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1. MacNeill KN, Riddell RH, Ghazarian D: Perianal apocrine adenocarcinoma arising in a benign apocrine adenoma; first case report and review of the literature. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):217-9
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  • [Title] Perianal apocrine adenocarcinoma arising in a benign apocrine adenoma; first case report and review of the literature.
  • Benign apocrine lesions have been described in the anogenital region, although according to the World Health Organisation convincing examples of anal apocrine adenocarcinomas have not been published.
  • This report describes the case of an invasive apocrine adenocarcinoma arising in a benign adenoma in the perianal region of a 45 year old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15677547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 12
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770559
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2. Celis JE, Gromova I, Gromov P, Moreira JM, Cabezón T, Friis E, Rank F: Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas: a protein expression signature specific for benign apocrine metaplasia. FEBS Lett; 2006 May 22;580(12):2935-44
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  • [Title] Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas: a protein expression signature specific for benign apocrine metaplasia.
  • Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of histopathological types including: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and apocrine carcinoma among others.
  • Pure apocrine carcinomas represent about 0.5% of all invasive breast cancers according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, there are at present no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis.
  • In addition, the relationship between benign apocrine changes and breast carcinoma is unclear and has been a matter of discussion for many years.
  • Recent proteome expression profiling studies of breast apocrine macrocysts, normal breast tissue, and breast tumours have identified specific apocrine biomarkers [15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase)] present in early and advanced apocrine lesions.
  • These biomarkers in combination with proteins found to be characteristically upregulated in pure apocrine carcinomas (psoriasin, S100A9, and p53) provide a protein expression signature distinctive for benign apocrine metaplasias and apocrine cystic lesions.
  • These studies have also presented compelling evidence for a direct link, through the expression of the prostaglandin degrading enzyme 15-PGDH, between early apocrine lesions and pure apocrine carcinomas.
  • Moreover, specific antibodies against the components of the expression signature have identified precursor lesions in the linear histological progression to apocrine carcinoma.
  • Finally, the identification of proteins that characterize the early stages of mammary apocrine differentiation such as 15-PGDH, HMG-CoA reductase, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has opened a window of opportunity for pharmacological intervention, not only in a therapeutic manner but also in a chemopreventive setting.
  • Here we review published and recent results in the context of the current state of research on breast apocrine cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16631754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-5793
  • [Journal-full-title] FEBS letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEBS Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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3. Celis JE, Moreira JM, Gromova I, Cabezón T, Gromov P, Shen T, Timmermans V, Rank F: Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia. Mol Oncol; 2007 Jun;1(1):97-119
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  • [Title] Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The strategy we have been pursuing to identify early apocrine breast lesions is based on the postulate that invasive apocrine carcinomas evolve from epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in a stepwise manner that involves apocrine metaplasia of normal breast epithelia, hyperplasia, atypia, and apocrine carcinoma in situ.
  • First, we identify specific protein biomarkers for benign apocrine metaplasia and thereafter we search for biomarkers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • Here we present studies in which we have used antibodies against components of a benign apocrine signature that includes 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a protein that is expressed by all benign apocrine lesions, and markers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas such as MRP14 (S100A9), psoriasin (S100A7), and p53 to identify precancerous lesions in sclerosing adenosis (SA) with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The latter is a benign proliferative lesion of the breast that exhibits an increase in the size of the TDLUs and characterized by retained two-cell lining, and myoepithelial (ME) and stromal hyperplasia.
  • SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher degree of atypical apocrine hyperplasia, and these lesions are believed to be precursors of apocrine carcinoma, in situ and invasive.
  • Analysis of 24 selected SA samples with apocrine metaplasia revealed non-obligate putative apocrine precancerous lesions that displayed some, or in same cases all the three markers associated with pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • These studies also revealed p53 positive, non-apocrine putative precancerous lesions as well as novel phenotypes for ME and some luminal cells characterized by the expression of cytokeratin 15.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19383289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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4. Celis JE, Gromov P, Moreira JM, Cabezón T, Friis E, Vejborg IM, Proess G, Rank F, Gromova I: Apocrine cysts of the breast: biomarkers, origin, enlargement, and relation with cancer phenotype. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2006 Mar;5(3):462-83
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  • [Title] Apocrine cysts of the breast: biomarkers, origin, enlargement, and relation with cancer phenotype.
