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6. Berman EL, Shields CL, Sagoo MS, Eagle RC Jr, Shields JA: Multifocal blue nevus of the conjunctiva. Surv Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan-Feb;53(1):41-9
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  • [Title] Multifocal blue nevus of the conjunctiva.
  • Blue nevus is a congenital benign melanocytic tumor that classically occurs in the skin and carries low potential for malignant transformation.
  • We report an unusual case of widely dispersed multifocal common blue nevus of the conjunctiva simulating conjunctival melanoma.
  • Histopathology revealed six pigmented foci within the substantia propria composed of spindle-shaped cells with a wavy dendritiform configuration consistent with common blue nevus.
  • In conclusion, conjunctival blue nevus can be multifocal and masquerade as melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cryosurgery / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18191656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Szumiło J, Patel A, Patel S, Burdan F: Blue nevus of the endocervix. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2010 Feb;69(1):62-4
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  • [Title] Blue nevus of the endocervix.
  • A new case of a common blue nevus in the cervix of a 57-year-old woman is reported.
  • The lesion was an incidental finding in a total hysterectomy specimen performed for atypical endometrial hyperplasia.
  • Although the blue nevi seem to be lesions of low clinical significance, they require careful differential diagnosis with malignant melanoma, especially in scanty endocervical curettage or cervical biopsy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Melanins / metabolism. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20235053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5659
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia morphologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Morphol. (Warsz)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanins; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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8. Wang DG, Li XG, Gao H, Sun XY, Zhou XQ: Coexistence of esophageal blue nevus, hair follicles and basaloid sqamous carcinoma: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jul 14;14(26):4253-6
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  • [Title] Coexistence of esophageal blue nevus, hair follicles and basaloid sqamous carcinoma: a case report.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of esophageal blue nevus and hair follicle coexisting with BSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Gastrointest Endosc. 2005 Mar;61(3):479-81 [15758930.001]
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  • (PMID = 18636677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2725393
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9. Zyrek-Betts J, Micale M, Lineen A, Chaudhuri PK, Keil S, Xue J, Thomas JE: Malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):651-7
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  • [Title] Malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant blue nevi arise within cellular blue nevi and contain atypical mitoses, necrosis, nuclear pleomorphism and prominent nucleoli.
  • Malignant blue nevus has been described as a distinct identity, a rare form of malignant melanoma, and a misdiagnosed melanoma.
  • METHODS: We present a patient with metastatic malignant blue nevus and studies on the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of the neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed a malignant blue nevus arising in a combined intradermal and cellular blue nevus.
  • CD117 (c-kit) staining showed diffuse cytoplasmic expression within the cellular blue nevus, decreased staining in the malignant component, and variable positivity within the lymph node metastases.
  • Molecular loss of heterozygosity analysis showed different allelic patterns at the hOGG-1 locus between the melanoma and control skin specimens with a varying heterozygous allelic pattern in both the benign and malignant blue nevus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our case of malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastasis involved mutation of the hOGG-1 DNA repair gene.
  • CD117 showed decreased staining of the primary malignant blue nevus with marked upregulation in the metastatic lesion, unlike most metastatic melanomas.
  • Further study is needed to determine if hOGG-1 mutation or c-kit upregulation play a role in the pathogenesis of dendritic melanocytic lesions (either benign or malignant).
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Glycosylases / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Loss of Heterozygosity. Nevus, Blue. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Melanoma / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Scalp / pathology. Skin / pathology. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17976211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / oxoguanine glycosylase 1, human
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10. Naylor EM, Ruben BS, Robinson-Bostom L, Telang GH, Jellinek NJ: Subungual blue nevus with combined phenotypic features. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Jun;58(6):1021-4
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  • [Title] Subungual blue nevus with combined phenotypic features.
  • Blue nail dyschromia may represent melanocytic, vascular, or other etiologies.
  • A case of a subungual blue nodule is presented, with a pseudo-clubbed nail.
  • On histopathologic examination, there was a combined subungual blue nevus, with features of a common blue nevus and a pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma.
  • This unusual presentation is reviewed, with a discussion of blue nail dyschromia and subungual blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Nail Diseases / genetics. Nevus, Blue / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18485984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Misago N, Nagase K, Toda S, Shinoda Y, Koba S, Narisawa Y: Cellular blue nevus with nevus cells in a sentinel lymph node. Eur J Dermatol; 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):586-9
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  • [Title] Cellular blue nevus with nevus cells in a sentinel lymph node.
  • Regional lymph node involvement by a cellular blue nevus has been reported.
  • However, it has recently been suggested that specific cases with "benign metastasizing" cellular blue nevi are actually rare.
  • This study describes a typical case of a cellular blue nevus with nevus cells in a sentinel lymph node.
  • We demonstrated that a cellular blue nevus clearly involved the regional lymph node and investigated the immunohistochemical profiles of such nodal cellular blue nevus cells.
  • The location of the nevus cells fundamentally indicated a benign type, with limitation to the capsule and the fibrous trabeculae.
  • However, only a few, isolated nevus cells were also seen in the parenchyma of the lymph node.
  • The nevus cells in the capsule and the fibrous trabeculae were positive for c-kit, like the migrating melanocytes from the neural crest.
  • In cellular blue nevi or lesions with similar histopathological features, it may be appropriate to consider the predominant involvement of the capsule as well as the benign cytological features and the immunohistochemical profiles (Ki-67-, PCNA-, and c-kit+) of the nodal cells to be a benign sign.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18693167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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17. Ferrara G, Soyer HP, Malvehy J, Piccolo D, Puig S, Sopena J, Zalaudek I, Argenziano G: The many faces of blue nevus: a clinicopathologic study. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jul;34(7):543-51
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  • [Title] The many faces of blue nevus: a clinicopathologic study.
  • BACKGROUND: In recent years, several histopathologic variants of blue nevus have been identified, whose clinical and dermoscopic correlates need further clarification.
  • METHODS: A comparative evaluation of histopathologic and dermoscopic features was carried out on 52 melanocytic proliferations belonging to the morphologic spectrum of blue nevus.
  • RESULTS: On dermoscopy, all lesions showed a homogeneous, structureless pigment pattern, with a curious variety of colors (blue, white-blue, black, brown, and polychromatic).
  • Histopathologically, the majority of blue lesions were common blue nevi (11/19); the majority of white-blue lesions were 'hypochromic' (sclerotic, hypomelanotic, and amelanotic) blue nevi (17/22); all the black lesions were 'compound' blue nevi (2/2); the majority of brown lesions were combined blue nevi (3/4); the unusual polychromatic dermoscopic appearance was often associated with a histopathologic diagnosis of deep penetrating nevus (2/5).
  • CONCLUSION: A dermoscopic-pathologic approach now allows us to identify 'blue' (common) blue nevi, 'white' (hypochromic) blue nevi, 'black' (compound) blue nevi, 'brown' (combined) blue nevi, and 'polychromatic' (deep penetrating) blue nevi.
  • A better recognition of the many dermoscopic faces of blue nevi is expected to give a morphologic guideline for the clinical management of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17576333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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18. Panasiti V, Devirgiliis V, Borroni RG, Mancini M, Rossi M, Curzio M, Mastrecchia B, Bottoni U, Innocenzi D, Calvieri S: Dermoscopy of a plantar combined blue nevus: a simulator of melanoma. Dermatology; 2007;214(2):174-6
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy of a plantar combined blue nevus: a simulator of melanoma.
  • Dermoscopy allows early detection of melanoma also on acral volar skin.
  • The majority of melanocytic nevi on palms and soles may show three major dermoscopic patterns: the parallel-furrow pattern, the lattice-like pattern, and the fibrillar pattern.
  • The histopathological examination revealed a combined blue nevus.
  • We present this case to underline that on acral volar skin also intradermal nevi, such as combined blue nevi, may dermoscopically exhibit a parallel ridge pattern, simulating melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Skin / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17341869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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19. von Moos R, Schaffner R, Cathomas R, Grimm B: Intratumoral therapy with interferon-alpha in a locoregional advanced malignant blue nevus: a brief communication. J Immunother; 2010 Jan;33(1):92-5
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  • [Title] Intratumoral therapy with interferon-alpha in a locoregional advanced malignant blue nevus: a brief communication.
  • Malignant blue nevi are a rare variant of cutaneous melanoma often associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis.
  • This case study reports the use of intralesional interferon -alpha2b (IFN-alpha2b) as a salvage option in a male patient with a congenital blue nevus on the right buttock.
  • After initial diagnosis, the primary lesion (lesion 1) was partially resected and the patient received aggressive treatment with radiotherapy and concomitant polychemotherapy (cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine).
  • At this stage, the patient was treated with intralesional IFN-alpha2b twice weekly at lesion 2, followed by weekly intralesional IFN-alpha2b therapy to both lesions, which resulted in partial disease regression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Nevus, Blue / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19952952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4513
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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20. Scheller K, Scheller C, Becker S, Holzhausen HJ, Schubert J: Cellular blue nevus (CBN) lymph node metastases of the neck with no primary skin lesion: a case report and review of literature. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2010 Dec;38(8):601-4
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  • [Title] Cellular blue nevus (CBN) lymph node metastases of the neck with no primary skin lesion: a case report and review of literature.
  • A case of cervical lymph node infiltration by a benign cellular blue nevus (CBN) and a 27-year disease history is presented.
  • Dermal dendritic melanocytes and pigmented spindle cells presented no histological evidence of malignancy (CD34-, desmin-, PanCy-, HMB-45+, anti-S-100+, Bcl-2+, MART-1+, focally expression of melan A, 1% Ki-67+ of the tumour cell nucleoli).
  • The differentiation of the benign blue nevus (BN) from a malignant blue nevus (MBN) and a malignant melanoma (MM) is still a challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Neck. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20223677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-4119
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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21. Ito K, Mihm MC: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: report of first Japanese cases previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Apr;36(4):439-43
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  • [Title] Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: report of first Japanese cases previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus.
  • BACKGROUND: The term 'pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM)' was recently used for borderline melanocytic tumor/low-grade melanoma including cases previously diagnosed as human animal-type melanoma and epithelioid blue nevus.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 219 cases previously diagnosed as blue nevus in Japan.
  • Common blue nevus was identified in 154 cases and cellular blue nevus in 65 cases.
