaneous regression, and features of variants such as speckled lentiginous and congenital blue nevi.
  • Melanoma and neurocutaneous melanocytosis (NCM) are most likely in patients with CMN that have a final size of >40 cm in diameter, numerous satellite nevi, and a truncal location.
  • Management of CMN depends on such factors as the ease of monitoring (more difficult for large, dark, thick nevi) and cosmetic and psychologic benefits of excision or other procedures.
  • Periodic total body skin examinations are necessary for all patients with large CMN, even when complete resection (often impossible) has been attempted.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / etiology. Nevus, Pigmented / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20541682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1131
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Gilaberte Y, Vera J, Coscojuela C, Roca MJ, Parrado C, González S: [Expression of galanin in melanocytic tumors]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Jan-Feb;98(1):24-34
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  • [Transliterated title] Estudio sobre la expresión de galanina en tumores melanocitarios.
  • Galanin and its receptors are present in human skin.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of galanin in cutaneous melanomas and melanocytic nevi and correlate it with alpha-MSH expression and several prognostic factors for melanoma.
  • Different types of melanocytic nevi were also analyzed.
  • RESULTS: A total of 130 pigmented lesions were studied: 38 primary cutaneous melanomas, 6 cutaneous melanoma metastases and 86 melanocytic nevi.
  • Immunostaining with galanin and alpha-MSH was significantly higher in melanomas than in melanocytic nevi (p < 0.001), although spindle cell and blue nevi showed significant expression of alpha-MSH.
  • [MeSH-major] Galanin / biosynthesis. Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17374330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88813-36-9 / Galanin
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40. Sack J, Demierre MF: What's your assessment? Primary melanoma arising in association with a blue nevus. Dermatol Nurs; 2008 Apr;20(2):113
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  • [Title] What's your assessment? Primary melanoma arising in association with a blue nevus.

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  • (PMID = 18549126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-3441
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Nurs
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Hengge UR, Meurer M: [Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa]. Hautarzt; 2005 Jun;56(6):540-9
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  • They represent a spectrum of different benign entities.
  • A biopsy is always recommended when the diagnosis cannot be made with certainty on clinical examination and dermatoscopy.
  • Differential diagnostic considerations include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi and syndromes featuring lentigines.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Genital Diseases, Male / pathology. Hyperpigmentation / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15905972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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42. Seidenari S, Pellacani G, Grana C: Pigment distribution in melanocytic lesion images: a digital parameter to be employed for computer-aided diagnosis. Skin Res Technol; 2005 Nov;11(4):236-41
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  • [Title] Pigment distribution in melanocytic lesion images: a digital parameter to be employed for computer-aided diagnosis.
  • Our aim was to automatically assess pigment distribution in images referring to MMs, atypical nevi (AN) and clearly benign nevi (BN), and to evaluate the diagnostic capability of numerical parameters describing a non homogeneous distribution of pigmentation.
  • METHODS: An image analysis program enabling the numerical assessment of pigment distribution in melanocytic lesions (ML), based on evaluation and comparison of red, green, blue (RGB) colour components inside image colour blocks, was employed on 459 videomicroscopic digital images, referring to 95 MMs, 76 AN and 288 BN.
  • For a D score equal to 0, corresponding to the best diagnostic accuracy (86.6%), a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 85.7% were obtained.
  • CONCLUSION: This original evaluation method for digital pigment distribution, based on mathematical description and comparison of colours in different image blocks, provides numerical parameters to be implemented in image analysis programs for computer-aided MM diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanins / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus / metabolism. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Colorimetry / methods. Dermoscopy / methods. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods. Microscopy, Video / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted. Skin Pigmentation. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16221139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0909-752X
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanins
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43. Plótár V, Szentirmay Z, Orosz Z: [Reactivity of five different antibodies with benign and malignant melanocytic lesions]. Magy Onkol; 2008 Dec;52(4):363-73
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  • [Title] [Reactivity of five different antibodies with benign and malignant melanocytic lesions].
  • We have tested five antibodies (S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A, MITF, PNL-2) on 34 benign and 34 malignant melanocytic tumors.
  • We examined the specificity and sensitivity in the junctional and dermal component separately, with special consideration to features disturbing the evaluation (regression, halo-like inflammation, etc.).
  • We have concluded that the histological diagnosis of melanocytic tumors is based on the detailed examination of traditional HE slides and the immunohistochemical methods only confirm or weaken our opinion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Humans. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / analysis. Nevus, Blue / chemistry. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / chemistry. Nevus, Spindle Cell / chemistry. Paraffin Embedding. Polysaccharide-Lyases / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19068464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.10 / pectin lyase
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44. Szumiło J, Patel A, Patel S, Burdan F: Blue nevus of the endocervix. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2010 Feb;69(1):62-4
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  • [Title] Blue nevus of the endocervix.
  • A new case of a common blue nevus in the cervix of a 57-year-old woman is reported.
  • The lesion was an incidental finding in a total hysterectomy specimen performed for atypical endometrial hyperplasia.
  • Although the blue nevi seem to be lesions of low clinical significance, they require careful differential diagnosis with malignant melanoma, especially in scanty endocervical curettage or cervical biopsy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Melanins / metabolism. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism


