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Items 1 to 57 of about 57
1. Honoki K, Morita K, Kasai T, Fujii H, Kido A, Tsukamoto S, Nonomura A, Tanaka Y: Hibernoma of the axillary region: a rare benign adipocytic tumor. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(1):e7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hibernoma of the axillary region: a rare benign adipocytic tumor.
  • Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor considered to arise from remnants of fetal brown adipose tissue.
  • However, unlike lipomas, MRI findings sometimes mislead clinicians to diagnose a malignant neoplasm.
  • We describe a 63-year-old male with an axillary hibernoma involving the brachial neurovascular bundles and mimicking a well-differentiated liposarcoma, from which it should be distinguished.

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  • (PMID = 21139952.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994483
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adipocytic tumor / brown fat / hibernoma
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2. Adnani A, Chellaoui M, Chat L, Dafiri R: [Unusual appearance of axillary lipoblastoma of infancy]. J Radiol; 2005 Sep;86(9 Pt 1):1043-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Unusual appearance of axillary lipoblastoma of infancy].
  • Lipoblastoma is an uncommon benign soft tissue tumor of infancy and early childhood with a predilection for the extremities.
  • CT and MRI can confirm the presence of fat components in the tumor.
  • The authors report a case of unusual lipoblastoma of the axillary region, composed of fatty components with multiple cystic areas presenting at birth, with recurrence 9 months after excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Lipoma / congenital. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16224347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Farkash EA, Ferry JA, Harris NL, Hochberg EP, Takvorian RW, Zuckerman DS, Sohani AR: Rare lymphoid malignancies of the breast: a report of two cases illustrating potential diagnostic pitfalls. J Hematop; 2009;2(4):237-44
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  • Lymphomas may clinically, radiologically, and morphologically mimic both benign and neoplastic conditions.
  • The second case, hairy cell leukemia involving the breast and ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node, is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of hairy cell leukemia involving the breast at the time of diagnosis.
  • In the first case, lymphoma occurred in a clinical setting where malignancy was unsuspected, highlighting the importance of careful morphologic evaluation of paucicellular samples, as well as awareness of rare clinicopathologic entities, in avoiding a misdiagnosis of a benign inflammatory infiltrate.
  • In the second case, the lymphoid neoplasm exhibited classic morphologic and immunophenotypic features, but presented at an unusual site of involvement.

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  • (PMID = 20309431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-5785
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hematopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hematop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2798933
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anaplastic large cell lymphoma / Anaplastic lymphoma kinase / Breast / Breast implant / Hairy cell leukemia / Primary breast lymphoma / Seroma / T-cell neoplasm
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4. Goyal S, Puri T, Gupta R, Julka PK, Rath GK: Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence. J Cancer Res Ther; 2008 Apr-Jun;4(2):95-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence.
  • Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line.
  • These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential.
  • We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Axilla. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Neoplasm Staging. Parity. Pregnancy. Premenopause. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18688128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Taxoids; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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5. Al-Khawari H, Kovacs A, Athyal R, Al-Manfouhi H, Fayaz MS, Madda JP: Breast magnetic resonance imaging: initial experience in Kuwait. Med Princ Pract; 2009;18(2):143-8
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  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 58 patients ranging in age from 25 to 64 years, breast MRI was performed as a problem-solving tool (29); for suspicious local relapse of the treated breast (6); to search for a primary breast cancer in patients with metastatic axillary lymph nodes (5); for local staging of breast cancer (5); breast implants (6); screening in high-risk patients (3), and differentiation between inflammation and inflammatory carcinoma (4).
  • RESULTS: Seventy breast lesions (25 malignant, 38 benign and 7 lesions detected by MRI only) were identified in the 58 patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Kuwait. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19204434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0151
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Princ Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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6. Port ER, Patil S, Stempel M, Morrow M, Cody HS 3rd: Number of lymph nodes removed in sentinel lymph node-negative breast cancer patients is significantly related to patient age and tumor size: a new source of bias in morbidity assessment? Cancer; 2010 Apr 15;116(8):1987-91
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  • [Title] Number of lymph nodes removed in sentinel lymph node-negative breast cancer patients is significantly related to patient age and tumor size: a new source of bias in morbidity assessment?
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has been well-established for axillary lymph node staging for patients with breast cancer.
  • For lymph node-negative patients, planned "backup" axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is rarely indicated.
  • Among patients with negative SLNs, the authors observed variation by tumor size and patient age in the total number of lymph nodes removed (SLNs plus non-SLNs).
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of this institution's SLN database identified 4103 SLN biopsy procedures between 1997 and 2004 in which SLN biopsy was performed for prophylactic mastectomy, ductal carcinoma in situ, or T1 to T2 invasive cancers, and the SLNs were benign.
  • RESULTS: The mean number of SLNs, non-SLNs, and total lymph nodes for all tumor sizes was 2.8, 1.5, and 4.3, respectively, and increased with tumor size (more lymph nodes were removed for T2 than for T1 tumors: 6.3 vs 4.3; P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity of SLN biopsy is less than that of ALND, but for pN0 patients, the total number of lymph nodes removed increased with tumor size and younger patient age.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / surgery. Bias (Epidemiology). Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20151427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Bleiweiss IJ, Nagi CS, Jaffer S: Axillary sentinel lymph nodes can be falsely positive due to iatrogenic displacement and transport of benign epithelial cells in patients with breast carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 May 1;24(13):2013-8
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  • [Title] Axillary sentinel lymph nodes can be falsely positive due to iatrogenic displacement and transport of benign epithelial cells in patients with breast carcinoma.
  • Iatrogenic epithelial cell displacement and benign transport of breast epithelial cells into axillary lymph nodes are recently described phenomena.
  • We report 25 cases in which these factors probably resulted in benign epithelial cells in axillary SLNs (ie, false positivity).
  • RESULTS: In all cases, the cytologic features of the epithelial cells in the SLNs were benign, and 22 matched those of corresponding intraductal papillomas that were involved by or were separate from the DCIS in the original cores or surgical biopsies.