  • RESULTS: We have found two Japanese cases of PEM previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus.
  • PEM is present in Japanese, but these cases may be previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus.
  • Japanese pathologists should recognize a new concept of PEM, and when they make a diagnosis of PEM, they should be recommended sentinel lymph node sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Sep;36(9):1027-8 [19519876.001]
  • (PMID = 19278429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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22. Castelli E, Morello V, Tomasino RM: Perineural pattern of aggregation of cellular blue nevus: probable histoarchitectural reminiscence of histogenesis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Dec;30(6):625-8
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  • [Title] Perineural pattern of aggregation of cellular blue nevus: probable histoarchitectural reminiscence of histogenesis.
  • A striking feature of cellular blue nevus consists in the presence, in its histologic picture, of numerous hypertrophic nerves and nerve-like figures, positive for histochemical and immunohistochemical methods for nerve fibers and myelin sheaths.
  • However, the thin conventional histologic sections, catching only short tracts of the nerves, preclude a correct observation of their route and do not allow us to verify if there is an architectural relationship between them and the nevus as a whole.
  • With this aim, we observed a few specimens of cellular blue nevus on digitally overlapped images of contiguous 25-microm-thick sections, processed with Winkelmann's technique of silver impregnation for nerve fibers, which supplied an overall, 3-dimensional view of the lesions and the nerves running through them.
  • In these images, the lobular form of the nevus could be seen gathering around a branching hypertrophic nerve, whose stem stretched vertically from the depth to the most superficial tract of the lesion.
  • The nevus cell aggregates invested the stem and the limbs individually, and these followed the curvilinear contour of the nevus lobules.
  • Our images represent evidence of a preferential perineural aggregation of cellular blue nevus, at least in its lobular form.
  • This indicates that the numerous nerves and the neuroid figures, observed in detail-but within a limited perspective- in the conventional sections, are not merely coincidental and they could indeed be a sign of neural differentiation and/or a clue to the possible neural origin of the nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurons / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19033944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Alés-Fernández M, Ríos-Martín JJ, Camacho-Martínez FM: Localized argyria secondary to acupuncture mimicking blue nevus. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Aug;9(8):1019-20
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  • [Title] Localized argyria secondary to acupuncture mimicking blue nevus.
  • The typical clinical manifestation of localized cutaneous argyria is a blue-grayish asymptomatic macule, which may be caused by occupational exposure, topical treatment, dental amalgams and alternative medicine therapies.
  • The lesions often are clinically indistinguishable from blue nevi and metastatic melanoma.
  • The authors present a case of localized cutaneous argyria secondary to an acupuncture needle, emphasizing the importance of keeping this entity in mind in the differential diagnosis of blue-grayish pigmented lesion in a body area that could have been treated with acupuncture.
  • [MeSH-major] Acupuncture Therapy / adverse effects. Argyria / etiology. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20684156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Moshaver A, Puttagunta L, Seikaly H: Malignant blue nevus of the parotid gland: A case report. Head Neck; 2006 Oct;28(10):960-2
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  • [Title] Malignant blue nevus of the parotid gland: A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant blue nevus is a highly aggressive tumor arising from a background of benign blue nevus.
  • We report the first case of blue nevus of the parotid gland and its malignant transformation within this gland.
  • Features compatible with blue nevus with focal region of atypical mitotic activity were evident.
  • The diagnosis of malignant blue nevus was confirmed by immunohistochemical studies.
  • RESULTS: We report the first case of malignant transformation of blue nevus within the parotid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found this lesion to be highly aggressive and to have metastasized shortly after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16906514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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25. Litak J, Behroozan D, Binder S: Co-existing basal cell carcinoma and blue nevus in an African-American woman. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36(10):1114-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Co-existing basal cell carcinoma and blue nevus in an African-American woman.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma juxtaposed to a blue nevus.
  • Interestingly, the most common types of cutaneous collision tumors include melanocytic nevus and basal cell carcinoma.
  • This is the first documented case of a basal cell carcinoma co-existing alone with a blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19602062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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26. Odashiro AN, Arthurs B, Pereira PR, Filho JP, Belfort E, Burnier MN Jr: Primary orbital melanoma associated with a blue nevus. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 May;21(3):247-8
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  • [Title] Primary orbital melanoma associated with a blue nevus.
  • After surgical excision, the histopathologic examination revealed a malignant melanoma with a predominant epithelioid cell type, probably arising in a blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Orbit Evisceration. Pain / diagnosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vision Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15942508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Kato N, Tamura A, Yamanaka Y, Tanimura S, Minakawa H: Malignant blue nevus: case report of a Japanese man with a distant cutaneous metastasis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Feb;29(1):88-91
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  • [Title] Malignant blue nevus: case report of a Japanese man with a distant cutaneous metastasis.
  • We report a 55-year-old Japanese patient with a malignant blue nevus (MBN) on the scalp.
  • Histology of the primary tumor lacked a junctional component and showed a typically biphasic pattern in the degree of pigmentation similar to a cellular blue nevus (BN).
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17284970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Eskue K, Prieto VG, Malpica A: Cellular blue nevus of the uterus: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Nov;29(6):583-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular blue nevus of the uterus: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Cellular blue nevus is extremely rare in the gynecologic tract with only 2 cases reported thus far, one in the myometrium and the other in the cervix/vagina/hymenal ring.
  • In this report, we present the clinicopathologic features of the second case of cellular blue nevus arising in the myometrium.
  • Thus, a diagnosis of cellular blue nevus was established.
  • After a follow-up of 2 months, the patient had no evidence of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20881851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Val-Bernal JF, González-Vela MC, Hermana S, Garijo MF, González-López MA: Pilonidal sinus associated with cellular blue nevus. A previously unrecognized association. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Dec;34(12):942-5
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  • [Title] Pilonidal sinus associated with cellular blue nevus. A previously unrecognized association.
  • A neoplasm associated with a pilonidal sinus (PS) is a rare occurrence in the course of a common disease.
  • To our knowledge, pilonidal disease associated with a cellular blue nevus (CBN) has not been reported.
  • Here we report the case of a 19-year-old man with recurrent sacrococcygeal PS infection associated with an indurated dome-shaped blue-black nodule 1.7 cm in diameter.
  • Clinical diagnosis of the nodule was uncertain suggesting a pigmentary or a vascular tumor.
  • Pathological study showed a CBN showing a predominantly alveolar pattern associated with a chronic pilonidal disease.
  • Radical excision provides a good prognosis for the rare association consisting of a common disease such as PS with the uncommon CBN.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / complications. Pilonidal Sinus / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18001419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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30. Gerami P, Pouryazdanparast P, Vemula S, Bastian BC: Molecular analysis of a case of nevus of ota showing progressive evolution to melanoma with intermediate stages resembling cellular blue nevus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 May;32(3):301-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular analysis of a case of nevus of ota showing progressive evolution to melanoma with intermediate stages resembling cellular blue nevus.
  • Nevus of Ota is a variant of congenital nevus, which is morphologically paucicellular and resembles a common blue nevus.
  • Although nevus of Ota is a risk factor for uveal melanoma in white people, the development of cutaneous melanoma within nevus of Ota is a very rare occurrence with only a few reported cases.
  • We present a case of a long-standing nevus of Ota, with radiologic imaging demonstrating a large retro-orbital mass and a biopsy showing melanoma.
  • The histopathology of the eye exenteration specimen illustrated various stages of melanocytic progression including areas resembling a nevus of Ota, blue nevus, cellular blue nevus, and melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus of Ota / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Orbit Evisceration. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20110797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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31. Dohse L, Ferringer T: Nodal blue nevus: a pitfall in lymph node biopsies. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jan;37(1):102-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nodal blue nevus: a pitfall in lymph node biopsies.
  • Benign nodal nevi are uncommon but have been reported in lymph nodes of melanoma patients and less often in lymph nodes removed for other reasons.
  • Nodal blue nevi are particularly rare.
  • These melanocytic proliferations can be distinguished from metastatic melanoma by evaluation of the distribution in the node, morphologic characteristics and the assistance of immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19615001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Yang CH, Yeh JT, Shen SC, Lo YF, Kuo TT, Chang JW: Regressed subungual melanoma simulating cellular blue nevus: managed with sentinel lymph node biopsy. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Apr;32(4):577-80; discussion 580-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Regressed subungual melanoma simulating cellular blue nevus: managed with sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Subungual melanoma, a not uncommon presentation of cutaneous melanoma in Asian populations, is easily overlooked as benign and thus is improperly treated.
  • Skin biopsies failed to demonstrate the diagnostic features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nail Diseases / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis. Hand Dermatoses / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Onychomycosis / diagnosis. Onychomycosis / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16681670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Barnhill RL, Argenyi Z, Berwick M, Duray PH, Erickson L, Guitart J, Horenstein MG, Lowe L, Messina J, Paine S, Piepkorn MW, Prieto V, Rabkin MS, Schmidt B, Selim A, Shea CR, Trotter MJ: Atypical cellular blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with atypical features): lack of consensus for diagnosis and distinction from cellular blue nevi and malignant melanoma ("malignant blue nevus"). Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jan;32(1):36-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical cellular blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with atypical features): lack of consensus for diagnosis and distinction from cellular blue nevi and malignant melanoma ("malignant blue nevus").
  • The distinction of cellular blue nevi (CBN) with atypical features ["atypical" CBN (ACBN)] from conventional CBN and malignant melanomas related to or derived from CBN remains a difficult problem.
  • Here, we report on the diagnosis of various cellular blue melanocytic neoplasms by 14 dermatopathologists who routinely examine melanocytic lesions.
  • (1) for between rater analyses, we calculated interobserver agreement by the kappa statistic (regardless of whether the diagnosis was correct). (2) For each individual lesion, we reported whether a majority agreement (>50%) was reached and, if so, whether the majority agreed with the gold standard diagnosis, derived from standardized histopathologic criteria for melanoma, definitive outcome such as metastatic event or death of disease, or disease-free follow-up for > or =4 years. (3) For the individual pathologists, we calculated sensitivity and specificity for each type of lesion.
  • Overall, greater than 50% of the pathologists agreed and were correct in their diagnosis 38.5% (10 lesions) of the time.