45. Zattra E, Salmaso R, Montesco MC, Pigozzi B, Forchetti G, Alaibac M: Large plaque type blue nevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 May-Jun;19(3):287-8
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  • [Title] Large plaque type blue nevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Back / pathology. Back / surgery. Dermatologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Male. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19258235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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46. Samimi M, Perrinaud A, Naouri M, Maruani A, Perrodeau E, Vaillant L, Machet L: High-resolution ultrasonography assists the differential diagnosis of blue naevi and cutaneous metastases of melanoma. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Sep;163(3):550-6
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  • [Title] High-resolution ultrasonography assists the differential diagnosis of blue naevi and cutaneous metastases of melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastases of cutaneous melanoma may simulate benign blue naevi clinically.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of lesions that look similar clinically, i.e. blue naevi and cutaneous metastases of melanoma.
  • METHODS: Participants were invited for inclusion in the study if they had a cutaneous blue lesion clinically suggestive of a blue naevus or cutaneous metastasis of melanoma.
  • Clinical, dermoscopic and ultrasonographic images were reviewed anonymously by four dermatologists to assign the diagnosis of blue naevus or metastasis of melanoma.
  • The diagnostic performance of clinical examination, dermoscopy and sonography was assessed for the ability of each to differentiate between metastases of melanoma and blue naevi with reference to the histological diagnosis.
  • RESULTS:   Twenty-eight patients were included with a total of 39 blue skin lesions, and 17 of the 28 patients had a previous history of melanoma.
  • The sonographic features contributing to the differential diagnosis were: location of the lesion (P=0·027), shape of the lesion (P<0·001), homogeneity (P=0·001) and increased posterior echogenicity (P=0·007).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography is a reproducible and specific tool that can assist the differential diagnosis between blue naevi and metastases of melanoma.
  • A blue naevus is a homogeneous, hypoechoic, 'dish-shaped' lesion, located in the superficial dermis, whereas metastases of melanoma are 'potato-shaped', hypoechoic, heterogeneous lesions, located in the hypodermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Nevus, Blue / ultrasonography. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20545694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Mellone P, Bianchi A, Dragonetti E, Murace R, Persichetti P, Baldi A: Malignant melanoma associated with a blue naevus: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):433
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma associated with a blue naevus: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Combined malignant naevi are characterised pathologically by the association of a melanoma with one or more different types of benign melanocytic naevi in a single lesion.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We show here a case of malignant combined naevus made up of a blue naevus and a melanoma, presenting as a slowly progressing and asymptomatic pigmented lesion on the trunk of a 35-year-old man.
  • The definitive diagnosis was reached only at the hystopathological examination.
  • CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that combined naevi should be always excised and histologically examined to achieve a correct diagnosis and avoid risk of misclassification.

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  • [Cites] Pathology. 2004 Oct;36(5):419-27 [15370111.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003 Sep;28(5):476-80 [12950330.001]
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  • (PMID = 19117514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2615771
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48. Cheng Y, Swamisai R, Umbaugh SE, Moss RH, Stoecker WV, Teegala S, Srinivasan SK: Skin lesion classification using relative color features. Skin Res Technol; 2008 Feb;14(1):53-64
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  • [Title] Skin lesion classification using relative color features.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Clinically, it is difficult to differentiate the early stage of malignant melanoma and certain benign skin lesions due to similarity in appearance.
  • Our research uses image analysis of clinical skin images and relative color-based pattern recognition techniques to enhance the images and improve differentiation of these lesions.
  • Finally, we used a statistical analysis model of relative color features, which better classifies the various types of skin lesions.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The best features found for differentiation of melanoma and benign skin lesions from this study are area, mean in the red and blue bands, standard deviation in the red and green bands, skewness in the green band, and entropy in the red band.
  • This showed an overall classification success of 79%, with 70% of the benign lesions successfully classified, and 86% of malignant melanoma successfully classified.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Neural Networks (Computer). Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Colorimetry / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Discriminant Analysis. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Models, Statistical. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Principal Component Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18211602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0909-752X
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS327051; NLM/ PMC3184884
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49. Mentzel T: [Uncommon variants of malignant melanocytic neoplasms]. Pathologe; 2007 Nov;28(6):445-52
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  • Benign and malignant melanocytic neoplasms are relatively frequent and show a broad morphological heterogeneity.
  • The latter include nevoid malignant melanoma, a form of malignant melanoma resembling benign melanocytic nevi, animal type malignant melanoma, an atypical melanocytic neoplasm with numerous melanophages and prominent melanosis resembling an atypical epithelioid blue naevus as well as regressive malignant melanoma, and representing a questionably distinct entity, balloon cell and signet-ring malignant melanomas, melanoma types with degenerative clear cell changes, as well as myxoid and osteogenic malignant melanomas that are characterized by unusual stromal changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17846776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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50. Campos-do-Carmo G, Ramos-e-Silva M: Dermoscopy: basic concepts. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;47(7):712-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Dermoscopy is a very useful technique for the analysis of pigmented skin lesions.
  • It represents a link between clinical and histological views, permitting an earlier diagnosis of skin melanoma.
  • It also helps in the diagnosis of many other pigmented skin lesions, such as seborrheic keratosis, pigmented basal cell carcinoma, hemangioma, blue nevus, atypical nevus, and mole, which can often clinically simulate melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatology / instrumentation. Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / diagnosis. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Equipment Design. Equipment Safety. Humans. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18613881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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51. Pouryazdanparast P, Newman M, Mafee M, Haghighat Z, Guitart J, Gerami P: Distinguishing epithelioid blue nevus from blue nevus-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1396-400
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  • [Title] Distinguishing epithelioid blue nevus from blue nevus-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis using fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • Blue nevus (BN)-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis is a well-recognized variant of melanoma metastasis.
  • These lesions may clinically and histologically simulate benign blue nevi.
  • The histologic changes may be indistinguishable from conventional blue nevi or epithelioid blue nevi (EBN), a benign dermal-based melanocytic neoplasm with epithelioid morphology and heavily pigmented cytoplasm.
  • Distinguishing BN-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis from benign conventional or EBN is important for staging and treatment.
  • FISH enumeration and criteria for diagnosis of melanoma was as previously described.
  • None of the EBN cases showed evidence of significant copy number changes or met FISH criteria for a diagnosis of melanoma.
  • The test and the parameters previously established can perform with high sensitivity and specificity when dealing with this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chromosome Aberrations. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Young Adult


52. Yoshida Y, Kubota Y, Kiryu H, Nakayama J: Dermoscopic features of blue nevus on the nose. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Nov;45(11):1351-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermoscopic features of blue nevus on the nose.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17076724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Plaza JA, Torres-Cabala C, Evans H, Diwan HA, Suster S, Prieto VG: Cutaneous metastases of malignant melanoma: a clinicopathologic study of 192 cases with emphasis on the morphologic spectrum. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Apr;32(2):129-36
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastases of malignant melanoma: a clinicopathologic study of 192 cases with emphasis on the morphologic spectrum.
  • In up to 5% of patients, metastatic melanoma can be the first manifestation of the disease.
  • For the most part, the histologic diagnosis of metastatic melanoma poses little diagnostic difficulty; however, some metastases may adopt unusual or unfamiliar appearances mimicking other benign and malignant conditions.
  • We present a study of 192 cases of cutaneous metastatic melanomas with special emphasis on their spectrum of morphologic features.
  • One hundred ten cases showed the classic morphologic appearance of melanoma (well-circumscribed epithelioid dermal/subcutaneous nodule), 82 cases showed unusual histologic appearances that mimicked other benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • In 16 patients (8.3%), there was no evidence of primary melanoma and the cutaneous metastasis was the only manifestation of the disease.
  • The histologic diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic melanoma can pose difficulties for diagnosis, especially in the face of an unknown primary neoplasm.
  • Unusual features observed in this series included examples of cutaneous metastatic melanoma that closely simulated metastatic carcinoma, dermatofibroma, leiomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, nevoid melanoma, halo nevus, blue nevi, and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Immunohistochemical stains plus careful clinical history helped to establish the correct diagnosis.
  • Our series illustrates that the differential diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic melanoma can be broad and difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Desmin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20010406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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54. Argenziano G, Zalaudek I, Ferrara G, Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Soyer HP: Proposal of a new classification system for melanocytic naevi. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;157(2):217-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The lack of consensus among clinicians and pathologists due to the mixture of clinical and histopathological features used to define the various melanocytic naevi underscores the need of a better classification system for these benign lesions.
  • We describe a dermoscopic classification system for melanocytic naevi that is directed to clinicians dealing with the early diagnosis of melanoma, as well to pathologists, in order to promote better communication between these different specialists.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / classification. Skin Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermoscopy. Humans. Nevus, Blue / classification. Nevus, Blue / pathology