  • Nineteen cases showed benign epithelial cell displacement at the biopsy site.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Cell Movement. Epithelial Cells / pathology. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 May 1;24(13):1978-9 [16606969.001]
  • (PMID = 16606970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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8. Britton PD, Goud A, Godward S, Barter S, Freeman A, Gaskarth M, Rajan P, Sinnatamby R, Slattery J, Provenzano E, O'Donovan M, Pinder S, Benson JR, Forouhi P, Wishart GC: Use of ultrasound-guided axillary node core biopsy in staging of early breast cancer. Eur Radiol; 2009 Mar;19(3):561-9
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  • [Title] Use of ultrasound-guided axillary node core biopsy in staging of early breast cancer.
  • Patients with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer underwent axillary ultrasound (US) where lymph node size and morphology were noted.
  • Patients with benign CBs proceeded to sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, whereas those with malignancy underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • One hundred and twenty-one patients (87%) underwent axillary node CB.
  • CB of axillary lymph nodes can diagnose a substantial number of patients with lymph node metastases, allowing these patients to proceed directly to ALND, avoiding unnecessary SLN biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / pathology. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18797874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Snider HC Jr, Rubin E, Henson R: Axillary ultrasonography to detect recurrence after sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;13(4):501-7
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  • [Title] Axillary ultrasonography to detect recurrence after sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer.
  • Initial reports of follow-up show lower axillary recurrence rates than expected.
  • We performed axillary ultrasonography to determine whether occult recurrences could be detected.
  • METHODS: In a community hospital setting, 289 patients who had SNB for breast cancer in a single surgeon's practice underwent axillary examination by the surgeon followed by axillary ultrasonography by a dedicated breast radiologist.
  • Five patients had benign cytological characteristics, and one had a benign core biopsy result.
  • No evidence of axillary recurrence was found in any patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Axillary ultrasonography did not detect occult metastases in any patient and is not recommended for routine follow-up after SNB.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16511672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Corben AD, Nehhozina T, Garg K, Vallejo CE, Brogi E: Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes: a possible pitfall in the staging of patients with breast carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1211-6
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  • [Title] Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes: a possible pitfall in the staging of patients with breast carcinoma.
  • The occurrence of benign epithelial inclusions in lymph nodes is well documented and can sometimes mimic metastatic carcinoma.
  • Benign müllerian inclusions, such as endometriosis and endosalpingiosis, are common in pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, but their presence in supradiaphragmatic lymph nodes is a rare event.
  • We report our experience with 3 patients found to have endosalpingiosis in axillary sentinel lymph nodes obtained for staging of breast carcinoma.
  • Endosalpingiosis had been misinterpreted as metastatic carcinoma at another hospital in 1 of the 3 patients, with subsequent dissection of 19 additional benign axillary lymph nodes.
  • We conclude that endosalpingiosis can involve axillary lymph nodes and closely simulate metastatic mammary carcinoma.
  • Morphologic identification of ciliated cells and "peg" cells is most helpful to recognize this benign inclusion, and positive immunoreactivity for WT1 and/or PAX8 can be used to support the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cilia. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Paired Box Transcription Factors / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Unnecessary Procedures. WT1 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20631604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / WT1 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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11. Mentzel T, Kutzner H: Dermatomyofibroma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 56 cases and reappraisal of a rare and distinct cutaneous neoplasm. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Feb;31(1):44-9
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  • [Title] Dermatomyofibroma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 56 cases and reappraisal of a rare and distinct cutaneous neoplasm.
  • Dermatomyofibroma represents a rare and distinct benign cutaneous mesenchymal neoplasm of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic differentiation.
  • The shoulder (13 cases) was the anatomic site most commonly affected, followed by the upper arm (7 cases), the neck (6 cases), the thigh (6 cases), the chest wall (4 cases), the back (3 cases), the axillary fold (2 cases), the abdominal wall (2 cases), and 1 case each was seen on the forearm, the buttock, and the popliteal fossa (exact anatomic location was unknown in 10 cases).
  • Histologically, an ill-defined, plaque-like dermal neoplasm of varying cellularity was seen in all cases, composed of bland spindle-shaped tumor cells often oriented parallel to the overlying epidermis.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells in 11 of 48 cases tested stained positively for alpha-smooth muscle actin, and a focal expression of this marker was noted in 20 cases.
  • Dermatomyofibroma represents a benign fibroblastic/myofibroblastic dermal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19155724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Watermann DO, Tempfer CB, Hefler LA, Parat C, Stickeler E: Ultrasound criteria for ductal invasive breast cancer are modified by age, tumor size, and axillary lymph node status. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Jan;89(2):127-33
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  • [Title] Ultrasound criteria for ductal invasive breast cancer are modified by age, tumor size, and axillary lymph node status.
  • Ten ultrasound criteria (shape, orientation, echogenicity, echo pattern, calcifications, margin, margin contour, lesion boundary, surrounding tissue, and posterior acoustic features) were defined and correlated to age, tumor size, axillary lymph node status, and histological grading in a multivariate analysis.
  • A positive axillary lymph node status was significantly correlated to oval/round shape ( p = 0.004), hyper-/isoechogenicity ( p = 0.001), and a homogeneous echo pattern ( p = 0.002).
  • CONCLUSION: Breast ultrasound criteria, which are used to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesions, are influenced by age, size and lymph node status.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 15692754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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13. Koelliker SL, Chung MA, Mainiero MB, Steinhoff MM, Cady B: Axillary lymph nodes: US-guided fine-needle aspiration for initial staging of breast cancer--correlation with primary tumor size. Radiology; 2008 Jan;246(1):81-9
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  • [Title] Axillary lymph nodes: US-guided fine-needle aspiration for initial staging of breast cancer--correlation with primary tumor size.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonographic (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of axillary lymph nodes for preoperative staging of breast cancer across a range of primary tumor sizes, by using histologic findings as a reference standard.
  • Lymph nodes were classified as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious on the basis of US characteristics at retrospective review.
  • US-guided FNA in the most suspicious node at US, or the largest node if all appeared benign, was performed.
  • Final pathologic results (sentinel lymph node biopsy [SNB] or axillary lymph node dissection [ALND]) were compared with US and preoperative US-guided FNA results.
  • Results were assessed according to tumor size.
  • RESULTS: Primary tumor sizes were 0.3-12 cm (mean, 3 cm).
  • Sensitivity of US-guided FNA increased with primary tumor size.