  • There was a majority agreement, but with an incorrect diagnosis, another 26.9% (7 lesions) of the time.
  • Six of the 7 majority agreements with an incorrect diagnosis were for ACBN lesions.
  • In summary, the results of our study indicate that there is substantial confusion and disagreement among experienced histopathologists about the definitions and biologic nature of cellular blue melanocytic neoplasms particularly those thought to have atypical features ("atypical" CBN).
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18162768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Bogart MM, Bivens MM, Patterson JW, Russell MA: Blue nevi: a case report and review of the literature. Cutis; 2007 Jul;80(1):42-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blue nevi: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Blue nevi can present clinically as blue, gray, brown, or black solitary nodules or plaques on the skin.
  • We present a case of a cellular blue nevus in a 55-year-old white man that presented as an enlarging blue-gray nodule on the right dorsal foot.
  • These cases can be challenging both clinically and histologically because malignant melanoma or malignant transformation of a blue nevus should be considered.
  • We review the various types of blue nevi and the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17725063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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35. Garrido-Ríos AA, Carrera C, Puig S, Aguilera P, Salerni G, Malvehy J: Homogeneous blue pattern in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus. Dermatology; 2008;217(4):315-7
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  • [Title] Homogeneous blue pattern in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • Dermoscopy in acquired acral melanocytic nevi has been widely studied.
  • This is in contrast with the little information about the dermoscopic characteristics in congenital acral melanocytic nevi.
  • We report a 46-year-old man who was referred due to a lesion on his right sole present since childhood corresponding to an acral congenital nevus.
  • Dermoscopy showed a homogeneous blue pattern not previously described in acral benign tumors.
  • The homogeneous blue pattern has previously been associated with blue nevus and skin metastasis of melanoma.
  • The recognition of this pattern in benign acral congenital nevi is relevant in the clinical decision making concerning acral tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Middle Aged. Nevus, Blue / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18714159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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36. Fernandez-Flores A: Blue nevi of internal organs are more similar to the so-called dermal melanocytosis than to cutaneous blue nevi. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2007;48(1):5-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blue nevi of internal organs are more similar to the so-called dermal melanocytosis than to cutaneous blue nevi.
  • In this report, we examine several morphologic aspects of blue nevi of internal organs, and compare them to similar conditions of the skin.
  • From a morphologic point of view, blue nevi of internal organs are more similar to the so-called dermal melanocytoses.
  • Nevertheless, since melanocytoses and blue-nevi seem to have the same benign prognosis, and since blue nevus is a historically consolidated term to refer to pigmented spindle cell lesions of internal organs, a most appropriate term, to refer to the latter, will not be easily accepted in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17502944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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37. Kutzner H, Schärer L, Requena L: [Epithelioid and hyperpigmented melanocytic tumors. An overview]. Pathologe; 2007 Nov;28(6):411-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Spindle cell and epithelioid cell differentiation occur in both benign and malignant hyperpigmented melanocytic lesions.
  • Reed nevus is characterized by compact, sharply circumscribed junctional cellular nests composed of slender hyperpigmented melanocytes shaped like spindle cells.
  • Deep penetrating nevus is characterized by a diffuse dermal proliferation composed of small nests and fascicles of pale ovoid and epithelioid melanocytes.
  • Cellular blue nevi often have a characteristic hourglass or dumbbell shape, with sharply circumscribed elongated nests and fascicles of pale, densely layered ovoid melanocytes and adjacent melanophages.
  • Epithelioid blue nevus is characterized by large epithelioid melanocytes with abundant cytoplasm and melanin often concentrated to some degree in the cell membrane.
  • Morphologically, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma combines characteristics of both animal-type melanoma and pigmented epithelioid nevus.
  • Malignant melanoma may occur in conjunction with a preexistent blue nevus.
  • Malignant blue nevus is now regarded as a malignant melanoma mimicking a blue nevus in structure and pattern.
  • It is therefore of paramount importance to view multiple mitoses within a cellular blue nevus-like proliferation as an alarm signal as they are usually indicators of a malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Melanoma, Experimental / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17899087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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38. Wang Q, Prieto V, Esmaeli B, Kolda T, Lazar A, Ivan D, Diwan AH: Cellular blue nevi of the eyelid: A possible diagnostic pitfall. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Feb;58(2):257-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular blue nevi of the eyelid: A possible diagnostic pitfall.
  • Here we report 3 cases of cellular blue nevi in the lower eyelid, and make recommendations about approaching these challenging lesions.
  • In each case, a diagnosis of cellular blue nevus was made using the following features: low mitotic rate, absence of necrosis, low Ki-67 reactivity, and mostly uniform HMB45 labeling.
  • Furthermore, in each case there was either a prior diagnosis of melanoma or features worrisome for an atypical melanocytic lesion.
  • For melanocytic lesions of the eyelid with histologic features suggestive of cellular blue nevus, the correct diagnosis may mean a more conservative surgical resection and less likelihood of ocular tissue sacrifice and disfigurement.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins

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  • (PMID = 18222322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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39. Ramírez M, López Gutiérrez JC, Diaz M, Soto C, Miguel M, de la Torre Ramos CA, Barrena S, Ros Z, Tovar JA: [Bean or blue rubber blue nevus syndrome. Presentation of 6 patients]. Cir Pediatr; 2010 Oct;23(4):241-4
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  • [Title] [Bean or blue rubber blue nevus syndrome. Presentation of 6 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de bean o Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. presentación de 6 pacientes.
  • INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Bean or Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (BRBNS) is an uncommon disease characterized by multifocal venous malformations that predominantly affect the skin, soft tissues and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Our objective is to familiarize the pediatric surgeon with this condition, promoting early diagnosis and seriated surgical treatment as therapeutic options.
  • We have reviewed the diagnosis and treatment of 6 patients treated from 1993 to 2009.
  • After, characteristic skin lesions appeared as well as chronic anemia due to digestive bleeding associated to hypofibrinogenemia.
  • The diagnosis of the disease was made by endoscopically.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms. Nevus, Blue. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21520558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome
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40. Ferrari A, Lozzi GP, Fargnoli MC, Peris K: Dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus in childhood. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Nov;31(11 Pt 1):1448-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: A combined nevus most commonly consists of a blue nevus in combination with a Clark or Spitz nevus.
  • Dermoscopically, combined nevus can mimic melanoma owing to the presence of dermoscopic features common to both types of lesions.
  • Benign clinical and dermoscopic changes can occur in nevi over time, especially in children and young adults.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus showing unusual dermoscopic features.
  • RESULTS: An asymptomatic plaque with a central blue area and peripheral brown pigmentation located on the back of a 13-year-old boy was diagnosed dermoscopically as combined nevus.
  • Dermoscopic analysis 8 months later showed color changes from steel blue to gray-blue and black in the central area of the lesion, an increased number of blue-black dots or globules, and peripheral irregular streaks.
  • Histopathology revealed typical features of a congenital combined nevus (blue nevus + compound nevus).
  • CONCLUSION: Over time, congenital combined nevus may show clinical and dermoscopic changes in size, color, and structure.
  • Surgical excision is recommended when clinical and dermoscopic features are equivocal and the diagnosis of melanoma cannot be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Back. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16416618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Küsters-Vandevelde HV, van Engen-van Grunsven IA, Küsters B, van Dijk MR, Groenen PJ, Wesseling P, Blokx WA: Improved discrimination of melanotic schwannoma from melanocytic lesions by combined morphological and GNAQ mutational analysis. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Dec;120(6):755-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The histological differential diagnosis between melanotic schwannoma, primary leptomeningeal melanocytic lesions and cellular blue nevus can be challenging.
  • Correct diagnosis of melanotic schwannoma is important to select patients who need clinical evaluation for possible association with Carney complex.
  • Identical codon 209 mutations have been described in blue nevi.
  • The aims of the present study were to (1) perform a histological review of a series of lesions (initially) diagnosed as melanotic schwannoma and analyze them for GNAQ mutations, and (2) test the diagnostic value of GNAQ mutational analysis in the differential diagnosis with leptomeningeal melanocytic lesions.
  • The remaining cases were reclassified as conventional schwannoma (n = 9), melanocytoma (n = 4), blue nevus (n = 1) and lesions that could not be classified with certainty as melanotic schwannoma or melanocytoma (n = 2).
  • GNAQ codon 209 mutations were present in 3/4 melanocytomas and the blue nevus.
  • We conclude that a detailed analysis of morphology combined with GNAQ mutational analysis can aid in the differential diagnosis of melanotic schwannoma with leptomeningeal melanocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits / genetics. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / genetics. Neuroma, Acoustic / diagnosis. Neuroma, Acoustic / genetics. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20865267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GNAQ protein, human; 0 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991233
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42. Murali R, McCarthy SW, Scolyer RA: Blue nevi and related lesions: a review highlighting atypical and newly described variants, distinguishing features and diagnostic pitfalls. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):365-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blue nevi and related lesions: a review highlighting atypical and newly described variants, distinguishing features and diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Blue nevi and related entities are a heterogenous group of congenital and acquired melanocytic tumors that includes established entities such as dendritic ("common") blue nevus and cellular blue nevus, and their numerous clinical and pathologic variants, such as deep penetrating nevus.
  • They share several clinical and morphologic features including their blue tinctorial properties, the presence of a dermal proliferation of spindle, fusiform or ovoid cells, associated melanin pigment (both within the melanocytic tumor cells and also within macrophages) and stromal sclerosis and, at least focal positivity for HMB-45 (Gp100).
  • Some variants, such as deep penetrating nevus, often show considerable variation in nuclear size and shape, and, as a consequence, are at risk of being misdiagnosed as melanoma by those unfamiliar with their characteristic morphologic features.
  • The so-called malignant blue nevus is a controversial term denoting melanomas arising in association with or exhibiting some morphologic similarities to blue nevus.
  • There are also lesions that are probably related to blue nevi, such as the recently described pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma and the neurocristic hamartomas, whose nature, biologic behavior, and relationship to the better established entities remains to be clearly established.
  • This review aims to present a brief overview of these lesions, highlighting their pathologic characteristics, distinguishing features and potential diagnostic pitfalls, with particular emphasis on recently described entities, molecular findings, controversial areas, and approaches to diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanins / metabolism. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19851128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
  • [Number-of-references] 193
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43. Craddock KJ, Bandarchi B, Khalifa MA: Blue nevi of the Müllerian tract: case series and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2007 Oct;11(4):284-9
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  • [Title] Blue nevi of the Müllerian tract: case series and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Blue nevi are rare in the cervix and vagina.
