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1. Ueyama T, Kasamatsu K, Hano T, Tsuruo Y, Ishikura F: Catecholamines and estrogen are involved in the pathogenesis of emotional stress-induced acute heart attack. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2008 Dec;1148:479-85
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  • It also downregulated c-fos mRNA expression in the adrenal gland and the heart, suggesting an increase of estrogen attenuated the stress-induced hypothalamo-sympathoadrenal outflow from the central nervous system to the target organs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Animals. Arginine Vasopressin / genetics. Arginine Vasopressin / metabolism. Brain / anatomy & histology. Brain / metabolism. Efferent Pathways / metabolism. Electrocardiography. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Female. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Heart / drug effects. Heart / physiology. Humans. Neurons / cytology. Neurons / metabolism. Ovariectomy. Postmenopause. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Rats. Restraint, Physical

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  • (PMID = 19120144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin
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2. Alsayali MM, Atkin C, Rahim R, Niggemeyer LE, Doody O, Varma D: Traumatic adrenal gland injury: epidemiology and outcomes in a major Australian trauma center. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg; 2010 Dec;36(6):567-72
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  • [Title] Traumatic adrenal gland injury: epidemiology and outcomes in a major Australian trauma center.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenal gland injury (ADGI) is quite rare and mostly associated with other organ injuries secondary to blunt thoracoabdominal trauma.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients presenting with thoracoabdominal trauma to the Alfred Hospital who had been diagnosed with adrenal gland injury between July 2001 and July 2007.
  • Right adrenal injuries occurred in 72.9%, left adrenal injuries in 22.9%, and bilateral ADGI in 4.2%.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan findings revealed 82.2% of acute injuries to be hyperdense hematoma expanding and distorting the adrenal gland.
  • Periadrenal stranding and hemorrhagic changes around the adrenal limbs were seen in 12.5%.
  • Patients with left adrenal gland injury had higher rates of mortality and morbidity, and length of stay.
  • Acute adrenal insufficiency should be considered and investigated in case of unexplained hypotension in uni- or bilateral ADGI.

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  • (PMID = 26816312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-9933
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal injuries / CT scan / Clinical presentation / Retroperitoneal hematoma
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3. Hyams ES, Stifelman MD: The role of robotics for adrenal pathology. Curr Opin Urol; 2009 Jan;19(1):89-96
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  • [Title] The role of robotics for adrenal pathology.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review assesses the role of robotic surgery in management of benign and malignant adrenal disease.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard of care for benign adrenal neoplasms and has been increasingly considered for malignant disease.
  • Robotic techniques have been considered for theoretical advantages in visualizing and dissecting the adrenal and its vasculature.
  • There has been growing interest in adrenal sparing-surgery using minimally invasive techniques and encouraging outcomes for selected benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Robotics / methods

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  • (PMID = 19057223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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4. Jeong SH, Kim BY, Kang HG, Ku HO, Cho JH: Effects of butylated hydroxyanisole on the development and functions of reproductive system in rats. Toxicology; 2005 Mar 1;208(1):49-62
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  • Organ weights of liver, adrenal gland and thyroid gland of F0 rats were increased by BHA 500 mg/kg but those of spleen and ventral prostate were decreased without significant difference in terminal body weight.
  • The weights of liver and adrenal gland were increased while those of spleen, vagina, testes and ventral prostate were decreased in F1 rats exposed to BHA 100 or 500 mg/kg for 13 weeks.
  • This study elucidates that high dose of BHA induce weak dysfunction and underdevelopment of reproductive system of male and female rats with the change of T4 and testosterone levels, sex organ weights and sexual maturation and histological lesions of thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. Female. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Spermatozoa / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 15664432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-483X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 25013-16-5 / Butylated Hydroxyanisole
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5. Sharma D, Chaturvedi CM: Effects of thyroid status on arginine vasotocin receptor VT2R expression and adrenal function in osmotically stimulated domestic fowl. J Comp Physiol B; 2009 Oct;179(7):811-9
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  • [Title] Effects of thyroid status on arginine vasotocin receptor VT2R expression and adrenal function in osmotically stimulated domestic fowl.
  • The role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of adrenal function during stress has been documented in mammals, but only limited reports are available in avian species.
  • The present study was undertaken to analyze the effect of hyper- or hypothyroidism on the adrenal activity under control (hydrated) and osmotically stressed (water deprived, WD) conditions, with special emphasis on the expression of arginine vasotocin receptor VT2 (VT2R) in pituitary corticotrophs.
  • Hyperthyroidism stimulated adrenal steroidogenic activity compared to euthyroid control birds, but no change was observed in the expression of VT2R.
  • On the other hand, TU-induced hypothyroidism however showed no effect on adrenal gland, but a significant increase in the expression of VT2R was observed.
  • Following osmotic stress, no effect was observed either on the adrenal gland or on the VT2R expression in hyperthyroidic birds, but in hypothyroidic birds, osmotic stress stimulated adrenal steroidogenic activity and decreased VT2R expression in comparison to its respective controls (T4 or TU).
  • Although exact mechanism is not clear, the data indicate that high plasma T4 level stimulates adrenal activity and may also modulate function of the pituitary-adrenal axis during dehydration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Chickens / physiology. Dehydration / physiopathology. Hyperthyroidism / metabolism. Hypothyroidism / metabolism. Receptors, Vasopressin / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Animals. Ascorbic Acid / analysis. Cholesterol / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Pituitary Gland / chemistry. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / ultrastructure. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / genetics. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / metabolism. Thyroxine / blood. Triiodothyronine / blood. Water-Electrolyte Balance

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  • (PMID = 19381646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-136X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative physiology. B, Biochemical, systemic, and environmental physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 0 / vasotocin receptor; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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6. Kameyama S, Okada R, Kikuchi T, Omura T, Nakase I, Takeuchi T, Sugiura Y, Futaki S: Distribution of immunoglobulin Fab fragment conjugated with HIV-1 REV peptide following intravenous administration in rats. Mol Pharm; 2006 Mar-Apr;3(2):174-80
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  • In the whole-body ARG at 4 h after administration, (125)I-REV-Fab produced remarkably higher radioactivity in the adrenal gland, spleen, and liver, compared to (125)I-nFab.
  • Regarding urinary excretion rates, approximately 70% of the radioactive dose was excreted in the form of a low-molecular-weight component by 24 h after administration for both samples. (125)I-REV-Fab may penetrate quickly from blood to adrenal gland, spleen, liver, and other tissues after intravenous administration to rats, and then did not stay in situ and was digested and excreted mostly via the renal route by 24 h.

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  • (PMID = 16579646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-8384
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Pharm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, rev; 0 / Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
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7. Beshay VE, Carr BR, Rainey WE: The human fetal adrenal gland, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and parturition. Semin Reprod Med; 2007 Jan;25(1):14-20
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  • [Title] The human fetal adrenal gland, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and parturition.
  • Studying these signals may prove important in the prediction, diagnosis, and possible intervention in preterm labor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Parturition / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17205420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8004
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Reprod. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; FB33469R8E / Estriol; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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8. Schittenhelm J, Jacob SN, Rutczynska J, Tsiflikas I, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is composed of both adipose tissue and normal haematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with adenoma of the adrenal gland and an additional paravertebral lesion in the thoracic spine.

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  • (PMID = 21686745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027965
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9. Nguyen P, Peltsch H, de Wit J, Crispo J, Ubriaco G, Eibl J, Tai TC: Regulation of the phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in the adrenal gland of the spontaneous hypertensive rat. Neurosci Lett; 2009 Sep 25;461(3):280-4
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  • [Title] Regulation of the phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in the adrenal gland of the spontaneous hypertensive rat.
  • Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) is the terminal enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway, responsible for epinephrine biosynthesis, and is primarily localized in the adrenal gland.
  • In hypertensive rats, adrenal PNMT mRNA, protein and enzyme activity are elevated along with elevated levels of epinephrine, suggesting that increased expression of PNMT in the adrenal gland results in the increased adrenergic function associated with hypertension.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the dysregulation of adrenal PNMT in a genetic model of hypertension, by examining expression of transcriptional regulators in the spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) in comparison to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive controls.
  • Results demonstrate changes in key transcription factors regulating PNMT expression within the SHR adrenal gland, coincident with elevated adrenal PNMT expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / enzymology. Hypertension / enzymology. Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19539715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7972
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.1.1.28 / Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase
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10. Vuković S, Lucić H, Zivković A, Duras Gomercić M, Gomercić T, Galov A: Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea. Anat Histol Embryol; 2010 Feb;39(1):59-66
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  • [Title] Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea.
  • The structure of the adrenal gland was studied in 11 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and five striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba).
  • In both species the adrenal gland consists of a cortex and a medulla; the cortex is divided into three zones.
  • The adrenal medulla in both species contains dark, epinephrine-secreting cells and light norepinephrine-secreting cells.
  • The gland is surrounded by a thick connective-tissue capsule, from where thick trabeculae extend towards the interior.
  • In the bottlenose dolphin invagination of the adrenal cortex into the medulla is obvious as well as medullary protrusions extending through cortex to the connective tissue capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Bottle-Nosed Dolphin / anatomy & histology. Stenella / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Animals. Cerebral Cortex / cytology. Cerebral Cortex / metabolism. Croatia. Epinephrine / secretion. Oceans and Seas. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19912161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0264
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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11. Terry NE, Senkowski CK, Check W, Brower ST: Retroperitoneal foregut duplication cyst presenting as an adrenal mass. Am Surg; 2007 Jan;73(1):89-92
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal foregut duplication cyst presenting as an adrenal mass.
  • An adrenal mass was found on CT scanning.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed, and the patient was found to have a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst adherent to the adrenal gland.
  • The workup of an adrenal mass is discussed as well as the pathophysiology of bronchogenic cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Retroperitoneal Space. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17249466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Lendvai G, Monazzam A, Velikyan I, Eriksson B, Josephsson R, Långström B, Bergström M, Estrada S: Non-hybridization saturable mechanisms play a role in the uptake of (68)Ga-Labeled LNA-DNA mixmer antisense oligonucleotides in rats. Oligonucleotides; 2009 Sep;19(3):223-32
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  • In addition, the blockade by poly-I was statistically significant in the pancreas, adrenal gland, bone marrow, intestine, testis, urinary bladder, muscle, parotid gland, and heart, whereas poly-A also caused significant reduction in pancreas, adrenal gland, and bone marrow but not as much as in kidney.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Gallium Radioisotopes / metabolism. Humans. Male. Poly A / metabolism. Poly A / pharmacology. Poly I / metabolism. Poly I / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 19732020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8526
  • [Journal-full-title] Oligonucleotides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oligonucleotides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Scavenger; 0 / chromogranin A, rat; 0 / locked nucleic acid; 24937-83-5 / Poly A; 25249-22-3 / Poly I
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13. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • Tumor size was larger in ACC (12.0 +/- 5.6 versus 4.2 +/- 1.9 cm, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05).
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Chui MH, Ozbey NC, Ezzat S, Kapran Y, Erbil Y, Asa SL: Case report: Adrenal LH/hCG receptor overexpression and gene amplification causing pregnancy-induced Cushing's syndrome. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(4):256-61
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  • [Title] Case report: Adrenal LH/hCG receptor overexpression and gene amplification causing pregnancy-induced Cushing's syndrome.
  • Ectopic LH/hCG-receptors (LHCGR) in the adrenal gland have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition.
  • The adrenals exhibited bilateral adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia.
  • Quantitative RT-PCR revealed a 2-fold increase in LHCGR and progesterone receptor mRNA expression and decreased estrogen receptor-beta expression in the patient's adrenal tissue relative to normal adrenals.
  • Quantitative PCR revealed a LHCGR-to-beta-actin ratio of 1.5 in genomic DNA from adrenal and peripheral leukocytes, suggesting the presence of a germline duplication of the LHCGR gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Gene Expression. Pregnancy Complications. Receptors, LH / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocr Pathol. 2010 Jun;21(2):148. Herman Chui, Michael [corrected to Chui, Michael Herman]
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  • (PMID = 19705299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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15. Montoliu I, Martin FP, Collino S, Rezzi S, Kochhar S: Multivariate modeling strategy for intercompartmental analysis of tissue and plasma 1H NMR spectrotypes. J Proteome Res; 2009 May;8(5):2397-406
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  • Here, we applied unsupervised chemometric methods for integrating 1H NMR metabolic profiles from mouse plasma, liver, pancreas, adrenal gland and kidney cortex matrices in order to infer intercompartments functional links.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Amino Acids / blood. Amino Acids / metabolism. Animals. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Glycogen / metabolism. Kidney / metabolism. Lactates / metabolism. Lipids / analysis. Liver / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Models, Biological. Multivariate Analysis. Pancreas / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19317465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Lactates; 0 / Lipids; 9005-79-2 / Glycogen; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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16. Benetti E, Murer L, Bordugo A, Andreetta B, Artifoni L: 10p12.1 deletion: HDR phenotype without DGS2 features. Exp Mol Pathol; 2009 Feb;86(1):74-6
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  • GATA3 gene encodes a transcription factor expressed during thymus, liver, kidney, adrenal gland, central and peripheral nervous systems, placenta and T lymphocytes embryonic development.
  • Mutations of GATA3 cause Hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural Deafness and Renal dysplasia syndrome (HDR).
  • The girl developed chronic renal failure during the first year of life, associated with sensorineural hearing loss, facial dysmorphic features and psychomotor development.
  • She underwent renal transplantation at the age of 11.