  • Here we present an extensive proteomic and immunohistochemistry (IHC) study of breast apocrine cystic lesions aimed at generating specific biomarkers and elucidating the relationship, if existent, of apocrine cysts with cancer phenotype.
  • To this end we compared the expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts obtained from mastectomies from high risk cancer patients with those of cancerous and non-malignant mammary tissue biopsies collected from the same patients.
  • We identified two biomarkers, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, that were expressed specifically by apocrine type I cysts as well as by apocrine metaplastic cells in type II microcysts, terminal ducts, and intraductal papillary lesions.
  • IHC analysis of the corresponding 93 primary tumors indicated that most apocrine changes have little intrinsic malignant potential, although some may progress to invasive apocrine cancer.
  • None of the apocrine lesions examined, however, seemed to be a precursor of invasive ductal carcinomas, which accounted for 81% of the tumors analyzed.
  • Our studies also provided some insight into the origin, development, and enlargement of apocrine cysts in mammary tissue.
  • The successful identification of differentially expressed proteins that characterize specific steps in the progression from early benign lesions to apocrine cancer opens a window of opportunity for designing and testing new approaches for pharmacological intervention, not only in a therapeutic setting but also for chemoprevention, to inhibit cyst development as both 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase are currently being targeted for chemoprevention strategies in various malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cysts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cyst Fluid / chemistry. Cytokines / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / metabolism. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / chemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Phenotype. Proteome / analysis. Proteome / chemistry. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16316978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9476
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase
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5. Celis JE, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Gromov P, Gromova I, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Iwase T, Akiyama F, Honma N, Rank F: Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort. Mol Oncol; 2009 Jun;3(3):220-37
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort.
  • Invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs), as defined by morphological features, correspond to 0.3-4% of all invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), and despite the fact that they are histologically distinct from other breast lesions there are currently no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis and no unequivocal information as to their prognosis.
  • In an effort to address these concerns we have been using protein expression profiling technologies in combination with mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to discover specific biomarkers that could allow us to molecularly characterize these lesions as well as to dissect some of the steps in the processes underlying breast apocrine metaplasia and development of precancerous apocrine lesions.
  • Establishing these apocrine-specific markers as best practice for the routine pathology evaluation of breast cancer, however, will require their validation in large cohorts of patients.
  • Towards this goal we have composed a panel of antibodies against components of an apocrine protein signature that includes probes against the apocrine-specific markers 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), and acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1), in addition to a set of categorizing markers that are consistently expressed (AR, CD24) or not expressed (ERα, PgR, Bcl-2, and GATA-3) by apocrine metaplasia in benign breast lesions and apocrine sweat glands.
  • This panel was used to analyze a well-defined cohort consisting of 14 apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (ADCIS), and 33 IACs diagnosed at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo between 1997 and 2001.
  • Samples were originally classified on the basis of cellular morphology with all cases having more than 90% of the tumour cells exhibiting cytological features typical of apocrine cells.
  • Using the expression of 15-PGDH and/or ACSM1 as the main criterion, but taking into account the expression of other markers, we were able to identify unambiguously 13 out of 14 ADCIS (92.9%) and 20 out of 33 (60.6%) IAC samples, respectively, as being of apocrine origin.
  • Our results demonstrate that IACs correspond to a distinct, even if heterogeneous, molecular subgroup of breast carcinomas that can be readily identified in an unbiased way using a combination of markers that recapitulate the phenotype of apocrine sweat glands (15-PGDH(+), ACSM1(+), AR(+), CD24(+), ERα(-), PgR(-), Bcl-2(-), and GATA-3(-)).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19393583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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6. Celis JE, Gromov P, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Friis E, Jirström K, Llombart-Bosch A, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Rank F, Gromova I: 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2008 Oct;7(10):1795-809
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma.