  • Because of their rarity (3 previous cases in the literature), vaginal blue nevi have not previously been studied with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis.
  • DESIGN: We describe 3 cases of blue nevus occurring in the Müllerian tract, 1 in the vagina and 2 in the endocervix.
  • The endocervical blue nevi were incidental findings in hysterectomies performed for leiomyomata and endometrial serous carcinoma in women aged 44 and 57 years, respectively.
  • All 3 cases showed loose aggregates of cytologically benign, pigmented, dendritic spindle cells in the superficial stroma.
  • Compared with the endocervical lesions, the vaginal nevus cells were more heavily pigmented, and on electron microscopy, a greater proportion of stage IV melanosomes were seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings in a vaginal blue nevus, which confirm that it is of a similar nature to the endocervical blue nevi.
  • Ultrastructurally, our results support a melanocytic rather than Schwannian origin for Müllerian blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17917577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-2591
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Massi G: Melanocytic nevi simulant of melanoma with medicolegal relevance. Virchows Arch; 2007 Sep;451(3):623-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanocytic nevi simulant of melanoma with medicolegal relevance.
  • A group of melanocytic benign nevi are prone to be misdiagnosed as nodular or superficial spreading melanoma.
  • This review illustrates the most frequent forms of these nevi in direct comparison with their malignant morphologic counterparts.
  • The nevi are: hyper-cellular form of common nevus to be distinguished from nevoid melanoma, Spitz nevus (vs spitzoid melanoma), Reed nevus (vs melanoma with features of Reed nevus), cellular atypical blue nevus (vs melanoma on blue nevus), acral nevus (vs acral melanoma), Clark dysplastic nevus (vs superficial spreading melanoma), desmoplastic nevi (vs desmoplastic melanoma), benign proliferative nodules in congenital nevi (vs melanoma on congenital nevi), epithelioid blue nevus (vs animal type melanoma) and regressed nevus (vs regressed melanoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Liability, Legal. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Pathology / legislation & jurisprudence. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nevus / congenital. Nevus / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Spindle Cell / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Virchows Arch. 2008 Jan;452(1):113-4 [18026988.001]
  • (PMID = 17653760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 161
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45. Garrido Abad P, Jiménez Gálvez M, Fernández Arjona M, Herranz Fernández LM, Bocardo Fajardo G, Herrero Torres L, Pereira Sanz I: [Blue prostatic nevus. Case report]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Jun;60(5):593-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Blue prostatic nevus. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Nevus azul prostático. Aportación de un nuevo caso.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: 66-year-old patient with elevated serum PSA with the diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus after biopsy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This diagnostic finding has not clinical or prognostic significance.
  • They are benign lesions that must not be confused with other similar more aggressive lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17718219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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46. Dhouib RS, Sassi S, Jbeli A, Driss M, Mrad K, Abbes I, Ben Romdhane K: Desmoplastic spitz nevus: report of a case and review of the literature. Pathologica; 2008 Jun;100(3):181-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Desmoplastic spitz nevus: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Desmoplastic spitz nevus (DSN) is an uncommon melanocytic lesion.
  • The histologic features of this benign tumour may mimic those of certain benign (dermatofibroma and desmoplastic cellular blue nevus) or malignant (metastatic carcinoma and malignant melanoma) neoplasms.
  • We report the case of a male with a DSN, and also review the clinical characteristics, histologic features and differential diagnosis of this extremely rare lesion.
  • A diagnosis of DSN with free margins was made.
  • The histologic presentation of this benign lesion mimics both benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18841824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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47. King R, Lyons J, Meyers AL, Googe PB, Page RN, Gupta VK: Primary invasive melanoma and basal cell carcinoma (collision tumor) with blue nevus-like cutaneous metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Aug;34(8):629-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary invasive melanoma and basal cell carcinoma (collision tumor) with blue nevus-like cutaneous metastases.
  • In addition, one patient presented with multiple cutaneous metastases, all simulating blue nevi.
  • The metastases occurred in the same anatomical region as the primary tumor, and histologically consisted of pigmented dendritic melanocytes and melanophages in the superficial and mid-dermis and arranged in a blue nevus-like lesion.
  • However, without appropriate clinical history, the lesions could be overlooked as ordinary blue nevus.
  • Collision tumors containing invasive melanoma and BCC are rare and this is the first report of a collision tumor with blue nevus-like metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Blue / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17640233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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48. Almazán-Fernández FM, Fernández-Pugnaire MA, Hernández-Gil J, Arias-Santiago S, Abad-Romero J, Serrano-Ortega S, Naranjo-Sintes R: Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(8):10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • Acral melanocytic nevi are relatively frequent in the palmoplantar location.
  • In congenital nevi various characteristic dermoscopic patterns have been described, such as reticular and globular patterns, brown pigmented areas, and areas with peripilar depigmentation.
  • However, there are few reports on the dermoscopic pattern of acral congenital nevi.
  • The homogeneous blue pattern is typical of blue nevus and is not typical of acral localization and metastasis of cutaneous melanoma.
  • However, this pattern should be considered characteristic of acral congenital nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dermoscopy. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20804687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Klock C, Gomes R, João M, Netto G: Prostate melanosis associated with acinar adenocarcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):379-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Prostate melanosis is an uncommon lesion of uncertain etiology where melanin deposition is seen in the epithelium, in the stroma, or in the form of a blue nevus.

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  • (PMID = 19098014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
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50. Scope A, Benvenuto-Andrade C, Agero AL, Marghoob AA: Nonmelanocytic lesions defying the two-step dermoscopy algorithm. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Nov;32(11):1398-406
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Homogenous bluish pigmentation, simulating a blue nevus, can also be seen in benign vascular lesions, Kaposi sarcoma, radiation tattoo, and BCC.
  • This overlap of features between melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions suggests that integration of all dermoscopic features in the lesion, rather than a stepwise evaluation, may facilitate reaching the correct diagnosis in select cases as outlined in this article.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma, Amelanotic / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17083595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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51. McGowan JW, Smith MK, Ryan M, Hood AF: Proliferative nodules with balloon-cell change in a large congenital melanocytic nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Mar;33(3):253-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proliferative nodules with balloon-cell change in a large congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • The balloon-cell nevus was first described over 100 years ago.
  • Since then, balloon-cell changes of melanocytes have been noted in numerous tumors, including melanoma, blue nevus, and Spitz nevus.
  • We report a case in which balloon-cell changes were found within proliferative nodules occurring in a large congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / congenital. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16466515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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52. Howard B, Ragsdale B, Lundquist K: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: two case reports. Dermatol Online J; 2005;11(2):1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: two case reports.
  • Because of indolent course without mortality, the term "pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma" has been suggested as a replacement for "equine" or "animal-type" melanoma and for the epithelioid blue nevus of the Carney type, from which they are histologically indistinguishable.
  • This paper also contains clinical photographs of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma, unlike prior reports.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16150209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Hantschke M: [Hypopigmented melanocytic tumors with spindle cells. A review]. Pathologe; 2007 Nov;28(6):403-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Spindle cell nevi resemble neural tumors.
  • Desmoplastic nevi imitate dermatofibromas.
  • Hypopigmented and amelanotic blue nevi are variants of the common and cell-rich blue nevus with an enhanced difficulty to make a correct diagnosis due to the lack of pigment.
  • All of the above benign melanocytic tumors with proliferations of hypopigmented spindle cells can more or less show aspects of desmoplastic melanoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of these entities demands a combination of clinical and histological parameters as well as supporting immunostaining.
  • Regarding desmoplastic melanoma, diagnoses frequently made are benign spindle cell neoplasms, scar or unspecific inflammatory condition.
  • As the histological aspects can be so misleading, attention is necessary in order to make the correct diagnosis.
  • Particular care must be taken to rule out desmoplastic melanoma in the case of spindle cell proliferations, a cicatricial or inflammatory process in the classical settings of face, volar skin, or mucous membranes.
  • The spindle cell melanoma must be distinguished from other types of malignant spindle cell neoplasms, which can involve the skin.
  • The differential diagnosis with such tumors is entrusted mainly to immunostaining.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Spindle Cell / pathology. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17851662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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54. Ribé A: Melanocytic lesions of the genital area with attention given to atypical genital nevi. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Nov;35 Suppl 2:24-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanocytic lesions of the genital area with attention given to atypical genital nevi.
  • These pigmented lesions include melanocytic nevi, lentigines, melanocytic nevi with architectural disorder and atypia of melanocytes (dysplastic nevi) and melanomas with microscopic features similar to those seen elsewhere on the body.
  • There is a small subset of benign nevi named atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type (AMNGT) that occur in young women, with distinctive histologic features in some cases overlapping morphologically with those of melanoma.
  • Thirty-two cases (55%) were common nevi, 10 (17%) lentigines, 6 (10%) melanomas, 3 (5%) dysplastic nevi and 1 blue nevus.
  • The junctional component was very prominent and formed by round or fusiform nests with common retraction artifact and/or cellular dyshesion or as a single cell proliferation with mild (33%) to moderate (67%) cytologic atypia, focal pagetoid spread (17%) and a benign-appearing dermal component (83%) with maturation and dense eosinophilic fibrosis in the superficial dermis.
  • Neither nuclear atypia of melanocytes in the superficial dermis nor dermal mitoses were observed.
  • Therefore, it seems that there is no evidence that AMNGT are precursors of dysplastic nevi or melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18976416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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55. Barnhill RL, Gupta K: Unusual variants of malignant melanoma. Clin Dermatol; 2009 Nov-Dec;27(6):564-87
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  • The discussion will include desmoplastic melanoma, nevoid melanoma, spitzoid melanoma, angiotropic melanoma, and malignant blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma, Amelanotic / diagnosis. Melanoma, Amelanotic / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19880044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1131
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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56. Lee S, Kim DH, Lee G, Whang KU, Lee JS, Park YL: An unusual case of congenital dermal melanocytosis. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Nov;22(4):460-2

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  • [Title] An unusual case of congenital dermal melanocytosis.