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  • (PMID = 19022243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0945
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex; 0 / adhesion receptor
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17. Glenn ST, Jones CA, Pan L, Gross KW: In vivo analysis of key elements within the renin regulatory region. Physiol Genomics; 2008 Nov 12;35(3):243-53
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  • Transgenic lines were generated for each of these BAC constructs and GFP expression was analyzed throughout a spectrum of tissues positive for renin expression including the kidney, adrenal gland, gonadal artery, and submandibular gland.

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  • (PMID = 18780761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-2267
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiological genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Genomics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21CA-121212-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016056; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-48459
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2585016
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18. Nishiyama S, Hirota Y, Udagawa Y, Kato R, Hayakawa N, Tukada K: Efficacy of selective venous catheterization in localizing a small androgen-producing tumor in ovary. Med Sci Monit; 2008 Feb;14(2):CS9-12
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  • [Title] Efficacy of selective venous catheterization in localizing a small androgen-producing tumor in ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: Androgen-producing tumors, originating mostly in the ovary or adrenal gland, induce hirsutism.
  • It sometimes is difficult to localize the tumor precisely even with modern imaging technology.
  • We used selective venous catheterization and hormonal sampling (SVCHS) to localize an androgen-producing ovarian tumor.
  • Eleven blood samples were collected from both the adrenal and the ovarian veins bilaterally.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was a Leydig cell tumor.
  • A rapid decrease in free and total T followed tumor removal, and she became pregnant by in vitro fertilization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SVCHS is highly effective in confirming the presence of a small androgen-producing ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / biosynthesis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18227769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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19. Tanaka T, Tsutamoto T, Sakai H, Fujii M, Yamamoto T, Horie M: Comparison of the effects of efonidipine and amlodipine on aldosterone in patients with hypertension. Hypertens Res; 2007 Aug;30(8):691-7
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  • Aldosterone production in the adrenal gland is mediated mainly by the T-type calcium channel in vitro.

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  • (PMID = 17917316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-9636
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Calcium Channels, L-Type; 0 / Calcium Channels, T-Type; 0 / Dihydropyridines; 0 / Nitrophenols; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 114471-18-0 / Natriuretic Peptide, Brain; 1J444QC288 / Amlodipine; 40ZTP2T37Q / efonidipine; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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20. Bruder ED, Henderson LM, Raff H: Adrenal lipid profiles of chemically sympathectomized normoxic and hypoxic neonatal rats. Horm Metab Res; 2006 Dec;38(12):807-11
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  • [Title] Adrenal lipid profiles of chemically sympathectomized normoxic and hypoxic neonatal rats.
  • The present study sought to characterize the effects of sympathectomy on the adrenal lipid profile, since previous work suggested that augmented plasma corticosterone during hypoxia may be due to changes in adrenal lipid metabolism.
  • Hypoxia alone increased the concentration of cholesterol esters in the adrenal gland; this increase was due to increases in cholesterol ester-associated oleic (18:1n9), docosahexaenoic (22:6n3), arachidonic (20:4n6), and adrenic (22:4n6) acids.
  • The results support the idea that the ACTH-independent corticosterone response to hypoxia in the neonatal rat is mediated by specific, sympathetically driven alterations in the adrenal lipid profile.

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  • (PMID = 17163355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK054685; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK54685
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone; ZTI6C33Q2Q / Guanethidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS10443; NLM/ PMC1764635
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21. Lin J, Wasco MJ, Korobkin M, Doherty G, Giordano TJ: Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(4):239-43
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  • [Title] Leiomyoma of the adrenal gland presenting as a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma: case report and review of the literature.
  • A 31-year-old woman was incidentally found to have a large right adrenal mass by computed tomography imaging and underwent a workup that included endocrinological evaluation and positron emission tomography imaging.
  • Because of concern for adrenal cortical carcinoma, the patient underwent a successful right adrenalectomy.
  • The diagnosis of leiomyoma was supported by a panel of immunohistochemical stains.
  • Adrenal leiomyomas have been reported in the literature, although most are small and not preoperatively suspicious for malignancy.
  • This case illustrates that benign tumors such as leiomyomas, when large and heterogeneous on imaging, can clinically mimic adrenal cortical carcinomas and should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Incidental Findings. Leiomyoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18197480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Toti P, Regoli M, Nesi G, Occhini R, Bartolommei S, Fonzi L, Bertelli E: Nestin expression in normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical tumors. Histol Histopathol; 2005 10;20(4):1115-20
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  • [Title] Nestin expression in normal adrenal gland and adrenocortical tumors.
  • Nestin is an intermediate filament protein that is mainly expressed in the developing nervous system and that has been recently reported in rat adrenal gland as well.
  • Using immunohistochemical and biochemical approaches, the present study demonstrates that nestin is constantly expressed in situ in the cortex of normal human adrenal glands.
  • In contrast, adrenal carcinomas displayed a variable number of nestin-immunoreactive cells that in some cases were virtually absent.
  • Samples of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis in the adrenals were also examined which did not show nestin-immunoreactivity.
  • We propose that a positive nestin-immunoreaction could be useful in differential diagnosis of clear cell tumors in adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16136494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, rat; 0 / Nestin
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23. Kmiec Z, Pokrywka L, Kotlarz G, Mysliwski A: The effects of fasting and refeeding on adrenal cortex morphometry and serum concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone in young and old male rats. J Physiol Pharmacol; 2006 Nov;57 Suppl 6:77-84
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  • [Title] The effects of fasting and refeeding on adrenal cortex morphometry and serum concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone in young and old male rats.
  • Because fuel metabolism is partially controlled by corticosteroids we decided to determine the effects of refeeding on adrenal gland morphometry, ACTH, and corticosterone serum levels in young (5 mo) and (20 mo) old male Wistar rats.
  • The relative weight of adrenal gland (% of body weight) did not change significantly with age (p=0.05).
  • Fasting for 48 h induced in old rats but not in young ones increase of relative adrenal weight, and the volume of the reticular zone.
  • Refeeding reduced adrenal volume, fascicular zone and reticular zone.
  • Refeeding for 24 h decreased the total volume of adrenal gland of old rats due to a decline of the volumes of fascicular and reticular zones.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / anatomy & histology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Corticosterone / blood. Eating / physiology. Fasting / blood

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  • (PMID = 17228089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1899-1505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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24. Morrison JF, Shehab S, Sheen R, Dhanasekaran S, Shaffiullah M, Mensah-Brown E: Sensory and autonomic nerve changes in the monosodium glutamate-treated rat: a model of type II diabetes. Exp Physiol; 2008 Feb;93(2):213-22
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  • Diabetic MSG-treated animals at 65 and 70 weeks of age had significantly reduced noradrenaline concentrations in the heart, tail artery and ileum, while concentrations in the adrenal gland and corpus cavernosum were significantly increased.
  • There was also a significant increase in adrenal adrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, largely attributable to changes in weight of the adrenal gland in the MSG-treated animals.