55. Rackoff EM, Benbenisty KM, Maize JC, Maize JC Jr: Localized cutaneous argyria from an acupuncture needle clinically concerning for metastatic melanoma. Cutis; 2007 Nov;80(5):423-6
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  • Localized cutaneous argyria presenting as an asymptomatic blue-gray macule has been rarely reported from diverse etiologies including occupational exposures, topical medications, alternative medical therapies, body jewelry, and dental procedures (amalgam tattoos).
  • The lesions often are clinically indistinguishable from blue nevi and malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acupuncture Therapy / adverse effects. Argyria / etiology. Melanoma / secondary. Needles / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18189030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Martin RC, Murali R, Scolyer RA, Fitzgerald P, Colman MH, Thompson JF: So-called "malignant blue nevus": a clinicopathologic study of 23 patients. Cancer; 2009 Jul 1;115(13):2949-55
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  • [Title] So-called "malignant blue nevus": a clinicopathologic study of 23 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Melanomas that arise in association with or that resemble blue nevi are extremely rare and have been termed "malignant blue nevi."
  • The authors report on a single-institutional clinicopathologic study of "blue nevus-like melanomas" (BNLMs).
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients were identified with a "malignant blue nevus" over 29 years at the Sydney Melanoma Unit.
  • The tumors were distributed evenly among skin sites, and their median Breslow thickness was 5.5 mm.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19472395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Gerami P, Pouryazdanparast P, Vemula S, Bastian BC: Molecular analysis of a case of nevus of ota showing progressive evolution to melanoma with intermediate stages resembling cellular blue nevus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 May;32(3):301-5
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  • [Title] Molecular analysis of a case of nevus of ota showing progressive evolution to melanoma with intermediate stages resembling cellular blue nevus.
  • Nevus of Ota is a variant of congenital nevus, which is morphologically paucicellular and resembles a common blue nevus.
  • Although nevus of Ota is a risk factor for uveal melanoma in white people, the development of cutaneous melanoma within nevus of Ota is a very rare occurrence with only a few reported cases.
  • We present a case of a long-standing nevus of Ota, with radiologic imaging demonstrating a large retro-orbital mass and a biopsy showing melanoma.
  • The histopathology of the eye exenteration specimen illustrated various stages of melanocytic progression including areas resembling a nevus of Ota, blue nevus, cellular blue nevus, and melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus of Ota / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Orbit Evisceration. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20110797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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58. Florell SR, Thomas J, Grossman D: Predominant formation of heavily pigmented dermal melanocytomas resembling 'animal-type' melanomas in hepatocyte growth factor (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice following neonatal UV irradiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):667-74
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  • [Title] Predominant formation of heavily pigmented dermal melanocytomas resembling 'animal-type' melanomas in hepatocyte growth factor (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice following neonatal UV irradiation.
  • RESULTS: Of 54 primary tumors analyzed, most (49/54, 91%) demonstrated exclusively dermal collections of epithelioid cells with voluminous densely pigmented cytoplasm.
  • Staining with PEP8 confirmed the presence of interfollicular melanocytes at the dermal-epidermal junction in neonatal skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to HGF animals on an albino (FVB) background, HGF animals on the pigmented (C57BL/6 x C3H/HeN)F(1) background do not develop classic radial growth phase melanoma but rather predominantly develop dermal melanocytomas resembling the 'animal-type' melanoma occasionally seen in humans.

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  • (PMID = 17696912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR050102; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR17525; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K23 RR017525; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102-04; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR050102-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44275; NLM/ PMC2410209
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59. Alvarez Múgica M, Jalón Monzón A, Regadera Sejas FJ, González Alvarez RC, Fernández Gómez JM, Rodríguez Robles L: [Blue nevus in glans penis]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Feb;31(2):174
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  • [Title] [Blue nevus in glans penis].
  • [Transliterated title] Nevus azul en glande.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17645101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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60. Almazán-Fernández FM, Fernández-Pugnaire MA, Hernández-Gil J, Arias-Santiago S, Abad-Romero J, Serrano-Ortega S, Naranjo-Sintes R: Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(8):10
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  • [Title] Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • Acral melanocytic nevi are relatively frequent in the palmoplantar location.
  • In congenital nevi various characteristic dermoscopic patterns have been described, such as reticular and globular patterns, brown pigmented areas, and areas with peripilar depigmentation.
  • However, there are few reports on the dermoscopic pattern of acral congenital nevi.
  • The homogeneous blue pattern is typical of blue nevus and is not typical of acral localization and metastasis of cutaneous melanoma.
  • However, this pattern should be considered characteristic of acral congenital nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dermoscopy. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20804687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Hantschke M: [Hypopigmented melanocytic tumors with spindle cells. A review]. Pathologe; 2007 Nov;28(6):403-10
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  • Spindle cell nevi resemble neural tumors.
  • Desmoplastic nevi imitate dermatofibromas.
  • Hypopigmented and amelanotic blue nevi are variants of the common and cell-rich blue nevus with an enhanced difficulty to make a correct diagnosis due to the lack of pigment.
  • All of the above benign melanocytic tumors with proliferations of hypopigmented spindle cells can more or less show aspects of desmoplastic melanoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of these entities demands a combination of clinical and histological parameters as well as supporting immunostaining.
  • Regarding desmoplastic melanoma, diagnoses frequently made are benign spindle cell neoplasms, scar or unspecific inflammatory condition.
  • As the histological aspects can be so misleading, attention is necessary in order to make the correct diagnosis.
  • Particular care must be taken to rule out desmoplastic melanoma in the case of spindle cell proliferations, a cicatricial or inflammatory process in the classical settings of face, volar skin, or mucous membranes.
  • The spindle cell melanoma must be distinguished from other types of malignant spindle cell neoplasms, which can involve the skin.
  • The differential diagnosis with such tumors is entrusted mainly to immunostaining.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Spindle Cell / pathology. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17851662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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62. Lee HY, Na SY, Son YM, Kang HK, Baek JO, Lee JR, Roh JY: A malignant melanoma associated with a blue nevus of the lip. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Feb;22(1):119-24
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  • [Title] A malignant melanoma associated with a blue nevus of the lip.
  • Blue nevi are characterized by a collection of pigment-producing melanocytes in the dermis.
  • These lesions clinically present as well demarcated cerulean-blue or bluish black colored papules or plaques that usually measure less than 1 cm in diameter.
  • These lesions are usually benign and stable over time.
  • However, malignant melanomas developing in or associated with a blue nevus (which is also called malignant blue nevus) have been only rarely reported.
  • A malignant blue nevus might develop in a common blue or cellular blue nevus, a giant congenital nevus or in a nevus of Ota, or it may be malignant from the start.
  • Malignant blue nevi most commonly are found on the scalp.
  • A malignant blue nevus of the lip has not been previously reported in the medical literature.
  • We report here on a patient with a malignant melanoma associated with a blue nevus of the lip.
  • The malignant melanoma was presumed to have developed from a blue nevus that was present on the upper lip of a 50-year-old male.