  • Dermal melanocytosis is characterized by the presence of ectopic melanocytes in the dermis.
  • The most common forms include the Mongolian spot, blue nevus, nevus of Ota, and nevus of Ito.
  • Some types of dermal melanocytosis do not fit into any of these morphologic categories, however.
  • Our case demonstrated an extensive amount of uniform deep blue patches of nevi with unilateral distribution on the left face, neck, chest, shoulder, and back.
  • We herein report a case of congenital unilateral dermal melanocytosis.

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  • (PMID = 21165221.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991728
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Congenital unilateral dermal melanocytosis
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57. Zembowicz A, Knoepp SM, Bei T, Stergiopoulos S, Eng C, Mihm MC, Stratakis CA: Loss of expression of protein kinase a regulatory subunit 1alpha in pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma but not in melanoma or other melanocytic lesions. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1764-75
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  • [Title] Loss of expression of protein kinase a regulatory subunit 1alpha in pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma but not in melanoma or other melanocytic lesions.
  • Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a recently described entity comprising most cases previously described as "animal-type melanoma" and epithelioid blue nevus (EBN) occurring in patients with the multiple neoplasia syndrome Carney complex (CNC).
  • Histologic analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with R1alpha antibody were performed on 34 sporadic PEMs, 8 CNC-associated PEMs from patients with known PRKAR1A mutations, 297 benign and malignant melanocytic tumors (127 conventional sections of 10 compound nevi, 10 Spitz nevi, 5 deep-penetrating nevi, 5 blue nevi, 6 cellular blue nevi, 2 malignant blue nevi, 3 lentigo maligna, and 86 melanomas of various types); in addition, 170 tissue microarray sections consisting of 35 benign nevi, 60 primary melanomas, and 75 metastatic melanomas, and 5 equine dermal melanomas, were examined.
  • They also suggest that PEM differs from melanomas in equine melanotic disease, further arguing that the term animal-type melanoma may be a misnomer for this group of lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / analysis. Horse Diseases / enzymology. Melanocytes / enzymology. Melanoma / enzymology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / enzymology. Nevus, Blue / enzymology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Diagnosis, Differential. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Horses. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Terminology as Topic. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18059235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human
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58. Flauta VS, Lingamfelter DC, Dang LM, Lankachandra KM: Deep penetrating nevus: a case report and brief literature review. Diagn Pathol; 2006;1:31

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  • [Title] Deep penetrating nevus: a case report and brief literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Deep penetrating nevus (DPN) is a distinct variant of melanocytic nevus and remains a histopathologic challenge to pathologists because of its resemblance to blue nevus, malignant melanoma, pigmented Spitz nevus, and congenital melanocytic nevus.

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 1992 Jun;19(3):172-80 [1401342.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1993 Mar;129(3):328-31 [8447669.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994 May;30(5 Pt 1):724-9 [8176011.001]
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  • (PMID = 16999859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1586213
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59. Campos-do-Carmo G, Ramos-e-Silva M: Dermoscopy: basic concepts. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;47(7):712-9
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  • Dermoscopy is a very useful technique for the analysis of pigmented skin lesions.
  • It represents a link between clinical and histological views, permitting an earlier diagnosis of skin melanoma.
  • It also helps in the diagnosis of many other pigmented skin lesions, such as seborrheic keratosis, pigmented basal cell carcinoma, hemangioma, blue nevus, atypical nevus, and mole, which can often clinically simulate melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatology / instrumentation. Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / diagnosis. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Equipment Design. Equipment Safety. Humans. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18613881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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60. Harrison-Balestra C, Gugic D, Vincek V: Clinically distinct form of acquired dermal melanocytosis with review of published work. J Dermatol; 2007 Mar;34(3):178-82
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  • [Title] Clinically distinct form of acquired dermal melanocytosis with review of published work.
  • Dermal melanocytosis is most commonly found in the skin of Asians and other darkly pigmented people.
  • It is histologically characterized by the presence of dermal melanocytes, with or without presence of dermal melanophages.
  • Mongolian spot, nevus of Ito, nevus of Ota, nevus of Hori, and blue nevus are most common and represent distinct types of dermal melanocytosis.
  • Other clinical patterns of acquired dermal melanocytosis have also been described.
  • Herein, we report a unique case of acquired dermal melanocytosis diffusely affecting the entire back of a 50-year old African-American male and also review and discuss various patterns of unusual acquired dermal melanocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17291298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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61. Yoneyama K, Kamada N, Mizoguchi M, Utani A, Kobayashi T, Shinkai H: Malignant melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis on congenital nevus spilus. J Dermatol; 2005 Jun;32(6):454-8
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis on congenital nevus spilus.
  • We reported a case of malignant melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis that appeared on congenital nevus spilus; this is the first report from Japan.
  • An 85-year-old woman had had a nevus spilus on the right lower leg since birth.
  • A black-brown nodule developed on the nevus three years before treatment.
  • Blue-gray patches were found within the nevus on inspection.
  • Histopathological analysis of these lesions revealed superficial spreading melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis, respectively.
  • There have been 19 previous case reports of malignant melanoma on nevus spilus, and there have only been 4 cases of dermal melanocytosis (plaque-type blue nevus) on nevus spilus.
  • We reviewed the reported cases in the literature and discussed the risk factors of nevus spilus.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Lentigo / congenital. Lentigo / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16043919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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62. Fleming MG: Pigmented lesion pathology: what you should expect from your pathologist, and what your pathologist should expect from you. Clin Plast Surg; 2010 Jan;37(1):1-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The first part of this review examines the reliability of histologic diagnosis in pigmented lesions, as measured by concordance studies and medicolegal analysis.
  • The second part of the review is a guide to some of the more difficult and controversial pigmented lesions, including dysplastic nevus, spitzoid nevi and melanomas, cellular blue nevus, animal-type melanoma, and deep penetrating nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Communication. Dermoscopy. Diagnostic Errors. Humans. Interprofessional Relations. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Pathology, Clinical. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 19914454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0504
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 168
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63. Grosshans E, Bourlond J, Cribier B: [Nevocytic nevi associated elastic fibers hyperplasia: a type of "twin nevus"]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 May;133(5 Pt 1):435-8
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  • [Title] [Nevocytic nevi associated elastic fibers hyperplasia: a type of "twin nevus"].
  • [Transliterated title] Naevus naevocellulaires avec hyperplasie des fibres élastiques: une forme de naevus jumelé.
  • BACKGROUND: In common intradermal or compound nevi, nevocytes may be associated with other kinds of cells, tissues or lesions.
  • CASE-REPORTS AND RESULTS: In 11 nevi (10 intradermal or compound nevi and 1 blue nevus), we observed striking hyperplasia of the elastic fibers strictly limited to the nevi, with normal aspect of the elastic fibers in the surrounding reticular dermis.
  • These fibers were thicker than normal elastic fibers and showed tight connexions with nevus cells.
  • It was correlated neither with the age and sex of patients nor with the site of the excised nevi.
  • It was seen in 0.1% of excised nevi.
  • DISCUSSION: Hyperplasia of elastic fibers in some common nevi is a curiosity which may be classified together with other vascular, nervous, epithelial or connective twin lesions occasionally associated with the nevocytic nevi.
  • It has to be added to the list of so-called "twin nevi".
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16760829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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64. Magro CM, Crowson AN, Mihm MC: Unusual variants of malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2006 Feb;19 Suppl 2:S41-70
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  • Of these, the more treacherous examples include the desmoplastic melanoma, the nevoid melanoma, the so-called 'minimal-deviation melanoma,' melanoma with prominent pigment synthesis or 'animal-type melanoma,' and the malignant blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Melanocytes / chemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Mucin-1 / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Skin / chemistry. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16446716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 204
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65. Richards HW, Medrano EE: Epigenetic marks in melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res; 2009 Feb;22(1):14-29
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  • Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous cancer that comes in different flavors (lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous/mucosal melanoma and other less common subtypes including malignant cellular blue nevus, desmoplastic melanoma, nevoid melanoma, and animal-type melanoma) and colors (black/bluish or unpigmented).
  • Here, we review the current data on epigenetic research in melanoma skin cancers, discuss ways to modify the epigenetic landscape of melanoma for inhibiting its growth, and propose strategies for identifying novel melanoma markers.

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  • [ErratumIn] Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009 Apr;22(2):242
  • (PMID = 19040501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-1471
  • [Journal-full-title] Pigment cell & melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2R01 CA84282; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG032135
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 160
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66. Kacerovska D, Sima R, Michal M, Hes O, Roucka P, Zarybnicka M, Hora M, Chudacek Z, Kazakov DV: Carney complex: a clinicopathologic and molecular biological study of a sporadic case, including extracutaneous and cutaneous lesions and a novel mutation of the PRKAR1A gene. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Jul;61(1):80-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with multiple neoplasms.
  • Additionally, a blue nevus, a lipoma, multiple calcifications in both testes, and hypoechogenic areas suspected of being adenomas in the thyroid gland were found.
  • These findings suggest sporadic disease and a novel mutation in our patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Myxoma / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19539840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human
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67. Mandal RV, Murali R, Lundquist KF, Ragsdale BD, Heenan P, McCarthy SW, Mihm MC Jr, Scolyer RA, Zembowicz A: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: favorable outcome after 5-year follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1778-82
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  • [Title] Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: favorable outcome after 5-year follow-up.
  • Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a recently described entity encompassing epithelioid blue nevus (of Carney complex) and most tumors earlier considered as so-called "animal-type melanoma".
  • After a median follow-up period of 67 months (range 39 to 216 mo), all patients are alive and free of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Nevus, Blue / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Australia. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. North America. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19773637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Holsinger FC, Hafemeister AC, Hicks MJ, Sulek M, Huh WW, Friedman EM: Differential diagnosis of pediatric tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 45-year multi-institutional review. Ear Nose Throat J; 2010 Nov;89(11):534-40
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of pediatric tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 45-year multi-institutional review.
  • Lesions included adnexal neoplasm, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, basal cell carcinoma, benign fibrous histiocytoma, blue nevus, chondrosarcoma, compound nevus, epithelioma adenoides cysticum, esthesioneuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, giant cell granuloma, granulocytic sarcoma, hemangioma, hemangiopericytoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioma, lymphoma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibroma, ossifying osteofibroma, osteochondroma, osteosarcoma, port wine stain, rhabdomyosarcoma, Spitz nevus, and xanthogranuloma.