  • The remaining 10% include rarer types such as tubular, cribriform, mucinous, papillary, medullary, metaplastic, and apocrine breast carcinomas.
  • An additional subclass termed "molecular apocrine" has recently been described, but these lesions did not exhibit all the histopathological features of classical invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs).
  • By comparing the protein expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts and non-malignant breast epithelial tissue we have previously reported the identification of a few proteins that are specifically expressed by benign apocrine lesions as well as by the few IACs that were available to us at the time.
  • Here we reiterate our strategy to reveal apocrine cell markers and present novel data, based on the analysis of a considerably larger number of samples, establishing that IACs correspond to a distinct molecular subtype of breast carcinomas characterized by the expression of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase alone or in combination with a novel form of acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / enzymology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paraffin Embedding. Phenotype. Silver Staining. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18632593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9484
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; EC 6.2.1.- / ACSM1 protein, human; EC 6.2.1.- / Coenzyme A Ligases
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7. Monteagudo B, Antón-Badiola IM, Muñoz MJ, Paredes-Suárez C, Vázquez-Blanco M: [Pigmented apocrine hidradenoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):50-1

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  • [Title] [Pigmented apocrine hidradenoma].
  • Apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm.
  • After the histopathological study, the diagnosis was established as pigmented apocrine hidradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 16476334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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8. Angulo J, Jaqueti G, Kutzner H, Requena L: Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Oct;34(10):801-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma.
  • Apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm with apocrine differentiation.
  • The neoplasm is composed of four different types of epithelial cells, including pale or clear cells, polygonal cells, mucinous cells and squamous cells, with variable proportions of them from case to case.
  • In most examples of this neoplasm, clear or the polygonal cells are predominant, whereas the other types of neoplastic cells are less abundant.
  • We report two cases of apocrine hidradenoma mostly composed of squamous cells.
  • The rare cases described in this report are exceptional because most of the neoplastic cells showed squamous appearance and for that reason we think that squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma is the most appropriate name for these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17880588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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9. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • [Title] Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • This is an unusual case of a trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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11. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Cell cycle alterations and their relationship to proliferation in apocrine adenosis of the breast. Histopathology; 2009 Feb;54(3):348-54
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  • [Title] Cell cycle alterations and their relationship to proliferation in apocrine adenosis of the breast.
  • AIMS: Apocrine adenosis (AA) is generally considered a benign disease of the breast.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19236511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins
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12. Battistella M, Peltre B, Cribier B: Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1057-63
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  • [Title] Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Trichoblastomas (TBs) are benign follicular tumors that can present either as solitary nodule or as multiple facial papules.
  • Only one case of sporadic TB in a composite tumor has been reported, arising in an apocrine poroma.
  • We report the association of TB and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in six patients.
  • It was often positive in the associated neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: TB can be associated with benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in composite tumors.
  • Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19615018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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13. Arias-Santiago S, Aceituno-Madera P, Aneiros-Fernández J, Gutiérrez-Salmerón MT, Naranjo-Sintes R: Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine hidrocystoma and verruca. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(11):9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine hidrocystoma and verruca.
  • Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum is a benign adnexal tumor usually located in head and neck that occurs during childhood or adolescence.
  • A case of a syringocystoadema papilliferum associated with apocrine hydrocystoma and verruca is presented.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Cystadenoma / complications. Cystadenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Thoracic Wall. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19951645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Novak NP, Kaić G, Tomasović-Loncarić C, Zic R, Skoro M, Ostović KT: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine hidradenoma. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):671-4

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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine hidradenoma.
  • An apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm, usually covered by intact skin, but may show superficial ulceration and serous discharge.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20698151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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15. Barré C, Lorenzato M, Bourdat B, Quéreux C, Durlach A: [Vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma and hidradenoma papilliferum. Case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Sep;35(9):776-9
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  • We report a case of a vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma associated to a benign tumor with apocrine differenciation, the hidradenoma papilliferum, infiltrated by the carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17766164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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16. Cîmpean AM, Raica M, Nariţa D: Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):123-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate the distribution of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin positive myofibroblasts in the stroma of the normal mammary gland, benign and malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: We have found normal breast tissue, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenomas, fibrocystic diseases, phyllodes tumor, DCIS, ductal invasive, lobular, squamous, medullary, mucinous, and papillary carcinomas.