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  • (PMID = 20548900.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883390
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Blue nevus / Malignant blue nevus / Malignant melanoma / Upper lip
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63. Cerroni L, Barnhill R, Elder D, Gottlieb G, Heenan P, Kutzner H, LeBoit PE, Mihm M Jr, Rosai J, Kerl H: Melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential: results of a tutorial held at the XXIX Symposium of the International Society of Dermatopathology in Graz, October 2008. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):314-26
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  • Several reports demonstrated the difficulties and lack of agreement in the histopathologic diagnosis of particular melanocytic tumors (atypical Spitz tumors, atypical blue nevi, deep penetrating nevi).
  • We studied a large number of such tumors to find out whether repeatable histopathologic criteria for distinction of benign from malignant cases exist.
  • Fifty-seven cases of MELTUMP were classified within 3 groups according to behavior as follows: (a) favorable (no evidence of metastatic disease after a follow-up of > or = 5 y), (b) unfavorable (tumor-related death and/or large metastatic deposits in the lymph nodes and/or visceral metastases), (c) borderline (small nodal deposits of tumor cells < or = 0.2 mm).
  • The major outcome of this study of a series of "MELTUMPs" suggests as a preliminary observation that these lesions as a group exist and that they may be biologically different from conventional melanoma and benign melanocytic nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Inflammation / pathology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Terminology as Topic. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


64. von Moos R, Schaffner R, Cathomas R, Grimm B: Intratumoral therapy with interferon-alpha in a locoregional advanced malignant blue nevus: a brief communication. J Immunother; 2010 Jan;33(1):92-5
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  • [Title] Intratumoral therapy with interferon-alpha in a locoregional advanced malignant blue nevus: a brief communication.
  • Malignant blue nevi are a rare variant of cutaneous melanoma often associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis.
  • This case study reports the use of intralesional interferon -alpha2b (IFN-alpha2b) as a salvage option in a male patient with a congenital blue nevus on the right buttock.
  • After initial diagnosis, the primary lesion (lesion 1) was partially resected and the patient received aggressive treatment with radiotherapy and concomitant polychemotherapy (cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine).
  • At this stage, the patient was treated with intralesional IFN-alpha2b twice weekly at lesion 2, followed by weekly intralesional IFN-alpha2b therapy to both lesions, which resulted in partial disease regression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Nevus, Blue / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19952952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4513
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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65. McGowan JW, Smith MK, Ryan M, Hood AF: Proliferative nodules with balloon-cell change in a large congenital melanocytic nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Mar;33(3):253-5
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  • [Title] Proliferative nodules with balloon-cell change in a large congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • The balloon-cell nevus was first described over 100 years ago.
  • Since then, balloon-cell changes of melanocytes have been noted in numerous tumors, including melanoma, blue nevus, and Spitz nevus.
  • We report a case in which balloon-cell changes were found within proliferative nodules occurring in a large congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / congenital. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16466515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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66. Carrera C, Ferrer B, Mascaró JM Jr, Palou J: Compound blue naevus: a potential simulator of melanoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Jul;155(1):207-8
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  • [Title] Compound blue naevus: a potential simulator of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Nevus, Intradermal / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16792778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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67. Horenstein MG, Norton CL, Evans TN: Displacement of dermal solar elastosis in malignant melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):376-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Displacement of dermal solar elastosis in malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major environmental causal factor for skin malignancy.
  • In this study, we investigated the morphology of the solar elastosis (SE) band in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • METHODS: We measured the SE band in perilesional and lesional skin of 13 melanomas (9 invasive and 4 in situ) and 11 melanocytic nevi (5 usual intradermal nevi, 4 blue nevi and 2 desmoplastic nevi) occurring in sun-exposed areas.
  • RESULTS: The melanoma and nevus groups had similar age range, gender ratio and anatomic distribution.
  • The mean SE thickness was 0.35 mm in melanomas and 0.29 mm in nevi (p = 0.56), indicating similar UVR exposure.
  • There was a mean downward SE displacement (SED) of 0.43 mm in melanomas and essentially no displacement (-0.02 mm) in nevi (p < 0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SED may help in the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions in sun-exposed areas.
  • Conversely, the long-standing nevus co-exists with the SE band without significant displacement.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / complications. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Sunlight / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17448191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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68. Zyrek-Betts J, Micale M, Lineen A, Chaudhuri PK, Keil S, Xue J, Thomas JE: Malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):651-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant blue nevi arise within cellular blue nevi and contain atypical mitoses, necrosis, nuclear pleomorphism and prominent nucleoli.
  • Malignant blue nevus has been described as a distinct identity, a rare form of malignant melanoma, and a misdiagnosed melanoma.
  • METHODS: We present a patient with metastatic malignant blue nevus and studies on the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of the neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed a malignant blue nevus arising in a combined intradermal and cellular blue nevus.
  • CD117 (c-kit) staining showed diffuse cytoplasmic expression within the cellular blue nevus, decreased staining in the malignant component, and variable positivity within the lymph node metastases.
  • Molecular loss of heterozygosity analysis showed different allelic patterns at the hOGG-1 locus between the melanoma and control skin specimens with a varying heterozygous allelic pattern in both the benign and malignant blue nevus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our case of malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastasis involved mutation of the hOGG-1 DNA repair gene.
  • CD117 showed decreased staining of the primary malignant blue nevus with marked upregulation in the metastatic lesion, unlike most metastatic melanomas.
  • Further study is needed to determine if hOGG-1 mutation or c-kit upregulation play a role in the pathogenesis of dendritic melanocytic lesions (either benign or malignant).
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Glycosylases / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Loss of Heterozygosity. Nevus, Blue. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Melanoma / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Scalp / pathology. Skin / pathology. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17976211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / oxoguanine glycosylase 1, human
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69. Cabrijan L, Lipozencić J, Batinac T, Lenković M, Gruber F, Stanić Zgombić Z: Correlation between clinical-dermatoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis of skin tumors in our patients. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:195-7
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  • [Title] Correlation between clinical-dermatoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis of skin tumors in our patients.
  • In this study 103 patients with skin tumors were examined.
  • Working diagnosis was obtained by clinical examination using dermoscope.
  • After excision of lesion, working diagnosis was compared to pathohistological diagnosis.
  • The clinical-dermoscopic diagnosis included verrucae seborrhoicae in 26 (25.24%), fibropapilloma in 17(16.5%), naevus pigmentosus in 9 (8.79%), naevus dysplasticus in 4 (3.88%), fibroma molle in 8 (7.76%), Mb.
  • Bowen in 1 (0.97%), basal cell carcinoma in 7 (6.79%), squamous cell carcinoma in 6 (5.82%), haemangiofibroma in 1 (0.97%), haemangioma in 3 (2.91%), keratosis actinica in 5 (4.85%), melanoma malignum in 6 (5.82%), naevus fibromatosus in 2 (1.94%) cases and naevus blue in 1 (0.97%), naevus traumatisatus in 1 (0.97%), verruca vulgaris in 1 (0.97%), lymphocytoma in 1 (0.97%), naevus verrucosus in 1 (0.97%), lentigo solaris in 2 (1.94%) and Reed nevus in 1 (0.97%) case.
  • Dermoscopic diagnosis were conformable with pathohistological diagnosis in 75 cases (72.82%).
  • We presumed that dermatoscoping obtains correct diagnosis of skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19140282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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70. Ito K, Mihm MC: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: report of first Japanese cases previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Apr;36(4):439-43
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  • [Title] Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: report of first Japanese cases previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus.
  • BACKGROUND: The term 'pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM)' was recently used for borderline melanocytic tumor/low-grade melanoma including cases previously diagnosed as human animal-type melanoma and epithelioid blue nevus.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 219 cases previously diagnosed as blue nevus in Japan.
  • Common blue nevus was identified in 154 cases and cellular blue nevus in 65 cases.
  • RESULTS: We have found two Japanese cases of PEM previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus.
  • PEM is present in Japanese, but these cases may be previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus.
  • Japanese pathologists should recognize a new concept of PEM, and when they make a diagnosis of PEM, they should be recommended sentinel lymph node sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


