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1. Howard B, Ragsdale B, Lundquist K: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: two case reports. Dermatol Online J; 2005;11(2):1
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  • [Title] Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: two case reports.
  • Because of indolent course without mortality, the term "pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma" has been suggested as a replacement for "equine" or "animal-type" melanoma and for the epithelioid blue nevus of the Carney type, from which they are histologically indistinguishable.
  • This paper also contains clinical photographs of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma, unlike prior reports.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16150209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Lobo AZ, Martin RM, Belda W Jr, Michi MM, Arnone M, Festa-Neo C, Sotto MN, Vilela MA, Sanches JA Jr: Disseminated blue naevus and malignant blue naevus associated with excessive aromatase syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Aug;33(5):591-4
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  • [Title] Disseminated blue naevus and malignant blue naevus associated with excessive aromatase syndrome.
  • We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who had a giant congenital blue naevus with multiple satellite pigmented lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Gynecomastia / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Diseases, Metabolic / complications. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18462445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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3. Urso C: Nodal melanocytic nevus with balloon-cell change (nodal balloon-cell nevus). J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):672-6
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  • [Title] Nodal melanocytic nevus with balloon-cell change (nodal balloon-cell nevus).
  • Most nodal nevi are intracapsular and present the morphology of conventional nevi; less frequently, they show the appearance of common and cellular blue nevi.
  • We report a case of an nodal capsular, trabecular and intraparenchymal melanocytic nevus with balloon-cell change in a patient with a malignant melanoma which arose in a pre-existing cutaneous giant congenital nevus, showing balloon-cell degeneration.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18312441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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4. Odashiro AN, Arthurs B, Pereira PR, Filho JP, Belfort E, Burnier MN Jr: Primary orbital melanoma associated with a blue nevus. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 May;21(3):247-8
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  • [Title] Primary orbital melanoma associated with a blue nevus.
  • After surgical excision, the histopathologic examination revealed a malignant melanoma with a predominant epithelioid cell type, probably arising in a blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Orbit Evisceration. Pain / diagnosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vision Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15942508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Hengge UR, Meurer M: [Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa]. Hautarzt; 2005 Jun;56(6):540-9
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  • They represent a spectrum of different benign entities.
  • A biopsy is always recommended when the diagnosis cannot be made with certainty on clinical examination and dermatoscopy.
  • Differential diagnostic considerations include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi and syndromes featuring lentigines.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Genital Diseases, Male / pathology. Hyperpigmentation / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15905972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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6. Birch-Johansen FH, Sjøstrand H, Lock-Andersen J: Malignant melanoma in association with or mimicking blue naevus. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg; 2010 Apr;44(2):118-20
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in association with or mimicking blue naevus.
  • Malignant blue naevus is a rare but highly aggressive form of cutaneous malignant melanoma, which spreads often and early to the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and other organs.

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  • (PMID = 20158429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2073
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of plastic and reconstructive surgery and hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Cerroni L, Barnhill R, Elder D, Gottlieb G, Heenan P, Kutzner H, LeBoit PE, Mihm M Jr, Rosai J, Kerl H: Melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential: results of a tutorial held at the XXIX Symposium of the International Society of Dermatopathology in Graz, October 2008. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):314-26
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  • [Title] Melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential: results of a tutorial held at the XXIX Symposium of the International Society of Dermatopathology in Graz, October 2008.
  • Several reports demonstrated the difficulties and lack of agreement in the histopathologic diagnosis of particular melanocytic tumors (atypical Spitz tumors, atypical blue nevi, deep penetrating nevi).
  • We studied a large number of such tumors to find out whether repeatable histopathologic criteria for distinction of benign from malignant cases exist.
  • Fifty-seven cases of MELTUMP were classified within 3 groups according to behavior as follows: (a) favorable (no evidence of metastatic disease after a follow-up of > or = 5 y), (b) unfavorable (tumor-related death and/or large metastatic deposits in the lymph nodes and/or visceral metastases), (c) borderline (small nodal deposits of tumor cells < or = 0.2 mm).
  • The major outcome of this study of a series of "MELTUMPs" suggests as a preliminary observation that these lesions as a group exist and that they may be biologically different from conventional melanoma and benign melanocytic nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Inflammation / pathology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Terminology as Topic. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


8. Kudva R, Hegde P: Blue nevus of the prostate. Indian J Urol; 2010 Apr;26(2):301-2
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  • [Title] Blue nevus of the prostate.

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  • (PMID = 20877617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2938563
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9. Ojha J, Akers JL, Akers JO, Hassanein AM, Islam NM, Cohen DM, Bhattacharyya I: Intraoral cellular blue nevus: report of a unique histopathologic entity and review of the literature. Cutis; 2007 Sep;80(3):189-92
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  • [Title] Intraoral cellular blue nevus: report of a unique histopathologic entity and review of the literature.
  • The blue nevus is found most frequently on the skin; however, in rare instances, it has been reported on oral mucous membranes.
  • Intramucosal nevi make up more than one half of all reported intraoral melanocytic nevi.
  • The common blue nevus is the second most common variant.
  • Among the 3 variants of blue nevi, the cellular variant occurs less frequently than the common and combined variants.
  • We present a rare case of intraoral cellular blue nevus that occurred on the oral mucosa of the hard palate.
  • Because of the clinical and microscopic resemblance of the cellular blue nevus to melanoma and the rarity of this lesion in the oral cavity, recognition and accurate diagnosis are critical.
  • [MeSH-major] Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17956006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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10. Vetter-Kauczok CS, Becker JC, Bröcker EB: Sclerosing 'mucinous' blue nevus: a clinical simulator of dermatofibroma. Clin Med Pathol; 2008;1:15-6
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  • [Title] Sclerosing 'mucinous' blue nevus: a clinical simulator of dermatofibroma.

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  • (PMID = 21876647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-1181
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3160009
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; mucin / nevus / sclerotic
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11. Scolyer RA, Murali R, McCarthy SW, Thompson JF: Histologically ambiguous ("borderline") primary cutaneous melanocytic tumors: approaches to patient management including the roles of molecular testing and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Dec;134(12):1770-7
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  • It is well recognized that the pathologic diagnosis of melanocytic tumors can sometimes be difficult.
  • For some atypical melanocytic tumors that do not display clear-cut features of malignancy, it may be difficult or impossible to exclude a diagnosis of melanoma; this includes those showing some resemblance to Spitz nevi, blue nevi, deep penetrating nevi, and possible nevoid melanomas.
  • When there is uncertainty about whether a primary melanocytic tumor is a nevus or a melanoma, we recommend that a second opinion be sought from one or more experienced colleagues.
  • If diagnostic uncertainty persists, the evidence for or against the various differential diagnostic considerations should be presented in the pathology report and a "most likely" or "favored" diagnosis given.
  • Molecular testing of the primary tumor by using techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization or fluorescence in situ hybridization may assist in establishing a diagnosis of melanoma if multiple chromosomal aberrations are identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012 Oct;136(10):1181-3 [23020718.001]
  • (PMID = 21128774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Wang SQ, Dusza SW, Scope A, Braun RP, Kopf AW, Marghoob AA: Differences in dermoscopic images from nonpolarized dermoscope and polarized dermoscope influence the diagnostic accuracy and confidence level: a pilot study. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Oct;34(10):1389-95
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  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate whether diagnosis and diagnostic confidence changes when viewing dermoscopic images from NPDs and PDs.
  • Twenty-five pigmented lesions were shown in the study, consisting of 7 seborrheic keratoses (SK), 3 basal cell carcinomas, 2 atypical nevi, 5 malignant melanomas (MM), 3 dermatofibromas, 3 blue nevi, and 2 hemangiomas.
  • Significant differences in the diagnoses were observed for the SK, atypical nevus, and MM images.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Viewing lesions with NPD versus PD can affect the diagnosis and diagnostic confidence of physicians that are novices with dermoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / instrumentation. Skin Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Microscopy, Polarization. Pigmentation Disorders / diagnosis. Pilot Projects. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


13. Iglesias C, Torrelo A, Colmenero I, Mediero IG, Zambrano A, Requena L: Isolated multiple congenital epithelioid blue naevus. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Feb;152(2):391-3
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  • [Title] Isolated multiple congenital epithelioid blue naevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital

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  • (PMID = 15727672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Jakobiec FA, Nguyen J, Bhat P, Fay A: Recurrent blue nevus of the corneoscleral limbus. Cornea; 2010 Aug;29(8):947-51
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  • [Title] Recurrent blue nevus of the corneoscleral limbus.
  • PURPOSE: To describe an unusual corneoscleral blue nevus.
  • The Ki-67 proliferation index was very low (0.05%), supporting a benign diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Careful histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of recurrent, incompletely excised, blue nevi can determine if they remain benign.
  • [MeSH-major] Corneal Diseases / surgery. Eye Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nevus, Blue / surgery. Scleral Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20508501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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15. Bogart MM, Bivens MM, Patterson JW, Russell MA: Blue nevi: a case report and review of the literature. Cutis; 2007 Jul;80(1):42-4
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  • [Title] Blue nevi: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Blue nevi can present clinically as blue, gray, brown, or black solitary nodules or plaques on the skin.
  • We present a case of a cellular blue nevus in a 55-year-old white man that presented as an enlarging blue-gray nodule on the right dorsal foot.
  • These cases can be challenging both clinically and histologically because malignant melanoma or malignant transformation of a blue nevus should be considered.
  • We review the various types of blue nevi and the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17725063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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16. Anderco D, Lazăr E, Tăban S, Miclea F, Dema A: Prostatic blue nevus. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2010;51(3):555-7
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  • [Title] Prostatic blue nevus.
  • We report the case of a 69-year-old patient with no significant personal urological history.
  • The histological routine examination in conjunction with the histochemical (Fontana-Masson) and immunohistochemical (S100, HMB45) reactions established the diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus.
  • The presence of melanin in prostatic tissue is an unusual aspect, being encountered three distinct lesions: blue nevus, melanosis and malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20809037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins
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17. Casanova D, Boon LM, Vikkula M: [Venous malformations: clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2006 Aug-Oct;51(4-5):373-87
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  • [Title] [Venous malformations: clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis].
  • VM are often sporadic and isolated, however, they can be associated with other malformations and be part of a syndrome; Klippel-Trenaunay (capillary-lymphatico-venous malformation with limb hypertrophy) is the most common.
  • Clinical diagnosis of VM is often made in the presence of a bluish cutaneous lesion: however, other lesions can mimick VM.
  • The most frequent anomalies are a blue naevus, a hemorrhagic lymphatic malformation, a sub-cutaneous hemangioma or even the presence of dilated superficial normal veins due to underlying venous stenoses.
  • This chapter will detail the clinical characteristics of venous anomalies and their differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Capillaries / abnormalities. Diagnosis, Differential. Enchondromatosis / diagnosis. Glomus Tumor / diagnosis. Humans. Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome / diagnosis. Lithiasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Vessels / abnormalities. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Syndrome. Varicose Veins / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17007984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0294-1260
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Plast Esthet
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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18. Grosshans E, Bourlond J, Cribier B: [Nevocytic nevi associated elastic fibers hyperplasia: a type of "twin nevus"]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 May;133(5 Pt 1):435-8
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  • [Title] [Nevocytic nevi associated elastic fibers hyperplasia: a type of "twin nevus"].
  • [Transliterated title] Naevus naevocellulaires avec hyperplasie des fibres élastiques: une forme de naevus jumelé.
  • BACKGROUND: In common intradermal or compound nevi, nevocytes may be associated with other kinds of cells, tissues or lesions.
  • CASE-REPORTS AND RESULTS: In 11 nevi (10 intradermal or compound nevi and 1 blue nevus), we observed striking hyperplasia of the elastic fibers strictly limited to the nevi, with normal aspect of the elastic fibers in the surrounding reticular dermis.
  • These fibers were thicker than normal elastic fibers and showed tight connexions with nevus cells.
  • It was correlated neither with the age and sex of patients nor with the site of the excised nevi.
  • It was seen in 0.1% of excised nevi.
  • DISCUSSION: Hyperplasia of elastic fibers in some common nevi is a curiosity which may be classified together with other vascular, nervous, epithelial or connective twin lesions occasionally associated with the nevocytic nevi.
  • It has to be added to the list of so-called "twin nevi".
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16760829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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19. Moshaver A, Puttagunta L, Seikaly H: Malignant blue nevus of the parotid gland: A case report. Head Neck; 2006 Oct;28(10):960-2
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  • [Title] Malignant blue nevus of the parotid gland: A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant blue nevus is a highly aggressive tumor arising from a background of benign blue nevus.
  • We report the first case of blue nevus of the parotid gland and its malignant transformation within this gland.
  • Features compatible with blue nevus with focal region of atypical mitotic activity were evident.
  • The diagnosis of malignant blue nevus was confirmed by immunohistochemical studies.
  • RESULTS: We report the first case of malignant transformation of blue nevus within the parotid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found this lesion to be highly aggressive and to have metastasized shortly after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16906514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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20. Kazakov DV, Michal M: Melanocytic "ball-in-mitts" and "microalveolar structures" and their role in the development of cellular blue nevi. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Jun;11(3):160-75
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  • [Title] Melanocytic "ball-in-mitts" and "microalveolar structures" and their role in the development of cellular blue nevi.
  • To test the hypothesis of whether cellular blue nevi (CBN) may originate from "ordinary" compound and dermal nevi, a total of 275 melanocytic nevi including 59 CBN, 34 ordinary blue nevi, 87 combined nevi (including 43 so-called clonal nevi), 35 deep penetrating nevi, and 60 ordinary compound and dermal nevi (30 of each) were studied for the presence of so-called ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures.
  • Microscopically, ball-in-mitt and microalveolar structures were detected in all types of nevi studied, with the highest incidence in combined nevi (82%), CBN (76%), and ordinary "nonblue" nevi (73%).
  • In CBN, ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures tended to be located in the deeper portion of the lesions, whereas in ordinary nonblue nevi, they were most often found superficially, just below the epidermis; in clonal nevi, these structures were often confined to the "clonal" parts.
  • Our study suggests that some or even most cases of CBN may evolve from ordinary nonblue nevi.
  • This process may involve several steps and is probably reflected by the appearances of combined nevi, deep penetrating nevi, and CBN.
  • These nevi often show a morphological overlap, and ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures found in various stages of their development seem to greatly account for this overlap.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nevus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17498590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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21. Ramírez M, López Gutiérrez JC, Diaz M, Soto C, Miguel M, de la Torre Ramos CA, Barrena S, Ros Z, Tovar JA: [Bean or blue rubber blue nevus syndrome. Presentation of 6 patients]. Cir Pediatr; 2010 Oct;23(4):241-4
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  • [Title] [Bean or blue rubber blue nevus syndrome. Presentation of 6 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de bean o Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. presentación de 6 pacientes.
  • INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Bean or Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (BRBNS) is an uncommon disease characterized by multifocal venous malformations that predominantly affect the skin, soft tissues and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Our objective is to familiarize the pediatric surgeon with this condition, promoting early diagnosis and seriated surgical treatment as therapeutic options.
  • We have reviewed the diagnosis and treatment of 6 patients treated from 1993 to 2009.
  • After, characteristic skin lesions appeared as well as chronic anemia due to digestive bleeding associated to hypofibrinogenemia.
  • The diagnosis of the disease was made by endoscopically.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms. Nevus, Blue. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21520558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome
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22. Ferrara G, Soyer HP, Malvehy J, Piccolo D, Puig S, Sopena J, Zalaudek I, Argenziano G: The many faces of blue nevus: a clinicopathologic study. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jul;34(7):543-51
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  • [Title] The many faces of blue nevus: a clinicopathologic study.
  • BACKGROUND: In recent years, several histopathologic variants of blue nevus have been identified, whose clinical and dermoscopic correlates need further clarification.
  • METHODS: A comparative evaluation of histopathologic and dermoscopic features was carried out on 52 melanocytic proliferations belonging to the morphologic spectrum of blue nevus.
  • RESULTS: On dermoscopy, all lesions showed a homogeneous, structureless pigment pattern, with a curious variety of colors (blue, white-blue, black, brown, and polychromatic).
  • Histopathologically, the majority of blue lesions were common blue nevi (11/19); the majority of white-blue lesions were 'hypochromic' (sclerotic, hypomelanotic, and amelanotic) blue nevi (17/22); all the black lesions were 'compound' blue nevi (2/2); the majority of brown lesions were combined blue nevi (3/4); the unusual polychromatic dermoscopic appearance was often associated with a histopathologic diagnosis of deep penetrating nevus (2/5).
  • CONCLUSION: A dermoscopic-pathologic approach now allows us to identify 'blue' (common) blue nevi, 'white' (hypochromic) blue nevi, 'black' (compound) blue nevi, 'brown' (combined) blue nevi, and 'polychromatic' (deep penetrating) blue nevi.
  • A better recognition of the many dermoscopic faces of blue nevi is expected to give a morphologic guideline for the clinical management of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


23. Fistarol SK, Itin PH: Plaque-type blue nevus of the oral cavity. Dermatology; 2005;211(3):224-33
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  • [Title] Plaque-type blue nevus of the oral cavity.
  • BACKGROUND: The blue nevus of the oral cavity is a rare lesion with important differential diagnoses.
  • The plaque-type blue nevus is an uncommon variant of the blue nevus.
  • The diagnosis usually requires a biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and histological features of a plaque-type blue nevus of the buccal mucosa in a 20-year-old white woman, to review all intraoral blue nevi and all plaque-type blue nevi reported in the literature so far and to compare the criteria of blue nevi and nevus of Ota.
  • RESULTS: An intraoral blue nevus was described for the first time in 1959.
  • Our case is the first report of a plaque-type blue nevus of the oral cavity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The exceptional widespread intraoral blue nevus described herein can clinically be confused with an intraoral malignant melanoma, and it has a very similar clinical appearance as the intraoral part of nevus of Ota.
  • Apart from the clinical resemblance, there is also some degree of histological overlap of the dermal melanocytoses.
  • Transitional states between blue nevus and nevus of Ota may occur clinically and histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nevus of Ota / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16205067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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24. Marques YM, de Lima Mde D, Raitz R, Pinto Ddos S Jr, de Sousa SO: Blue nevus: report of a case. Gen Dent; 2009 Jan-Feb;57(1):e1-3
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  • [Title] Blue nevus: report of a case.
  • Blue nevus is a benign, acquired melanocytic lesion that typically manifests as an asymptomatic, slate-blue or blue-black, smooth-surfaced macule or papule.
  • Intraoral melanocytic nevi are uncommon compared to those found in the skin, with the exception of the blue nevus.
  • The blue nevus is proportionally more prevalent in oral mucosa and represents the second most common form of nevus, accounting for 16.5% to 36% of all oral nevi.
  • The palate is the predominant location for blue nevi, accounting for 87% of all oral cases, although other lesions are found in this region as well.
  • This paper presents a case of common blue nevus of the hard palate in a 76-year-old woman, describes the clinical and histological aspects of the nevus, and discusses the difference between benign and malignant melanocytic lesion in the palate.
  • [MeSH-major] Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Palate, Hard. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21466995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Antonucci A, Bardazzi F, Balestri R, Misciali C: Atypical presentation of a blue naevus at the tip of the nose. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2010 Jun;35(4):e177-9
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  • [Title] Atypical presentation of a blue naevus at the tip of the nose.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20518907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Urso C, Tinacci G: Angiomatoid cellular blue nevus: a variant of blue nevus with an angioma-like appearance. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 May;32(5):385-7
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  • [Title] Angiomatoid cellular blue nevus: a variant of blue nevus with an angioma-like appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15811128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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27. Barnhill RL, Cerroni L, Cook M, Elder DE, Kerl H, LeBoit PE, McCarthy SW, Mihm MC, Mooi WJ, Piepkorn MW, Prieto VG, Scolyer RA: State of the art, nomenclature, and points of consensus and controversy concerning benign melanocytic lesions: outcome of an international workshop. Adv Anat Pathol; 2010 Mar;17(2):73-90
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  • [Title] State of the art, nomenclature, and points of consensus and controversy concerning benign melanocytic lesions: outcome of an international workshop.
  • The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a one-day International Workshop focusing on the histology of benign melanocytic nevi.
  • Areas of controversy identified in 6 focus sessions were the nomenclature and relationships among common nevi including nevi with halo reactions, traumatized nevi, "dysplastic" nevi, and nevi from particular anatomic sites; developmental biology and frequency of malignant transformation associated with congenital nevi; the characterization and biologic nature of atypical spitzoid neoplasms; the basic definition of particular melanocytic cellular phenotypes, and the nomenclature and biologic nature of many candidate blue nevi, combined nevi, and other controversial lesions such as deep penetrating nevus and pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Consensus Development Conferences as Topic. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / classification. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / congenital. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Adv Anat Pathol. 2012 Sep;19(5):348; author reply 348-9 [22885384.001]
  • (PMID = 20179431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Craddock KJ, Bandarchi B, Khalifa MA: Blue nevi of the Müllerian tract: case series and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2007 Oct;11(4):284-9
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  • [Title] Blue nevi of the Müllerian tract: case series and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Blue nevi are rare in the cervix and vagina.
  • Because of their rarity (3 previous cases in the literature), vaginal blue nevi have not previously been studied with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis.
  • DESIGN: We describe 3 cases of blue nevus occurring in the Müllerian tract, 1 in the vagina and 2 in the endocervix.
  • RESULTS: The vaginal lesion was seen during routine examination of a 40-year-old woman.
  • The endocervical blue nevi were incidental findings in hysterectomies performed for leiomyomata and endometrial serous carcinoma in women aged 44 and 57 years, respectively.
  • All 3 cases showed loose aggregates of cytologically benign, pigmented, dendritic spindle cells in the superficial stroma.
  • Compared with the endocervical lesions, the vaginal nevus cells were more heavily pigmented, and on electron microscopy, a greater proportion of stage IV melanosomes were seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings in a vaginal blue nevus, which confirm that it is of a similar nature to the endocervical blue nevi.
  • Ultrastructurally, our results support a melanocytic rather than Schwannian origin for Müllerian blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology


29. Kaplan PA, Griffo MD, Diaz-Arias AA: Melanosis of the uterine cervix: a case report. J Reprod Med; 2005 Nov;50(11):867-70
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  • BACKGROUND: Melanosis of the uterine cervix is a rare, benign, melanocytic lesion of the cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: The existence of this entity is further evidence of a spectrum of melanocytic lesions, including blue nevi and primary melanomas, known to occur within the cervix proper.

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  • (PMID = 16419638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Kutzner H, Schärer L, Requena L: [Epithelioid and hyperpigmented melanocytic tumors. An overview]. Pathologe; 2007 Nov;28(6):411-21
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  • Spindle cell and epithelioid cell differentiation occur in both benign and malignant hyperpigmented melanocytic lesions.
  • Reed nevus is characterized by compact, sharply circumscribed junctional cellular nests composed of slender hyperpigmented melanocytes shaped like spindle cells.
  • Deep penetrating nevus is characterized by a diffuse dermal proliferation composed of small nests and fascicles of pale ovoid and epithelioid melanocytes.
  • Cellular blue nevi often have a characteristic hourglass or dumbbell shape, with sharply circumscribed elongated nests and fascicles of pale, densely layered ovoid melanocytes and adjacent melanophages.
  • Epithelioid blue nevus is characterized by large epithelioid melanocytes with abundant cytoplasm and melanin often concentrated to some degree in the cell membrane.
  • Morphologically, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma combines characteristics of both animal-type melanoma and pigmented epithelioid nevus.
  • Malignant melanoma may occur in conjunction with a preexistent blue nevus.
  • Malignant blue nevus is now regarded as a malignant melanoma mimicking a blue nevus in structure and pattern.
  • It is therefore of paramount importance to view multiple mitoses within a cellular blue nevus-like proliferation as an alarm signal as they are usually indicators of a malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Melanoma, Experimental / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17899087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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31. Zyrek-Betts J, Micale M, Lineen A, Chaudhuri PK, Keil S, Xue J, Thomas JE: Malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):651-7
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  • [Title] Malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant blue nevi arise within cellular blue nevi and contain atypical mitoses, necrosis, nuclear pleomorphism and prominent nucleoli.
  • Malignant blue nevus has been described as a distinct identity, a rare form of malignant melanoma, and a misdiagnosed melanoma.
  • METHODS: We present a patient with metastatic malignant blue nevus and studies on the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of the neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed a malignant blue nevus arising in a combined intradermal and cellular blue nevus.
  • CD117 (c-kit) staining showed diffuse cytoplasmic expression within the cellular blue nevus, decreased staining in the malignant component, and variable positivity within the lymph node metastases.
  • Molecular loss of heterozygosity analysis showed different allelic patterns at the hOGG-1 locus between the melanoma and control skin specimens with a varying heterozygous allelic pattern in both the benign and malignant blue nevus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our case of malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastasis involved mutation of the hOGG-1 DNA repair gene.
  • CD117 showed decreased staining of the primary malignant blue nevus with marked upregulation in the metastatic lesion, unlike most metastatic melanomas.
  • Further study is needed to determine if hOGG-1 mutation or c-kit upregulation play a role in the pathogenesis of dendritic melanocytic lesions (either benign or malignant).
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Glycosylases / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Loss of Heterozygosity. Nevus, Blue. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Melanoma / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Scalp / pathology. Skin / pathology. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17976211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / oxoguanine glycosylase 1, human
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32. Harrison-Balestra C, Gugic D, Vincek V: Clinically distinct form of acquired dermal melanocytosis with review of published work. J Dermatol; 2007 Mar;34(3):178-82
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  • [Title] Clinically distinct form of acquired dermal melanocytosis with review of published work.
  • Dermal melanocytosis is most commonly found in the skin of Asians and other darkly pigmented people.
  • It is histologically characterized by the presence of dermal melanocytes, with or without presence of dermal melanophages.
  • Mongolian spot, nevus of Ito, nevus of Ota, nevus of Hori, and blue nevus are most common and represent distinct types of dermal melanocytosis.
  • Other clinical patterns of acquired dermal melanocytosis have also been described.
  • Herein, we report a unique case of acquired dermal melanocytosis diffusely affecting the entire back of a 50-year old African-American male and also review and discuss various patterns of unusual acquired dermal melanocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17291298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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33. Horenstein MG, Norton CL, Evans TN: Displacement of dermal solar elastosis in malignant melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):376-80
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  • [Title] Displacement of dermal solar elastosis in malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major environmental causal factor for skin malignancy.
  • In this study, we investigated the morphology of the solar elastosis (SE) band in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions.
  • METHODS: We measured the SE band in perilesional and lesional skin of 13 melanomas (9 invasive and 4 in situ) and 11 melanocytic nevi (5 usual intradermal nevi, 4 blue nevi and 2 desmoplastic nevi) occurring in sun-exposed areas.
  • RESULTS: The melanoma and nevus groups had similar age range, gender ratio and anatomic distribution.
  • The mean SE thickness was 0.35 mm in melanomas and 0.29 mm in nevi (p = 0.56), indicating similar UVR exposure.
  • There was a mean downward SE displacement (SED) of 0.43 mm in melanomas and essentially no displacement (-0.02 mm) in nevi (p < 0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SED may help in the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions in sun-exposed areas.
  • Conversely, the long-standing nevus co-exists with the SE band without significant displacement.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / complications. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Sunlight / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17448191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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34. Litak J, Behroozan D, Binder S: Co-existing basal cell carcinoma and blue nevus in an African-American woman. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36(10):1114-6
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  • [Title] Co-existing basal cell carcinoma and blue nevus in an African-American woman.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma juxtaposed to a blue nevus.
  • Interestingly, the most common types of cutaneous collision tumors include melanocytic nevus and basal cell carcinoma.
  • This is the first documented case of a basal cell carcinoma co-existing alone with a blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19602062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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35. Ribé A: Melanocytic lesions of the genital area with attention given to atypical genital nevi. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Nov;35 Suppl 2:24-7
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  • [Title] Melanocytic lesions of the genital area with attention given to atypical genital nevi.
  • These pigmented lesions include melanocytic nevi, lentigines, melanocytic nevi with architectural disorder and atypia of melanocytes (dysplastic nevi) and melanomas with microscopic features similar to those seen elsewhere on the body.
  • There is a small subset of benign nevi named atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type (AMNGT) that occur in young women, with distinctive histologic features in some cases overlapping morphologically with those of melanoma.
  • Thirty-two cases (55%) were common nevi, 10 (17%) lentigines, 6 (10%) melanomas, 3 (5%) dysplastic nevi and 1 blue nevus.
  • The junctional component was very prominent and formed by round or fusiform nests with common retraction artifact and/or cellular dyshesion or as a single cell proliferation with mild (33%) to moderate (67%) cytologic atypia, focal pagetoid spread (17%) and a benign-appearing dermal component (83%) with maturation and dense eosinophilic fibrosis in the superficial dermis.
  • Neither nuclear atypia of melanocytes in the superficial dermis nor dermal mitoses were observed.
  • Therefore, it seems that there is no evidence that AMNGT are precursors of dysplastic nevi or melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18976416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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36. Conrad DM, Chaplin A, Walsh NM, Pasternak S: Extensive neurocristic hamartoma with bone marrow involvement. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jul;32(5):486-8
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  • In addition to a dermal melanocytic component, NCH can also harbor neurosustentacular and neuromesenchymal components.
  • NCH has many features in common with other dermal melanocytic neoplasm, such as blue nevi.
  • We report a case of a 17-year-old man with a large NCH resected from the posterior scalp showing involvement of the bone marrow.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Neural Crest / pathology. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20414093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Ferrari A, Lozzi GP, Fargnoli MC, Peris K: Dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus in childhood. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Nov;31(11 Pt 1):1448-50
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  • [Title] Dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: A combined nevus most commonly consists of a blue nevus in combination with a Clark or Spitz nevus.
  • Dermoscopically, combined nevus can mimic melanoma owing to the presence of dermoscopic features common to both types of lesions.
  • Benign clinical and dermoscopic changes can occur in nevi over time, especially in children and young adults.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the dermoscopic evolution of a congenital combined nevus showing unusual dermoscopic features.
  • RESULTS: An asymptomatic plaque with a central blue area and peripheral brown pigmentation located on the back of a 13-year-old boy was diagnosed dermoscopically as combined nevus.
  • Dermoscopic analysis 8 months later showed color changes from steel blue to gray-blue and black in the central area of the lesion, an increased number of blue-black dots or globules, and peripheral irregular streaks.
  • Histopathology revealed typical features of a congenital combined nevus (blue nevus + compound nevus).
  • CONCLUSION: Over time, congenital combined nevus may show clinical and dermoscopic changes in size, color, and structure.
  • Surgical excision is recommended when clinical and dermoscopic features are equivocal and the diagnosis of melanoma cannot be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Back. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16416618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Pouryazdanparast P, Newman M, Mafee M, Haghighat Z, Guitart J, Gerami P: Distinguishing epithelioid blue nevus from blue nevus-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1396-400
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  • [Title] Distinguishing epithelioid blue nevus from blue nevus-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis using fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • Blue nevus (BN)-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis is a well-recognized variant of melanoma metastasis.
  • These lesions may clinically and histologically simulate benign blue nevi.
  • The histologic changes may be indistinguishable from conventional blue nevi or epithelioid blue nevi (EBN), a benign dermal-based melanocytic neoplasm with epithelioid morphology and heavily pigmented cytoplasm.
  • Distinguishing BN-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis from benign conventional or EBN is important for staging and treatment.
  • FISH enumeration and criteria for diagnosis of melanoma was as previously described.
  • None of the EBN cases showed evidence of significant copy number changes or met FISH criteria for a diagnosis of melanoma.
  • The test and the parameters previously established can perform with high sensitivity and specificity when dealing with this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chromosome Aberrations. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Young Adult