  • We also found apocrine metaplasia, florid ductal hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia, papilloma and LCIS associated with the malignant tumors.
  • All the normal breast tissues and most of benign lesions were positive for CD34 and negative for SMA.
  • The exceptions were represented by a case of fibroadenoma and the phyllodes tumor, with CD34 positivity and a focal acquisition of SMA; fibrocystic disease with associated apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a squamous carcinoma with loss of CD34 expression and focal acquisition of SMA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although there were some exceptions especially when one of the two markers was interpreted separately and in some cases associated with sclerotic stroma, we conclude that the combined expression of CD34 and a-SMA is of potential diagnostic value in the distinction between benign and malignant tumors in some difficult cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Smad Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16286998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Smad Proteins
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17. Tokés AM, Kulka J, Paku S, Szik A, Páska C, Novák PK, Szilák L, Kiss A, Bögi K, Schaff Z: Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study. Breast Cancer Res; 2005;7(2):R296-305
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  • [Title] Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study.
  • INTRODUCTION: We compared levels of protein and mRNA expression of three members of the claudin (CLDN) family in malignant breast tumours and benign lesions.
  • CLDN1 was present in the membrane of normal duct cells and in some of the cell membranes from ductal carcinoma in situ, and was frequently observed in eight out of nine areas of apocrine metaplasia, whereas invasive tumours were negative for CLDN1 or it was present in a scattered distribution among such tumour cells (in 36/39 malignant tumours).
  • However, CLDN4 was highly positive in normal epithelial cells and was decreased or absent in 17 out of 21 ductal carcinoma grade 1, in special types of breast carcinoma (mucinous, papillary, tubular) and in areas of apocrine metaplasia.
  • The loss of CLDN4 expression in areas of apocrine metaplasia and in the majority of grade 1 invasive carcinomas also suggests a particular role for this protein in mammary glandular cell differentiation and carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Claudin-1. Claudin-3. Claudin-4. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Tight Junctions

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  • (PMID = 15743508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1064136
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18. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with a long-standing, slowly growing, asymptomatic solitary tumor the size of a large nut in the coccygeal area, which was surgically excised.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm was located in the dermis with focal extension into the subcutis.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • It differs from previously published cases of malignant adnexal tumors with multidirectional differentiation and further exemplifies the spectrum of diversity encountered in malignant proliferations with differentiation toward the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Shape. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Presutti L, Alicandri-Ciufelli M, Mattioli F, Marchioni D, Costantini M: A case of syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) involving middle ear, presenting with otomastoiditis and cerebral abscess. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Sep;35(3):401-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is an uncommon cutaneous adnexal neoplasm of apocrine gland origin.
  • We describe a case of SCAP of external and middle ear, presenting with otomastoiditis and cerebral abscess; this aggressive behavior, never reported for a benign adenoma of the external or middle ear, could lead to a differential diagnosis with cholesteatoma or malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 17870265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Schmaltz R, Müller CS, Vogt T: [Sudden growth of previously indolent scalp nodule]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jun;61(6):518-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cylindromas are benign adnexal tumors with eccrine and apocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2001 Oct;145(4):653-6 [11703297.001]
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  • (PMID = 20490442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Filipovski V, Banev S, Janevska V, Dukova B: Granular cell tumor of the breast: a case report and review of literature. Cases J; 2009;2:8551

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granular cell tumor of the breast: a case report and review of literature.
  • Histological evaluation revealed a rare benign neoplasm - granular cell tumor.Granular cell tumor is rare neoplasm that may arise in virtually any body site, and in 5% it occurs in the breast.
  • The histogenesis of this tumor is still rather controversial and currently the most acceptable theory is a Schwann cell origin.