  • CONCLUSION: US-guided FNA of axillary lymph nodes in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer had a sensitivity that increased with increasing size of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2007
  • (PMID = 17991784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Kebudi A, Calişkan C, Yetkin G, Celebi S, Işgör A, Mesrur Halefoğlu A, Ezdeşir R, Akgün I: The role of pre-operative B mode ultrasound in the evaluation of the axillary lymph node metastases in the initial staging of breast carcinoma. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 Sep-Oct;105(5):511-4
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  • [Title] The role of pre-operative B mode ultrasound in the evaluation of the axillary lymph node metastases in the initial staging of breast carcinoma.
  • Physical examination alone is not sufficient to assess axillary metastases.
  • Mammographic examination can give us an idea about breast cancer and axillary involvement.
  • Ultrasonographic evaluation can improve the sensitivity of clinical and mammographic examination in assessing axillary lymph node status.
  • In the study, we used axillary B mode ultrasound to evaluate the axillary lymph nodes.
  • Axillary B mode ultrasound was performed to evaluate the axillary lymph nodes for metastatic involvement.
  • Hyperechogenic hilus was accepted as a benign finding.
  • The thickening of the cortex less than 50% of the thickening of the centric echogenic hilus was also accepted as a benign finding.
  • 168 lymph nodes in 42 patients were evaluated pre-operatively with axillary B mode ultrasound.
  • As a result, these lymph nodes were defined as benign in 19 patients (45.2%) and malignant in 23 patients (54.8%).
  • Axillary lymph node status was found as benign in 18 patients (42.9%) and malignant in 24 patients (57.1%) pathologically .
  • Comparative results of ultrasound and axillary lymph node status can be seen on Table III.
  • As a result, the sensitivity of axillary B mode ultrasound to show the metastases was found as 79.1%, specificity was 77.7%, positive predictive value 82.6% and negative predictive value 73.6%.
  • We think some better results may be obtained in the future and these developments may affect the surgeon's decisions concerning axillary dissection for breast cancer operations.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16315836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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15. Mainiero MB, Cinelli CM, Koelliker SL, Graves TA, Chung MA: Axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in the preoperative evaluation of the breast cancer patient: an algorithm based on tumor size and lymph node appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Nov;195(5):1261-7
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  • [Title] Axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in the preoperative evaluation of the breast cancer patient: an algorithm based on tumor size and lymph node appearance.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients depending on the size of the primary tumor and the appearance of the lymph nodes.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were collected about tumor size, lymph node appearance, and the results of ultrasound-guided FNA and axillary surgery of 224 patients with breast cancer undergoing 226 ultrasound-guided FNA.
  • Lymph nodes were classified as benign if the cortex was even and measured < 3 mm, indeterminate if the cortex was even but measured ≥ 3 mm or measured < 3 mm but was focally thickened, and suspicious if the cortex was focally thickened and measured ≥ 3 mm or the fatty hilum was absent.
  • The results of ultrasound-guided FNAs were analyzed by the sonographic appearance of the axillary lymph nodes and by the size of the primary tumor.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound-guided FNA were calculated with axillary surgery as the reference standard.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of axillary ultrasound to predict the ultrasound-guided FNA result were calculated.
  • CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided FNA of the axillary lymph nodes is most useful in the preoperative assessment of patients with large tumors (> 2 cm) or lymph nodes that appear abnormal.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Breast Neoplasms, Male / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [CommentIn] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Jul;197(1):W194; author reply W195 [21700988.001]
  • (PMID = 20966338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Kim MJ, Park BW, Lim JB, Kim HS, Kwak JY, Kim SJ, Park SH, Sohn YM, Moon HJ, Kim EK: Axillary lymph node metastasis: CA-15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen concentrations in fine-needle aspirates for preoperative diagnosis in patients with breast cancer. Radiology; 2010 Mar;254(3):691-7
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  • [Title] Axillary lymph node metastasis: CA-15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen concentrations in fine-needle aspirates for preoperative diagnosis in patients with breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To assess whether concentrations of the tumor markers breast cancer antigen 15-3 (CA-15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in fine-needle aspirates (FNAs) differ between benign and malignant lymph nodes and whether FNA concentrations of the tumor markers can improve the sensitivity of axillary lymph node (ALN) FNA in patients with breast cancer.
  • Of the 134 ALNs, 86 were malignant and 48 were benign.
  • FNA cytology sensitivity was 87.2%, and the combined sensitivity of FNA cytology and FNA tumor marker concentrations was 96.5% (P = .01).
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mucin-1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Interventional. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 20123899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1
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17. Kunz U, Friedrich T: [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Clinical meaning of a rare entity]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2007 Apr 25;96(17):681-6
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  • MFH should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of large tumour diameters, rapidly progressive tumour growth and absence of axillary lymph nodes or distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 17491198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Dhillon R, Depree P, Metcalf C, Wylie E: Screen-detected mucinous breast carcinoma: potential for delayed diagnosis. Clin Radiol; 2006 May;61(5):423-30
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  • A significant number of lesions (13/34) were evident on the previous screening examination where they were misinterpreted as benign lesions.
  • However, none of these cases had positive axillary lymph nodes at final diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although mammographically benign appearances of mucinous carcinoma caused a delay in diagnosis in 38% of the present cases, mucinous breast carcinomas have a favourable prognosis, as they are often low-grade tumours and rarely metastasize.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrasonography. Databases, Factual. Female. Humans. Mammography / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods

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  • (PMID = 16679116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Chen WH, Cheng SP, Tzen CY, Yang TL, Jeng KS, Liu CL, Liu TP: Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep 1;91(3):185-94
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  • They are composed of a benign epithelial component and a cellular, spindle cell stroma forming a leaf-like structure.
  • No one morphologic finding is reliable in predicting the clinical behavior of the tumor.
  • Clinical data analyzed included age, presenting symptoms and signs, tumor size, location, type of surgery, time to recurrence, and metastasis.
  • The pathologic diagnoses included 131 benign, 12 borderline, and 29 malignant lesions.
  • The initial diagnosis of all 19 recurrent tumors were benign.
  • Stromal cellularity, stromal overgrowth, stromal atypia, mitotic activity, tumor margin, and heterologous stromal elements were significantly correlated with metastases (P = 0.032, 0.00008, 0.000002, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.046, respectively).