  • We believe that the large size of this study and the data on disease incidence will allow clinicians to be better informed of the differential diagnosis of neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in the pediatric population.

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  • (PMID = 21086277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Cerroni L, Borroni RG, Massone C, Kerl H: "Ancient" blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with degenerative stromal changes). Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):1-5
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  • [Title] "Ancient" blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with degenerative stromal changes).
  • Ancient melanocytic nevi are benign melanocytic neoplasms that show degenerative and atypical changes, sometimes leading to a misdiagnosis of melanoma.
  • We describe 6 patients (M:F ratio 4:2; age range, 15-84 years; median, 50 years) who presented with cellular blue nevi showing stromal changes resembling those of ancient melanocytic nevi.
  • Histology revealed the architectural pattern of cellular blue nevi.
  • However, the architecture was strikingly altered by stromal changes like those seen in ancient melanocytic nevi, including increased number of large, dilated vessels with pseudoangiomatous features in 4 cases, hyaline angiopathy in 4 cases, myxoid changes, sclerosis or hyalinization of the stroma in all cases, and variable amounts of edema in 4 cases.
  • Ancient blue nevi represent a morphologic variation of cellular blue nevi-Masson neuronevi with degenerative stromal changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Connective Tissue / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18212535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Ozdemir F, Kilinc I, Akalin T: Homogeneous blue pigmentation in dermatofibroma simulating a blue naevus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Jul;20(6):733-4
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  • [Title] Homogeneous blue pigmentation in dermatofibroma simulating a blue naevus.
  • A case with a pigmented skin lesion that was diagnosed as a blue naevus on clinical and dermoscopic grounds and histopathologically confirmed as a dermatofibroma is presented.
  • By means of this case, we define dermatofibroma as a new exception for 'homogeneous blue pigmentation' on dermoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Skin Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 16836506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Maize JC Jr, McCalmont TH, Carlson JA, Busam KJ, Kutzner H, Bastian BC: Genomic analysis of blue nevi and related dermal melanocytic proliferations. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Sep;29(9):1214-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genomic analysis of blue nevi and related dermal melanocytic proliferations.
  • Blue nevi are benign dermal melanocytic proliferations that can sometimes share overlapping microscopic features with melanoma.
  • We used comparative genomic hybridization to analyze three groups of dermal melanocytic proliferations.
  • Group 1 consisted of 10 cellular blue nevi and 1 deep penetrating nevus, none of which showed chromosomal aberrations.
  • In conclusion, histopathologically unequivocally benign or malignant dermal melanocytic proliferations show nonoverlapping patterns of chromosomal aberrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / genetics. Nevus, Blue / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16096412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA95300
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Barnhill RL, Cerroni L, Cook M, Elder DE, Kerl H, LeBoit PE, McCarthy SW, Mihm MC, Mooi WJ, Piepkorn MW, Prieto VG, Scolyer RA: State of the art, nomenclature, and points of consensus and controversy concerning benign melanocytic lesions: outcome of an international workshop. Adv Anat Pathol; 2010 Mar;17(2):73-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] State of the art, nomenclature, and points of consensus and controversy concerning benign melanocytic lesions: outcome of an international workshop.
  • The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a one-day International Workshop focusing on the histology of benign melanocytic nevi.
  • Areas of controversy identified in 6 focus sessions were the nomenclature and relationships among common nevi including nevi with halo reactions, traumatized nevi, "dysplastic" nevi, and nevi from particular anatomic sites; developmental biology and frequency of malignant transformation associated with congenital nevi; the characterization and biologic nature of atypical spitzoid neoplasms; the basic definition of particular melanocytic cellular phenotypes, and the nomenclature and biologic nature of many candidate blue nevi, combined nevi, and other controversial lesions such as deep penetrating nevus and pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Consensus Development Conferences as Topic. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / classification. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / congenital. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Adv Anat Pathol. 2012 Sep;19(5):348; author reply 348-9 [22885384.001]
  • (PMID = 20179431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Pellacani G, Bassoli S, Longo C, Cesinaro AM, Seidenari S: Diving into the blue: in vivo microscopic characterization of the dermoscopic blue hue. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Jul;57(1):96-104
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  • [Title] Diving into the blue: in vivo microscopic characterization of the dermoscopic blue hue.
  • BACKGROUND: In dermoscopy the presence of a blue hue is a clue for malignancy, although a blue tint is sometimes observable in benign lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify the in vivo confocal microscopy correlates of the blue hue for improving diagnostic accuracy for melanoma.
  • METHODS: Fifty-seven melanomas, 41 junctional, 88 compound, and 27 Spitz nevi were studied by dermoscopy, confocal microscopy, and histopathology.
  • RESULTS: Confocal microscopy enabled the distinction between blue areas and blue veil, the former characterized by plump cells corresponding to melanophages and inflammatory infiltrate at histology, the latter by the contemporary presence of epidermal and dermal features consistent with diagnosis of melanoma, such as disarranged pattern, pagetoid cells, cytologic and architectural atypias, nonhomogeneous and cerebriform clusters, and dermal nucleated cells.
  • LIMITATIONS: Confocal microscopy failed to accurately distinguish Spitz nevi, because of the presence of cytoarchitectural disarray in the epidermis and the upper dermis.
  • CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy enabled the in vivo identification of characteristic cytological substrates correlated with the blue features in dermoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Color. Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17485141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Plótár V, Szentirmay Z, Orosz Z: [Reactivity of five different antibodies with benign and malignant melanocytic lesions]. Magy Onkol; 2008 Dec;52(4):363-73
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  • [Title] [Reactivity of five different antibodies with benign and malignant melanocytic lesions].
  • We have tested five antibodies (S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A, MITF, PNL-2) on 34 benign and 34 malignant melanocytic tumors.
  • We examined the specificity and sensitivity in the junctional and dermal component separately, with special consideration to features disturbing the evaluation (regression, halo-like inflammation, etc.).
  • We have concluded that the histological diagnosis of melanocytic tumors is based on the detailed examination of traditional HE slides and the immunohistochemical methods only confirm or weaken our opinion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Humans. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / analysis. Nevus, Blue / chemistry. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / chemistry. Nevus, Spindle Cell / chemistry. Paraffin Embedding. Polysaccharide-Lyases / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19068464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.10 / pectin lyase
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75. Samimi M, Perrinaud A, Naouri M, Maruani A, Perrodeau E, Vaillant L, Machet L: High-resolution ultrasonography assists the differential diagnosis of blue naevi and cutaneous metastases of melanoma. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Sep;163(3):550-6
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  • [Title] High-resolution ultrasonography assists the differential diagnosis of blue naevi and cutaneous metastases of melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastases of cutaneous melanoma may simulate benign blue naevi clinically.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of lesions that look similar clinically, i.e. blue naevi and cutaneous metastases of melanoma.
  • METHODS: Participants were invited for inclusion in the study if they had a cutaneous blue lesion clinically suggestive of a blue naevus or cutaneous metastasis of melanoma.
  • Clinical, dermoscopic and ultrasonographic images were reviewed anonymously by four dermatologists to assign the diagnosis of blue naevus or metastasis of melanoma.
  • The diagnostic performance of clinical examination, dermoscopy and sonography was assessed for the ability of each to differentiate between metastases of melanoma and blue naevi with reference to the histological diagnosis.
  • RESULTS:   Twenty-eight patients were included with a total of 39 blue skin lesions, and 17 of the 28 patients had a previous history of melanoma.
  • The sonographic features contributing to the differential diagnosis were: location of the lesion (P=0·027), shape of the lesion (P<0·001), homogeneity (P=0·001) and increased posterior echogenicity (P=0·007).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography is a reproducible and specific tool that can assist the differential diagnosis between blue naevi and metastases of melanoma.
  • A blue naevus is a homogeneous, hypoechoic, 'dish-shaped' lesion, located in the superficial dermis, whereas metastases of melanoma are 'potato-shaped', hypoechoic, heterogeneous lesions, located in the hypodermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Nevus, Blue / ultrasonography. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20545694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Van Raamsdonk CD, Bezrookove V, Green G, Bauer J, Gaugler L, O'Brien JM, Simpson EM, Barsh GS, Bastian BC: Frequent somatic mutations of GNAQ in uveal melanoma and blue naevi. Nature; 2009 Jan 29;457(7229):599-602
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  • [Title] Frequent somatic mutations of GNAQ in uveal melanoma and blue naevi.
  • BRAF and NRAS are common targets for somatic mutations in benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from melanocytes situated in epithelial structures, and lead to constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway.
  • Here we report frequent somatic mutations in the heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit, GNAQ, in blue naevi (83%) and ocular melanoma of the uvea (46%).

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  • (PMID = 19078957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4687
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nature
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA025874-280020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131524; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA025874-20A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA025874; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA025874-290020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA025874-20A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA025874-290020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA025874-25A10020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA025874-280020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA025874-25A10020
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS74666; NLM/ PMC2696133
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77. Cabrijan L, Lipozencić J, Batinac T, Lenković M, Gruber F, Stanić Zgombić Z: Correlation between clinical-dermatoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis of skin tumors in our patients. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:195-7
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  • [Title] Correlation between clinical-dermatoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis of skin tumors in our patients.
  • In this study 103 patients with skin tumors were examined.
  • Working diagnosis was obtained by clinical examination using dermoscope.
  • After excision of lesion, working diagnosis was compared to pathohistological diagnosis.
  • The clinical-dermoscopic diagnosis included verrucae seborrhoicae in 26 (25.24%), fibropapilloma in 17(16.5%), naevus pigmentosus in 9 (8.79%), naevus dysplasticus in 4 (3.88%), fibroma molle in 8 (7.76%), Mb.
  • Bowen in 1 (0.97%), basal cell carcinoma in 7 (6.79%), squamous cell carcinoma in 6 (5.82%), haemangiofibroma in 1 (0.97%), haemangioma in 3 (2.91%), keratosis actinica in 5 (4.85%), melanoma malignum in 6 (5.82%), naevus fibromatosus in 2 (1.94%) cases and naevus blue in 1 (0.97%), naevus traumatisatus in 1 (0.97%), verruca vulgaris in 1 (0.97%), lymphocytoma in 1 (0.97%), naevus verrucosus in 1 (0.97%), lentigo solaris in 2 (1.94%) and Reed nevus in 1 (0.97%) case.