  • The main histological feature is granular cytoplasm of the tumor cells.From a clinical point of view there is a similarity between granular cell tumor and mammary carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound.
  • Pathohistologically, sometimes, differential diagnostic difficulties exist concerning apocrine carcinoma, histiocytic lesions and metastatic neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19918386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769456
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22. Jayaram G, Elsayed EM, Yaccob RB: Papillary breast lesions diagnosed on cytology. Profile of 65 cases. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jan-Feb;51(1):3-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The study group consisted of FNA smears and/or nipple discharge smears from 65 breast lesions diagnosed on cytology as duct papilloma, papillary lesion, fibrocystic condition, fibroadenoma, papillary neoplasm or papillary carcinoma.
  • Cytomorphologic features assessed included cellularity, cell pattern (clusters, papillary, 3-dimensionality, etc.) and cell characteristics (monomorphism, pleomorphism, apocrine change, plasmacytoid features).
  • There was an overlap in cytomorphologic features between papillary and nonpapillary benign lesions as well as between benign and malignant papillary neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSION: Overlap of cytologic features in nonneoplastic and neoplastic benign papillary lesions and between benign and malignant papillary neoplasms necessitates histologic evaluation in all cases diagnosed as papillary on cytology.

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  • (PMID = 17328487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Fischer S, Breuninger H, Metzler G, Hoffmann J: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2005 Jan;16(1):53-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor.
  • Recently it has been proposed that MAC is an apocrine tumor.
  • In 1982, Goldstein and colleagues first reported MAC to be a distinct histologic entity characterized by a combination of keratinous cysts in the upper dermis, islands and strands of small basaloid, benign-appearing keratinocytes or squamous cells in the deeper dermis within a dense desmoplastic stroma, and areas of ductular differentiation.
  • The authors report the case of a 78-year-old woman in whom a diagnosis of MAC was made when a tumor on the right cheek recurred for the second time.
  • Local recurrences of the tumor occurred, despite histographic surgery because in hematoxylin and eosin stains, small islands of the deceptively benign-appearing small basaloid cells of MAC were not recognized as tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15699645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Bratthauer GL, Saenger JS, Strauss BL: Antibodies targeting p63 react specifically in the cytoplasm of breast epithelial cells exhibiting secretory differentiation. Histopathology; 2005 Dec;47(6):611-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These included seven with benign secretory changes, 10 secretory carcinomas (nine invasive), one microglandular adenosis, three lobular neoplasias, four invasive ductal carcinomas, three clear cell carcinomas, one squamous cell carcinoma and one mucinous carcinoma.
  • This reaction was not seen in cells undergoing apocrine differentiation or in other cells containing secretory vacuoles.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / metabolism. Breast / cytology. Breast / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Phosphoproteins. Trans-Activators
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16324199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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25. de Koning HD, Bovenschen HJ: Two adjacent nodules on the leg. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(6):13

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Poroma is a rare benign neoplasm (derived from the intraepidermal part of the eccrine or apocrine duct), which may clinically mimic malignant tumors such as (amelanotic) malignant melanoma and porocarcinoma.
  • Despite a clinical differential diagnosis of melanoma, histopathology showed the typical characteristics of a poroma, a rare but much more favorable tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20579468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Al-Faky YH, Al-Mosallam AR, Al-Sohaibani MO: Periocular hidradenoma papilliferum. Saudi J Ophthalmol; 2009 Oct;23(3-4):211-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm originating from the apocrine sweat gland, and is almost exclusively detectable in the skin of the anogenital area of middle-aged white females after puberty.
  • Ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum, which involves the skin away from the anogenital region, is exceedingly rare, and can also affect males.

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  • (PMID = 23960862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-4534
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of ophthalmology : official journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3729807
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Childhood / Ectopic / Hidradenoma papilliferum
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27. Rammeh-Rommani S, Fezaa B, Chelbi E, Kammoun MR, Ben Jilani SB, Zermani R: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum: report of 8 cases. Pathologica; 2006 Jun;98(3):178-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a rare cutaneous adnexal neoplasm with variable clinical appearance and characteristic histology.