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  • (PMID = 17911358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0958-0670
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Receptors, Neurokinin-1; 33507-63-0 / Substance P; 83652-28-2 / Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide; W81N5U6R6U / Sodium Glutamate
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25. Ito K, Mizuguchi Y, Sato A, Kuroda K, Horiguchi A, Kimura F, Sumitomo M, Asano T, Hayakawa M: [Clinical evaluation for adrenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in a single institute]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 May;99(4):584-92
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  • [Title] [Clinical evaluation for adrenal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in a single institute].
  • OBJECTIVE: Clinicopathogical features and prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) concomitant with adrenal involvement (metastasis or invasion) were evaluated in a single institute.
  • METHODS: In 380 patients with RCC who underwent radical nephrectomy 18 patients had adrenal involvement (13 ipsilateral adrenal involvement).
  • RESULTS: Patients with ipsilateral adrenal involvement had significantly higher percentage of tumor>5.5 cm, upper pole tumor, pathological stage (pT) 3< or =, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis outside ipsilateral adrenal gland, histological grade 3 and microvascular invasion than control patients (p<0.05).
  • Therefore, large tumor (especially 5.5 cm<), upper pole tumor, clinical T3 (especially patients with tumor thrombus), lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were candidates for risk factors of ipsilateral adrenal involvement.
  • 76.9% of ipsilateral adrenal metastasis could be diagnosed by computed tomography (CT).
  • Thus, preoperative adrenal finding by CT is very important to determine the indication of ipsilateral adrenalectomy.
  • All 3 patients with small ipsilateral adrenal metastasis that could not be detected preoperative CT died within one and half year postoperatively.
  • Patients with solitary adrenal metastasis appeared to have better prognosis compared to those with both adrenal and other metastases.
  • In 4 patients who survived more than 2 years after the presentation of adrenal metastasis, 3 patients had solitary adrenal metastasis and underwent adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: From the results in a single institute, radiological finding of adrenal grand, tumor size, tumor location, T stage, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis outside ipsilateral adrenal gland are possible important factors to determine the indication of ipsilateral adrenalectomy preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18536308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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26. Karteris E, Machado RJ, Chen J, Zervou S, Hillhouse EW, Randeva HS: Food deprivation differentially modulates orexin receptor expression and signaling in rat hypothalamus and adrenal cortex. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;288(6):E1089-100
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  • [Title] Food deprivation differentially modulates orexin receptor expression and signaling in rat hypothalamus and adrenal cortex.
  • Although starvation-induced biochemical and metabolic changes are perceived by the hypothalamus, the adrenal gland plays a key role in the integration of metabolic activity and energy balance, implicating feeding as a major synchronizer of rhythms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
  • Given that orexins are involved in regulating food intake and activating the HPA axis, we hypothesized that food deprivation, an acute challenge to the systems that regulate energy balance, should elicit changes in orexin receptor signaling at the hypothalamic and adrenal levels.
  • Interestingly, adrenal OX1R and OX2R levels were significantly reduced in food-deprived animals, whereas there was no expression of prepro-orexin in the adrenal gland in either state.
  • However, in the adrenal cortex of the food-deprived animal, there was decreased coupling of orexin receptors to Gs, Go, and Gq and increased coupling to Gi.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Food Deprivation / physiology. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Receptors, Neuropeptide / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cholera Toxin / metabolism. Corticosterone / blood. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Male. Orexin Receptors. Pertussis Toxin / metabolism. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15687100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hcrtr1 protein, rat; 0 / Orexin Receptors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 9012-63-9 / Cholera Toxin; EC 2.4.2.31 / Pertussis Toxin; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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27. Schreinemakers JM, Kiela GJ, Valk GD, Vriens MR, Rinkes IH: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy is safe and effective. Br J Surg; 2010 Nov;97(11):1667-72
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  • This is the procedure of choice for adrenal tumours at this institution.
  • Thirty-nine patients with unilateral adrenal disease had a phaeochromocytoma, of whom 16 had multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2, 21 patients had Cushing's disease and 20 had Conn's disease.
  • Median tumour size was 3.1 (2.0-4.4) cm.
  • CONCLUSION: REA appears to be a safe and effective surgical technique for adrenal gland tumours up to 6 cm in diameter, with a minimal complication rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Endoscopy / methods. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2010 Nov;97(11):1672-3 [20890917.001]
  • (PMID = 20665481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Jiménez Peláez M, Bouvy BM, Dupré GP: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for treatment of unilateral adrenocortical carcinomas: technique, complications, and results in seven dogs. Vet Surg; 2008 Jul;37(5):444-53
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  • After dissection and hemostatic control of the phrenicoabdominal vein, the adrenal gland was carefully dissected or when there was capsule fragility, necrotic content was partially aspirated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / veterinary. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18986311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Czermak BV, Akhan O, Hiemetzberger R, Zelger B, Vogel W, Jaschke W, Rieger M, Kim SY, Lim JH: Echinococcosis of the liver. Abdom Imaging; 2008 Mar-Apr;33(2):133-43
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  • Direct spread of infected tissue may result in cysts in the peritoneal cavity, kidneys, adrenal gland or bones.
  • [MeSH-major] Echinococcosis, Hepatic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17912581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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30. Ueyama T, Ishikura F, Matsuda A, Asanuma T, Ueda K, Ichinose M, Kasamatsu K, Hano T, Akasaka T, Tsuruo Y, Morimoto K, Beppu S: Chronic estrogen supplementation following ovariectomy improves the emotional stress-induced cardiovascular responses by indirect action on the nervous system and by direct action on the heart. Circ J; 2007 Apr;71(4):565-73
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  • In the OVX + E, the levels of c-fos mRNA were significantly decreased in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, adrenal gland and left ventricle, suggesting that an increase of estrogen attenuates the emotional stress-induced hypothalamo-sympatho-adrenal outflow from the central nervous system to the target organs.

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  • (PMID = 17384461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-9843
  • [Journal-full-title] Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Circ. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Implants; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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31. Yevtodiyenko A, Schmidt JV: Dlk1 expression marks developing endothelium and sites of branching morphogenesis in the mouse embryo and placenta. Dev Dyn; 2006 Apr;235(4):1115-23
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  • In embryonic day 12.5 (e12.5) embryos, high levels of Dlk1 were found in the developing pituitary, pancreas, lung, adrenal, and many mesodermally derived tissues.
  • At e16.5, Dlk1 expression is down-regulated in most tissues but remains in the pituitary, the adrenal gland, and in skeletal muscle.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16456855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8388
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Dyn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD 042013
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DLK1 protein, human; 0 / Dlk1 protein, mouse; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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32. Suleyman H, Guvenalp Z, Kizilkaya M, Demirezer LO: Sedative effect of Centranthus longiflorus ssp. longiflorus in rats and the influence of adrenalectomy on its effect. Yakugaku Zasshi; 2007 Aug;127(8):1263-5
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  • Sedative effect of the aqueous extract of Centranthus longiflorus ssp. longiflorus (Cle-1) on intact and adrenalectomized rats was investigated using a thiopental sleeping test to clarify the relationship of this effect on adrenal gland hormones, particularly glucocorticoids.
  • Adrenal gland hormones were found to play an important role in inhibiting the sedative effect of the investigated drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Adrenalectomy. Hypnotics and Sedatives / pharmacology. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Sleep / drug effects. Valerianaceae

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  • (PMID = 17666879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-6903
  • [Journal-full-title] Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yakugaku Zasshi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 0 / Plant Extracts; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 76-75-5 / Thiopental
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33. Lutterbach J, Pagenstecher A, Weyerbrock A, Schultze-Seemann W, Waller CF: Early-stage penile carcinoma metastasizing to brain: case report and literature review. Urology; 2005 Aug;66(2):432
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  • Further in the disease course, the patient developed metastases in the kidney, adrenal gland, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, lung, and brain.
  • Forty months after the first diagnosis, the patient died of thromboembolic complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Penile Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16098372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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34. Peters J, Wanka H, Peters B, Hoffmann S: A renin transcript lacking exon 1 encodes for a non-secretory intracellular renin that increases aldosterone production in transgenic rats. J Cell Mol Med; 2008 Aug;12(4):1229-37
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  • Four transgenic lines were obtained expressing the transcript in various tissues including the heart and the adrenal gland.
  • The ratio of aldosterone to renin concentrations in plasma (PAC/PRC) was elevated in all transgenic lines except line 307, which also did not exhibit elevated cytoplasmatic renin levels in the adrenal gland (PAC/PRC in controls: 2.8+/-2.3; line 307: 1.9+/-0.8; n. s.; line 284: 5.8+/-1.9; P<0.02; line 294: 5.0+/-2.3; P<0.001; line 276: 10.3+/-5.1; P<0.001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Blood Pressure. Electrolytes. Gene Expression Regulation. Myocardium / cytology. Myocardium / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Subcellular Fractions / metabolism. Systole. Transgenes