  • Dermoscopic diagnosis were conformable with pathohistological diagnosis in 75 cases (72.82%).
  • We presumed that dermatoscoping obtains correct diagnosis of skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19140282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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78. Antony FC, Sanclemente G, Shaikh H, Trelles AS, Calonje E: Pigment synthesizing melanoma (so-called animal type melanoma): a clinicopathological study of 14 cases of a poorly known distinctive variant of melanoma. Histopathology; 2006 May;48(6):754-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The clinical diagnosis was of melanoma in seven cases, blue naevus in three cases, benign naevus in three cases and a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in one case.
  • The histological diagnosis of PSM was predicated on the basis of an asymmetrical, predominantly intradermal tumour formed of deeply pigmented, round or short, spindle-shaped dendritic melanocytes with some degree of hyperchromatism and a single nucleolus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Melanocytes / chemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nevus, Blue / metabolism. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16681693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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79. Vetter CS, Müller-Blech K, Schrama D, Bröcker EB, Becker JC: Cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of survivin in melanocytic skin lesions. Arch Dermatol Res; 2005 Jul;297(1):26-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of survivin in melanocytic skin lesions.
  • In the present study, we compared the expression of survivin in melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions such as junctional, compound, dermal, congenital, blue and spitz nevi.
  • In junctional, compound and blue nevi, survivin was present in nuclear localization, whereas in spitz nevi survivin was detectable in the cytoplasm.
  • In dermal and congenital nevi, survivin was present in both localizations with predominance of the nuclear compartment.
  • Our data demonstrate that although survivin is expressed in a large number of benign nevi, the balance between its cytoplasmic and nuclear expression was immensely heterogeneous between lesions with suspected different developmental origins.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Melanoma / chemistry. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15906050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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80. Gershtenson PC, Krunic A, Chen H, Konanahalli M, Worobec S: Subungual and periungual congenital blue naevus. Australas J Dermatol; 2009 May;50(2):144-7
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  • [Title] Subungual and periungual congenital blue naevus.
  • Blue naevus of the nail apparatus is a rare entity, with only ten cases described in the literature.
  • Initial biopsy was consistent with a blue naevus of the cellular type and, given the recent clinical change and periungual extension, complete excision was recommended.
  • Reconstruction was performed with a full-thickness skin graft.
  • We present a case of a congenital subungual and periungual blue naevus of the cellular type and review the literature on this rare presentation of a congenital blue naevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Nails / pathology. Nevus, Blue / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Skin Transplantation. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19397572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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81. Horenstein MG, Norton CL, Evans TN: Displacement of dermal solar elastosis in malignant melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):376-80
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  • [Title] Displacement of dermal solar elastosis in malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major environmental causal factor for skin malignancy.
  • In this study, we investigated the morphology of the solar elastosis (SE) band in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • METHODS: We measured the SE band in perilesional and lesional skin of 13 melanomas (9 invasive and 4 in situ) and 11 melanocytic nevi (5 usual intradermal nevi, 4 blue nevi and 2 desmoplastic nevi) occurring in sun-exposed areas.
  • RESULTS: The melanoma and nevus groups had similar age range, gender ratio and anatomic distribution.
  • The mean SE thickness was 0.35 mm in melanomas and 0.29 mm in nevi (p = 0.56), indicating similar UVR exposure.
  • There was a mean downward SE displacement (SED) of 0.43 mm in melanomas and essentially no displacement (-0.02 mm) in nevi (p < 0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SED may help in the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions in sun-exposed areas.
  • Conversely, the long-standing nevus co-exists with the SE band without significant displacement.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / complications. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Sunlight / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17448191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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82. Lobo AZ, Martin RM, Belda W Jr, Michi MM, Arnone M, Festa-Neo C, Sotto MN, Vilela MA, Sanches JA Jr: Disseminated blue naevus and malignant blue naevus associated with excessive aromatase syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Aug;33(5):591-4
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  • [Title] Disseminated blue naevus and malignant blue naevus associated with excessive aromatase syndrome.
  • We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who had a giant congenital blue naevus with multiple satellite pigmented lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Gynecomastia / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Diseases, Metabolic / complications. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18462445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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83. Hengge UR, Meurer M: [Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa]. Hautarzt; 2005 Jun;56(6):540-9
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  • They represent a spectrum of different benign entities.
  • A biopsy is always recommended when the diagnosis cannot be made with certainty on clinical examination and dermatoscopy.
  • Differential diagnostic considerations include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi and syndromes featuring lentigines.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Genital Diseases, Male / pathology. Hyperpigmentation / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15905972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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84. Kazakov DV, Michal M: Melanocytic "ball-in-mitts" and "microalveolar structures" and their role in the development of cellular blue nevi. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Jun;11(3):160-75
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  • [Title] Melanocytic "ball-in-mitts" and "microalveolar structures" and their role in the development of cellular blue nevi.
  • To test the hypothesis of whether cellular blue nevi (CBN) may originate from "ordinary" compound and dermal nevi, a total of 275 melanocytic nevi including 59 CBN, 34 ordinary blue nevi, 87 combined nevi (including 43 so-called clonal nevi), 35 deep penetrating nevi, and 60 ordinary compound and dermal nevi (30 of each) were studied for the presence of so-called ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures.
  • Microscopically, ball-in-mitt and microalveolar structures were detected in all types of nevi studied, with the highest incidence in combined nevi (82%), CBN (76%), and ordinary "nonblue" nevi (73%).
  • In CBN, ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures tended to be located in the deeper portion of the lesions, whereas in ordinary nonblue nevi, they were most often found superficially, just below the epidermis; in clonal nevi, these structures were often confined to the "clonal" parts.
  • Our study suggests that some or even most cases of CBN may evolve from ordinary nonblue nevi.
  • This process may involve several steps and is probably reflected by the appearances of combined nevi, deep penetrating nevi, and CBN.
  • These nevi often show a morphological overlap, and ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures found in various stages of their development seem to greatly account for this overlap.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nevus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17498590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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85. Birch-Johansen FH, Sjøstrand H, Lock-Andersen J: Malignant melanoma in association with or mimicking blue naevus. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg; 2010 Apr;44(2):118-20
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in association with or mimicking blue naevus.
  • Malignant blue naevus is a rare but highly aggressive form of cutaneous malignant melanoma, which spreads often and early to the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other organs.

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  • (PMID = 20158429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2073
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of plastic and reconstructive surgery and hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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86. Sokol JA, Clark JD, Lee HB, Nunery WR: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoid tumor of the ocular adnexa. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2010;47 Online:e1-4
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  • An 8-year-old girl with a history of microphthalmia in the right eye presented with a left medial upper eyelid mass with a dark blue-green nodule that could be seen through the skin but did not appear to involve the overlying epidermis.
  • A biopsy demonstrated a pigmented epithelioid melanocytoid tumor with rare mitoses arising in association with a congenital nevus and positive margins.
  • The re-excision of the upper eyelid margins demonstrated residual benign congenital melanocytic nevus, but did not reveal residual melanocytic lesion.
  • The parotid sentinel node biopsy revealed benign and cytologically mature nevus nests in the capsule and septa, but there was no evidence of involvement with the pigmented epithelioid melanocytoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 21162462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Naik V, Arsenovic N, Reed M: Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma: a rare multifocal variant with features suggesting trauma. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(9):6

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  • Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH) is a rare, benign cutaneous tumor characterized by proliferation of the eccrine gland elements closely associated with capillary angiomatosis and proliferation of other dermal elements, such as adipose tissue, hair and epidermis.
  • Clinically, this condition must be differentiated from other angiomatoses and a definitive diagnosis is based upon histology.
  • Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma is a benign slowly growing lesion for which aggressive treatment is not indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands / pathology. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Friction. Hemangioendothelioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin / injuries. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19930993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Mateus C, Palangié A, Franck N, Groussin L, Bertagna X, Avril MF, Bertherat J, Dupin N: Heterogeneity of skin manifestations in patients with Carney complex. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Nov;59(5):801-10
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  • [Title] Heterogeneity of skin manifestations in patients with Carney complex.
  • BACKGROUND: Carney complex is an autosomal dominant endocrine disorder associated with skin involvement.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the dermatological signs of patients diagnosed with Carney complex (CNC) or primary pigmented adrenocortical nodular disease (PPNAD).
  • Data collected were age at enrollment; sex; Fitzpatrick skin phototype; the presence, location, and density of classic CNC skin lesions--lentigines, freckles, blue nevi, cutaneous myxoma--and other non-disease-specific skin lesions.
  • Histopathologic analysis was carried out in cases in which the lesions were thought to be degenerative or to confirm the diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Twelve patients had lentiginosis (75%), 7 patients had blue nevi (43%), and 5 patients had cutaneous myxoma (31%).
  • Patients could be classified into 3 groups based on skin signs: patients with no prominent skin lesions (n = 3), patients with skin lesions that could not be directly linked to CNC (n = 4), and patients with cutaneous lesions suggestive of CNC (n = 9).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Skin manifestations are heterogeneous in patients with CNC, and skin phenotype seems to be correlated with endocrine phenotype.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Myxoma / genetics. Myxoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / genetics. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18804312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human
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89. Skowron F, Balme B: Large plaque-type blue naevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;34(8):e782-4
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  • [Title] Large plaque-type blue naevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules.
  • We report a new case of 'large plaque-type blue naevus (PTBN) with subcutaneous cellular nodules' involving the breast.
  • Histopathological examination revealed features of cellular and common blue naevus.
  • Dermatoscopy was performed, and the diagnosis of PTBN was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19817763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Bittencourt AL, Monteiro DA, De Pretto OJ: Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jan;60(1):82-4
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  • [Title] Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat.
  • METHODS: Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17213350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860607
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91. Pizzichetta MA, Massone C, Grandi G, Pelizzo G, Soyer HP: Morphologic changes of acquired melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") assessed by dermoscopy. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Apr;142(4):479-83
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  • [Title] Morphologic changes of acquired melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") assessed by dermoscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Melanocytic nevi with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation ("Bolognia sign") can be considered as a melanoma-simulating type of acquired melanocytic nevus.