71. Phadke PA, Zembowicz A: Blue Nevi and Related Tumors. Surg Pathol Clin; 2009 Sep;2(3):483-96
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  • [Title] Blue Nevi and Related Tumors.
  • Blue nevi and related lesions are characterized by the proliferation of dermal dendritic melanocytes.
  • Although they share certain common clinical and histologic features, they encompass a spectrum of lesions ranging from benign melanocytic hamartomas and common blue nevi to borderline malignant pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma and aggressive malignant blue nevi.
  • This article succinctly describes the common dermal dendritic proliferations and updates readers on newly classified entities and variants.
  • The differential diagnosis of the main entities and strategies to distinguish them from their melanocytic and nonmelanocytic mimics is also presented.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 26838534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Blue nevus / Cellular blue nevus / Malignant blue nevus / Melanocytic hamartomas / Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma
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72. Fuchs F, Guillot E, Salama S, Vige P, Coulomb L'hermine A, Raynal P: Giant congenital scalp blue nevus, a neonatal case report. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2007 Jun;132(2):243-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant congenital scalp blue nevus, a neonatal case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Congenital Abnormalities / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16806655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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73. Garrido Abad P, Jiménez Gálvez M, Fernández Arjona M, Herranz Fernández LM, Bocardo Fajardo G, Herrero Torres L, Pereira Sanz I: [Blue prostatic nevus. Case report]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Jun;60(5):593-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Blue prostatic nevus. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Nevus azul prostático. Aportación de un nuevo caso.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: 66-year-old patient with elevated serum PSA with the diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus after biopsy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This diagnostic finding has not clinical or prognostic significance.
  • They are benign lesions that must not be confused with other similar more aggressive lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


74. Holsinger FC, Hafemeister AC, Hicks MJ, Sulek M, Huh WW, Friedman EM: Differential diagnosis of pediatric tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 45-year multi-institutional review. Ear Nose Throat J; 2010 Nov;89(11):534-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of pediatric tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 45-year multi-institutional review.
  • Lesions included adnexal neoplasm, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, basal cell carcinoma, benign fibrous histiocytoma, blue nevus, chondrosarcoma, compound nevus, epithelioma adenoides cysticum, esthesioneuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, giant cell granuloma, granulocytic sarcoma, hemangioma, hemangiopericytoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioma, lymphoma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibroma, ossifying osteofibroma, osteochondroma, osteosarcoma, port wine stain, rhabdomyosarcoma, Spitz nevus, and xanthogranuloma.
  • We believe that the large size of this study and the data on disease incidence will allow clinicians to be better informed of the differential diagnosis of neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in the pediatric population.