  • No axillary lymph node metastases were found.
  • Fifteen patients in our series had tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity.
  • Routine axillary lymph node dissection is not recommended.
  • Patients have tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity are at high risk for metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Taiwan / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16118768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Wang H, Arun BK, Wang H, Fuller GN, Zhang W, Middleton LP, Sahin AA: IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 overexpression correlates with the lymph node metastasis in T1 breast carcinomas. Breast J; 2008 May-Jun;14(3):261-7
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  • The specimens were divided into those with (N1) or without (N0) axillary lymph node involvement.
  • No or very low expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 was detected in normal breast epithelium or benign breast tissue with fibrocystic change.
  • IGFBP2 and IGFBP5 expression correlated with the expression status of progesterone receptor and HER-2/neu in the overall T1 carcinoma group, but no association was found with tumor size or the expression status of estrogen receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / biosynthesis. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18373644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5
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21. Acs G, Dumoff KL, Solin LJ, Pasha T, Xu X, Zhang PJ: Extensive retraction artifact correlates with lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis and predicts poor outcome in early stage breast carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jan;31(1):129-40
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  • Retraction artifact resulting in clear spaces around tumor cell nests is frequently seen in histologic material and may present difficulty in their differentiation from lymphovascular invasion.
  • We noticed that retraction artifact seemed to be more common around groups of breast cancer cells compared with benign acini, and when extensively present, metastasis to axillary lymph nodes was often seen.
  • Tumors were evaluated to determine the presence and extent of retraction artifact around tumor cell nests and the presence of lymphatic invasion.
  • The extent of retraction artifact in tumors was correlated with clinicopathologic tumor features and patient outcome.
  • The extent of retraction artifact showed a significant correlation with tumor size, histologic type, histologic grade, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and nodal metastasis.
  • Rather, it likely signifies important biologic changes that alter tumor-stromal interactions and contribute to lymphatic spread and tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. ROC Curve. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17197929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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22. Kumasaka T, Seyama K, Mitani K, Souma S, Kashiwagi S, Hebisawa A, Sato T, Kubo H, Gomi K, Shibuya K, Fukuchi Y, Suda K: Lymphangiogenesis-mediated shedding of LAM cell clusters as a mechanism for dissemination in lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Oct;29(10):1356-66
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  • Recent studies indicate that LAM cells can migrate or metastasize to form new lesions in multiple organs, although they show a morphologically benign appearance.
  • We identified LAM lesion in the diaphragm (2 of 5 autopy cases and one surgical specimen), thoracic duct (5 of 5), and lymph nodes (retroperitoneal (5 of 5), mediastinal (4 of 5), left venous angle (5 of 5) with total positive rate of 68% to 88% at each region of the lymph node, but less frequent or none at remote lymph nodes located away from the axial lymph trunk (cervical [1 of 5] and axillary [0 of 5]).
  • [MeSH-major] Endothelial Cells / pathology. Lymphangiogenesis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16160479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Yadia S, Randazzo CG, Malik S, Gressen E, Chasky M, Kenyon LC, Ratliff JK: Pilomatrix carcinoma of the thoracic spine: case report and review of the literature. J Spinal Cord Med; 2010;33(3):272-7
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  • CONTEXT: Pilomatrixoma is a common head and neck neoplasm in children.
  • FINDINGS: The appearance of a painless mobile axillary mass was followed by severe back pain 1 year later.
  • The patient underwent resection of the axillary mass and spinal reconstruction of the fracture; the pathology was consistent with synchronous benign pilomatrixomas.

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  • [Cites] J Pak Med Assoc. 2000 Jun;50(6):197-9 [10979629.001]
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  • (PMID = 20737803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-0268
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of spinal cord medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Spinal Cord Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2920123
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24. Zhao TT, Li JG, Li YM: [Performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of primary breast cancer and staging of the regional lymph nodes]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Mar;29(3):206-9
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  • 32 breast lesions were evaluated by histology, revealing 25 breast carcinomas and 7 benign pathological changes.
  • 23 patients had histological diagnosis of the breast tumor and regional lymph nodes.
  • But the accuracy of FDG PET/CT seems to be not high enough to identify patients who might avoid axillary lymph nodes dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17649638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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25. Lanng C, Hoffmann J, Galatius H, Engel U: Assessment of clinical palpation of the axilla as a criterion for performing the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Apr;33(3):281-4
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  • [Title] Assessment of clinical palpation of the axilla as a criterion for performing the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer.
  • Many studies have shown, however, that clinical assessment of axillary LNs is inaccurate.
  • This study evaluated the reliability of clinical axillary LN assessment by experts and assessed whether inaccuracy can be related to LN size.
  • METHODS: Three hundred and one consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing either axillary dissection or SN were studied prospectively.
  • RESULTS: The risk of having metastasis to the LN was 40.4% if the preoperative clinical assessment was "non-palpable LN", 61.5% if the assessment was "palpable but benign LN" and 84.4% if it was "suspicious LN".
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical assessment of axillary LNs as a criterion for offering the SN procedure is of little value.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17084579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Grenier J, Delbaldo C, Zelek L, Piedbois P: [Phyllodes tumors and breast sarcomas: a review]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Oct;97(10):1197-207
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  • Phyllodes tumors are benign tumors, tumors of intermediate malignancy or malignant tumors.
  • Radiotherapy is recommended in case of high-grade tumor and after conservativetreatment.
  • Grade, involved margins and sometimes tumor necrosis are major prognostics factors.
  • The treatment is mostly based on mastectomy without lymph node dissection given the exceptional flooding axillary.
  • In some situations, a conservative treatment can be discussed, based on tumor size, grade and volume of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / secondary. Hemangiosarcoma / therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20855241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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27. Yang J, Hu A, Wang L, Li B, Chen Y, Zhao W, Xu W, Li T: NOEY2 mutations in primary breast cancers and breast hyperplasia. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):197-203
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  • PURPOSE: The NOEY2 gene mutations and protein expression in human breast cancers, adjacent breast tissues and breast benign lesions were analysed to explore the potential correlation between the mutation spectrum and breast cancer development and progression.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The promoter, exon and intron regions of NOEY2 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA extracted from 50 human breast cancer and corresponding adjacent breast tissues as well as 50 breast benign lesions, respectively.