39. Price HN, Schaffer JV: Congenital melanocytic nevi-when to worry and how to treat: Facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol; 2010 May-Jun;28(3):293-302
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  • [Title] Congenital melanocytic nevi-when to worry and how to treat: Facts and controversies.
  • Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are evident in 1% to 6% of neonates.
  • In some studies, nevi with clinical, dermatoscopic, and histologic features identical to CMN have had a prevalence of more than 15% in older children and adults, possibly reflecting the "tardive" appearance of nevi programmed from birth.
  • We review the natural history of CMN, including proliferative nodules and erosions during infancy, neurotization, and spontaneous regression, and features of variants such as speckled lentiginous and congenital blue nevi.
  • Melanoma and neurocutaneous melanocytosis (NCM) are most likely in patients with CMN that have a final size of >40 cm in diameter, numerous satellite nevi, and a truncal location.
  • Management of CMN depends on such factors as the ease of monitoring (more difficult for large, dark, thick nevi) and cosmetic and psychologic benefits of excision or other procedures.
  • Periodic total body skin examinations are necessary for all patients with large CMN, even when complete resection (often impossible) has been attempted.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / etiology. Nevus, Pigmented / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20541682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1131
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Gilaberte Y, Vera J, Coscojuela C, Roca MJ, Parrado C, González S: [Expression of galanin in melanocytic tumors]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Jan-Feb;98(1):24-34
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  • [Transliterated title] Estudio sobre la expresión de galanina en tumores melanocitarios.
  • Galanin and its receptors are present in human skin.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of galanin in cutaneous melanomas and melanocytic nevi and correlate it with alpha-MSH expression and several prognostic factors for melanoma.
  • Different types of melanocytic nevi were also analyzed.
  • RESULTS: A total of 130 pigmented lesions were studied: 38 primary cutaneous melanomas, 6 cutaneous melanoma metastases and 86 melanocytic nevi.
  • Immunostaining with galanin and alpha-MSH was significantly higher in melanomas than in melanocytic nevi (p < 0.001), although spindle cell and blue nevi showed significant expression of alpha-MSH.
  • [MeSH-major] Galanin / biosynthesis. Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17374330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88813-36-9 / Galanin
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41. Vetter CS, Müller-Blech K, Schrama D, Bröcker EB, Becker JC: Cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of survivin in melanocytic skin lesions. Arch Dermatol Res; 2005 Jul;297(1):26-30
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  • [Title] Cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of survivin in melanocytic skin lesions.
  • In the present study, we compared the expression of survivin in melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions such as junctional, compound, dermal, congenital, blue and spitz nevi.
  • In junctional, compound and blue nevi, survivin was present in nuclear localization, whereas in spitz nevi survivin was detectable in the cytoplasm.
  • In dermal and congenital nevi, survivin was present in both localizations with predominance of the nuclear compartment.
  • Our data demonstrate that although survivin is expressed in a large number of benign nevi, the balance between its cytoplasmic and nuclear expression was immensely heterogeneous between lesions with suspected different developmental origins.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Melanoma / chemistry. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15906050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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42. Sack J, Demierre MF: What's your assessment? Primary melanoma arising in association with a blue nevus. Dermatol Nurs; 2008 Apr;20(2):113
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  • [Title] What's your assessment? Primary melanoma arising in association with a blue nevus.

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  • (PMID = 18549126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-3441
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Nurs
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Zembowicz A, Knoepp SM, Bei T, Stergiopoulos S, Eng C, Mihm MC, Stratakis CA: Loss of expression of protein kinase a regulatory subunit 1alpha in pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma but not in melanoma or other melanocytic lesions. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1764-75
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  • [Title] Loss of expression of protein kinase a regulatory subunit 1alpha in pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma but not in melanoma or other melanocytic lesions.
  • Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM) is a recently described entity comprising most cases previously described as "animal-type melanoma" and epithelioid blue nevus (EBN) occurring in patients with the multiple neoplasia syndrome Carney complex (CNC).
  • Histologic analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with R1alpha antibody were performed on 34 sporadic PEMs, 8 CNC-associated PEMs from patients with known PRKAR1A mutations, 297 benign and malignant melanocytic tumors (127 conventional sections of 10 compound nevi, 10 Spitz nevi, 5 deep-penetrating nevi, 5 blue nevi, 6 cellular blue nevi, 2 malignant blue nevi, 3 lentigo maligna, and 86 melanomas of various types); in addition, 170 tissue microarray sections consisting of 35 benign nevi, 60 primary melanomas, and 75 metastatic melanomas, and 5 equine dermal melanomas, were examined.
  • They also suggest that PEM differs from melanomas in equine melanotic disease, further arguing that the term animal-type melanoma may be a misnomer for this group of lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / analysis. Horse Diseases / enzymology. Melanocytes / enzymology. Melanoma / enzymology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / enzymology. Nevus, Blue / enzymology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Diagnosis, Differential. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Horses. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Terminology as Topic. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18059235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human
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44. Szumiło J, Patel A, Patel S, Burdan F: Blue nevus of the endocervix. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2010 Feb;69(1):62-4
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  • [Title] Blue nevus of the endocervix.
  • A new case of a common blue nevus in the cervix of a 57-year-old woman is reported.
  • The lesion was an incidental finding in a total hysterectomy specimen performed for atypical endometrial hyperplasia.
  • Although the blue nevi seem to be lesions of low clinical significance, they require careful differential diagnosis with malignant melanoma, especially in scanty endocervical curettage or cervical biopsy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Melanins / metabolism. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism


45. Plaza JA, Torres-Cabala C, Evans H, Diwan HA, Suster S, Prieto VG: Cutaneous metastases of malignant melanoma: a clinicopathologic study of 192 cases with emphasis on the morphologic spectrum. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Apr;32(2):129-36
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastases of malignant melanoma: a clinicopathologic study of 192 cases with emphasis on the morphologic spectrum.
  • In up to 5% of patients, metastatic melanoma can be the first manifestation of the disease.
  • For the most part, the histologic diagnosis of metastatic melanoma poses little diagnostic difficulty; however, some metastases may adopt unusual or unfamiliar appearances mimicking other benign and malignant conditions.
  • We present a study of 192 cases of cutaneous metastatic melanomas with special emphasis on their spectrum of morphologic features.
  • One hundred ten cases showed the classic morphologic appearance of melanoma (well-circumscribed epithelioid dermal/subcutaneous nodule), 82 cases showed unusual histologic appearances that mimicked other benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • In 16 patients (8.3%), there was no evidence of primary melanoma and the cutaneous metastasis was the only manifestation of the disease.
  • The histologic diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic melanoma can pose difficulties for diagnosis, especially in the face of an unknown primary neoplasm.
  • Unusual features observed in this series included examples of cutaneous metastatic melanoma that closely simulated metastatic carcinoma, dermatofibroma, leiomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, nevoid melanoma, halo nevus, blue nevi, and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Immunohistochemical stains plus careful clinical history helped to establish the correct diagnosis.
  • Our series illustrates that the differential diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic melanoma can be broad and difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Desmin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20010406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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46. Zattra E, Salmaso R, Montesco MC, Pigozzi B, Forchetti G, Alaibac M: Large plaque type blue nevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 May-Jun;19(3):287-8
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  • [Title] Large plaque type blue nevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Back / pathology. Back / surgery. Dermatologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Male. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19258235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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47. Mellone P, Bianchi A, Dragonetti E, Murace R, Persichetti P, Baldi A: Malignant melanoma associated with a blue naevus: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):433
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma associated with a blue naevus: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Combined malignant naevi are characterised pathologically by the association of a melanoma with one or more different types of benign melanocytic naevi in a single lesion.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We show here a case of malignant combined naevus made up of a blue naevus and a melanoma, presenting as a slowly progressing and asymptomatic pigmented lesion on the trunk of a 35-year-old man.
  • The definitive diagnosis was reached only at the hystopathological examination.
  • CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that combined naevi should be always excised and histologically examined to achieve a correct diagnosis and avoid risk of misclassification.

