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1. Mukherjee S, Frolova N, Sadlonova A, Novak Z, Steg A, Page GP, Welch DR, Lobo-Ruppert SM, Ruppert JM, Johnson MR, Frost AR: Hedgehog signaling and response to cyclopamine differ in epithelial and stromal cells in benign breast and breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Jun;5(6):674-83
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  • [Title] Hedgehog signaling and response to cyclopamine differ in epithelial and stromal cells in benign breast and breast cancer.
  • Using real-time, quantitative PCR, laser capture microdissection, and immunohistochemistry, distinctive patterns of expression of the hedgehog pathway members patched 1 (PTCH1), smoothened, GLI1, GLI2 and the 3 hedgehog ligands were identified for epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts in benign breast and breast cancer.
  • Correspondingly, expression of GLI1, a transcription factor and transcriptional product of hedgehog signaling, was increased 8-fold in cancer epithelial cell lines; however, PTCH1, also a transcriptional target of hedgehog signaling in many cell types, was not increased.
  • GLI1 protein and mRNA, and PTCH1 and sonic hedgehog (SHH) proteins were elevated in 3 of 10 breast cancers; however, PTCH1 transcripts were not consistently increased.
  • Hedgehog-mediated transcription, as indicated by a reporter of GLI-dependent promoter activity and by expression of GLI1 transcripts, was reduced by the hedgehog pathway inhibitor cyclopamine in both MDA-MB-435 cancer epithelial cells and MCF10AT epithelial cells, a cell line derived from benign breast.
  • However, cyclopamine reduced viability of cancer epithelial cell lines, including MDA-MB-435, but did not specifically affect fibroblasts or epithelial cells from benign breast, including MCF10AT.
  • These results demonstrate modulation of GLI-mediated transcription in both cancer and benign-derived epithelial cells by cyclopamine and sonic hedgehog, and further suggest that hedgehog signaling contributes to the survival of only the cancer epithelial cells.

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  • (PMID = 16855373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA091421; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA105950
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS11622; NLM/ PMC1557635
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2. Hadar T, Shvero J, Yaniv E, Shvili I, Leabu M, Koren R: Human topoisomerase II-alpha is highly expressed in sinonasal-inverted papilloma, but not in inflammatory polyp. J Cell Mol Med; 2008 Sep-Oct;12(5A):1551-8
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  • Sinonasal-inverted papilloma is a benign tumour with a high rate of recurrence, but possible malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Nose Neoplasms / enzymology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma, Inverted / enzymology. Papilloma, Inverted / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18544048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-1838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3918071
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3. Handisurya A, Rieger A, Bago-Horvath Z, Schellenbacher C, Bankier A, Salat A, Stingl G, Kirnbauer R: Rapid progression of an anal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour into a metastasising squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient. Sex Transm Infect; 2009 Aug;85(4):261-3
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  • [Title] Rapid progression of an anal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour into a metastasising squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Buschke-Löwenstein tumour (BLT) of the anogenitalia is a locally invasive, destructively growing verrucous carcinoma that does not metastasise.
  • Histologically BLT resembles benign condylomata acuminata.
  • Nevertheless, the tumour grows relentlessly and may rarely progress into squamous cell cancer (SCC).
  • RESULTS: A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected immunosuppressed patient developed (peri)anal warts accompanied by recurrent abscesses and fistulae.
  • Histology revealed condylomata acuminata, and low-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11b was detected.
  • Six months later, the tumour had progressed into an ulcerated SCC that destroyed the rectum and perineum, with metastases to the inguinal lymph nodes.
  • Whereas highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) effectively suppressed HIV replication, radiochemotherapy plus anti-EGFR antibody did not halt tumour progression, and the patient died from tumour-cachexia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. HIV Infections / complications. Immunocompromised Host
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Cachexia / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Groin. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


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4. Vanaja DK, Ehrich M, Van den Boom D, Cheville JC, Karnes RJ, Tindall DJ, Cantor CR, Young CY: Hypermethylation of genes for diagnosis and risk stratification of prostate cancer. Cancer Invest; 2009 Jun;27(5):549-60
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  • [Title] Hypermethylation of genes for diagnosis and risk stratification of prostate cancer.
  • To identify the relevant CpG sites as molecular markers, for the diagnosis and to distinguish the indolent and aggressive prostate tumors, we have determined the methylation status of 8 genes, including FLNC, EFS, ECRG4, RARB2, PITX2, GSTP1, PDLIM4, and KCNMA1 in 32 nonrecurrent, 32 recurrent primary prostate tumors, and 32 benign prostate tissues using EpiTYPER technology.
  • Specific CpG site hypermethylation of RARB2 and GSTP1 CpG sites were useful for diagnosis of prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19229700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-4192
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091956-080012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA091956; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091956; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA091956-080012
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS99244; NLM/ PMC2693083
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5. Rooprai HK, Rucklidge GJ, Panou C, Pilkington GJ: The effects of exogenous growth factors on matrix metalloproteinase secretion by human brain tumour cells. Br J Cancer; 2000 Jan;82(1):52-5
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  • [Title] The effects of exogenous growth factors on matrix metalloproteinase secretion by human brain tumour cells.
  • These enzymes have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions including embryogenesis and tumour invasion.
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of five exogenous growth factors known to be expressed by gliomas [epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1,2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)].on MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in an ependymoma, two grade III astrocytomas, a grade III oligoastrocytoma and a benign meningioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Growth Substances / pharmacology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Endothelial Growth Factors / pharmacology. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Glioma / enzymology. Humans. Lymphokines / pharmacology. Meningeal Neoplasms / enzymology. Meningioma / enzymology. Transforming Growth Factor alpha / pharmacology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