  • No mutation was identified in all benign breast tissues.
  • NOEY2 gene mutations were not correlated with patient ages, histological types, tumour sizes, histological grades, clinical stages, axillary lymph node metastases or with the condition of hormone receptor (ER, PR) expression and HER2 amplification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 19482475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
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28. Nakaguro M, Suzuki Y, Ichihara S, Kobayashi TK, Ono K: Epithelial inclusion cyst arising in an intramammary lymph node: case report with cytologic findings. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Mar;37(3):199-202
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  • The occurrence of epithelial inclusion cysts (EIC) in axillary lymph nodes is a rare but well recognized entity, arising either from direct implantation or from embryonal rests.
  • Contrary to these more sinister diagnoses, EIC arising in an intramammary lymph node is a benign condition.
  • As this rare lesion sometimes mimics a neoplasm both clinically and radiographically, awareness of this entity is important to prevent over treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19177497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Nassar A, Cohen C, Cotsonis G, Carlson G: Significance of intramammary lymph nodes in the staging of breast cancer: correlation with tumor characteristics and outcome. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):147-52
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  • [Title] Significance of intramammary lymph nodes in the staging of breast cancer: correlation with tumor characteristics and outcome.
  • In all, 59 patients (50.8%) were found in association with benign breast conditions and the remaining 57 (49.2%) with primary breast carcinoma.
  • Primary tumor characteristics and axillary lymph node (AxLN) status were recorded.
  • Statistical analysis was performed to detect correlation between intraMLN and tumor characteristics as well as outcome.
  • Most patients (80%) who had intraMLN metastases also had axillary metastases; however, an isolated intraMLN metastasis was documented in one patient (7%).
  • Univariate analysis revealed that predictors of intraMLN metastases include: tumor size (p = 0.04), tumor grade (p = 0.04), tumor stage (p < 0.001), and AxLN status (p < 0.001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18248563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Shin JH, Han BK, Choe YH, Nam SJ, Park W, Im YH: Ultrasonographic detection of occult cancer in patients after surgical therapy for breast cancer. J Ultrasound Med; 2005 May;24(5):643-9
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  • The questionable lesions were lymph nodes in 42 and masses in 15; of these lesions, 24 were malignant (true-positive) and 33 were benign (false-positive).
  • The locations of the recurrent lesions were the regional lymph nodes in 14 cases (4, axillary fossa; 4, interpectoral; 4, internal mammary; and 2, supraclavicular lymph nodes) and the breast and mastectomy bed in 7 cases.
  • The mean size of the malignant lymph nodes was larger than that of the benign lymph nodes.
  • Familiarity with the common location of a tumor recurrence is essential for making an accurate ultrasonographic evaluation in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / ultrasonography. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15840796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • RESULTS: Partial mastectomy and segmentectomy were performed in three women 46, 72 and 74 years-old resp. for tumor, which size ranged from 20-35 mm in maximum diameter (mean 28 mm).
  • There were recognized metastases by one woman in two ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes mimicking benign breast heterotopia in one of them.
  • In two women with aggressive course the original biopsy was falsely interpreted, once as phyllodes tumor and secondly as benign sclerosing pseudotumor.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.
  • The rarity of this neoplasm does not exclude deep knowledge.

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  • (PMID = 16047925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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32. Granić M, Oprić D, Pupić G, Babić D, Ivanović N, Nikolić D, Dikić S, Oprić S: [Surgical methods for the treatment of breast phyllodes tumors--a report of 319 cases]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2006;53(1):57-62
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  • Biologicaly they can be divided into benign, borderline and malignant group.
  • Incomplete tumor excision can be the reason for local reccurence.
  • -31.12.1994. Retrospective study of surgical treatment 84 patients with FT of the breast (69 benign, 4 borderline and 11 malignant) and 5 year follow up after surgery we analysed.
  • RESULTS: local reccurence after surgery was found in 17 (20,2 %) patients(14 benign , 2 borderline and 1 malignant FT), pulmonary metastases in 6 (7,1%) patients with malignant FT.
  • CONCLUSION: According to biological behavior we propose wide excision for benign and borderline forms and simple mastectomy for malignant FT, and voluminous benign and borderline forms.
  • Axillary disection is not necessary because lymphatic spread of malignant FT is unfrequent.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16989148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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33. Roumen RM, Kuijt GP, Liem LH: [The sentinel lymph node procedure also feasible in patients with recurrent breast cancer]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Jan 5;152(1):13-9
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  • The implementation of this SLN concept has created a new category of patients: those who had breast-conserving therapy without complete axillary lymph node dissection following a negative SLN biopsy.
  • In cases of local relapse in the ipsilateral breast, questions arise on the lymphatic drainage of this new tumour.
  • Such is also the case for patients who have been treated for ductal carcinoma in situ, who have had a previous mastectomy, or even after previous benign breast or axillary surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008 Jan 5;152(1):10-2 [18240753.001]
  • (PMID = 18240754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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34. Olsen DA, Østergaard B, Bokmand S, Wamberg PA, Jakobsen EH, Brandslund I: HER-2 protein concentrations in breast cancer cells increase before immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis turn positive. Clin Chem Lab Med; 2007;45(2):177-82
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  • METHODS: Tissue samples of malignant and adjacent benign breast tissue were collected from 118 consecutive women admitted for surgical treatment of breast cancer.
  • No correlation was found with tumor grade, axillary node status or serum HER-2 levels.

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  • (PMID = 17311504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-6621
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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35. McLaughlin RA, Scolaro L, Robbins P, Hamza S, Saunders C, Sampson DD: Imaging of human lymph nodes using optical coherence tomography: potential for staging cancer. Cancer Res; 2010 Apr 1;70(7):2579-84
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  • Examples include both benign human axillary lymph nodes and nodes containing metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 20233873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Huang W, Zhang Y, Varambally S, Chinnaiyan AM, Banerjee M, Merajver SD, Kleer CG: Inhibition of CCN6 (Wnt-1-induced signaling protein 3) down-regulates E-cadherin in the breast epithelium through induction of snail and ZEB1. Am J Pathol; 2008 Apr;172(4):893-904
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  • The cysteine-rich protein CCN6 [or Wnt-1-induced signaling protein 3 (WISP3)] exerts tumor-suppressive effects in aggressive inflammatory breast cancer.