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  • [Cites] Pathology. 2004 Oct;36(5):419-27 [15370111.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003 Sep;28(5):476-80 [12950330.001]
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  • (PMID = 19117514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2615771
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48. Campos-do-Carmo G, Ramos-e-Silva M: Dermoscopy: basic concepts. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;47(7):712-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Dermoscopy is a very useful technique for the analysis of pigmented skin lesions.
  • It represents a link between clinical and histological views, permitting an earlier diagnosis of skin melanoma.
  • It also helps in the diagnosis of many other pigmented skin lesions, such as seborrheic keratosis, pigmented basal cell carcinoma, hemangioma, blue nevus, atypical nevus, and mole, which can often clinically simulate melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatology / instrumentation. Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / diagnosis. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Equipment Design. Equipment Safety. Humans. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18613881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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49. Yoshida Y, Kubota Y, Kiryu H, Nakayama J: Dermoscopic features of blue nevus on the nose. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Nov;45(11):1351-2
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  • [Title] Dermoscopic features of blue nevus on the nose.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17076724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Rackoff EM, Benbenisty KM, Maize JC, Maize JC Jr: Localized cutaneous argyria from an acupuncture needle clinically concerning for metastatic melanoma. Cutis; 2007 Nov;80(5):423-6
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  • Localized cutaneous argyria presenting as an asymptomatic blue-gray macule has been rarely reported from diverse etiologies including occupational exposures, topical medications, alternative medical therapies, body jewelry, and dental procedures (amalgam tattoos).
  • The lesions often are clinically indistinguishable from blue nevi and malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acupuncture Therapy / adverse effects. Argyria / etiology. Melanoma / secondary. Needles / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18189030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Martin RC, Murali R, Scolyer RA, Fitzgerald P, Colman MH, Thompson JF: So-called "malignant blue nevus": a clinicopathologic study of 23 patients. Cancer; 2009 Jul 1;115(13):2949-55
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  • [Title] So-called "malignant blue nevus": a clinicopathologic study of 23 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Melanomas that arise in association with or that resemble blue nevi are extremely rare and have been termed "malignant blue nevi."
  • The authors report on a single-institutional clinicopathologic study of "blue nevus-like melanomas" (BNLMs).
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients were identified with a "malignant blue nevus" over 29 years at the Sydney Melanoma Unit.
  • The tumors were distributed evenly among skin sites, and their median Breslow thickness was 5.5 mm.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19472395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Gerami P, Pouryazdanparast P, Vemula S, Bastian BC: Molecular analysis of a case of nevus of ota showing progressive evolution to melanoma with intermediate stages resembling cellular blue nevus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 May;32(3):301-5
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  • [Title] Molecular analysis of a case of nevus of ota showing progressive evolution to melanoma with intermediate stages resembling cellular blue nevus.
  • Nevus of Ota is a variant of congenital nevus, which is morphologically paucicellular and resembles a common blue nevus.
  • Although nevus of Ota is a risk factor for uveal melanoma in white people, the development of cutaneous melanoma within nevus of Ota is a very rare occurrence with only a few reported cases.
  • We present a case of a long-standing nevus of Ota, with radiologic imaging demonstrating a large retro-orbital mass and a biopsy showing melanoma.
  • The histopathology of the eye exenteration specimen illustrated various stages of melanocytic progression including areas resembling a nevus of Ota, blue nevus, cellular blue nevus, and melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus of Ota / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Orbit Evisceration. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20110797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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53. Florell SR, Thomas J, Grossman D: Predominant formation of heavily pigmented dermal melanocytomas resembling 'animal-type' melanomas in hepatocyte growth factor (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice following neonatal UV irradiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):667-74
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  • [Title] Predominant formation of heavily pigmented dermal melanocytomas resembling 'animal-type' melanomas in hepatocyte growth factor (C57BL/6 x C3H)F1 mice following neonatal UV irradiation.
  • RESULTS: Of 54 primary tumors analyzed, most (49/54, 91%) demonstrated exclusively dermal collections of epithelioid cells with voluminous densely pigmented cytoplasm.
  • Staining with PEP8 confirmed the presence of interfollicular melanocytes at the dermal-epidermal junction in neonatal skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to HGF animals on an albino (FVB) background, HGF animals on the pigmented (C57BL/6 x C3H/HeN)F(1) background do not develop classic radial growth phase melanoma but rather predominantly develop dermal melanocytomas resembling the 'animal-type' melanoma occasionally seen in humans.

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  • (PMID = 17696912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR050102; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR17525; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K23 RR017525; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR050102-04; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR050102-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44275; NLM/ PMC2410209
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54. Alvarez Múgica M, Jalón Monzón A, Regadera Sejas FJ, González Alvarez RC, Fernández Gómez JM, Rodríguez Robles L: [Blue nevus in glans penis]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Feb;31(2):174
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  • [Title] [Blue nevus in glans penis].
  • [Transliterated title] Nevus azul en glande.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17645101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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55. Almazán-Fernández FM, Fernández-Pugnaire MA, Hernández-Gil J, Arias-Santiago S, Abad-Romero J, Serrano-Ortega S, Naranjo-Sintes R: Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(8):10
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  • [Title] Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • Acral melanocytic nevi are relatively frequent in the palmoplantar location.
  • In congenital nevi various characteristic dermoscopic patterns have been described, such as reticular and globular patterns, brown pigmented areas, and areas with peripilar depigmentation.
  • However, there are few reports on the dermoscopic pattern of acral congenital nevi.
  • The homogeneous blue pattern is typical of blue nevus and is not typical of acral localization and metastasis of cutaneous melanoma.
  • However, this pattern should be considered characteristic of acral congenital nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dermoscopy. Female. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20804687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Antony FC, Sanclemente G, Shaikh H, Trelles AS, Calonje E: Pigment synthesizing melanoma (so-called animal type melanoma): a clinicopathological study of 14 cases of a poorly known distinctive variant of melanoma. Histopathology; 2006 May;48(6):754-62
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  • [Title] Pigment synthesizing melanoma (so-called animal type melanoma): a clinicopathological study of 14 cases of a poorly known distinctive variant of melanoma.
  • The clinical diagnosis was of melanoma in seven cases, blue naevus in three cases, benign naevus in three cases and a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in one case.
  • The histological diagnosis of PSM was predicated on the basis of an asymmetrical, predominantly intradermal tumour formed of deeply pigmented, round or short, spindle-shaped dendritic melanocytes with some degree of hyperchromatism and a single nucleolus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Melanocytes / chemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nevus, Blue / metabolism. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16681693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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57. Lee HY, Na SY, Son YM, Kang HK, Baek JO, Lee JR, Roh JY: A malignant melanoma associated with a blue nevus of the lip. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Feb;22(1):119-24
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  • [Title] A malignant melanoma associated with a blue nevus of the lip.
  • Blue nevi are characterized by a collection of pigment-producing melanocytes in the dermis.
  • These lesions clinically present as well demarcated cerulean-blue or bluish black colored papules or plaques that usually measure less than 1 cm in diameter.
  • These lesions are usually benign and stable over time.
  • However, malignant melanomas developing in or associated with a blue nevus (which is also called malignant blue nevus) have been only rarely reported.
  • A malignant blue nevus might develop in a common blue or cellular blue nevus, a giant congenital nevus or in a nevus of Ota, or it may be malignant from the start.
  • Malignant blue nevi most commonly are found on the scalp.
  • A malignant blue nevus of the lip has not been previously reported in the medical literature.
  • We report here on a patient with a malignant melanoma associated with a blue nevus of the lip.
  • The malignant melanoma was presumed to have developed from a blue nevus that was present on the upper lip of a 50-year-old male.

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  • (PMID = 20548900.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883390
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Blue nevus / Malignant blue nevus / Malignant melanoma / Upper lip
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58. Miracco C, De Nisi MC, Arcuri F, Cosci E, Pacenti L, Toscano M, Lalinga AV, Biagioli M, Rubegni P, Vatti R, Maellaro E, Del Bello B, Massi D, Luzi P, Tosi P: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor protein and mRNA expression in cutaneous melanocytic tumours. Int J Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):345-52
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  • We evaluated MIF protein expression in 126 skin lesions, including benign and atypical nevi, melanoma and melanoma metastases.
  • Benign nevi were subdivided into nevocytic and Spitz/blue types; and melanomas into the radial, and vertical growth phase.
  • A strong cytoplasmic MIF positivity was found in most samples, although it was more heterogeneous in malignant tumours; MIF nuclear expression characterized Spitz/blue nevi, atypical nevi, melanomas and metastases.
  • All samples expressed MIF mRNA but it was significantly lower in benign nevi vs atypical nevi, melanomas and metastases (p=0.001; p<0.0001; p=0.002, respectively).
  • Whereas we observed a trend towards higher expression levels of mRNA in atypical and malignant tumours, MIF protein was highly expressed in all lesions, although limited to the cytoplasm in most benign nevi.
  • These observations suggest differences in MIF protein storage, subcellular location and properties in most benign nevi vs atypical and malignant tumours that should be confirmed by further investigation and correlation with clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16391788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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59. von Moos R, Schaffner R, Cathomas R, Grimm B: Intratumoral therapy with interferon-alpha in a locoregional advanced malignant blue nevus: a brief communication. J Immunother; 2010 Jan;33(1):92-5
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  • [Title] Intratumoral therapy with interferon-alpha in a locoregional advanced malignant blue nevus: a brief communication.
  • Malignant blue nevi are a rare variant of cutaneous melanoma often associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis.
  • This case study reports the use of intralesional interferon -alpha2b (IFN-alpha2b) as a salvage option in a male patient with a congenital blue nevus on the right buttock.
  • After initial diagnosis, the primary lesion (lesion 1) was partially resected and the patient received aggressive treatment with radiotherapy and concomitant polychemotherapy (cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine).
  • At this stage, the patient was treated with intralesional IFN-alpha2b twice weekly at lesion 2, followed by weekly intralesional IFN-alpha2b therapy to both lesions, which resulted in partial disease regression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Nevus, Blue / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19952952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4513
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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60. McGowan JW, Smith MK, Ryan M, Hood AF: Proliferative nodules with balloon-cell change in a large congenital melanocytic nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Mar;33(3):253-5
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  • [Title] Proliferative nodules with balloon-cell change in a large congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • The balloon-cell nevus was first described over 100 years ago.
  • Since then, balloon-cell changes of melanocytes have been noted in numerous tumors, including melanoma, blue nevus, and Spitz nevus.
  • We report a case in which balloon-cell changes were found within proliferative nodules occurring in a large congenital melanocytic nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / congenital. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16466515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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61. Carrera C, Ferrer B, Mascaró JM Jr, Palou J: Compound blue naevus: a potential simulator of melanoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Jul;155(1):207-8
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  • [Title] Compound blue naevus: a potential simulator of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis. Nevus, Intradermal / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16792778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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62. Cabrijan L, Lipozencić J, Batinac T, Lenković M, Gruber F, Stanić Zgombić Z: Correlation between clinical-dermatoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis of skin tumors in our patients. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:195-7
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  • [Title] Correlation between clinical-dermatoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis of skin tumors in our patients.
  • In this study 103 patients with skin tumors were examined.
  • Working diagnosis was obtained by clinical examination using dermoscope.
  • After excision of lesion, working diagnosis was compared to pathohistological diagnosis.
  • The clinical-dermoscopic diagnosis included verrucae seborrhoicae in 26 (25.24%), fibropapilloma in 17(16.5%), naevus pigmentosus in 9 (8.79%), naevus dysplasticus in 4 (3.88%), fibroma molle in 8 (7.76%), Mb.
  • Bowen in 1 (0.97%), basal cell carcinoma in 7 (6.79%), squamous cell carcinoma in 6 (5.82%), haemangiofibroma in 1 (0.97%), haemangioma in 3 (2.91%), keratosis actinica in 5 (4.85%), melanoma malignum in 6 (5.82%), naevus fibromatosus in 2 (1.94%) cases and naevus blue in 1 (0.97%), naevus traumatisatus in 1 (0.97%), verruca vulgaris in 1 (0.97%), lymphocytoma in 1 (0.97%), naevus verrucosus in 1 (0.97%), lentigo solaris in 2 (1.94%) and Reed nevus in 1 (0.97%) case.
  • Dermoscopic diagnosis were conformable with pathohistological diagnosis in 75 cases (72.82%).
  • We presumed that dermatoscoping obtains correct diagnosis of skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19140282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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63. Ito K, Mihm MC: Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: report of first Japanese cases previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Apr;36(4):439-43
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  • [Title] Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: report of first Japanese cases previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus.
  • BACKGROUND: The term 'pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM)' was recently used for borderline melanocytic tumor/low-grade melanoma including cases previously diagnosed as human animal-type melanoma and epithelioid blue nevus.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 219 cases previously diagnosed as blue nevus in Japan.
  • Common blue nevus was identified in 154 cases and cellular blue nevus in 65 cases.
  • RESULTS: We have found two Japanese cases of PEM previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus.
  • PEM is present in Japanese, but these cases may be previously diagnosed as cellular blue nevus.
  • Japanese pathologists should recognize a new concept of PEM, and when they make a diagnosis of PEM, they should be recommended sentinel lymph node sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