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  • (PMID = 18782187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-1838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3865667
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35. Clark LS, Cowan DF, Pfeiffer DC: A morphological and histological examination of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) adrenal gland. Anat Histol Embryol; 2008 Apr;37(2):153-9
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  • [Title] A morphological and histological examination of the pan-tropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) and the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) adrenal gland.
  • The morphology and histology of the cetacean adrenal gland are poorly understood.
  • Therefore, this study examined 32 pairs of adrenal glands from 18 pan-tropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) and 14 spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris).
  • For S. attenuata, no statistical differences were found in the cortex to medulla (CM) ratio or the percent cross-sectional area (PCA) of the adrenal glands compared with sex or sexual maturity.
  • 'Other' indicates blood vessels, connective tissue and the gland capsule itself.
  • No statistical differences were found in the PCA of S. longirostris adrenal glands by sexual maturity.
  • Female S. longirostris adrenal glands consisted of 65.0% cortex, 27.3% medulla and 7.7% 'other', whereas male adrenal glands consisted of 71.7% cortex, 22.7% medulla and 5.6% 'other'.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Stenella / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / anatomy & histology. Adrenal Medulla / anatomy & histology. Animals. Female. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Male. Microscopy, Electron / veterinary. Sex Characteristics. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18070242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0264
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Castillo SS: Possible autocrine regulation of chromaffin cell activity in adrenal glands of the frog by endothelin-1-induced serotonin release. Acta Histochem; 2005;107(1):11-22
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  • [Title] Possible autocrine regulation of chromaffin cell activity in adrenal glands of the frog by endothelin-1-induced serotonin release.
  • The aim of the present study was the demonstration of mechanisms of regulation of activity of chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland of Rana ridibunda (Anura-Amphibia).
  • Previous studies have shown that endothelin-1 is an important factor for the maintenance of adrenal gland function.
  • The adrenal glands were removed at 5, 20, and 60 min after injection and fixed, embedded in paraffin wax and stained by histological and immunohistochemical means, applied on adjacent 4-microm-thick sections.
  • In conclusion, these findings suggest that [Ala(1,3,11,15)]-endothelin-1 stimulates chromaffin cell activity in frog adrenal glands.
  • This is the first report providing data on the effects of endothelin-1 on chromaffin cells in frog adrenal glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Autocrine Communication / physiology. Chromaffin Cells / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / pharmacology. Serotonin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15866282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1281
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta histochemica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Histochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; EC 1.14.17.1 / Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase
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37. Bertolini G, Furlanello T, Drigo M, Caldin M: Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2008 Sep-Oct;49(5):449-53
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  • [Title] Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • We conducted a retrospective study to determine whether multidetector computed tomography (CT) could be of value for adrenal gland assessment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Adrenal gland attenuation and volume values of 49 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were recorded and age, body weight, and gender were examined to determine if a relationship existed between these variables and adrenal gland morphology.
  • There was not a statistically significant difference in mean X-ray attenuation of the left vs. right adrenal gland in normal dogs (35.3 +/- 6.1 HU), or in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
  • The mean adrenal X-ray attenuation (+/- standard deviation [SD]) in dogs with microadenoma was 33.1 +/- 6.8 vs. 31.8 +/- 12.7 HU for dogs with macroadenoma, and these values were not statistically different.
  • The mean volume of the left adrenal gland in normal dogs (0.59 +/- 0.17 cm3) was greater than that of the right adrenal gland (0.54 +/- 0.19 cm3) (P < 0.05).
  • The mean CT volume (+/- SD) of the adrenal glands in dogs with microadenoma vs. macroadenoma were 1.60 +/- 1.25 vs. 2.88 +/- 1.60 cm3, respectively.
  • There was no effect of age or gender on adrenal gland morphology or X-ray attenuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Dog Diseases / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Case-Control Studies. Dogs. Female. Male. Pedigree. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18833952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Timonera ER, Paiva ME, Lopes JM, Eloy C, van der Kwast T, Asa SL: Composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma of adrenal gland: report of 2 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Feb;132(2):265-7
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  • [Title] Composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma of adrenal gland: report of 2 cases.
  • Adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma are benign, hormonally inactive tumors that are often incidental findings in the adrenal glands.
  • Myelolipoma is more common than adenomatoid tumor in this location but both are rare, and as yet, the pathogenesis of both remains unclear.
  • We report 2 cases of composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma, incidentally found in the adrenal gland on investigation for other diseases.
  • To our knowledge, composite adenomatoid tumor and myelolipoma of adrenal gland has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18251587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Barrows M: Toxoplasmosis in a colony of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps). Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract; 2006 Sep;9(3):617-23
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  • Histopathologic examination revealed a protozoal infection with tachyzoites present in multiple organs, including the intestine, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, adrenal gland, and kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Marsupialia. Toxoplasmosis, Animal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16931382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-9194
  • [Journal-full-title] The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Millard RP, Pickens EH, Wells KL: Excessive production of sex hormones in a cat with an adrenocortical tumor. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2009 Feb 15;234(4):505-8
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  • [Title] Excessive production of sex hormones in a cat with an adrenocortical tumor.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a mass in the region of the right adrenal gland.
  • Results of adrenal hormonal analyses revealed considerable increases in serum concentrations of androstenedione and testosterone.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: A mass associated with the right adrenal gland was found during exploratory laparotomy.
  • Adrenalectomy of the right adrenal gland was performed, and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adrenal gland tumors can produce a variety of hormones other than cortisol.
  • An adrenal gland tumor should be considered in neutered cats with newly developed physical and behavioral changes of a sexual nature.
  • In the absence of debilitating conditions that are often associated with hyperadrenocorticism, cats undergoing adrenalectomy for an adrenal gland tumor that is producing sex hormones may have resolution of clinical signs and a good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenalectomy / veterinary. Androstenedione / blood. Cat Diseases / blood. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19222361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione
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41. Chen S, Zeng ZP, Li HZ, Tong AL, Lu L, Song AL, Li M, Liang W, Man N, Cao CX: [Relationship between plasma level of leptin and the expression of leptin receptor in human adrenal tissues and tumors]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Oct 19;90(38):2667-70
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  • [Title] [Relationship between plasma level of leptin and the expression of leptin receptor in human adrenal tissues and tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the mRNA, protein expression of long leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) in human adrenal tissues and tumors and observe the plasma level of leptin in primary aldosteronism (PA), cortisol-secreting tumors (CS) and pheochromocytomas (PHEO).
  • METHODS: Total RNA and protein were extracted from 6 normal human adrenal glands, 10 CS, 20 PHEO; and 14 aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) (RNA), 10 APA (protein); plasma samples were drawn from 20 controls, 15 PHEO, 29 PA and 11 CS.
  • RESULTS: The mRNA and protein of Ob-Rb were widely expressed in human adrenal glands and tumors.
  • The mRNA (0.32±0.12) and protein (1.31±0.26) expressions of Ob-Rb were higher in normal human adrenal cortex (C) than all other tissues (P<0.05) while the mRNA expression of Ob-Rb in APA (0.15±0.10) was higher than CS (0.05±0.02) (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ob-Rb is widely expressed in adrenal tissues and tumors.
  • Further studies are warranted to understand the relationship between leptin and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Leptin / blood. Pheochromocytoma. Receptors, Leptin / metabolism


42. Yildirim A, Sahin YN, Suleyman H, Yilmaz A, Yildirim S: The role of prednisolone and epinephrine on gastric tissue and erythrocyte antioxidant status in adrenalectomized rats. J Physiol Pharmacol; 2007 Mar;58(1):105-16
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  • Thus, the present study provides a physiological regulatory role of adrenal gland in the maintenance of oxidant/antioxidant balance in gastric tissue and erythrocyte.

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  • (PMID = 17440230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-5910
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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43. Matsuu M, Shichijo K, Ikeda Y, Ito M, Naito S, Okaichi K, Nakashima M, Nakayama T, Sekine I: Sympathetic hyperfunction causes increased sensitivity of the autonomic nervous system to whole-body X irradiation. Radiat Res; 2005 Feb;163(2):137-43
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  • Epinephrine levels in the adrenal gland of spontaneously hypertensive rats decreased at 4, 8 and 24 h, unlike the Wistar-Kyoto rats.

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  • (PMID = 15658888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Connelly MA: SR-BI-mediated HDL cholesteryl ester delivery in the adrenal gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):83-8
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  • [Title] SR-BI-mediated HDL cholesteryl ester delivery in the adrenal gland.
  • The relevance of SR-BI to adrenal steroidogenesis is evident by the impairment of glucocorticoid-mediated stress response in the absence of SR-BI-mediated HDL-CE uptake in mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Antigens, CD36 / metabolism. Cholesterol Esters / metabolism. Lipoproteins, HDL / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18840501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD36; 0 / Cholesterol Esters; 0 / HDL cholesteryl ester; 0 / Lipoproteins, HDL
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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45. Miller K: [Therapy sequence for renal cell carcinoma--new aspects!]. Aktuelle Urol; 2007 Jan;38(1):59
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  • [Title] [Therapy sequence for renal cell carcinoma--new aspects!].
  • Further potential sources of retroperitoneal hematoma are benign and malignant tumours of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentOn] Aktuelle Urol. 2006 Nov;37(6):429-35; quiz 423-4 [17099831.001]
  • (PMID = 17290332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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46. van Merkesteyn JP, Gortzak RA, Allard RH: [Using corticosteroids to prevent postoperative oedema]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd; 2005 Sep;112(9):322-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Gebruik van corticosteroïden ter preventie van postoperatief oedeem.
  • Corticosteroids are produced in the adrenal gland cortex and are subdivided in mineralocorticosteroids and glucocorticosteroids.
  • Usually, corticosteroids are prescribed as drugs to replace natural corticosteroids in case of insufficient functioning adrenal glands and in numerous diseases because of their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Edema / prevention & control. Oral Surgical Procedures. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16184907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2200
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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47. Ishimoto H, Ginzinger DG, Jaffe RB: Adrenocorticotropin preferentially up-regulates angiopoietin 2 in the human fetal adrenal gland: implications for coordinated adrenal organ growth and angiogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;91(5):1909-15
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  • [Title] Adrenocorticotropin preferentially up-regulates angiopoietin 2 in the human fetal adrenal gland: implications for coordinated adrenal organ growth and angiogenesis.
  • CONTEXT: ACTH is the key tropic hormone for the human fetal adrenal (HFA).
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Studies were conducted involving RNA, frozen sections, and primary cell cultures from HFAs (14-24 wk) and human adult adrenal RNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Angiopoietin-2 / biosynthesis. Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16492693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD08478
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiopoietin-2; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, TIE-2
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48. Moon SB, Shin HB, Seo JM, Lee SK: Clinical features and surgical outcome of a suprarenal mass detected before birth. Pediatr Surg Int; 2010 Mar;26(3):241-6
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  • [Title] Clinical features and surgical outcome of a suprarenal mass detected before birth.
  • PURPOSE: With the widespread use of the obstetrical ultrasound, identification of a fetal suprarenal mass has become more common.
  • Most of these masses prove to be congenital neuroblastomas (CNB), but the diagnosis is often confused with other benign lesions and the postnatal management remains to be controversial.
  • METHODS: The medical records of 18 patients that underwent primary surgical excision for an antenatally detected suprarenal mass, between January 1995 and April 2009, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: There were 13 cases of CNB, 1 adrenal cyst, 2 adrenal hemorrhages, and 2 pulmonary sequestrations.
  • The differential diagnosis was impossible before surgery.
  • Four patients (3 stage I and 1 stage IV-S) had more than one copy of N-myc gene.
  • The five benign lesions were cured with excision alone.
  • CONCLUSION: For early diagnosis and treatment, surgical excision should be considered as the primary therapy for an antenatally detected suprarenal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / congenital. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroblastoma / congenital. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Ultrasonography, Prenatal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / congenital. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / diagnostic imaging. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gestational Age. Hemorrhage / congenital. Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging. Hemorrhage / surgery. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19908050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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49. McBride SM, Culver B, Flynn FW: Dietary sodium manipulation during critical periods in development sensitize adult offspring to amphetamines. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2008 Sep;295(3):R899-905
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  • Wistar dams (n = 6-8/group) were fed chow containing low (0.12% NaCl; LN), normal (1% NaCl; NN), or high sodium (4% NaCl;.
  • Body weight (BW), blood pressure (BP), fluid intake, salt preference, response to amphetamine, open field behavior, plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), plasma corticosterone (Cort), and adrenal gland weight were measured.
  • In response to amphetamine, both prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring had increased locomotor behavior compared with NN offspring.
  • In a novel open field environment, locomotion was also increased in prenatal and postnatal LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring.
  • ACTH and Cort levels 30 min after restraint stress and adrenal gland weight measurement were greater in LN and HN offspring compared with NN offspring.