  • We report on the morphologic changes of this type of melanocytic nevus over a 39-month period of dermoscopic follow-up.
  • OBSERVATIONS: A 5-year-old girl had a 4-mm brown papule with a peripheral blue-black area on her right upper arm.
  • The eccentric focus of the hyperpigmentation corresponded dermoscopically to a blue-gray area of pigmentation associated with irregular brown-black globules or dots and partially with a superficial black network.
  • After 39 months, a globular type of acquired melanocytic nevus was detectable, which clinically and dermoscopically appeared to be completely benign.
  • A nearly identical situation was observed in 5 other melanocytic nevi, underlining the involution of the pigmented foci in these nevi.
  • The histopathologic diagnoses of 2 lesions were consistent with a compound type of acquired melanocytic nevus with eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dermoscopy allows identification of a morphologic pathway of modifications, probably typical for this type of melanocytic nevus in children, and therefore enables avoidance of surgical excision with attendant hypertrophic scarring in children.
  • Conversely, in adults, when dermoscopic follow-up of melanocytic nevi reveals eccentric foci of hyperpigmentation, surgical excision of the lesion is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperpigmentation / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Dermoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Arch Dermatol. 2006 Apr;142(4):508 [16618873.001]
  • (PMID = 16618868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Theopold C, Pritchard S, McGrouther DA, Bayat A: Keloid scar harbouring malignant blue naevus emphasises the need for excision biopsy and routine histology. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2009 Jan;62(1):93-5
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  • [Title] Keloid scar harbouring malignant blue naevus emphasises the need for excision biopsy and routine histology.
  • We report the finding of a malignant blue naevus of 14.3 mm Breslow thickness in association with a keloid scar on the earlobe of an Afrocaribbean gentleman.
  • Malignant blue naevus is extremely rare and to date it has not been reported in association with keloid scars.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, External / pathology. Keloid / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18248862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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93. Florell SR, Thomas J, Grossman D: Predominant formation of heavily pigmented dermal melanocytomas resembling 'animal-type' melanomas in hepatocyte growth factor (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice following neonatal UV irradiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):667-74
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  • [Title] Predominant formation of heavily pigmented dermal melanocytomas resembling 'animal-type' melanomas in hepatocyte growth factor (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice following neonatal UV irradiation.
  • RESULTS: Of 54 primary tumors analyzed, most (49/54, 91%) demonstrated exclusively dermal collections of epithelioid cells with voluminous densely pigmented cytoplasm.
  • Staining with PEP8 confirmed the presence of interfollicular melanocytes at the dermal-epidermal junction in neonatal skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to HGF animals on an albino (FVB) background, HGF animals on the pigmented (C57BL/6 x C3H/HeN)F(1) background do not develop classic radial growth phase melanoma but rather predominantly develop dermal melanocytomas resembling the 'animal-type' melanoma occasionally seen in humans.

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  • (PMID = 17696912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR050102; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR17525; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K23 RR017525; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102-04; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR050102-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44275; NLM/ PMC2410209
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94. Urso C: Nodal melanocytic nevus with balloon-cell change (nodal balloon-cell nevus). J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):672-6
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  • [Title] Nodal melanocytic nevus with balloon-cell change (nodal balloon-cell nevus).
  • Most nodal nevi are intracapsular and present the morphology of conventional nevi; less frequently, they show the appearance of common and cellular blue nevi.
  • We report a case of an nodal capsular, trabecular and intraparenchymal melanocytic nevus with balloon-cell change in a patient with a malignant melanoma which arose in a pre-existing cutaneous giant congenital nevus, showing balloon-cell degeneration.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18312441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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95. Seidenari S, Pellacani G, Grana C: Pigment distribution in melanocytic lesion images: a digital parameter to be employed for computer-aided diagnosis. Skin Res Technol; 2005 Nov;11(4):236-41
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  • [Title] Pigment distribution in melanocytic lesion images: a digital parameter to be employed for computer-aided diagnosis.
  • Our aim was to automatically assess pigment distribution in images referring to MMs, atypical nevi (AN) and clearly benign nevi (BN), and to evaluate the diagnostic capability of numerical parameters describing a non homogeneous distribution of pigmentation.
  • METHODS: An image analysis program enabling the numerical assessment of pigment distribution in melanocytic lesions (ML), based on evaluation and comparison of red, green, blue (RGB) colour components inside image colour blocks, was employed on 459 videomicroscopic digital images, referring to 95 MMs, 76 AN and 288 BN.
  • For a D score equal to 0, corresponding to the best diagnostic accuracy (86.6%), a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 85.7% were obtained.
  • CONCLUSION: This original evaluation method for digital pigment distribution, based on mathematical description and comparison of colours in different image blocks, provides numerical parameters to be implemented in image analysis programs for computer-aided MM diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanins / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus / metabolism. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Colorimetry / methods. Dermoscopy / methods. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods. Microscopy, Video / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted. Skin Pigmentation. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16221139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0909-752X
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanins
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96. Titus-Ernstoff L, Perry AE, Spencer SK, Gibson JJ, Cole BF, Ernstoff MS: Pigmentary characteristics and moles in relation to melanoma risk. Int J Cancer; 2005 Aug 10;116(1):144-9
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  • Although benign and atypical moles are considered key melanoma risk factors, previous studies of their influence were small and/or institution-based.
  • Individuals of ages 20-69 with an incident diagnosis of first primary cutaneous melanoma were ascertained through the New Hampshire State Cancer Registry.
  • Our results showed that pigmentary factors, including eye color (OR = 1.57 for blue eyes compared to brown), hair color (OR = 1.85 for blonde/red hair color compared to brown/black), freckles before age 15 (OR = 2.39 for freckles present compared to absent) and sun sensitivity (OR = 2.25 for peeling sunburn followed by no tan or a light tan and 2.42 for sunburn followed by tan compared to tanning immediately), were related to melanoma risk; these associations held after adjustment for sun-related factors and for moles.
  • In analyses confined to skin examination participants, the covariate-adjusted effects of benign and atypical moles were moderately strong.
  • Compared to 0-4 benign moles, risk increased steadily for 5-14 moles (OR = 1.71), 15-24 moles (OR = 3.55) and >or= 25 moles (OR = 4.33).
  • Although risk was highest for those with multiple benign and atypical moles, the interaction was not of statistical significance.
  • Our findings, arising from the first population- and incidence-based study to evaluate atypical moles in relation to melanoma risk, confirm the importance of host susceptibility, represented by pigmentary factors and the tendency to develop benign or atypical moles, in the etiology of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / etiology. Nevus / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Pigmentation

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15761869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA66032
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Cochran AJ, Binder S, Morton DL: The role of lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the management of atypical and anomalous melanocytic lesions. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37 Suppl 1:54-9
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  • Atypical and anomalous melanocytic lesions are tumors that cannot be determined by microscopy to be certainly benign or fully malignant.
  • Lesions that fall into this category include atypical Spitzoid lesions, atypical cellular blue nevi, combined nevi, deep penetrating nevi, ancient nevi, desmoplastic nevi, balloon cell nevi and proliferation nodules of congenital nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphocytes / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20482676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA29605
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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98. Cheng Y, Swamisai R, Umbaugh SE, Moss RH, Stoecker WV, Teegala S, Srinivasan SK: Skin lesion classification using relative color features. Skin Res Technol; 2008 Feb;14(1):53-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skin lesion classification using relative color features.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Clinically, it is difficult to differentiate the early stage of malignant melanoma and certain benign skin lesions due to similarity in appearance.
  • Our research uses image analysis of clinical skin images and relative color-based pattern recognition techniques to enhance the images and improve differentiation of these lesions.
  • Finally, we used a statistical analysis model of relative color features, which better classifies the various types of skin lesions.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The best features found for differentiation of melanoma and benign skin lesions from this study are area, mean in the red and blue bands, standard deviation in the red and green bands, skewness in the green band, and entropy in the red band.
  • This showed an overall classification success of 79%, with 70% of the benign lesions successfully classified, and 86% of malignant melanoma successfully classified.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Neural Networks (Computer). Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Colorimetry / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Discriminant Analysis. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Models, Statistical. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Principal Component Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18211602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0909-752X
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS327051; NLM/ PMC3184884
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99. Cerroni L, Barnhill R, Elder D, Gottlieb G, Heenan P, Kutzner H, LeBoit PE, Mihm M Jr, Rosai J, Kerl H: Melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential: results of a tutorial held at the XXIX Symposium of the International Society of Dermatopathology in Graz, October 2008. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):314-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Several reports demonstrated the difficulties and lack of agreement in the histopathologic diagnosis of particular melanocytic tumors (atypical Spitz tumors, atypical blue nevi, deep penetrating nevi).
  • We studied a large number of such tumors to find out whether repeatable histopathologic criteria for distinction of benign from malignant cases exist.
  • Fifty-seven cases of MELTUMP were classified within 3 groups according to behavior as follows: (a) favorable (no evidence of metastatic disease after a follow-up of > or = 5 y), (b) unfavorable (tumor-related death and/or large metastatic deposits in the lymph nodes and/or visceral metastases), (c) borderline (small nodal deposits of tumor cells < or = 0.2 mm).
  • The major outcome of this study of a series of "MELTUMPs" suggests as a preliminary observation that these lesions as a group exist and that they may be biologically different from conventional melanoma and benign melanocytic nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Inflammation / pathology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Terminology as Topic. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20118771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Congresses
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Chuang WY, Hao SP, Yeh CJ, Jung SM: Blue nevi of the sinonasal mucosa: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Laryngoscope; 2007 Feb;117(2):371-2
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  • [Title] Blue nevi of the sinonasal mucosa: a report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • Blue nevi are uncommon melanocytic proliferations.
  • They occur mostly in the skin and occasionally in mucosae.
  • Blue nevi of the sinonasal mucosa are extremely rare with only two cases reported to date.
  • Compared with sinonasal malignant melanomas, which usually present as symptomatic tumors, sinonasal blue nevi are asymptomatic lesions found incidentally.
  • A biopsy is required for a definitive diagnosis.
  • Although none of the four cases had recurrence, given a rare but possible occurrence of malignant transformation in cutaneous blue nevi, complete excision with follow up should be the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17204994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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