  • Here, we show that reduction of CCN6 expression occurs in 60% of invasive breast carcinomas and is associated with axillary lymph node metastases.
  • In vitro, RNA interference knockdown of CCN6 in two benign human mammary epithelial cell lines (HME and MCF10A) decreased expression of E-cadherin protein and mRNA and reduced activity of the E-cadherin promoter; this reduction was dependent on intact E-box elements.

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  • (PMID = 18321996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA 090876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 66712; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 107469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA090876
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / WISP3 protein, human; 0 / ZEB1 protein, human; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2276413
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37. De Cesare A, Fiori E, Burza A, Ciardi A, Bononi M, Izzo L, Volpino P, Cavallaro A, Cangemi V: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the breast. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1B):505-8
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  • Two cases of this neoplasm are reported, with histological findings and surgical treatment.
  • A review of the available literature evaluates the histopathological and biological features of MFH of the breast, for which there are no prospective trials, owing to the rarity of this kind of neoplasm.
  • The extent of surgery or role of axillary lymph nodes dissection and multimodality therapy are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15816619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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38. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Gamoudi A, Chargui R, Khomsi F, Mahjoub S, Slimene M, Ben Dhiab T, Hechiche M, Boussen H, Rahal K: Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a case series of 106 patients. Am J Surg; 2006 Aug;192(2):141-7
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  • According to criteria of Azzopardi and Salvadori, tumors were classified into 3 groups: benign (62 cases, 58.4%), borderline (16 cases, 15%), and malignant (28 cases, 26.4%).
  • Eighty-two patients (77.4%) were treated conservatively (62 benign, 11 borderline, and 9 malignant) and 24 (22.6%) by radical surgery (5 borderline and 19 malignant).
  • For malignant PTs treated by enucleation or local excision with or without reexcision of the tumor bed, the 5-year overall and disease-free survivals were 28.5% and 15.6% versus 72.7% and 73.6% when the surgery was radical (mastectomy with or without axillary dissection) (P = .12 and P = .0022).
  • The rate of recurrence was 12.2% (13) after a mean follow-up of 39 months (5 benign, 2 borderline, and 5 malignant).
  • In univariate analysis, age and recurrences are not of prognostic value for survival, whereas tumor size, histotype, necrosis, cytonuclear atypia, tumor margins, and number of mitosis were significant prognostic factors for survival.
  • CONCLUSION: According to our results, we recommend for malignant PT a simple mastectomy, whereas for borderline and benign PT, treatment is based rather on wide excision passing in healthy tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16860620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Rouëssé J, Alberini JL, Wartski M, Gutman F, Collignon MA, Corone C, Pichon MF, Pecking AP: [FDG (18 fluorodeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography and breast cancer]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2005 May;189(5):963-75; discussion 975-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Tomographie par emission de positons (TEP) au FDG et cancer du sein.
  • 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulates in tumor cells because of their increased glycolytic activity, and is thus widely used as a tracer in oncology.
  • It can also be used to characterize morphologic changes, differentiating not only between benign and malignant lesions, but also between viable tumor cells and areas of necrosis and/or fibrosis induced by treatments.
  • This technique appears to be useful for initial breast cancer staging, especially of locally advanced forms and suspected recurrences (increase of isolated tumor marker).
  • This approach is poorly sensitive when used for axillary assessment, but offers good specificity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16433466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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40. Da Silva L, Buck L, Simpson PT, Reid L, McCallum N, Madigan BJ, Lakhani SR: Molecular and morphological analysis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast with synchronous tubular adenosis. Virchows Arch; 2009 Jan;454(1):107-14
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  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare tumour.
  • Its recognition as a special type of breast carcinoma is very important because its prognosis is better than the not-otherwise-specified invasive ductal carcinoma and its treatment may not include axillary dissection.
  • Tubular adenosis (TA) is a very rare condition of the breast that is histologically benign; however, it has been described in association with invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • These molecular data highlight the genomic instability of TA, a benign florid proliferation intermingled with ACC, and do not provide evidence of molecular evolution from TA to ACC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Cell Proliferation. DNA, Neoplasm. Female. Genomic Instability / genetics. Humans. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19031084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / S100 Proteins
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41. Edwards PC, Fantasia JE, Saini T, Rosenberg TJ, Sachs SA, Ruggiero S: Clinically aggressive central giant cell granulomas in two patients with neurofibromatosis 1. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2006 Dec;102(6):765-72
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  • BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by a spectrum of mutations affecting the Nf1 gene.
  • Affected patients develop benign and malignant tumors at an increased frequency.
  • Clinical findings include multiple cutaneous café-au-lait pigmentations, neurofibromas, axillary freckling, optic gliomas, benign iris hamartomas (Lisch nodules), scoliosis, and poorly defined soft tissue lesions of the skeleton.
  • Alternatively, the CGCG in NF1 patients could represent a true neoplasm, resulting from additional, as of yet unidentified, genetic alterations to Nf1-haploinsufficient bone.

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  • (PMID = 17138179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Sakurai K, Enomoto K, Amano S: [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2784-5
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  • [Title] [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast].
  • We report that the long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast.
  • Twenty-one cases were performed local excision with at least 1 cm surgical margin, and seven cases were performed muscle preserving mastectomy without axillary lymph nodes dissection.
  • The patients with local recurrence were diagnosed the benign phyllodes tumor of the breast at the first operation.
  • If the pathological diagnosis was benign phyllodes tumor and surgical margin was negative at the first operation, it is necessary to follow up the patients, because there is a risk of local and distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21224712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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43. Neagu A, Muscă S, Slătineanu S, Pricop M: [Breast conservative surgery]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2005 Jan-Mar;109(1):66-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Breast conservative treatment consists of partial mastectomy, axillary dissection and radiotherapy.