64. Phadke PA, Zembowicz A: Blue Nevi and Related Tumors. Surg Pathol Clin; 2009 Sep;2(3):483-96
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  • [Title] Blue Nevi and Related Tumors.
  • Blue nevi and related lesions are characterized by the proliferation of dermal dendritic melanocytes.
  • Although they share certain common clinical and histologic features, they encompass a spectrum of lesions ranging from benign melanocytic hamartomas and common blue nevi to borderline malignant pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma and aggressive malignant blue nevi.
  • This article succinctly describes the common dermal dendritic proliferations and updates readers on newly classified entities and variants.
  • The differential diagnosis of the main entities and strategies to distinguish them from their melanocytic and nonmelanocytic mimics is also presented.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 26838534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Blue nevus / Cellular blue nevus / Malignant blue nevus / Melanocytic hamartomas / Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma
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65. Fuchs F, Guillot E, Salama S, Vige P, Coulomb L'hermine A, Raynal P: Giant congenital scalp blue nevus, a neonatal case report. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2007 Jun;132(2):243-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant congenital scalp blue nevus, a neonatal case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Congenital Abnormalities / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16806655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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66. Plótár V, Szentirmay Z, Orosz Z: [Reactivity of five different antibodies with benign and malignant melanocytic lesions]. Magy Onkol; 2008 Dec;52(4):363-73
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  • [Title] [Reactivity of five different antibodies with benign and malignant melanocytic lesions].
  • We have tested five antibodies (S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A, MITF, PNL-2) on 34 benign and 34 malignant melanocytic tumors.
  • We examined the specificity and sensitivity in the junctional and dermal component separately, with special consideration to features disturbing the evaluation (regression, halo-like inflammation, etc.).
  • We have concluded that the histological diagnosis of melanocytic tumors is based on the detailed examination of traditional HE slides and the immunohistochemical methods only confirm or weaken our opinion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nevus / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Humans. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor / analysis. Nevus, Blue / chemistry. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / chemistry. Nevus, Spindle Cell / chemistry. Paraffin Embedding. Polysaccharide-Lyases / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19068464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.10 / pectin lyase
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67. Garrido Abad P, Jiménez Gálvez M, Fernández Arjona M, Herranz Fernández LM, Bocardo Fajardo G, Herrero Torres L, Pereira Sanz I: [Blue prostatic nevus. Case report]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Jun;60(5):593-5
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  • [Title] [Blue prostatic nevus. Case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Nevus azul prostático. Aportación de un nuevo caso.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: 66-year-old patient with elevated serum PSA with the diagnosis of prostatic blue nevus after biopsy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This diagnostic finding has not clinical or prognostic significance.
  • They are benign lesions that must not be confused with other similar more aggressive lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


68. Fernandez-Flores A: Blue nevi of internal organs are more similar to the so-called dermal melanocytosis than to cutaneous blue nevi. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2007;48(1):5-10
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  • [Title] Blue nevi of internal organs are more similar to the so-called dermal melanocytosis than to cutaneous blue nevi.
  • In this report, we examine several morphologic aspects of blue nevi of internal organs, and compare them to similar conditions of the skin.
  • From a morphologic point of view, blue nevi of internal organs are more similar to the so-called dermal melanocytoses.
  • Nevertheless, since melanocytoses and blue-nevi seem to have the same benign prognosis, and since blue nevus is a historically consolidated term to refer to pigmented spindle cell lesions of internal organs, a most appropriate term, to refer to the latter, will not be easily accepted in literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17502944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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69. Holsinger FC, Hafemeister AC, Hicks MJ, Sulek M, Huh WW, Friedman EM: Differential diagnosis of pediatric tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 45-year multi-institutional review. Ear Nose Throat J; 2010 Nov;89(11):534-40
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of pediatric tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 45-year multi-institutional review.
  • Lesions included adnexal neoplasm, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, basal cell carcinoma, benign fibrous histiocytoma, blue nevus, chondrosarcoma, compound nevus, epithelioma adenoides cysticum, esthesioneuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, giant cell granuloma, granulocytic sarcoma, hemangioma, hemangiopericytoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, lymphangioma, lymphoma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, neurofibroma, ossifying osteofibroma, osteochondroma, osteosarcoma, port wine stain, rhabdomyosarcoma, Spitz nevus, and xanthogranuloma.
  • We believe that the large size of this study and the data on disease incidence will allow clinicians to be better informed of the differential diagnosis of neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in the pediatric population.


70. Samimi M, Perrinaud A, Naouri M, Maruani A, Perrodeau E, Vaillant L, Machet L: High-resolution ultrasonography assists the differential diagnosis of blue naevi and cutaneous metastases of melanoma. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Sep;163(3):550-6
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  • [Title] High-resolution ultrasonography assists the differential diagnosis of blue naevi and cutaneous metastases of melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastases of cutaneous melanoma may simulate benign blue naevi clinically.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of lesions that look similar clinically, i.e. blue naevi and cutaneous metastases of melanoma.
  • METHODS: Participants were invited for inclusion in the study if they had a cutaneous blue lesion clinically suggestive of a blue naevus or cutaneous metastasis of melanoma.
  • Clinical, dermoscopic and ultrasonographic images were reviewed anonymously by four dermatologists to assign the diagnosis of blue naevus or metastasis of melanoma.
  • The diagnostic performance of clinical examination, dermoscopy and sonography was assessed for the ability of each to differentiate between metastases of melanoma and blue naevi with reference to the histological diagnosis.
  • RESULTS:   Twenty-eight patients were included with a total of 39 blue skin lesions, and 17 of the 28 patients had a previous history of melanoma.
  • The sonographic features contributing to the differential diagnosis were: location of the lesion (P=0·027), shape of the lesion (P<0·001), homogeneity (P=0·001) and increased posterior echogenicity (P=0·007).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography is a reproducible and specific tool that can assist the differential diagnosis between blue naevi and metastases of melanoma.
  • A blue naevus is a homogeneous, hypoechoic, 'dish-shaped' lesion, located in the superficial dermis, whereas metastases of melanoma are 'potato-shaped', hypoechoic, heterogeneous lesions, located in the hypodermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Nevus, Blue / ultrasonography. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20545694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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71. Flauta VS, Lingamfelter DC, Dang LM, Lankachandra KM: Deep penetrating nevus: a case report and brief literature review. Diagn Pathol; 2006;1:31
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  • [Title] Deep penetrating nevus: a case report and brief literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Deep penetrating nevus (DPN) is a distinct variant of melanocytic nevus and remains a histopathologic challenge to pathologists because of its resemblance to blue nevus, malignant melanoma, pigmented Spitz nevus, and congenital melanocytic nevus.

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 1992 Jun;19(3):172-80 [1401342.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1993 Mar;129(3):328-31 [8447669.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994 May;30(5 Pt 1):724-9 [8176011.001]
  • [Cites] Histopathology. 2003 Dec;43(6):529-37 [14636253.001]
  • [Cites] Histopathology. 1991 Mar;18(3):243-7 [2045075.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 1989 Jan;13(1):39-44 [2909196.001]
  • (PMID = 16999859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1586213
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72. Bukvić Mokos Z, Lipozenčić J, Ceović R, Stulhofer Buzina D, Kostović K: Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2010;18(3):185-9
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  • Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito.
  • Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus.
  • If there is any doubt whether the lesion is benign, then a biopsy for histologic evaluation is obligatory.