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  • (PMID = 18614766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS57823; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR15640; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK50586
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amphetamines; 0 / Sodium Chloride, Dietary; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2536856
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50. Hoshiyama F, Hosokawa Y, Kumamoto H, Hayashi Y, Fujimoto K, Hirao Y: [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Apr;54(4):281-4
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  • [Title] [Choriocarcinoma presenting as a spontaneous rupture of an adrenal metastasis: a case report].
  • These findings strongly indicated a spontaneous rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • An examination during surgery showed a rupture of adrenal tumor.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney was performed.
  • Pathological finding revealed the adrenal tumor was choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18516921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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51. Inoue S, Cho BH, Song CH, Fujimiya M, Murakami G, Matsubara A: Migration and distribution of neural crest-derived cells in the human adrenal cortex at 9-16 weeks of gestation: an immunohistochemical study. Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn; 2010 May;87(1):11-6
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  • [Title] Migration and distribution of neural crest-derived cells in the human adrenal cortex at 9-16 weeks of gestation: an immunohistochemical study.
  • Neural crest-derived cells are believed to migrate into the fetal adrenal cortex from the medially-located hilus.
  • In sagittal as well as horizontal sections of human fetuses between 9 and 16 weeks of gestation, we identified chromaffin, ganglion and Schwann-like cells in the developing adrenal gland using immunohistochemistry.
  • Cells showing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (i.e., candidate ganglion cells) entered the fetal cortex mainly from the medial half of the adrenal, but the path of entry also included the ventral, dorsal and caudal aspects.
  • These cells displayed linear arrangements, forming a connection between the peripheral and central areas of the gland.
  • Chromogranin A-positive cells were observed around the aorta as well as in the adrenal.
  • Some of the TH-positive cells very likely express chromogranin A before entry into the adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Fetal Development / physiology. Neural Crest / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / embryology. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Movement / physiology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20715567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-154X
  • [Journal-full-title] Okajimas folia anatomica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
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52. Grignon D, Paner GP: Renal cell carcinoma and the renal sinus. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 Mar;14(2):63-8
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma and the renal sinus.
  • Renal sinus fat invasion was incorporated as one of the parameters for pT stage definition of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) only in the latest 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer/tumor-node-metastasis staging protocol.
  • The current pT3a subcategory (in addition to adrenal gland involvement) groups 2 modes of extrarenal extension by RCC, either by peripheral perinephric fat extension or by renal sinus fat invasion.
  • Recent prospective studies have shown that with more directed gross sampling and histologic evaluation, renal sinus invasion is actually more commonly diagnosed than previously reported, or when compared with retrospectively sampled RCC nephrectomy specimens.
  • These studies have demonstrated that renal sinus invasion is the principal pathway for extrarenal extension for clear cell RCC; the incidence of which is related to size (tumors greater than 4 cm more frequently involve the renal sinus).
  • More significantly, a recent retrospective study of pT3a clear cell RCC nephrectomy specimens showed that tumors invading the renal sinus fat portend a more aggressive outcome than tumors invading only the peripheral perinephric fat.
  • Clear cell RCCs invading the renal sinus are more likely to have higher nuclear grade, regional lymph node involvement and sarcomatoid transformation than tumors invading only the perinephric fat.
  • Given the importance of renal sinus invasion, sampling strategies for nephrectomy specimens should be modified to focus in this region as appropriate and pathologists should be familiar with the histologic criteria for staging renal sinus invasion.

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  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1218-21 [16145373.001]
  • [CommentOn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1199-202; discussion 1202 [16145369.001]
  • (PMID = 17471114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Nomura N, Fujii T, Kanazumi N, Takeda S, Nomoto S, Kasuya H, Sugimoto H, Yamada S, Nakao A: Nonfunctioning neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors: our experience and management. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2009;16(5):639-47
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  • METHODS: The records of 17 patients with NFNPTs operated on between 1998 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed, and all tumors were classified clinicopathologically as benign, uncertain, and malignant, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • RESULTS: There were four benign, six uncertain, and seven malignant NFNPTs.
  • Mean tumor size of benign, uncertain, and malignant tumors were 1.0 +/- 0.3, 3.2 +/- 1.6, and 5.3 +/- 2.4 cm, respectively.
  • Metastatic lesions of malignant tumors were lymph node (six patients), liver (four patients), and adrenal gland (one patient).
  • Survival of patients with malignant tumors was significantly shorter than that of patients with benign and uncertain tumors.
  • Even when a tumor was unresectable or there were recurrences, long-time palliation could be achieved by a multidisciplinary approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatectomy / methods. Probability. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19365596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-0691
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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54. Klein RD, Jin L, Rumilla K, Young WF Jr, Lloyd RV: Germline SDHB mutations are common in patients with apparently sporadic sympathetic paragangliomas. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2008 Jun;17(2):94-100
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  • Germline mutations in the genes encoding the B (SDHB) and D (SDHD) subunits of the heterotetrameric protein succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial complex II) are important causes of inherited and apparently sporadic paragangliomas.
  • In an effort to further investigate the role of these genes in malignant sympathetic paragangliomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas, we screened a series of tumors for mutations in SDHB and SDHD.
  • An excess of SDHB mutations in paragangliomas versus pheochromocytomas was found, with no difference in the frequency of mutations in malignant versus benign paragangliomas.
  • The disparate mutational spectra in malignant paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas may reflect differences in underlying tumor biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation. Iron-Sulfur Proteins / genetics. Paraganglioma / genetics. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Sympathetic Nervous System / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Child. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18382370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4066
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Iron-Sulfur Proteins; 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.5.1 / SDHB protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase
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55. Turányi E, Dezso K, Paku S, Nagy P: DLK is a novel immunohistochemical marker for adrenal gland tumors. Virchows Arch; 2009 Sep;455(3):295-9
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  • [Title] DLK is a novel immunohistochemical marker for adrenal gland tumors.
  • Delta-like protein (DLK) is expressed in fetal and adult adrenal glands.
  • We have investigated if this expression is maintained in adrenal gland-derived tumors.
  • Thus, DLK is a very sensitive marker for adrenal tumors of cortical and medullary origin.
  • Renal cell carcinomas, presenting the major differential diagnostic problem for cortical tumors, were all negative, as well as melanomas, which are similar to high portion of adrenocortical tumors that react with melan-A.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19685073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Romero DG, Plonczynski MW, Gomez-Sanchez EP, Yanes LL, Gomez-Sanchez CE: RGS2 is regulated by angiotensin II and functions as a negative feedback of aldosterone production in H295R human adrenocortical cells. Endocrinology; 2006 Aug;147(8):3889-97
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  • Angiotensin (Ang) II interacts with its G protein-coupled receptor in zona glomerulosa adrenal cells and triggers a cascade of intracellular signals that regulates steroidogenesis and proliferation.
  • We studied Ang II-mediated regulation of RGS2, the role of RGS2 in steroidogenesis, and the intracellular signal events involved in H295R human adrenal cells.
  • We report that both H295R cells and human adrenal gland express RGS2 mRNA.
  • RGS2 alterations in expression levels or functionality could be implicated in deregulations of Ang II signaling and abnormal aldosterone secretion by the adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 16627589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL027255; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL27255; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL75321
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calmodulin; 0 / RGS Proteins; 0 / RGS2 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
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57. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
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  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • The third was a pediatric patient with a tumor showing a nodule-in-nodule pattern with insulin-like growth factor II expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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58. McFarlane D, Cribb AE: Systemic and pituitary pars intermedia antioxidant capacity associated with pars intermedia oxidative stress and dysfunction in horses. Am J Vet Res; 2005 Dec;66(12):2065-72
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  • SAMPLE POPULATION: Blood samples from 20 horses with PPID and 20 healthy client-owned horses, archived paraffin-embedded adrenal gland and substantia nigra tissues from 20 horses, and pituitary gland tissue from 16 horses.
  • Accumulation of a systemic marker of oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) was assessed in plasma and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded adrenal gland and substantia nigra tissues.
  • In pituitary gland tissues, glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in horses with oxidative stress, whereas total glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase activity remained unchanged.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / metabolism. Horse Diseases / metabolism. Oxidative Stress / physiology. Pituitary Diseases / veterinary. Pituitary Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16379648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 3604-79-3 / 3-nitrotyrosine; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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59. Lane BR, Tiong HY, Campbell SC, Fergany AF, Weight CJ, Larson BT, Novick AC, Flechner SM: Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy. J Urol; 2009 Jun;181(6):2430-6; discussion 2436-7
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  • [Title] Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy.
  • The indications for adrenalectomy in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy are not clearly defined and some surgeons perform it routinely for large and/or upper pole renal tumors.
  • We analyzed initial management and oncological outcomes of adrenal glands after open partial nephrectomy.
  • During partial nephrectomy the ipsilateral adrenal gland was resected if a suspicious adrenal nodule was noted on radiographic imaging, or if intraoperative findings indicated direct extension or metastasis.
  • Pathological analysis revealed direct invasion of the adrenal gland by renal cell carcinoma (1), renal cell carcinoma metastasis (2), other adrenal neoplasms (3) or benign tissue (42, 87%).
  • Metachronous adrenalectomy was ipsilateral (10), contralateral (2) or bilateral (3), revealing metastatic renal cell carcinoma in 11 patients.
  • We propose concomitant adrenalectomy only if a suspicious adrenal lesion is identified radiographically or invasion of the adrenal gland is suspected intraoperatively.
  • Even using such strict criteria only 13% of these suspicious adrenal nodules contained cancer.
  • The rarity of metachronous adrenal metastasis and the lack of an observable benefit to concomitant adrenalectomy support adrenal preservation during partial nephrectomy except as previously outlined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19371896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Yao L, Schiavi F, Cascon A, Qin Y, Inglada-Pérez L, King EE, Toledo RA, Ercolino T, Rapizzi E, Ricketts CJ, Mori L, Giacchè M, Mendola A, Taschin E, Boaretto F, Loli P, Iacobone M, Rossi GP, Biondi B, Lima-Junior JV, Kater CE, Bex M, Vikkula M, Grossman AB, Gruber SB, Barontini M, Persu A, Castellano M, Toledo SP, Maher ER, Mannelli M, Opocher G, Robledo M, Dahia PL: Spectrum and prevalence of FP/TMEM127 gene mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. JAMA; 2010 Dec 15;304(23):2611-9
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  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are genetically heterogeneous neural crest-derived neoplasms.
  • We recently identified germline mutations of the novel transmembrane-encoding gene FP/TMEM127 in familial and sporadic pheochromocytomas consistent with a tumor suppressor effect.
  • All mutation carriers had adrenal tumors, including 7 bilateral (P = 2.7 × 10(-4)) and/or with familial disease (5 of 20 samples; P = .005).
  • The most common presentation was that of a single benign adrenal tumor in patients older than 40 years.