  • It arises in about one third of cases within a sebaceous hamartoma (SH) and in this case, multiple other benign adnexal neoplasms may be associated with it.
  • The SCAP observed in the eyelid was associated with an apocrine cystadenoma without features of SH.

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  • (PMID = 17036946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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28. Emms SG: Anal sac tumours of the dog and their response to cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. Aust Vet J; 2005 Jun;83(6):340-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Of 21 dogs with tumours of the anal sacs 19 had apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of anal sac origin, one had a benign papillary cystadenoma and another had a malignant melanoma.
  • Ten of the 19 dogs with apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of anal sac origin had sublumbar lymphadenopathy.
  • Fourteen dogs with apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of anal sac origin were treated by surgical cytoreduction and chemotherapy with melphalan.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenoma, Papillary / veterinary. Dogs. Female. Male. Melanoma / veterinary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Records as Topic / veterinary. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Victoria / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15986909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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29. Pornpanich K, Chindasub P: Eyelid tumors in Siriraj Hospital from 2000-2004. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Nov;88 Suppl 9:S11-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: There were 53 (17.8%) inflammatory conditions, 212 (71.4%) benign eyelid tumors and 32 (10.8%) malignant eyelid tumors.
  • These 32 malignant eyelid tumors included 13 sebaceous gland carcinomas, 12 basal cell carcinomas, 3 malignant melanomas, 2 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 apocrine adenocarcinoma and 1 metastatic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The majority of eyelid lesions were benign eyelid tumors while malignant eyelid tumors contributed 10.8% of the total eyelid lesions.
  • Sebaceous gland carcinoma was the most common eyelid tumor found in their present study that was consistent with other studies from Asian countries.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Thailand / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16681045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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30. Fulciniti F, Mansueto G, Vetrani A, Accurso A, Fortunato A, Palombini L: Metaplastic breast carcinoma on fine-needle cytology samples: a report of three cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Sep;33(3):205-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • One of these cases showed a peculiar mixture of malignant ductal, apocrine type, and squamous epithelial cells with fascicles of spindle cells with variable degree of atypia and was diagnosed as metaplastic carcinoma of the carcino-sarcomatous type.
  • Because of the various presentation of MBC on fine-needle cytology samples and the possible influence of needle "sampling" on the cytological specimen, the spectrum of differential diagnoses to be considered may encompass a number of benign and malignant entities, like keratinous subareolar cysts, malignant fibroepithelial lesions with myxo-chondroid stroma, and true sarcomas of the breast, with cartilaginous metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16078244.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Papantoniou V, Tsiouris S, Koutsikos J, Sotiropoulou M, Mainta E, Lazaris D, Valsamaki P, Melissinou M, Zerva C, Antsaklis A: Scintimammographic detection of usual ductal breast hyperplasia with increased proliferation rate at risk for malignancy. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Nov;27(11):911-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To estimate whether breast uptake of (99m)Tc-(V)DMSA and (99m)Tc-sestamibi in usual ductal epithelial breast hyperplasia (UDH) and apocrine metaplasia is related to cell proliferation rate (Ki-67) and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, both of which are associated with the potential risk of evolving to malignancy.
  • METHODS: Among patients referred for suspicious breast findings on palpation and/or mammography and evaluated preoperatively with both radiopharmaceuticals, we retrospectively studied 17 (10 with UDH: group I; and seven with apocrine metaplasia: group II).
  • This could prove useful in identifying women with benign but high-risk breast pathologies who might benefit from chemoprophylaxis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17021432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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32. Lopez-Garcia MA, Geyer FC, Lacroix-Triki M, Marchió C, Reis-Filho JS: Breast cancer precursors revisited: molecular features and progression pathways. Histopathology; 2010 Aug;57(2):171-92
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  • Increasingly more coherent data on the molecular characteristics of benign breast lesions and breast cancer precursors have led to the delineation of new multistep pathways of breast cancer progression through genotypic-phenotypic correlations.