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  • (PMID = 20887701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1847-6538
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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73. Skowron F, Balme B: Large plaque-type blue naevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;34(8):e782-4
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  • [Title] Large plaque-type blue naevus with subcutaneous cellular nodules.
  • We report a new case of 'large plaque-type blue naevus (PTBN) with subcutaneous cellular nodules' involving the breast.
  • Histopathological examination revealed features of cellular and common blue naevus.
  • Dermatoscopy was performed, and the diagnosis of PTBN was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19817763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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74. Naylor EM, Ruben BS, Robinson-Bostom L, Telang GH, Jellinek NJ: Subungual blue nevus with combined phenotypic features. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Jun;58(6):1021-4
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  • [Title] Subungual blue nevus with combined phenotypic features.
  • Blue nail dyschromia may represent melanocytic, vascular, or other etiologies.
  • A case of a subungual blue nodule is presented, with a pseudo-clubbed nail.
  • On histopathologic examination, there was a combined subungual blue nevus, with features of a common blue nevus and a pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma.
  • This unusual presentation is reviewed, with a discussion of blue nail dyschromia and subungual blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Nail Diseases / genetics. Nevus, Blue / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18485984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Hilliard NJ, Krahl D, Sellheyer K: p16 expression differentiates between desmoplastic Spitz nevus and desmoplastic melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jul;36(7):753-9
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  • [Title] p16 expression differentiates between desmoplastic Spitz nevus and desmoplastic melanoma.
  • Desmoplastic melanoma is an insidious malignant melanoma subtype that commonly occurs on sun-damaged skin of the head and neck area in elderly patients.
  • The diagnostic conundrum occurs with confusion of desmoplastic melanoma with scars, hyalinizing blue nevi, desmoplastic Spitz nevi and diffuse neurofibromas.
  • METHODS: The present study uses immunohistochemistry with a p16 antibody to differentiate desmoplastic Spitz nevi (n = 15 cases) from desmoplastic melanomas (n = 11).
  • In contrast, all desmoplastic Spitz nevi were moderately to strongly positive for p16.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The staining pattern for p16 in desmoplastic melanomas and Spitz nevi in conjunction with the histopathologic features, S100 staining, Ki67 proliferation index and clinical scenario may aid in the difficult differential diagnosis between these two entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / metabolism. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19519606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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76. Gershtenson PC, Krunic A, Chen H, Konanahalli M, Worobec S: Subungual and periungual congenital blue naevus. Australas J Dermatol; 2009 May;50(2):144-7
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  • [Title] Subungual and periungual congenital blue naevus.
  • Blue naevus of the nail apparatus is a rare entity, with only ten cases described in the literature.
  • Initial biopsy was consistent with a blue naevus of the cellular type and, given the recent clinical change and periungual extension, complete excision was recommended.
  • Reconstruction was performed with a full-thickness skin graft.
  • We present a case of a congenital subungual and periungual blue naevus of the cellular type and review the literature on this rare presentation of a congenital blue naevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Nails / pathology. Nevus, Blue / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Skin Transplantation. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19397572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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77. Panasiti V, Devirgiliis V, Borroni RG, Mancini M, Rossi M, Curzio M, Mastrecchia B, Bottoni U, Innocenzi D, Calvieri S: Dermoscopy of a plantar combined blue nevus: a simulator of melanoma. Dermatology; 2007;214(2):174-6
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy of a plantar combined blue nevus: a simulator of melanoma.
  • Dermoscopy allows early detection of melanoma also on acral volar skin.
  • The majority of melanocytic nevi on palms and soles may show three major dermoscopic patterns: the parallel-furrow pattern, the lattice-like pattern, and the fibrillar pattern.
  • We present the case of a 59-year-old woman who had an oval papule of bluish color, measuring 0.6 x 0.9 cm, localized on her left sole, that had been present, unchanged, for more than 10 years.
  • The histopathological examination revealed a combined blue nevus.
  • We present this case to underline that on acral volar skin also intradermal nevi, such as combined blue nevi, may dermoscopically exhibit a parallel ridge pattern, simulating melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Skin / pathology


78. Yoneyama K, Kamada N, Mizoguchi M, Utani A, Kobayashi T, Shinkai H: Malignant melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis on congenital nevus spilus. J Dermatol; 2005 Jun;32(6):454-8
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis on congenital nevus spilus.
  • We reported a case of malignant melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis that appeared on congenital nevus spilus; this is the first report from Japan.
  • An 85-year-old woman had had a nevus spilus on the right lower leg since birth.
  • A black-brown nodule developed on the nevus three years before treatment.
  • Blue-gray patches were found within the nevus on inspection.
  • Histopathological analysis of these lesions revealed superficial spreading melanoma and acquired dermal melanocytosis, respectively.
  • There have been 19 previous case reports of malignant melanoma on nevus spilus, and there have only been 4 cases of dermal melanocytosis (plaque-type blue nevus) on nevus spilus.
  • We reviewed the reported cases in the literature and discussed the risk factors of nevus spilus.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Lentigo / congenital. Lentigo / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16043919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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79. Barnhill RL, Argenyi Z, Berwick M, Duray PH, Erickson L, Guitart J, Horenstein MG, Lowe L, Messina J, Paine S, Piepkorn MW, Prieto V, Rabkin MS, Schmidt B, Selim A, Shea CR, Trotter MJ: Atypical cellular blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with atypical features): lack of consensus for diagnosis and distinction from cellular blue nevi and malignant melanoma ("malignant blue nevus"). Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jan;32(1):36-44
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  • [Title] Atypical cellular blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with atypical features): lack of consensus for diagnosis and distinction from cellular blue nevi and malignant melanoma ("malignant blue nevus").
  • The distinction of cellular blue nevi (CBN) with atypical features ["atypical" CBN (ACBN)] from conventional CBN and malignant melanomas related to or derived from CBN remains a difficult problem.
  • Here, we report on the diagnosis of various cellular blue melanocytic neoplasms by 14 dermatopathologists who routinely examine melanocytic lesions.
  • (1) for between rater analyses, we calculated interobserver agreement by the kappa statistic (regardless of whether the diagnosis was correct). (2) For each individual lesion, we reported whether a majority agreement (>50%) was reached and, if so, whether the majority agreed with the gold standard diagnosis, derived from standardized histopathologic criteria for melanoma, definitive outcome such as metastatic event or death of disease, or disease-free follow-up for > or =4 years. (3) For the individual pathologists, we calculated sensitivity and specificity for each type of lesion.
  • Overall, greater than 50% of the pathologists agreed and were correct in their diagnosis 38.5% (10 lesions) of the time.
  • There was a majority agreement, but with an incorrect diagnosis, another 26.9% (7 lesions) of the time.
  • Six of the 7 majority agreements with an incorrect diagnosis were for ACBN lesions.
  • In summary, the results of our study indicate that there is substantial confusion and disagreement among experienced histopathologists about the definitions and biologic nature of cellular blue melanocytic neoplasms particularly those thought to have atypical features ("atypical" CBN).
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Sensitivity and Specificity


80. Young LC, Van Dyke GS, Lipton S, Binder SW: Poliosis overlying a nevus with blue nevus features. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(2):20
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  • [Title] Poliosis overlying a nevus with blue nevus features.
  • Additionally, it can be associated with underlying benign and malignant tumors, necessitating histological identification.
  • In addition, we will report a case of poliosis overlying an intradermal nevus with congenital as well as blue nevus features.
  • To the best of our knowledge, blue nevus features associated with poliosis have not been previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Color. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Nevus, Blue / complications. Pigmentation Disorders / etiology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / complications


81. Massi G: Melanocytic nevi simulant of melanoma with medicolegal relevance. Virchows Arch; 2007 Sep;451(3):623-47
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  • [Title] Melanocytic nevi simulant of melanoma with medicolegal relevance.
  • A group of melanocytic benign nevi are prone to be misdiagnosed as nodular or superficial spreading melanoma.
  • This review illustrates the most frequent forms of these nevi in direct comparison with their malignant morphologic counterparts.
  • The nevi are: hyper-cellular form of common nevus to be distinguished from nevoid melanoma, Spitz nevus (vs spitzoid melanoma), Reed nevus (vs melanoma with features of Reed nevus), cellular atypical blue nevus (vs melanoma on blue nevus), acral nevus (vs acral melanoma), Clark dysplastic nevus (vs superficial spreading melanoma), desmoplastic nevi (vs desmoplastic melanoma), benign proliferative nodules in congenital nevi (vs melanoma on congenital nevi), epithelioid blue nevus (vs animal type melanoma) and regressed nevus (vs regressed melanoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Liability, Legal. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Pathology / legislation & jurisprudence. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nevus / congenital. Nevus / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Spindle Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17653760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 161
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82. Almazán-Fernández FM, Fernández-Pugnaire MA, Guiote MV, Hernández-Gil J, Serrano-Ortega S: Multiple blue nevi with late appearance. Eur J Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;20(4):530-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple blue nevi with late appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20562089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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83. Scheller K, Scheller C, Becker S, Holzhausen HJ, Schubert J: Cellular blue nevus (CBN) lymph node metastases of the neck with no primary skin lesion: a case report and review of literature. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2010 Dec;38(8):601-4
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  • [Title] Cellular blue nevus (CBN) lymph node metastases of the neck with no primary skin lesion: a case report and review of literature.
  • A case of cervical lymph node infiltration by a benign cellular blue nevus (CBN) and a 27-year disease history is presented.
  • Dermal dendritic melanocytes and pigmented spindle cells presented no histological evidence of malignancy (CD34-, desmin-, PanCy-, HMB-45+, anti-S-100+, Bcl-2+, MART-1+, focally expression of melan A, 1% Ki-67+ of the tumour cell nucleoli).
  • The differentiation of the benign blue nevus (BN) from a malignant blue nevus (MBN) and a malignant melanoma (MM) is still a challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Neck. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20223677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-4119
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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84. Battistella M, Prochazkova-Carlotti M, Berrebi D, Bennaceur S, Edan C, Riffaud L, Rütten A, Fraitag S: Two congenital cases of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization for melanocytic tumors: case reports and review of these recent topics. Dermatology; 2010;221(2):97-106
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  • [Title] Two congenital cases of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization for melanocytic tumors: case reports and review of these recent topics.
  • The term 'pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma' (PEM) has recently been proposed as a nosological framework grouping lesions formerly known as animal-type melanomas, sporadic epithelioid blue nevi and Carney complex-associated epithelioid blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / congenital. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / congenital. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20558976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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85. Chen Y, Deng W, Zhu H, Li J, Xu Y, Dai X, Jia C, Kong Q, Huang L, Liu Y, Ma C, Xiao C, Liu Y, Li Q, Bezard E, Qin C: The pathologic features of neurocutaneous melanosis in a cynomolgus macaque. Vet Pathol; 2009 Jul;46(4):773-5
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  • Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare phakomatosis characterized by proliferation of melanin-producing cells in both the skin and the brain.
  • Histopathologically, skin lesions showed foci of nests and cords of pigmented cells in the dermis similar to blue nevi in humans.
  • The pigmented cell was moderately reactive with a pan-melanoma antibody (melanoma(pan)) in the skin.
  • Based on the histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic results, the diagnosis of NCM was made.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / ultrastructure. Fatal Outcome. Female. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Microscopy, Electron / veterinary. Skin / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 19276048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. King R, Lyons J, Meyers AL, Googe PB, Page RN, Gupta VK: Primary invasive melanoma and basal cell carcinoma (collision tumor) with blue nevus-like cutaneous metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Aug;34(8):629-33
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  • [Title] Primary invasive melanoma and basal cell carcinoma (collision tumor) with blue nevus-like cutaneous metastases.
  • In addition, one patient presented with multiple cutaneous metastases, all simulating blue nevi.
  • The metastases occurred in the same anatomical region as the primary tumor, and histologically consisted of pigmented dendritic melanocytes and melanophages in the superficial and mid-dermis and arranged in a blue nevus-like lesion.
  • Histologic clues suggesting the possibility of a metastatic melanoma included a sparse lymphocytic infiltrate, the presence of an epithelioid component and atypia of the dendritic melanocytes.
  • However, without appropriate clinical history, the lesions could be overlooked as ordinary blue nevus.
  • Collision tumors containing invasive melanoma and BCC are rare and this is the first report of a collision tumor with blue nevus-like metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Blue / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17640233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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87. Cárdenas-Navia LI, Cruz P, Lin JC, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Rosenberg SA, Samuels Y: Novel somatic mutations in heterotrimeric G proteins in melanoma. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Jul 1;10(1):33-7
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  • In particular, GNAQ was found to be frequently mutated in blue nevi of the skin and uveal melanoma, acting as an oncogene in its mutated form.
  • [MeSH-major] Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Melanoma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 20424519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.6.5.1 / Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3040832
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88. Kim HS, Kim YJ, Kim JW, Yu DS: Subungal blue nevus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Feb;21(2):271-2
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  • [Title] Subungal blue nevus.
  • [MeSH-major] Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis. Nail Diseases / diagnosis. Nevus, Blue / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17243978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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89. Bauer J, Kilic E, Vaarwater J, Bastian BC, Garbe C, de Klein A: Oncogenic GNAQ mutations are not correlated with disease-free survival in uveal melanoma. Br J Cancer; 2009 Sep 1;101(5):813-5
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  • [Title] Oncogenic GNAQ mutations are not correlated with disease-free survival in uveal melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, oncogenic G protein alpha subunit q (GNAQ) mutations have been described in about 50% of uveal melanomas and in the blue nevi of the skin.
  • GNAQ mutation status was correlated with disease-free survival (DFS), as well as other clinical and histopathological factors, and with chromosomal variations detected by FISH and CGH.
  • [MeSH-major] GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11 / genetics. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19654573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2736834
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90. Carlos-Ortega B, de Oca-Monroy FM, Isyta-Morales A: [Dermoscopy findings in malignant skin melanoma with metastases. A case report]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc; 2009 Jan-Feb;47(1):73-6
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  • [Title] [Dermoscopy findings in malignant skin melanoma with metastases. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Dermatoscopia de las metástasis de melanoma maligno cutáneo. Informe de caso.
  • Melanoma is the result of the malignant transformation of normal melanocytes of the skin, which are responsible for the synthesis of melamine.
  • It occupies the third place in frequency of skin cancer.
  • In our country the mortality is higher than the incidence due to the delayed diagnosis.
  • We are reporting a case of a patient with fair skin who developed blue metastases that were indistinguishable from the characteristic pattern of blue nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19624970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0443-5117
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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91. Ozdemir F, Kilinc I, Akalin T: Homogeneous blue pigmentation in dermatofibroma simulating a blue naevus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Jul;20(6):733-4
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  • [Title] Homogeneous blue pigmentation in dermatofibroma simulating a blue naevus.
  • A case with a pigmented skin lesion that was diagnosed as a blue naevus on clinical and dermoscopic grounds and histopathologically confirmed as a dermatofibroma is presented.
  • By means of this case, we define dermatofibroma as a new exception for 'homogeneous blue pigmentation' on dermoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Skin Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 16836506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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92. Wang DG, Li XG, Gao H, Sun XY, Zhou XQ: Coexistence of esophageal blue nevus, hair follicles and basaloid sqamous carcinoma: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Jul 14;14(26):4253-6
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  • [Title] Coexistence of esophageal blue nevus, hair follicles and basaloid sqamous carcinoma: a case report.
  • We present the case of a 57-year-old man who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma found at barium meal and gastroscopic examination.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of esophageal blue nevus and hair follicle coexisting with BSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18636677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2725393
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93. Hagiwara T, Kaku T, Kobayashi H, Hirakawa T, Nakano H: Coexisting vulvar malignant melanoma and blue nevus of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):519-20
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  • [Title] Coexisting vulvar malignant melanoma and blue nevus of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / complications. Nevus, Blue / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Vulvar Neoplasms / complications