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  • (PMID = 21156949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA465920; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01AG19316; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P30 AG013319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA54174; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / TMEM127 protein, human
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61. Keller A, Bierbach U, Mieke J, Pfäffle R, Kratzsch J, Kiess W, Keller E, Körholz D: [Results of an endocrinological follow-up of patients with childhood-or adolescent-onset malignancies]. Klin Padiatr; 2007 Nov-Dec;219(6):333-8
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  • According to the therapy protocol or tumor entity we divided this population in 5 subgroups (group 1 leukemia with 17 patients, group 2 lymphoma with 11 patients, group 3 tumor of CNS with 10 patients, group 4 bone and soft tissue tumors with 8 patients, group 5 different tumors with 7 patients).
  • METHOD: Anthropometrical and laboratory parameters were analyzed in intervals of 6 months over 2 years from the time point of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: We found differences in body height in children affected by cerebral tumors at the time of diagnosis and therefore before any therapy was started.
  • Additionally, the thyroid function was affected, shown as an increase of TSH with a concomitant decrease of the free thyroxin in 91% of all patients independent from the diagnosis (start TSH 1.8, fT4 15.6, after first year TSH 2.8, fT4 15.0).
  • Endocrine testing was initiated in 4 children, in 2 patients affection of the adrenal gland could be excluded, a suspected pituitary dysfunction after radiation was confirmed in 2 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: We could represent that children and adolescents with malignant diseases showed affection of the endocrine system due to the tumour and the intensive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Glands / physiopathology. Endocrinology. Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Anthropometry. Body Height. Body Mass Index. Body Weight. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Disorders / etiology. Humans. Male. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Stress, Psychological / physiopathology. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18050043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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62. Suzuki S, Uchida D, Koide H, Tanaka T, Noguchi Y, Saito Y, Tatsuno I: Hyper-responsiveness of adrenal gland to vasopressin resulting in enhanced plasma cortisol in patients with adrenal nodule(s). Peptides; 2008 Oct;29(10):1767-72
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  • [Title] Hyper-responsiveness of adrenal gland to vasopressin resulting in enhanced plasma cortisol in patients with adrenal nodule(s).
  • Hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin has been demonstrated in ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (AIMAH) and some adrenal adenomas with Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • However, the clinical significance of hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin has not been investigated systematically in adrenal nodule(s).
  • The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence of hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin (vasopressin responder) and their clinical characteristics in terms of hormonal secretion using vasopressin-loading test in the patients with adrenal nodule(s) except pheochromocytomas.
  • A vasopressin-loading test was performed on 61 consecutive patients with adrenal nodules (CS: 33, aldosterone-producing adenoma: 10, non-functional tumor: 18).
  • Vasopressin responders were observed in 36.1% of adrenal nodule(s), 42.4% of CS and 28.5% of non-CS.
  • Hyper-responsiveness of the adrenal gland to vasopressin resulting in enhanced plasma cortisol was frequently observed among patients with adrenal nodule(s).
  • The vasopressin responders among the patients with adrenal nodule(s) frequently had CS with low autonomous cortisol secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands. Hydrocortisone / blood. Vasopressins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18620013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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63. Allemann P, Perretta S, Asakuma M, Dallemagne B, Marescaux J: NOTES new frontier: Natural orifice approach to retroperitoneal disease. World J Gastrointest Surg; 2010 May 27;2(5):157-64
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  • RESULTS: In the animal model, 37 interventions were done on the kidney, adrenal gland and pancreas.
  • Two major (5%) intraoperative complications occurred: one hemorrhage on the aorta and one tearing of the right renal vein.

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  • (PMID = 21160866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-9366
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999234
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenalectomy / Natural orifice / Natural orifice translumenal surgery / Nephrectomy / Pancreatectomy / Retroperitoneum
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64. Sarabdjitsingh RA, Conway-Campbell BL, Leggett JD, Waite EJ, Meijer OC, de Kloet ER, Lightman SL: Stress responsiveness varies over the ultradian glucocorticoid cycle in a brain-region-specific manner. Endocrinology; 2010 Nov;151(11):5369-79
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  • Glucocorticoid hormones are released in rapid hourly hormone bursts by the adrenal gland.
  • These ultradian oscillations are fundamental to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity and transcriptional regulation of glucocorticoid responsive genes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Behavior, Animal / physiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / drug effects. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Immunoradiometric Assay. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Pituitary-Adrenal System / drug effects. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocrinology. 2012 Dec;153(12):6159
  • (PMID = 20861228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/H015779/1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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65. Margulis V, McDonald M, Tamboli P, Swanson DA, Wood CG: Predictors of oncological outcome after resection of locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma. J Urol; 2009 May;181(5):2044-51
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  • [Title] Predictors of oncological outcome after resection of locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Local renal cell carcinoma recurrence is rare after radical nephrectomy with curative intent.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an institutional database of 4,800 patients with renal cell carcinoma, of whom 2,945 underwent radical nephrectomy with curative intent, 54 were subsequently found to have isolated local recurrence in the renal fossa, ipsilateral adrenal gland or ipsilateral retroperitoneal lymph nodes, which was managed by surgical resection.
  • A positive surgical margin after resection of local recurrence, recurrent tumor size, sarcomatoid features in the recurrence specimen, abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase and increased lactate dehydrogenase at local recurrence were adverse risk factors associated with an increased risk of cancer specific death after resection for recurrent renal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive resection of isolated local recurrence offers durable local tumor control and cancer specific survival in a significant proportion of patients with renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19286220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Mai K, Bobbert T, Kullmann V, Andres J, Rochlitz H, Osterhoff M, Weickert MO, Bähr V, Möhlig M, Pfeiffer AF, Diederich S, Spranger J: Free fatty acids increase androgen precursors in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Apr;91(4):1501-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study effects of FFAs on adrenal production of androgen precursors in vivo.
  • DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We investigated eight healthy young men, because male individuals produce the androgen precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione predominantly in the adrenal gland.
  • RESULTS: The adrenal androgen precursors DHEA and androstenedione showed a circadian decline during saline/heparin infusion (P < 0.05 vs. baseline, respectively), whereas no significant changes were observed during lipid/heparin infusion (P = not significant vs. baseline, respectively).
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Androstenedione / blood. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Cross-Over Studies. Dehydroepiandrosterone / blood. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Glucose Clamp Technique. Humans. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Lipids / blood. Male. Stimulation, Chemical

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  • (PMID = 16434463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; 0 / Lipids; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone
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67. Muhammad S, Aller MI, Maser-Gluth C, Schwaninger M, Wisden W: Expression of the kcnk3 potassium channel gene lessens the injury from cerebral ischemia, most likely by a general influence on blood pressure. Neuroscience; 2010 May 19;167(3):758-64
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  • As the TASK-1 gene is expressed in adrenal gland, heart and possibly blood vessels, the higher infarct volumes in the TASK-1 knockout mice could be due to TASK-1 regulating blood vessel tone and hence blood pressure or influencing blood vessel microarchitecture and blood flow rate.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20167264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain; 0 / TASK3 protein, mouse; 0 / potassium channel subfamily K member 3
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68. Brum PC, Rolim NP, Bacurau AV, Medeiros A: Neurohumoral activation in heart failure: the role of adrenergic receptors. An Acad Bras Cienc; 2006 Sep;78(3):485-503
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  • However, chronic exposure of the heart to elevated levels of catecholamines released from sympathetic nerve terminals and the adrenal gland may lead to further pathologic changes in the heart, resulting in continued elevation of sympathetic tone and a progressive deterioration in cardiac function.

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  • (PMID = 16936938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-3765
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2
  • [Number-of-references] 135
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69. Fadda G, Rossi ED, Mulè A, Miraglia A, Vecchio FM, Capelli A: Diagnostic efficacy of immunocytochemistry on fine needle aspiration biopsies processed by thin-layer cytology. Acta Cytol; 2006 Mar-Apr;50(2):129-35
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  • RESULTS: The 113 cytologic cases were grouped as follows: 32 thyroid nodules with 16 histologic controls (HCs), 24 lymph nodes (regardless of location) with 15 HCs, 18 liver and pancreatic lesions (3 HCs), 11 lung nodules (6 HCs), 5 kidney and adrenal gland lesions (1 HC), 6 abdominal (2 HCs) and 4 mediastinal masses (1 HC), 6 salivary gland tumors (3 HCs), 4 bone masses (2 HCs) and 3 subcutaneous lesions (1 HC).
  • ICC contributed to the diagnosis in 104 cases (92%), whereas it was inconclusive in 9.
  • CONCLUSION: ICC can be successfully applied on TLC slides with better results than on CSs, and its yield can be useful in making the correct diagnosis on fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16610678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Thouënnon E, Elkahloun AG, Guillemot J, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertherat J, Pierre A, Ghzili H, Grumolato L, Muresan M, Klein M, Lefebvre H, Ouafik L, Vaudry H, Plouin PF, Yon L, Anouar Y: Identification of potential gene markers and insights into the pathophysiology of pheochromocytoma malignancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;92(12):4865-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors that are generally benign but that can also present as or develop into malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVES: We conducted a gene expression profiling of benign and malignant tumors to identify a gene signature that would allow us to discriminate benign from malignant pheochromocytomas and to gain a better understanding of tumorigenic pathways associated with malignancy.
  • There were 18 (nine benign and nine malignant) tumors used for gene expression profiling on pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays.
  • RESULTS: We identified and validated a set of predictor genes that could accurately distinguish the two tumor subtypes through unsupervised clustering.
  • CONCLUSION: The gene expression profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas clearly identified a set of genes that could be used as a prognostic multi-marker and revealed that the expression of several genes encoding neuroendocrine proteins was reduced in malignant compared with benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Genetic Markers. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17878247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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71. Gołkowski F, Buziak-Bereza M, Huszno B, Bałdys-Waligórska A, Stefańska A, Budzyński A, Okoń K, Chrzan R, Urbanik A: The unique case of adrenocortical malignant and functioning oncocytic tumour. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Jun;115(6):401-4
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  • [Title] The unique case of adrenocortical malignant and functioning oncocytic tumour.
  • Only a little more than thirty cases of adrenal oncocytoma, mainly nonfunctioning and benign, have been reported in the literature.
  • Adrenal mass 150 x 160 x 172 mm in size and enlarged periarterial lymph nodes were found in CT examination performed in 51-year-old male.
  • On laparotomy, the lesion was considered unresectable because of evident - confirmed by intraoperative ultrasound - tumour infiltration of the inferior caval vein.
  • The large biopsy specimen was obtained for histological examination in which tumour fulfilled criteria proposed by Bisceglia et al. for adrenocortical oncocytic borderline tumour.
  • The presented case appears to be the first malignant and functioning adrenocortical oncocytic tumour reported and confirms the complexity of its biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Venae Cavae / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17701888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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72. Tohme CA, Mattar WE, Ghorra CS: Extra-adrenal composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma. Saudi Med J; 2006 Oct;27(10):1594-7
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  • [Title] Extra-adrenal composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma.
  • Composite tumors containing pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma are rare tumors typically arising in the adrenal glands.
  • The histological features were benign, but due to its invasion of the inferior vena cava and of the right renal artery, we had concerns about the malignant potential of the pheochromocytoma component, which is extremely rare in these composite tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Renal Artery / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17013491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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73. Nougaret S, Jung B, Aufort S, Chanques G, Jaber S, Gallix B: Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study. Eur Radiol; 2010 Oct;20(10):2348-57
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  • [Title] Adrenal gland volume measurement in septic shock and control patients: a pilot study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients and control patients by using semi-automated volumetry.
  • METHODS: Adrenal gland volume and its inter-observer variability were measured with tomodensitometry using semi-automated software in 104 septic shock patients and in 40 control patients.
  • RESULTS: The mean total volume of both adrenal glands was 7.2 ± 2.0 cm(3) in control subjects and 13.3 ± 4.7 cm(3) for total adrenal gland volume in septic shock patients (p < 0.0001).
  • The increasing adrenal gland volume was associated with a higher rate of survival in intensive care.
  • CONCLUSION: The present study reports that with semi-automated software, adrenal gland volume can be measured easily and reproducibly.
  • Adrenal gland volume was found to be nearly double in sepsis compared with control patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Shock, Septic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20521055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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74. Bahrami A, Truong LD, Shen SS, Krishnan B: Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Feb;13(1):9-15
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  • [Title] Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases.
  • Synchronous renal and adrenal masses are uncommon.
  • Although adrenal masses in the context of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are often suspected as metastasis, other adrenal lesions with different therapeutic and prognostic implications may coexist with RCC.
  • In a retrospective review of 550 radical nephrectomies with ipsilateral adrenalectomy, 80 cases of coexisting renal and adrenal masses were identified.
  • The renal masses included 76 RCCs, 3 oncocytomas, and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland involving the kidney.
  • Although the gross pathologic impression of adrenal masses in the presence of RCC was metastasis, on histologic examination, 56% of them were found to be benign lesions (mostly adrenal adenoma/hyperplasia), whereas malignant involvement from RCC was seen in 43%.
  • The benign and malignant nature of the adrenal lesions in the context of RCC could not be discriminated based on the size of adrenal mass.
  • Because of the prognostic implication of direct or metastatic involvement of adrenal gland in the setting of RCC and the possibility of finding small metastatic foci, a meticulous gross and microscopic examination of adrenal glands is emphasized.
  • Rare unusual combinations of renal and adrenal lesions such as RCC and adrenal histoplasmosis, RCC and adrenal myelolipoma, renal oncocytoma, and adrenal pheochromocytoma are also described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19118776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Horn PC, Harder J, Lohmann CP, Lanzl I: [Optic neuropathy in Schmidt-Carpenter syndrome]. Ophthalmologe; 2010 Jul;107(7):656-9
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  • Failure of the adrenal gland, thyroid and pancreatic islet cells (Schmidt-Carpenter syndrome) likely formed the basis of the ocular pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Optic Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Diseases / therapy. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / diagnosis. Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune / therapy. Vision Disorders / diagnosis. Vision Disorders / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20376461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Ophthalmologe : Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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76. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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77. Wyler SF, Bachmann A, Casella R, Tapia C, Gasser TC, Sulser T: Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):388
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  • [Title] Curative surgery for solitary adrenal metastasis of pT1 G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • A preoperative computed tomography scan in a patient undergoing radical cystectomy for pT1N0 grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma revealed a tumor in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