  • The frozen sections examination provides prompt differentiation between benign/malign lesions and precise assessment of the oncologic margins of the specimen.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy represents an alternative to axillary dissection, in order to reduce subsequent morbidity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16607830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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44. Alberini JL, Lerebours F, Wartski M, Fourme E, Le Stanc E, Gontier E, Madar O, Cherel P, Pecking AP: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging in the staging and prognosis of inflammatory breast cancer. Cancer; 2009 Nov 1;115(21):5038-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: : PET/CT scan was positive for the primary malignant tumor in 100% and false positive in 2 of 3 benign mastitis.
  • In 59 IBC patients, FDG nodal foci were detected in axillary (90%; n = 53) and extra-axillary areas (56%; n = 33) ipsilateral to the cancer.
  • Compared with clinical examination, the axillary lymph node status by PET/CT was upstaged and downstaged in 35 and 5 patients, respectively.
  • In 7 of 9 N0 patients, the axillary lymph node positivity on PET/CT was correct, as revealed by pathological postsurgery assessment (not available in the 2 remaining patients).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Inflammation / complications. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 19645022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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45. Huang YD, Zhang S: [Focal adhesion kinase expression and angiogenesis in breast carcinoma]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2007 Sep;27(9):1370-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: FAK and CD34 expressions were examined by immunohistochemistry with SP method in 88 breast carcinoma tissues and 30 tissues of benign breast disease.
  • RESULTS: In the 88 breast carcinomas, the positivity rate of FAK was 68.2% (60/88) with MVD of (34.52-/+13.11) /HPE, showing significant differences from those of the benign disease group (P<0.01).
  • FAK expression and MVD in breast carcinoma tissues were positively related to tumor size, axillary lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (P<0.05), but not to the patients' age or histopathological grade of the tumors (P>0.05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17884781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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46. Atalay C, Atalay G, Yilmaz KB, Altinok M: The role of anti-CENP-B and anti-SS-B antibodies in breast cancer. Neoplasma; 2005;52(1):32-5
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  • In this study, anti-SS-B and anti-CENP-B autoantibodies were studied in breast cancer patients and compared to a control group surgically treated due to benign diseases.
  • Fifty-five patients with breast cancer and 25 patients with benign diseases were prospectively included in the study.
  • Besides, anti-SS-B positivity was detected more frequently in breast cancer patients with axillary involvement (63% vs. 24%) (p=0.006) and increased as the number of involved lymph nodes increased in the axilla (p=0.03).
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antinuclear / immunology. Antibodies, Neoplasm / blood. Autoantigens / immunology. Breast Diseases / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / immunology. DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15739023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / CENPB protein, human; 0 / Centromere Protein B; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SS-B antibodies
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47. Dragoumis DM, Assimaki AS, Tsiftsoglou AP: Solid variant of a pure intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):545-7
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  • Intracystic papillary carcinoma (IPC) of the breast is an uncommon malignant breast neoplasm and usually occurs in advanced age.
  • It is characterized by a more benign behavior and a subsequent higher survival rate.
  • We describe such a case of a 58-year-old female, who displayed a gradually growing tumor of the right breast.
  • Based on the preoperative clinical identification of right axillary lymphadenopathy, the patient eventually underwent segmental resection of the right breast and right axillary nodal dissection.
  • As regards the histological findings, the neoplasm corresponded to a pure intracystic papillary carcinoma of the solid variant.
  • IPC represents a breast tumor with papillary differentiation growing inside a cyst, and excisional biopsy is often necessary to confirm the disease.

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  • (PMID = 19051833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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48. Li BJ, Wang JY, Wang HY, Huang XP, Zhang LJ, Long H, Yang MT, Rong TH: [Clinical significance of hMAM mRNA detection in bone marrow of breast carcinoma patient]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;28(10):766-9
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  • METHODS: Expression of hMAM mRNA was detected using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the bone marrow aspiration sample from 75 breast cancer patients, 15 patients with benign breast lesions and 8 healthy volunteers as control.
  • However, hMAM mRNA expression was not detected in the bone marrow aspiration samples from patients with benign breast lesions and healthy volunteers.
  • The hMAM mRNA expression was positively correlated with axillary nodal involvement and progesterone receptor (PR) status (P < 0.05) as well as Ki67 expression in breast cancer tissue (chi2 = 4.936, P = 0.026), but not with age, tumor size, clinical stage, or estrogen receptor (ER) status (P > 0.05).
  • Thereupon, hMAM mRNA may be useful as a molecular biomarker in detecting disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone marrow of breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms, Male / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Uteroglobin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Fibroadenoma / genetics. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mammaglobin A. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Receptors, Progesterone / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17366790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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49. Bembenek A, Fischer J, Albrecht H, Kemnitz E, Gretschel S, Schneider U, Dresel S, Schlag PM: Impact of patient- and disease-specific factors on SLNB in breast cancer patients. Are current guidelines justified? World J Surg; 2007 Feb;31(2):267-75
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  • Calculation of the false-negative rate was based on patients who underwent a backup axillary dissection.
  • RESULTS: Among 455 consecutively enrolled patients, a significant inverse association to the detection rate was found for extracapsular extension of non-SLN metastases, body mass index (BMI), number of involved lymph nodes, pT category, tumor size, and age.
  • A significant association to the false-negative rate to identify macrometastases was found for pT category, tumor size, and grading.
  • Other factors, such as prior surgery, multicentric tumor growth, or vascular invasion, showed no influence.
  • A cut-point analysis revealed that a tumor size of 2 cm separated the collective of patients with the highest significance in regard to the false-negative rate (9% vs. 25%).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that SLNB can be safely used in elderly and obese patients with multicentric tumors and those having undergone prior surgery for benign breast disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Body Mass Index. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17180478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Volmar KE, Cummings TJ, Wang WH, Creager AJ, Tyler DS, Xie HB: Clear cell hidradenoma: a mimic of metastatic clear cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 May;129(5):e113-6
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  • Clear cell hidradenoma is a benign skin appendage tumor that may mimic conventional-type renal cell carcinoma.
  • We report the rare case of a patient with renal cell carcinoma who underwent excision of an axillary clear cell hidradenoma, which was clinically suggestive of cutaneous metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15859654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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51. Ding GP, Ye CS, Liu MF, Zhen LF, Liao JJ: [Relationship between D2-40-labeled lymphatic vessel invasion and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2010 Oct;30(10):2301-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of D2-40 and lymphatic invasion in 72 cases of breast cancer and 15 benign breast tumor tissues, and their correlations to the clinicopathological factors were analyzed.