94. Kacerovska D, Sima R, Michal M, Hes O, Roucka P, Zarybnicka M, Hora M, Chudacek Z, Kazakov DV: Carney complex: a clinicopathologic and molecular biological study of a sporadic case, including extracutaneous and cutaneous lesions and a novel mutation of the PRKAR1A gene. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Jul;61(1):80-7
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  • [Title] Carney complex: a clinicopathologic and molecular biological study of a sporadic case, including extracutaneous and cutaneous lesions and a novel mutation of the PRKAR1A gene.
  • BACKGROUND: Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with multiple neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian man with a sporadic form of CNC.
  • Additionally, a blue nevus, a lipoma, multiple calcifications in both testes, and hypoechogenic areas suspected of being adenomas in the thyroid gland were found.
  • These findings suggest sporadic disease and a novel mutation in our patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Heart Neoplasms / genetics. Myxoma / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19539840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human
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95. Klock C, Gomes R, João M, Netto G: Prostate melanosis associated with acinar adenocarcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):379-80
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  • Prostate melanosis is an uncommon lesion of uncertain etiology where melanin deposition is seen in the epithelium, in the stroma, or in the form of a blue nevus.

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  • (PMID = 19098014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
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96. Schöniger S, Summers BA: Equine skin tumours in 20 horses resembling three variants of human melanocytic naevi. Vet Dermatol; 2009 Jun;20(3):165-73
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  • [Title] Equine skin tumours in 20 horses resembling three variants of human melanocytic naevi.
  • Intradermal common melanocytic naevi, cellular blue naevi and combined cellular blue naevi are subgroups of human melanocytic tumours, which have not been reported in horses.
  • In this study, we describe 20 horses with skin tumours similar to these naevi of humans.
  • These tumours represented individual skin masses in male and female horses of different breeds.
  • Seven horses aged between 4 and 15 years developed cutaneous lesions similar to human cellular blue naevi.
  • A combined cellular blue naevus-like tumour was diagnosed in a 20-year-old horse.
  • Lesions resembling cellular blue naevi were formed by intradermal bundles of ovoid to elongated cells separated by collagen fibres.
  • The combined cellular blue naevus-like tumour resembled human cellular blue naevus with in addition, an overlying junctional common melanocytic naevus.
  • These equine skin tumours differ from the commonly recognized equine melanocytic tumours by their cytomorphological features, random location and the absence of an increased tumour frequency in grey horses.
  • [MeSH-major] Horse Diseases / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Horses. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Blue / classification. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nevus, Blue / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19374725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3164
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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97. Murali R, McCarthy SW, Scolyer RA: Blue nevi and related lesions: a review highlighting atypical and newly described variants, distinguishing features and diagnostic pitfalls. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Nov;16(6):365-82
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  • [Title] Blue nevi and related lesions: a review highlighting atypical and newly described variants, distinguishing features and diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Blue nevi and related entities are a heterogenous group of congenital and acquired melanocytic tumors that includes established entities such as dendritic ("common") blue nevus and cellular blue nevus, and their numerous clinical and pathologic variants, such as deep penetrating nevus.
  • They share several clinical and morphologic features including their blue tinctorial properties, the presence of a dermal proliferation of spindle, fusiform or ovoid cells, associated melanin pigment (both within the melanocytic tumor cells and also within macrophages) and stromal sclerosis and, at least focal positivity for HMB-45 (Gp100).
  • Some variants, such as deep penetrating nevus, often show considerable variation in nuclear size and shape, and, as a consequence, are at risk of being misdiagnosed as melanoma by those unfamiliar with their characteristic morphologic features.
  • The so-called malignant blue nevus is a controversial term denoting melanomas arising in association with or exhibiting some morphologic similarities to blue nevus.
  • There are also lesions that are probably related to blue nevi, such as the recently described pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma and the neurocristic hamartomas, whose nature, biologic behavior, and relationship to the better established entities remains to be clearly established.
  • This review aims to present a brief overview of these lesions, highlighting their pathologic characteristics, distinguishing features and potential diagnostic pitfalls, with particular emphasis on recently described entities, molecular findings, controversial areas, and approaches to diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Blue / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanins / metabolism. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19851128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
  • [Number-of-references] 193
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98. Piana S, Asioli S: Blue nevus of the nasal mucosa. Virchows Arch; 2005 Mar;446(3):342-3
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  • [Title] Blue nevus of the nasal mucosa.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasal Mucosa / pathology. Nevus, Blue / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15668806.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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99. García Hernández R, Calderón Seoane E, Román Castillo MD, Torres Morera LM: [Anesthesia for a patient with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim; 2007 Apr;54(4):261-2
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  • [Title] [Anesthesia for a patient with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento anestésico de un paciente con síndrome del nevus azul de consistencia de tetina de goma (NATG).
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Local. Hemangioma, Cavernous / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / complications. Nevus, Blue / complications. Rectal Fistula / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anesthesia, Spinal / contraindications. Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage. Blood Coagulation Disorders / genetics. Case Management. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Mepivacaine / administration & dosage. Preanesthetic Medication. Preoperative Care. Subarachnoid Space

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  • (PMID = 17518185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9356
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de anestesiología y reanimación
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; B6E06QE59J / Mepivacaine
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100. Van Raamsdonk CD, Griewank KG, Crosby MB, Garrido MC, Vemula S, Wiesner T, Obenauf AC, Wackernagel W, Green G, Bouvier N, Sozen MM, Baimukanova G, Roy R, Heguy A, Dolgalev I, Khanin R, Busam K, Speicher MR, O'Brien J, Bastian BC: Mutations in GNA11 in uveal melanoma. N Engl J Med; 2010 Dec 2;363(23):2191-9
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  • There are no effective therapies for metastatic disease.
  • METHODS: We sequenced exon 5 of GNAQ and GNA11, a paralogue of GNAQ, in 713 melanocytic neoplasms of different types (186 uveal melanomas, 139 blue nevi, 106 other nevi, and 282 other melanomas).
  • We sequenced exon 4 of GNAQ and GNA11 in 453 of these samples and in all coding exons of GNAQ and GNA11 in 97 uveal melanomas and 45 blue nevi.
  • Mutations affecting Q209 in GNA11 were present in 7% of blue nevi, 32% of primary uveal melanomas, and 57% of uveal melanoma metastases.
  • In contrast, we observed Q209 mutations in GNAQ in 55% of blue nevi, 45% of uveal melanomas, and 22% of uveal melanoma metastases.
  • Mutations affecting R183 in either GNAQ or GNA11 were less prevalent (2% of blue nevi and 6% of uveal melanomas) than the Q209 mutations.






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