78. Zhou H, Liu LH, Zhang H, Lei Z, Lan ZJ: Expression of zinc finger protein 105 in the testis and its role in male fertility. Mol Reprod Dev; 2010 Jun;77(6):511-20
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  • Whole-mount LacZ analyses of adult Zfp105(LacZ/+) tissues showed robust LacZ staining in the testis, very weak staining in the ovary, and no staining in the spleen, liver, kidney, heart, lung, thymus, adrenal gland, uterus, or oviduct.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20186958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2795
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular reproduction and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Reprod. Dev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / 5R01 HD57501-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD057501-03; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD057501-03; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / 2P20-RR/DE17702-06; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD057501
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / ZNF35 protein, human; 0 / Zfp 105 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS280271; NLM/ PMC3062163
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79. Hotchkiss JA, Andrus AK, Johnson KA, Krieger SM, Woolhiser MR, Maurissen JP: Acute toxicologic and neurotoxic effects of inhaled 1,2-dichloroethane in adult Fischer 344 rats. Food Chem Toxicol; 2010 Feb;48(2):470-81
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  • Exposure to 2000 ppm EDC altered adrenal gland, kidney, and liver weights, and resulted in morphologic alterations in the kidney and liver.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19887099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ethylene Dichlorides; 0 / Neurotoxins; 55163IJI47 / ethylene dichloride
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80. Ong KL, Lam KS, Cheung BM: Urotensin II: its function in health and its role in disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther; 2005 Jan;19(1):65-75
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  • It is expressed in the central nervous system as well as other tissues, such as kidney, spleen, small intestine, thymus, prostate, pituitary, and adrenal gland and circulates in human plasma.
  • The plasma U-II level is elevated in renal failure, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension and portal hypertension caused by liver cirrhosis.
  • U-II is also a neuropeptide and may play a role in tumour development.

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  • (PMID = 15883758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-3206
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular drugs and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Drugs Ther
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / UTS2R protein, human; 0 / Urotensins; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 9047-55-6 / urotensin II
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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81. Chong S, Lee KS, Kim HY, Kim YK, Kim BT, Chung MJ, Yi CA, Kwon GY: Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls. Radiographics; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6):1811-24; discussion 1824-6
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  • [Title] Integrated PET-CT for the characterization of adrenal gland lesions in cancer patients: diagnostic efficacy and interpretation pitfalls.
  • Integrated fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) for adrenal gland imaging in cancer patients allows early detection and accurate localization of adrenal lesions and differentiation of metastatic nodules from benign lesions, thereby facilitating treatment planning.
  • However, false-positive findings are encountered at integrated PET-CT in approximately 5% of adrenal lesions identified as positive at PET, including adrenal adenomas, adrenal endothelial cysts, and inflammatory and infectious lesions.
  • Moreover, false-negative findings may be seen in adrenal metastatic lesions with hemorrhage or necrosis, small-sized (<10-mm) metastatic nodules, and metastases from pulmonary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma or carcinoid tumors.
  • An awareness of the potential pitfalls of integrated PET-CT enhances the diagnostic efficacy of this modality by allowing differentiation of metastatic adrenal lesions from other abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] RSNA, 2006
  • [ErratumIn] Radiographics. 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6):1594
  • (PMID = 17102052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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82. Brown JL, Somerville M, Riddle HS, Keele M, Duer CK, Freeman EW: Comparative endocrinology of testicular, adrenal and thyroid function in captive Asian and African elephant bulls. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2007 Apr;151(2):153-62
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  • [Title] Comparative endocrinology of testicular, adrenal and thyroid function in captive Asian and African elephant bulls.
  • Concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol, thyroxine (free and total T4), triiodothyronine (free and total T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured to assess adrenal and thyroid function as they relate to testicular activity and musth in captive elephants.
  • Based on keeper logs, seven Asian and three African bulls exhibited behavioral and/or physical (temporal gland secretion, TGS, or urine dribbling, UD) signs of musth, which lasted 2.8+/-2.5 months in duration.
  • Cortisol and testosterone were correlated in most bulls exhibiting musth, indicating a possible role for the adrenal gland in modulating or facilitating downstream responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Elephants / blood. Testis / physiology. Thyroid Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17336304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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83. Jenssen C, Möller K, Wagner S, Sarbia M: [Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy: diagnostic yield, pitfalls, quality management]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Sep;46(9):897-908
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  • The differential diagnosis of tumorous lesions in the pancreas, liver, adrenal gland or lymph nodes is ambiguous.
  • There are numerous challenges and pitfalls in the differential diagnostic classification of benign and malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Endosonography / standards. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Quality Assurance, Health Care / standards. Ultrasonography, Interventional / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreas / ultrasonography. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18810676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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84. Roberge C, Carpentier AC, Langlois MF, Baillargeon JP, Ardilouze JL, Maheux P, Gallo-Payet N: Adrenocortical dysregulation as a major player in insulin resistance and onset of obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;293(6):E1465-78
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  • Cross talk among adipose tissue, the hypothalamo-pituitary complex, and adrenal gland activity plays a major role in the control of food intake, glucose metabolism, lipid storage, and energy balance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiopathology. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Obesity / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17911338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1849
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 207
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85. Schalk E, Mohren M, Koenigsmann M, Buhtz P, Franke A, Jentsch-Ullrich K: Metastatic adrenal neuroblastoma in an adult. Onkologie; 2005 Jun;28(6-7):353-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic adrenal neuroblastoma in an adult.
  • In adults, abdomen/retroperitoneum are the primary sites and in children the adrenal gland.
  • Tumour resection revealed adrenal NB grade III.
  • The patient died 9 months after diagnosis.
  • Collection and evaluation of data in adult patients with this tumour are warranted in order to optimise treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary


86. You W, Shi YJ, Han YJ, Jia BH, Tu Y: [Effect of electroacupuncture of "Baihui" (GV 20)-"Yintang" (EX-HN 3) on the expression of glucocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA of the chronic stress model rats]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu; 2010 Aug;35(4):261-6
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  • Subcutaneous injection of RU 486 (20 mg/kg) was given to the rats from the 14th day on and con- tinuously for 7 days in order to block the negative feedback reflex of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
  • Cortisol (CORT) content of the adrenal gland tissue was detected by radioimmunassay.
  • RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, adrenal CORT content of model group was increased significantly (P < 0.05), and in comparison with model group, adrenal CORT level of EA group decreased evidently (P < 0.05).
  • Comparison between the RU 486 and EA + RU 486 groups showed that the adrenal CORT content, and hippocampal GR mRNA expression level of the latter were remarkably lower than those of the former (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: EA can effectively down-regulate adrenal CORT content and hippocampal GR mRNA expression and normalize the function of HPA axis negative feed reflex in the depression rats, which may contribute to its effect in relieving depression.

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  • (PMID = 21090327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0607
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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87. Lymperopoulos A, Rengo G, Gao E, Ebert SN, Dorn GW 2nd, Koch WJ: Reduction of sympathetic activity via adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene deletion attenuates heart failure progression and improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction. J Biol Chem; 2010 May 21;285(21):16378-86
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  • [Title] Reduction of sympathetic activity via adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene deletion attenuates heart failure progression and improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction.
  • We recently reported that adrenal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is up-regulated in chronic HF, leading to enhanced CA release via desensitization/down-regulation of the chromaffin cell alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors that normally inhibit CA secretion.
  • We also showed that adrenal GRK2 inhibition decreases circulating CAs and improves cardiac inotropic reserve and function.
  • Herein, we hypothesized that adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene deletion before the onset of HF might be beneficial by reducing sympathetic activation.
  • To specifically delete GRK2 in the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland, we crossed PNMTCre mice, expressing Cre recombinase under the chromaffin cell-specific phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) gene promoter, with floxedGRK2 mice.
  • After confirming a significant ( approximately 50%) reduction of adrenal GRK2 mRNA and protein levels, the PNMT-driven GRK2 knock-out (KO) offspring underwent myocardial infarction (MI) to induce HF.
  • Thus, adrenal-targeted GRK2 gene KO decreases circulating CAs, leading to improved cardiac function and beta-adrenergic reserve in post-MI HF.
  • GRK2 inhibition in the adrenal gland might represent a novel sympatholytic strategy that can aid in blocking HF progression.

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  • (PMID = 20351116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL61690; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL085503; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL56205; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL075443; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL056205; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R37 HL061690; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL061690; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL087871; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01-HL091799; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL075443; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL091799; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL085503
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2; EC 2.7.11.15 / Adrbk1 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.15 / G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871505
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88. McBride SM, Culver B, Flynn FW: Prenatal and early postnatal dietary sodium restriction sensitizes the adult rat to amphetamines. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2006 Oct;291(4):R1192-9
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  • Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) dams were fed chow containing low NaCl (0.12%; LN), normal NaCl (1%; NN), or high NaCl (4%;.
  • Overall, blood pressure (BP), total fluid intake, salt preference, and adrenal gland weight were greater in SHR than in WKY.
  • WKY LN offspring had greater water intake and adrenal gland weight than did WKY NN and HN offspring, whereas WKY HN offspring had increased BP, salt intake, and salt preference compared with other WKY offspring.
  • Injections of 3 mg/kg amphetamine in both strains produced significantly more behavioral activity in the LN offspring than in NN and HN offspring.