  • In patients with lymph node metastasis, the positivity rate of LVI was significantly higher than that in patients without lymph node involvement (85.7% vs 54.1%, P<0.01), and LVI was found to be positively correlated to axillary lymph node metastasis (r=0.382).
  • LVI is positively correlated to axillary lymph node metastasis and occurs earlier than the latter, therefore should be included in routine clinicopathological testing.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20965831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal
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52. Korula A, Varghese J, Thomas M, Vyas F, Korula A: Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Singapore Med J; 2008 Nov;49(11):e318-21
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  • [Title] Malignant phyllodes tumour with intraductal and invasive carcinoma and lymph node metastasis.
  • Metastasis is usually haematogeneous, and axillary lymph node dissection is not routinely performed.
  • Carcinoma in a phyllodes tumour is distinctly uncommon, but has been known to occur in benign phyllodes tumours.
  • We describe a 51-year-old woman with a malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma within the tumour and adjacent breast tissue.
  • A malignant phyllodes tumour with foci of intraductal carcinoma and axillary lymph node metastases was diagnosed rather than carcinosarcoma.
  • Coexistence of phyllodes tumour and carcinoma is rare, and extensive sampling may be necessary to find the foci of carcinoma within an extensive and obviously malignant stromal overgrowth.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Breast / surgery. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19037540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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53. Fajdić J, Gotovac N, Hrgović Z, Kristek J, Horvat V, Kaufmann M: Phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):113-8
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  • The average tumor size was 5.1 cm (range 1.4-19.6).
  • Wide excision with tumor-free margins was carried out in 29 (80.5%) cases and mastectomy in 7 (19.4%) cases.
  • Axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in patients with positive lymph nodes.
  • RESULTS: Histology showed the phyllodes tumors to be benign in 27 (75.0%), malignant in 6 (16.6%), and borderline in 3 (8.3%) cases.
  • In this period, recurrences of 3 (8.3%) malignant and 2 (5.6%) benign phyllodes tumors were diagnosed and treated.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study shows that tumor size, margin infiltration, mitotic activity and degree of cellular atypia are important prognostic factors.
  • Although wide local excision is usually the treatment of choice, tumor recurrence is common.
  • Axillary lymphadenectomy in malignant phyllodes tumors is, in our opinion, still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mammography. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17341897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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54. Dapri G, Himpens J, Ntounda R, Alard S, Dereeper E, Cadière GB: Enucleation of a leiomyoma of the mid-esophagus through a right thoracoscopy with the patient in prone position. Surg Endosc; 2010 Jan;24(1):215-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Leiomyoma is the most common benign esophageal neoplasm.
  • A 30 degrees scope was introduced in the right 7th intercostal space on the posterior axillary line.
  • Benign pathology was confirmed.

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  • (PMID = 19517189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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55. Garoufali A, Kyriakou F, Kountourakis P, Yioti I, Malliou S, Nikaki A, Kardara E, Frangos I, Koumna S, Baziotis N, Scorilas A, Ardavanis A: Extracellular domain of HER2: a useful marker for the initial workup and follow-up of HER2-positive breast cancer. J BUON; 2008 Jul-Sep;13(3):409-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 247 consecutive patients (116 with early or localized BC, 116 with advanced or metastatic BC, and 16 with benign mastopathies), serum ECD-HER2 levels were measured.
  • Mean value in benign mastopathies was 9.04 ng/ml, 9.4 ng/ml in early disease and 34.5 ng/ml in advanced disease.
  • No difference between benign mastopathies and early BC was observed, while significant difference between early and advanced BC (p<0.001) was noted.
  • However, in advanced-disease patients a positive correlation of ECD-HER2 with IHC (p=0.002), disease grade (p=0.034) and level II axillary node involvement (p=0.011) was noted, as well as a significant negative correlation with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) (p=0.035 and p=0.011, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Receptor, ErbB-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / blood. Breast Diseases / pathology. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18979558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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56. Lenhard MS, Kahlert S, Himsl I, Ditsch N, Untch M, Bauerfeind I: Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Jun;138(2):217-21
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumour of the breast: clinical follow-up of 33 cases of this rare disease.
  • The clinical data was analysed with respect to tumour grading and size, treatment and prognosis.
  • In the histopathological analysis, tumour grade was classified as benign in 40%, borderline in 27% and malignant in 33% of patients.
  • Mean tumour size was 6.9 cm, and no lymph node infiltration was found in the 10 patients who received axillary lymph node dissection.
  • The local recurrence rate was 50% in malignant, 20% in borderline and only 8% in benign tumours.
  • Neither regarding age at primary diagnosis nor in tumour size there was a significant difference between patients with local recurrence or metastatic spread and those without (p=0.284 tumour size; p=0.739 for age; Mann-Whitney U-test).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Phyllodes Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rare Diseases. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17868973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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57. Lincoln DT, Singal PK, Al-Banaw A: Growth hormone in vascular pathology: neovascularization and expression of receptors is associated with cellular proliferation. Anticancer Res; 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6B):4201-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Several growth factors, including basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factor, play a role in tumour angiogenesis.
  • Essential to the initiation of a cellular response to GH, the presence of receptors for this hormone may predict the adaptation of tumour cells resulting from GH exposure.
  • A total of 64 benign and malignant vascular tumours were obtained from different human organ sites, including the chest wall, skin, axillary contents, duodenum, female breast, abdomen, stomach, colon, lymph node, bladder, body flank and neck regions.
  • To delineate tumour cell growth, immunohistochemical analysis of cycling nuclear protein and of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, using Ki-67 and PCNA polyclonal antibodies respectively, was used to demonstrate proliferative indexes.
  • The presence of GHR in endothelial cells of vascular neoplasm indicates that they are target cells and GH is of importance in the proliferation of vascular tumour angiogenesis.
  • The results support the hypothesis that GH is involved in the paracrine-autocrine mechanism, acting locally in regulating vascular tumour growth and will be useful for site-specific studies of the evolution of vascular cancers.
  • The use of anti-GHR antibodies to block tumour progression is an intriguing possibility.

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  • [ErratumIn] Anticancer Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2b):1439
  • (PMID = 18225592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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