75. Berman EL, Shields CL, Sagoo MS, Eagle RC Jr, Shields JA: Multifocal blue nevus of the conjunctiva. Surv Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan-Feb;53(1):41-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multifocal blue nevus of the conjunctiva.
  • Blue nevus is a congenital benign melanocytic tumor that classically occurs in the skin and carries low potential for malignant transformation.
  • We report an unusual case of widely dispersed multifocal common blue nevus of the conjunctiva simulating conjunctival melanoma.
  • Histopathology revealed six pigmented foci within the substantia propria composed of spindle-shaped cells with a wavy dendritiform configuration consistent with common blue nevus.
  • In conclusion, conjunctival blue nevus can be multifocal and masquerade as melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cryosurgery / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18191656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Flauta VS, Lingamfelter DC, Dang LM, Lankachandra KM: Deep penetrating nevus: a case report and brief literature review. Diagn Pathol; 2006;1:31
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  • [Title] Deep penetrating nevus: a case report and brief literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Deep penetrating nevus (DPN) is a distinct variant of melanocytic nevus and remains a histopathologic challenge to pathologists because of its resemblance to blue nevus, malignant melanoma, pigmented Spitz nevus, and congenital melanocytic nevus.

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 1992 Jun;19(3):172-80 [1401342.001]
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  • (PMID = 16999859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1586213
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77. Bukvić Mokos Z, Lipozenčić J, Ceović R, Stulhofer Buzina D, Kostović K: Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2010;18(3):185-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito.
  • Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus.
  • If there is any doubt whether the lesion is benign, then a biopsy for histologic evaluation is obligatory.

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  • (PMID = 20887701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1847-6538
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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78. Skowron F, Balme B: Large plaque-type blue naevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;34(8):e782-4
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  • [Title] Large plaque-type blue naevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules.
  • We report a new case of 'large plaque-type blue naevus (PTBN) with subcutaneous cellular nodules' involving the breast.
  • Histopathological examination revealed features of cellular and common blue naevus.
  • Dermatoscopy was performed, and the diagnosis of PTBN was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19817763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Naylor EM, Ruben BS, Robinson-Bostom L, Telang GH, Jellinek NJ: Subungual blue nevus with combined phenotypic features. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Jun;58(6):1021-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subungual blue nevus with combined phenotypic features.
  • Blue nail dyschromia may represent melanocytic, vascular, or other etiologies.
  • A case of a subungual blue nodule is presented, with a pseudo-clubbed nail.
  • On histopathologic examination, there was a combined subungual blue nevus, with features of a common blue nevus and a pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma.
  • This unusual presentation is reviewed, with a discussion of blue nail dyschromia and subungual blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Nail Diseases / genetics. Nevus, Blue / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18485984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Fernandez-Flores A: Blue nevi of internal organs are more similar to the so-called dermal melanocytosis than to cutaneous blue nevi. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2007;48(1):5-10
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  • [Title] Blue nevi of internal organs are more similar to the so-called dermal melanocytosis than to cutaneous blue nevi.
  • In this report, we examine several morphologic aspects of blue nevi of internal organs, and compare them to similar conditions of the skin.
  • From a morphologic point of view, blue nevi of internal organs are more similar to the so-called dermal melanocytoses.
  • Nevertheless, since melanocytoses and blue-nevi seem to have the same benign prognosis, and since blue nevus is a historically consolidated term to refer to pigmented spindle cell lesions of internal organs, a most appropriate term, to refer to the latter, will not be easily accepted in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17502944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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81. Hilliard NJ, Krahl D, Sellheyer K: p16 expression differentiates between desmoplastic Spitz nevus and desmoplastic melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jul;36(7):753-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p16 expression differentiates between desmoplastic Spitz nevus and desmoplastic melanoma.
  • Desmoplastic melanoma is an insidious malignant melanoma subtype that commonly occurs on sun-damaged skin of the head and neck area in elderly patients.
  • The diagnostic conundrum occurs with confusion of desmoplastic melanoma with scars, hyalinizing blue nevi, desmoplastic Spitz nevi and diffuse neurofibromas.
  • METHODS: The present study uses immunohistochemistry with a p16 antibody to differentiate desmoplastic Spitz nevi (n = 15 cases) from desmoplastic melanomas (n = 11).
  • In contrast, all desmoplastic Spitz nevi were moderately to strongly positive for p16.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The staining pattern for p16 in desmoplastic melanomas and Spitz nevi in conjunction with the histopathologic features, S100 staining, Ki67 proliferation index and clinical scenario may aid in the difficult differential diagnosis between these two entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / metabolism. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19519606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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82. Ferrari A, Lozzi GP, Fargnoli MC, Peris K: Dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus in childhood. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Nov;31(11 Pt 1):1448-50
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  • [Title] Dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: A combined nevus most commonly consists of a blue nevus in combination with a Clark or Spitz nevus.
  • Dermoscopically, combined nevus can mimic melanoma owing to the presence of dermoscopic features common to both types of lesions.
  • Benign clinical and dermoscopic changes can occur in nevi over time, especially in children and young adults.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus showing unusual dermoscopic features.
  • RESULTS: An asymptomatic plaque with a central blue area and peripheral brown pigmentation located on the back of a 13-year-old boy was diagnosed dermoscopically as combined nevus.
  • Dermoscopic analysis 8 months later showed color changes from steel blue to gray-blue and black in the central area of the lesion, an increased number of blue-black dots or globules, and peripheral irregular streaks.
  • Histopathology revealed typical features of a congenital combined nevus (blue nevus + compound nevus).
  • CONCLUSION: Over time, congenital combined nevus may show clinical and dermoscopic changes in size, color, and structure.
  • Surgical excision is recommended when clinical and dermoscopic features are equivocal and the diagnosis of melanoma cannot be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Back. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16416618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Gershtenson PC, Krunic A, Chen H, Konanahalli M, Worobec S: Subungual and periungual congenital blue naevus. Australas J Dermatol; 2009 May;50(2):144-7
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  • [Title] Subungual and periungual congenital blue naevus.
  • Blue naevus of the nail apparatus is a rare entity, with only ten cases described in the literature.
  • Initial biopsy was consistent with a blue naevus of the cellular type and, given the recent clinical change and periungual extension, complete excision was recommended.
  • Reconstruction was performed with a full-thickness skin graft.
  • We present a case of a congenital subungual and periungual blue naevus of the cellular type and review the literature on this rare presentation of a congenital blue naevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Nails / pathology. Nevus, Blue / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Skin Transplantation. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19397572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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84. Panasiti V, Devirgiliis V, Borroni RG, Mancini M, Rossi M, Curzio M, Mastrecchia B, Bottoni U, Innocenzi D, Calvieri S: Dermoscopy of a plantar combined blue nevus: a simulator of melanoma. Dermatology; 2007;214(2):174-6
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy of a plantar combined blue nevus: a simulator of melanoma.
  • Dermoscopy allows early detection of melanoma also on acral volar skin.
  • The majority of melanocytic nevi on palms and soles may show three major dermoscopic patterns: the parallel-furrow pattern, the lattice-like pattern, and the fibrillar pattern.
  • The histopathological examination revealed a combined blue nevus.
  • We present this case to underline that on acral volar skin also intradermal nevi, such as combined blue nevi, may dermoscopically exhibit a parallel ridge pattern, simulating melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Skin / pathology