  • The ER-negative group is more complex and heterogeneous, comprising distinct molecular entities, including basal-like, HER2 and molecular apocrine lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Keratins / metabolism. Metaplasia / genetics. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / genetics. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20500230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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33. Volmar KE, Cummings TJ, Wang WH, Creager AJ, Tyler DS, Xie HB: Clear cell hidradenoma: a mimic of metastatic clear cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 May;129(5):e113-6
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  • Clear cell hidradenoma is a benign skin appendage tumor that may mimic conventional-type renal cell carcinoma.
  • Histologically, clear cell hidradenoma contains small ductular lumens, focal apocrine and squamoid change, and a less prominent vascular pattern than renal cell carcinoma.
  • Knowing the cytologic features of primary skin adnexal neoplasms helps distinguish them from cutaneous metastases, which are more commonly referred for fine-needle aspiration biopsy evaluation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15859654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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34. Kazakov DV, Mikyskova I, Kutzner H, Simpson RH, Hes O, Mukensnabl P, Bouda J, Zamecnik M, Kinkor Z, Michal M: Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):102-10
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  • Each presented clinically with a small, solitary tumor in the anogenital region.
  • This finding could be likened to apocrine metaplasia, a term used in breast pathology.
  • Other histopathological findings observed in this series, analogous to benign breast disease, included sclerosing adenosis-like changes, atypical apocrine adenosis-like changes, changes corresponding to usual ductal epithelial hyperplasia, epitheliomatosis with a streaming growth pattern, lamprocyte-like changes, clear cell change of the myoepithelium, foamy histiocyte reaction, and stromal fibrosis.
  • Oxyphilic metaplasia, areas with solid growth, and changes simulating atypical apocrine adenosis are rare and poorly recognized in hidradenoma papilliferum and may cause diagnostic difficulties; in our cases several submitting pathologists suspected malignancy.
  • The exact role of the HPV in etiology and pathogenesis of this neoplasm has yet to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15798433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Choi YD, Gong GY, Kim MJ, Lee JS, Nam JH, Juhng SW, Choi C: Clinical and cytologic features of papillary neoplasms of the breast. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):35-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the cytologic features benign and malignant papillary breast lesions.
  • The cytologic features evaluated were as follows: bloody background, row of tall columnar cells, naked bipolar nuclei, hemosiderin-laden macrophages, myoepithelial cells, single scattered atypical cells, cellularity, nuclear atypia, nuclear grade, apocrine metaplasia, eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules, papillary clusters, small papillae, cell balls and large sheets.
  • RESULTS: Of the features evaluated, the diameter of the mass, naked bipolar nuclei and cell balls differed significantly between benign and atypical or malignant papillary neoplasms.
  • The average diameter of a benign papillary neoplasm was 1.8 cm, and that of an atypical or malignant papillary neoplasm was 2.2 cm (p = 0.042).
  • Naked bipolar nuclei were found in 27 cases of benign papillary neoplasm (93.1%) versus 19 cases of atypical or malignant papillary neoplasm (73.1%) (p = 0.050).
  • Of 17 cases in which cell balls were absent and naked bipolar nuclei present, 13 (76.5%) were benign papillary neoplasms.
  • CONCLUSION: Most cytologic features overlapped in benign and atypical or malignant papillary neoplasms.
  • Although they were not pathognomonic, naked bipolar nuclei and cell balls were cytologic features that differed significantly between benign and atypical or malignant papillary neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 16514838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Barbarino S, McCormick SA, Lauer SA, Milman T: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 May-Jun;25(3):185-8
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  • PURPOSE: To describe 6 patients with syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid and to review the literature regarding this rare eyelid tumor.
  • The PubMed database was searched for reported cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid (keywords: syringocystadenoma, eyelid, apocrine, eccrine).
  • Nine lesions (64%) were associated with apocrine, eccrine, or sebaceous tumors or malformations.
  • None of the lesions was associated with a malignant neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum can rarely affect eyelid skin.
  • Although syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid can be associated with other benign lesions, no malignant transformation or association with malignant neoplasms has been reported.
  • The evidence suggests that this tumor should be managed with conservative complete excision.

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  • (PMID = 19454927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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