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  • (PMID = 16675632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR-15640; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK-50586
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 0 / Sodium Chloride, Dietary; CK833KGX7E / Amphetamine; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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89. Ruohonen ST, Savontaus E, Rinne P, Rosmaninho-Salgado J, Cavadas C, Ruskoaho H, Koulu M, Pesonen U: Stress-induced hypertension and increased sympathetic activity in mice overexpressing neuropeptide Y in noradrenergic neurons. Neuroendocrinology; 2009;89(3):351-60
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  • We have constructed a novel NPY transgenic mouse model (OE-NPY(DBH) mouse) where targeted overexpression results in increased levels of NPY in the brainstem and adrenal glands.
  • Plasma and adrenal gland catecholamine levels were measured at baseline.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue, Brown / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Animals. Anxiety. Behavior, Animal. Blood Pressure / physiology. Body Temperature / physiology. Corticosterone / blood. Guanosine Diphosphate / metabolism. Heart Rate / physiology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Mitochondria / metabolism. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 19122447.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptide Y; 146-91-8 / Guanosine Diphosphate; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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90. Otawa M, Arai H, Atomi Y: Molecular aspects of adrenal regulation for circadian glucocorticoid synthesis by chronic voluntary exercise. Life Sci; 2007 Jan 30;80(8):725-31
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  • [Title] Molecular aspects of adrenal regulation for circadian glucocorticoid synthesis by chronic voluntary exercise.
  • To elucidate the mechanisms of exercise modulation on corticosterone synthesis, we first examined the levels of transcripts involved in corticosterone synthesis of the adrenal gland.
  • Since the splanchnic nerve input to the adrenal gland has been reported as a factor involved in the direct modulation of corticosterone synthesis, we next examined the expression levels of enzymes for the catecholamine synthesis as indices of sympatho-adrenomedullary activity.
  • Chronic exercise seems to alter the circadian corticosterone synthesis, at least partially via altering the levels of circadian-regulated transcripts, StAR and TH of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Corticosterone / biosynthesis. Motor Activity / physiology. Physical Conditioning, Animal / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17222430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3205
  • [Journal-full-title] Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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91. Ghilardi C, Chiorino G, Dossi R, Nagy Z, Giavazzi R, Bani M: Identification of novel vascular markers through gene expression profiling of tumor-derived endothelium. BMC Genomics; 2008;9:201
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  • [Title] Identification of novel vascular markers through gene expression profiling of tumor-derived endothelium.
  • BACKGROUND: Targeting tumor angiogenesis and vasculature is a promising strategy for the inhibition of tumor growth and dissemination.
  • Evidence suggests that tumor vasculature expresses unique markers that distinguish it from normal vasculature.
  • Our efforts focused on the molecular characterization of endothelial cells (EC) in the search for selective markers of tumor vasculature that might be helpful for the development of effective therapeutic approaches.
  • RESULTS: We investigated by microarray analysis the gene expression profiles of EC purified and cultured from tumor (ovarian carcinoma [HOC-EC]) and normal (human adrenal gland [HA-EC]) tissue specimens.
  • In vitro experiments confirmed the higher expression of the selected genes in tumor-derived endothelium with no expression in tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings elucidate some of the molecular features of the tumor endothelium.
  • Comparative transcriptomic analysis allowed us to determine molecular differences of tumor and normal tissue-derived endothelium and to identify novel markers that might be exploited to selectively target tumor vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Neoplasms / blood supply. Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] ADAM Proteins / genetics. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gelatinases. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood supply. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Trypsin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18447899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2164
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPNMB protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / fibroblast activation protein alpha; EC 3.4.21.4 / PRSS3 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.4 / Trypsin; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM23 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2410137
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92. Hirono Y, Doi M, Yoshimoto T, Kanno K, Himeno Y, Taki K, Sasano H, Hirata Y: A case with primary aldosteronism due to unilateral multiple adrenocortical micronodules. Endocr J; 2005 Aug;52(4):435-9
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  • Furosemide plus upright test did not stimulate PRA, but computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed no abnormal lesions in either adrenal gland.
  • Selective adrenal venous sampling (SAVS) showed that PAC in the left and the right adrenal vein were 1000 ng/dl and 230 ng/dl, respectively, which increased to 1500 ng/dl and 620 ng/dl, respectively, after ACTH stimulation.
  • Diagnosis of primary aldosteronism due to hypersecretion of aldosterone from the left adrenal gland was made, and laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed.
  • Pathological examination of the 'apparently normal' adrenal tissue resected revealed the presence of poorly encapsulated multiple adrenocortical micronodules which showed positive immunoreactivity for 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by immunohistochemical study, but negative immunoreactivity in the hyperplastic zona glomerulosa consistent with paradoxical hyperplasia associated with primary aldosteronism.
  • The clinicopathological features of our case are consistent with the diagnosis of unilateral multiple adrenocortical micronodules (UMN), a new subset of primary aldosteronism, in which SAVS proved to be a useful diagnostic tool for its localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / complications. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16127211.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
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93. Inglese M: Von Hippel-Lindau disease: an overview. Nephrol Nurs J; 2007 Jul-Aug;34(4):390-3; quiz 394
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  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease is a rare, familial disease consisting of multiple tumors, which can present in the eyes, brain, adrenal gland, pancreas, liver, spinal cord, kidneys, or other areas of the body.
  • The renal tumors are primarily renal cell carcinoma.
  • Renal involvement may be the primary manifestation, but most frequently it is a secondary manifestation.
  • This article presents an overview of von Hippel-Lindau disease and the nursing care of the patient with renal involvement.

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  • (PMID = 17891907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology nursing journal : journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol Nurs J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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94. Matsushima K: Traumatic adrenal gland hematoma: FAST is an effective tool to screen. J Trauma; 2009 Sep;67(3):676
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Traumatic adrenal gland hematoma: FAST is an effective tool to screen.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Injuries / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / ultrasonography. Hematoma / ultrasonography. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19741419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Rodríguez-Hermosa JI, Roig-García J, Gironès-Vilà J, Ruiz-Feliú B, Costa-Lima E, Recasens-Sala M, Codina-Cazador A: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for a large pheochromocytoma in a morbidly obese patient. Obes Surg; 2010 Aug;20(8):1195-7
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  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become the preferred approach for removal of the adrenal gland, but several authors still debate the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Obesity, Morbid / complications. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


96. Tahar GT, Nejib KN, Sadok SS, Rachid LM: Adrenocortical oncocytoma: a case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 May;43(5):E1-3
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  • Oncocytic tumors of the adrenal gland are uncommon.
  • Most of these oncocytomas are benign and nonfunctioning.
  • We report the case of functioning adrenocortical located in the right adrenal gland in a 6-year-old girl who presented with pseudoprecocious puberty and elevation of the estradiol level.
  • The tumor was small and composed predominantly of oncocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18485928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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97. Dehghani F, Zabolizadeh J, Noorafshan A, Panjehshahin MR, Karbalay-Doust S: Protective effect of Brewer's yeast on methimazole-induced-adrenal atrophy (a stereological study). Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Apr;35(1):34-9
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  • [Title] Protective effect of Brewer's yeast on methimazole-induced-adrenal atrophy (a stereological study).
  • Induction of hypothyroidism by thioamide drugs will cause adrenal gland atrophy and decrease in its hormones.
  • To prevent side effect on the adrenal gland, brewer's yeast, a natural product rich in vitamins and minerals was used.
  • Serological techniques were applied to measure the volume of adrenal gland.
  • After 30 days, all the animals were anesthetized and their adrenal glands were removed, fixed, embedded and stained.
  • The volume of different zones of the adrenal glands was estimated by Cavalieri principle and point counting methods. statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Withney test and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
  • The results indicated that methimazole decreased the volume of fasciculata zone in the cortex of the adrenal gland and also decreased the blood cortisol level.
  • In conclusion, it seems that the use of brewer's yeast could prevent methimazole-induced atrophy of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Antithyroid Agents / pharmacology. Methimazole / pharmacology. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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  • (PMID = 21319024.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole
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98. Sun T, Surles RL, Tanumihardjo SA: Vitamin A concentrations in piglet extrahepatic tissues respond differently ten days after vitamin A treatment. J Nutr; 2008 Jun;138(6):1101-6
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  • Four hours later, piglets were killed; adrenal glands, kidney, lung, and spleen were collected and analyzed for retinol and DR.
  • Retinol concentrations of kidney and adrenal gland were higher than control, but treated groups did not differ.
  • Retinol concentration was highest in kidney (1.70-2.52 nmol/g), followed by adrenal gland (0.30-0.48 nmol/g), lung (0.15-0.21 nmol/g), and spleen (0.11-0.15 nmol/g).
  • Unesterified retinol was the major VA form; the percent retinol of total VA was lowest in adrenal glands.

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  • (PMID = 18492841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-6100
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK061973-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 61973
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3,4-didehydroretinyl acetate; 0 / Chylomicrons; 104621892X / vitamin A2; 11103-57-4 / Vitamin A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS106171; NLM/ PMC2678969
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99. Yokoyama T, Toda R, Kimura Y, Mikagi M, Aizawa H: Addison's disease induced by miliary tuberculosis and the administration of rifampicin. Intern Med; 2009;48(15):1297-300
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  • We herein report a rare occurrence of Addison's disease caused by acute adrenal gland tuberculosis occurring in association with miliary tuberculosis and the administration of rifampicin.
  • Abdominal CT showed an enlargement of the right adrenal gland.
  • It is extremely important to immediately recognize adrenal crisis precipitated by the administration of RFP.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / drug therapy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tuberculosis, Endocrine / complications. Tuberculosis, Endocrine / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Endocrine / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19652434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antitubercular; VJT6J7R4TR / Rifampin
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100. Else T, Hammer GD: Genetic analysis of adrenal absence: agenesis and aplasia. Trends Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Dec;16(10):458-68
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  • [Title] Genetic analysis of adrenal absence: agenesis and aplasia.
  • The adrenal cortex shares a common embryological heritage with the gonad and kidney: all are derived from components of the urogenital ridge.
  • Adrenocortical specification from this embryonic structure and the ultimate organogenesis of the adrenal gland are directed by the sequential expression of transcriptional regulators, with later development being additionally mediated by endocrine hormones that regulate organ maintenance and tissue differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / abnormalities. Adrenal Insufficiency / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16275119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-2760
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / FOXD2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / Nr0b1 protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / SALL1 protein, human; 0 / Sall1 protein, mouse; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / pbx1 protein, human; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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