85. Yoneyama K, Kamada N, Mizoguchi M, Utani A, Kobayashi T, Shinkai H: Malignant melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis on congenital nevus spilus. J Dermatol; 2005 Jun;32(6):454-8
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis on congenital nevus spilus.
  • We reported a case of malignant melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis that appeared on congenital nevus spilus; this is the first report from Japan.
  • An 85-year-old woman had had a nevus spilus on the right lower leg since birth.
  • A black-brown nodule developed on the nevus three years before treatment.
  • Blue-gray patches were found within the nevus on inspection.
  • Histopathological analysis of these lesions revealed superficial spreading melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis, respectively.
  • There have been 19 previous case reports of malignant melanoma on nevus spilus, and there have only been 4 cases of dermal melanocytosis (plaque-type blue nevus) on nevus spilus.
  • We reviewed the reported cases in the literature and discussed the risk factors of nevus spilus.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Lentigo / congenital. Lentigo / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16043919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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86. Barnhill RL, Argenyi Z, Berwick M, Duray PH, Erickson L, Guitart J, Horenstein MG, Lowe L, Messina J, Paine S, Piepkorn MW, Prieto V, Rabkin MS, Schmidt B, Selim A, Shea CR, Trotter MJ: Atypical cellular blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with atypical features): lack of consensus for diagnosis and distinction from cellular blue nevi and malignant melanoma ("malignant blue nevus"). Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jan;32(1):36-44
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  • [Title] Atypical cellular blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with atypical features): lack of consensus for diagnosis and distinction from cellular blue nevi and malignant melanoma ("malignant blue nevus").
  • The distinction of cellular blue nevi (CBN) with atypical features ["atypical" CBN (ACBN)] from conventional CBN and malignant melanomas related to or derived from CBN remains a difficult problem.
  • Here, we report on the diagnosis of various cellular blue melanocytic neoplasms by 14 dermatopathologists who routinely examine melanocytic lesions.
  • (1) for between rater analyses, we calculated interobserver agreement by the kappa statistic (regardless of whether the diagnosis was correct). (2) For each individual lesion, we reported whether a majority agreement (>50%) was reached and, if so, whether the majority agreed with the gold standard diagnosis, derived from standardized histopathologic criteria for melanoma, definitive outcome such as metastatic event or death of disease, or disease-free follow-up for > or =4 years. (3) For the individual pathologists, we calculated sensitivity and specificity for each type of lesion.
  • Overall, greater than 50% of the pathologists agreed and were correct in their diagnosis 38.5% (10 lesions) of the time.
  • There was a majority agreement, but with an incorrect diagnosis, another 26.9% (7 lesions) of the time.
  • Six of the 7 majority agreements with an incorrect diagnosis were for ACBN lesions.
  • In summary, the results of our study indicate that there is substantial confusion and disagreement among experienced histopathologists about the definitions and biologic nature of cellular blue melanocytic neoplasms particularly those thought to have atypical features ("atypical" CBN).
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Sensitivity and Specificity


87. Young LC, Van Dyke GS, Lipton S, Binder SW: Poliosis overlying a nevus with blue nevus features. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(2):20
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  • [Title] Poliosis overlying a nevus with blue nevus features.
  • Additionally, it can be associated with underlying benign and malignant tumors, necessitating histological identification.
  • In addition, we will report a case of poliosis overlying an intradermal nevus with congenital as well as blue nevus features.
  • To the best of our knowledge, blue nevus features associated with poliosis have not been previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Color. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Nevus, Blue / complications. Pigmentation Disorders / etiology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / complications