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  • (PMID = 10638966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] SCOTLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363180
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6. Cartsburg O, Kallen C, Hillenkamp J, Sundmacher R, Pomjanski N, Böcking A: Topical mitomycin C and radiation induce conjunctival DNA-polyploidy. Anal Cell Pathol; 2001;23(2):65-74
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  • These reactive, non-neoplastic alterations of the conjunctival epithelium can be a differential diagnostic problem.
  • In five cases image cytometry additionally demonstrated DNA-stemline aneuploidy as an evidence of tumor recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurements of DNA-content revealed euploid polyploidisation of morphological suspicious but benign squamous cells which is the biologic correlate of well known secondary morphologic changes following topical chemotherapy and/or radiation.
  • DNA-image-cytometry is a useful tool in the differention of euploid polyploidization as a sign of reactive cell changes following treatment and tumor recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Mitomycin / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Conjunctiva / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Polyploidy

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  • (PMID = 11904462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0921-8912
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical cellular pathology : the journal of the European Society for Analytical Cellular Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Cell Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4617513
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7. Casal JI, Barderas R: Identification of cancer autoantigens in serum: toward diagnostic/prognostic testing? Mol Diagn Ther; 2010 Jun 01;14(3):149-54
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  • [Title] Identification of cancer autoantigens in serum: toward diagnostic/prognostic testing?
  • The development of noninvasive screening tests would represent a major advance in the fight against cancer, as pre-clinical or early diagnosis could be considered the best weapons to reduce cancer mortality.
  • Second, thorough validation of the candidate biomarkers has to be carried out to include not just one particular cancer type but different cancers and other benign, inflammatory pathologies, which may give rise to cross-reactions and loss of the specificity and sensitivity of the predictive assay.
  • The extraordinary sensitivity of the immune system to detect minor alterations in self-proteins might be used to highlight changes in the cancer protein sequence and structure that can be used for personalized therapy, including immunotherapeutic vaccines.
  • The increasing detection of kinase proteins as autoantibody targets points to new molecules with potential therapeutic impact.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantigens / blood. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods. Neoplasms / blood. Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Humans. Precision Medicine. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20560676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-2000
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular diagnosis & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Diagn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantigens
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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8. Khatri VP, Chopra S: Clinical presentation, imaging, and staging of anal cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2004 Apr;13(2):295-308
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  • [Title] Clinical presentation, imaging, and staging of anal cancer.
  • Perianal symptoms are common, and benign anorectal conditions have clinical features not too dissimilar to those associated with anal canal carcinoma.
  • To avoid delayed diagnosis, physicians need to be cognizant of the possibility of anal canal carcinoma, which can be effectively treated with chemoradiation therapy without the need for mutilating surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15137958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Moore HG, Guillem JG: Anal neoplasms. Surg Clin North Am; 2002 Dec;82(6):1233-51
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  • [Title] Anal neoplasms.
  • A common theme in most anal neoplasms appears to be a delay in diagnosis due to confusion with more common, benign conditions.
  • Thus, the clinician must maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating lesions of the anal canal and margin.
  • The use of primary chemoradiation for SCC of the anal canal has resulted in equivalent, if not superior, local control and survival compared with radical surgery, and results in sphincter preservation in over two thirds of cases.
  • Recent studies indicate that variations in chemotherapeutic agents and radiation technique might potentially produce even better results.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 12516851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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10. Woitge HW, Pecherstorfer M, Horn E, Keck AV, Diel IJ, Bayer P, Ludwig H, Ziegler R, Seibel MJ: Serum bone sialoprotein as a marker of tumour burden and neoplastic bone involvement and as a prognostic factor in multiple myeloma. Br J Cancer; 2001 Feb 2;84(3):344-51
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  • [Title] Serum bone sialoprotein as a marker of tumour burden and neoplastic bone involvement and as a prognostic factor in multiple myeloma.
  • To test the potential of immunoreactive BSP, a non-collagenous bone matrix component, as a clinical guide in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, serum BSP concentrations were measured in 62 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) followed over a period of 4 years, in 46 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in 71 patients with untreated benign vertebral osteoporosis (OPO), and in 139 healthy adults.
  • We conclude that in MM, BSP levels are associated with skeletal involvement and tumour cell burden.
  • The quantification of serum BSP may be a non-invasive method for the diagnosis and follow-up, and may improve the prognostic value of conventional staging in MM.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amino Acids / drug effects. Amino Acids / urine. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers / blood. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Bone and Bones / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Osteocalcin / blood. Osteocalcin / drug effects. Osteoporosis / blood. Osteoporosis / pathology. Paraproteinemias / blood. Paraproteinemias / drug therapy. Paraproteinemias / pathology. Prognosis. Radioimmunoassay / methods. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11161399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / IBSP protein, human; 0 / Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 63800-01-1 / pyridinoline; 90032-33-0 / deoxypyridinoline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363749
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11. Zon G, Barker MA, Kaur P, Groshen S, Jones LW, Imam SA, Boyd VL: Formamide as a denaturant for bisulfite conversion of genomic DNA: Bisulfite sequencing of the GSTPi and RARbeta2 genes of 43 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate cancer specimens. Anal Biochem; 2009 Sep 15;392(2):117-25
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  • Detection of methylated GSTPi and RARbeta2 genes was significantly associated with primary prostate cancer as compared with the benign prostate (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. Formamides / pharmacology. Genome, Human. Glutathione S-Transferase pi / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy. DNA Methylation. Formaldehyde. Humans. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Nucleic Acid Denaturation / drug effects. Paraffin Embedding. Sulfites






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