88. Marques YM, de Lima Mde D, Raitz R, Pinto Ddos S Jr, de Sousa SO: Blue nevus: report of a case. Gen Dent; 2009 Jan-Feb;57(1):e1-3
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  • [Title] Blue nevus: report of a case.
  • Blue nevus is a benign, acquired melanocytic lesion that typically manifests as an asymptomatic, slate-blue or blue-black, smooth-surfaced macule or papule.
  • Intraoral melanocytic nevi are uncommon compared to those found in the skin, with the exception of the blue nevus.
  • The blue nevus is proportionally more prevalent in oral mucosa and represents the second most common form of nevus, accounting for 16.5% to 36% of all oral nevi.
  • The palate is the predominant location for blue nevi, accounting for 87% of all oral cases, although other lesions are found in this region as well.
  • This paper presents a case of common blue nevus of the hard palate in a 76-year-old woman, describes the clinical and histological aspects of the nevus, and discusses the difference between benign and malignant melanocytic lesion in the palate.
  • [MeSH-major] Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Palate, Hard. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21466995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Ozdemir F, Kilinc I, Akalin T: Homogeneous blue pigmentation in dermatofibroma simulating a blue naevus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Jul;20(6):733-4
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  • [Title] Homogeneous blue pigmentation in dermatofibroma simulating a blue naevus.
  • A case with a pigmented skin lesion that was diagnosed as a blue naevus on clinical and dermoscopic grounds and histopathologically confirmed as a dermatofibroma is presented.
  • By means of this case, we define dermatofibroma as a new exception for 'homogeneous blue pigmentation' on dermoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Skin Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 16836506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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90. Almazán-Fernández FM, Fernández-Pugnaire MA, Guiote MV, Hernández-Gil J, Serrano-Ortega S: Multiple blue nevi with late appearance. Eur J Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;20(4):530-1
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  • [Title] Multiple blue nevi with late appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20562089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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91. Pizzichetta MA, Massone C, Grandi G, Pelizzo G, Soyer HP: Morphologic changes of acquired melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") assessed by dermoscopy. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Apr;142(4):479-83
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  • [Title] Morphologic changes of acquired melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") assessed by dermoscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") can be considered as a melanoma-simulating type of acquired melanocytic nevus.
  • We report on the morphologic changes of this type of melanocytic nevus over a 39-month period of dermoscopic follow-up.
  • OBSERVATIONS: A 5-year-old girl had a 4-mm brown papule with a peripheral blue-black area on her right upper arm.
  • The eccentric focus of the hyperpigmentation corresponded dermoscopically to a blue-gray area of pigmentation associated with irregular brown-black globules or dots and partially with a superficial black network.
  • After 39 months, a globular type of acquired melanocytic nevus was detectable, which clinically and dermoscopically appeared to be completely benign.
  • A nearly identical situation was observed in 5 other melanocytic nevi, underlining the involution of the pigmented foci in these nevi.
  • The histopathologic diagnoses of 2 lesions were consistent with a compound type of acquired melanocytic nevus with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dermoscopy allows identification of a morphologic pathway of modifications, probably typical for this type of melanocytic nevus in children, and therefore enables avoidance of surgical excision with attendant hypertrophic scarring in children.
  • Conversely, in adults, when dermoscopic follow-up of melanocytic nevi reveals eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation, surgical excision of the lesion is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperpigmentation / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Dermoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Arch Dermatol. 2006 Apr;142(4):508 [16618873.001]
  • (PMID = 16618868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Battistella M, Prochazkova-Carlotti M, Berrebi D, Bennaceur S, Edan C, Riffaud L, Rütten A, Fraitag S: Two congenital cases of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization for melanocytic tumors: case reports and review of these recent topics. Dermatology; 2010;221(2):97-106
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  • [Title] Two congenital cases of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization for melanocytic tumors: case reports and review of these recent topics.
  • The term 'pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma' (PEM) has recently been proposed as a nosological framework grouping lesions formerly known as animal-type melanomas, sporadic epithelioid blue nevi and Carney complex-associated epithelioid blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / congenital. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / congenital. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20558976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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93. Chen Y, Deng W, Zhu H, Li J, Xu Y, Dai X, Jia C, Kong Q, Huang L, Liu Y, Ma C, Xiao C, Liu Y, Li Q, Bezard E, Qin C: The pathologic features of neurocutaneous melanosis in a cynomolgus macaque. Vet Pathol; 2009 Jul;46(4):773-5
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  • Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare phakomatosis characterized by proliferation of melanin-producing cells in both the skin and the brain.
  • Histopathologically, skin lesions showed foci of nests and cords of pigmented cells in the dermis similar to blue nevi in humans.
  • The pigmented cell was moderately reactive with a pan-melanoma antibody (melanoma(pan)) in the skin.
  • Based on the histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic results, the diagnosis of NCM was made.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / ultrastructure. Fatal Outcome. Female. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Microscopy, Electron / veterinary. Skin / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 19276048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. King R, Lyons J, Meyers AL, Googe PB, Page RN, Gupta VK: Primary invasive melanoma and basal cell carcinoma (collision tumor) with blue nevus-like cutaneous metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Aug;34(8):629-33
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  • [Title] Primary invasive melanoma and basal cell carcinoma (collision tumor) with blue nevus-like cutaneous metastases.
  • In addition, one patient presented with multiple cutaneous metastases, all simulating blue nevi.
  • The metastases occurred in the same anatomical region as the primary tumor, and histologically consisted of pigmented dendritic melanocytes and melanophages in the superficial and mid-dermis and arranged in a blue nevus-like lesion.
  • However, without appropriate clinical history, the lesions could be overlooked as ordinary blue nevus.
  • Collision tumors containing invasive melanoma and BCC are rare and this is the first report of a collision tumor with blue nevus-like metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Blue / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17640233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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95. Cárdenas-Navia LI, Cruz P, Lin JC, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Rosenberg SA, Samuels Y: Novel somatic mutations in heterotrimeric G proteins in melanoma. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Jul 1;10(1):33-7
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  • In particular, GNAQ was found to be frequently mutated in blue nevi of the skin and uveal melanoma, acting as an oncogene in its mutated form.
  • [MeSH-major] Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Melanoma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 20424519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.6.5.1 / Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3040832
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96. Yang CH, Yeh JT, Shen SC, Lo YF, Kuo TT, Chang JW: Regressed subungual melanoma simulating cellular blue nevus: managed with sentinel lymph node biopsy. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Apr;32(4):577-80; discussion 580-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Regressed subungual melanoma simulating cellular blue nevus: managed with sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Subungual melanoma, a not uncommon presentation of cutaneous melanoma in Asian populations, is easily overlooked as benign and thus is improperly treated.
  • Skin biopsies failed to demonstrate the diagnostic features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nail Diseases / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis. Hand Dermatoses / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Onychomycosis / diagnosis. Onychomycosis / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy


97. Kim HS, Kim YJ, Kim JW, Yu DS: Subungal blue nevus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Feb;21(2):271-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subungal blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis. Nail Diseases / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17243978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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98. Bauer J, Kilic E, Vaarwater J, Bastian BC, Garbe C, de Klein A: Oncogenic GNAQ mutations are not correlated with disease-free survival in uveal melanoma. Br J Cancer; 2009 Sep 1;101(5):813-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oncogenic GNAQ mutations are not correlated with disease-free survival in uveal melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, oncogenic G protein alpha subunit q (GNAQ) mutations have been described in about 50% of uveal melanomas and in the blue nevi of the skin.
  • GNAQ mutation status was correlated with disease-free survival (DFS), as well as other clinical and histopathological factors, and with chromosomal variations detected by FISH and CGH.
  • [MeSH-major] GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11 / genetics. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19654573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2736834
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99. Carlos-Ortega B, de Oca-Monroy FM, Isyta-Morales A: [Dermoscopy findings in malignant skin melanoma with metastases. A case report]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc; 2009 Jan-Feb;47(1):73-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Dermoscopy findings in malignant skin melanoma with metastases. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Dermatoscopia de las metástasis de melanoma maligno cutáneo. Informe de caso.
  • Melanoma is the result of the malignant transformation of normal melanocytes of the skin, which are responsible for the synthesis of melamine.
  • It occupies the third place in frequency of skin cancer.
  • In our country the mortality is higher than the incidence due to the delayed diagnosis.
  • We are reporting a case of a patient with fair skin who developed blue metastases that were indistinguishable from the characteristic pattern of blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19624970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0443-5117
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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100. Dohse L, Ferringer T: Nodal blue nevus: a pitfall in lymph node biopsies. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jan;37(1):102-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nodal blue nevus: a pitfall in lymph node biopsies.
  • Benign nodal nevi are uncommon but have been reported in lymph nodes of melanoma patients and less often in lymph nodes removed for other reasons.
  • Nodal blue nevi are particularly rare.
  • These melanocytic proliferations can be distinguished from metastatic melanoma by evaluation of the distribution in the node, morphologic characteristics and the assistance of immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19615001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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