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1. Han XN, Chen B, Ye XD, Wang J, Liu GH: [Clinical manifestation and multiphasic spiral CT scanning features of abdominal pheochromocytoma: report of 70 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;31(2):139-42
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  • Sixty cases had a tumor located in the adrenal gland, while 8 in retroperitoneal space, and 2 cases had both intraadrenal and ectopic lesions simultaneously.
  • Sixty patients had a benign pheochromocytoma, the other 10 had a malignant one or relapse after operation.
  • The average size of the tumor was 5.8 cm (range, 2 approximately 15 cm in the longest diameter).
  • However, they may display some typical CT characteristics, such as that a small lesion is often homogeneous but hypervascular, a larger tumor may present hemorrhage, necrosis, and cystic change with rich or moderate blood supply.
  • However, when a small tumor has moderate blood supply, it should be differentiated with an adrenal adenoma; when a big one has moderate blood supply, it should be differentiated with other malignant tumors.
  • Furthermore, a part of malignant pheochromocytomas is really difficult to be differentiated from some benign lesions by spiral CT images alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19538893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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2. Asbun HJ, Straznicka M, Strong VE: The role of minimal access surgery for metastasectomy and cytoreduction. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2007 Jul;16(3):607-25, ix
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  • This article summarizes findings about the applicability of minimal-access techniques for thoracic and upper gastrointestinal cancers, including those affecting the lung, liver, stomach, and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery


3. Bodtger U, Vilmann P, Clementsen P, Galvis E, Bach K, Skov BG: Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration of left adrenal masses in established or suspected lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Dec;4(12):1485-9
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  • [Title] Clinical impact of endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration of left adrenal masses in established or suspected lung cancer.
  • A left adrenal gland (LAG) mass is found in 5 to 16%, and malignancy preclude surgery.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is superior to other imaging procedures in visualizing LAG, but the impact of EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) on tumor, node, metastasis (TNM)-staging, treatment, and survival is unknown.
  • RESULTS: EUS-FNA of an enlarged LAG altered the TNM staging in 70% (downstaged: 26 of 28 patients) and treatment in 48% (gained surgery 25%, avoided surgery 5%, surgically verified benign disease 5%, no cancer and no further workup 5%, and no cancer, control computed tomography, and then no further workup 8%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endoscopy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Large Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / surgery. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Treatment Outcome


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4. Yang Y, Cui Y, Fan Z, Cook GA, Nishimura H: Two distinct aquaporin-4 cDNAs isolated from medullary cone of quail kidney. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol; 2007 May;147(1):84-93
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  • With conventional RT-PCR and real-time PCR, qAQP4-L/S mRNA signals were detected in the brain, lung, heart, intestine, adrenal gland, skeletal muscle, liver, and kidney (higher in medulla than in cortical region).
  • qAQP4-L mRNA was detected only in the brain and adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 17303458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6433
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL058133; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL052881-12; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R29 HL058133; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL052881-12; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL52881; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL052881; United States / PHS HHS / / MG61943; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL052881-11; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL58133; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL052881-11
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aquaporin 4; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / RNA, Complementary; 059QF0KO0R / Water
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS23714; NLM/ PMC1995412
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5. Karpac J, Kern A, Hochgeschwender U: Pro-opiomelanocortin peptides and the adrenal gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;265-266:29-33
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  • [Title] Pro-opiomelanocortin peptides and the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland regulates a number of essential biological functions through production of steroids and catecholamines.
  • Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides have been implicated in all aspects of generating, maintaining, and functioning of the adrenal glands.
  • An appreciation for the roles of POMC-derived peptides with respect to the adrenal has been gained from experiments in vitro, and in vivo in different animal models which surgically, pharmacologically, or genetically decrease or increase the amount of POMC peptides available.
  • Here we will summarize and discuss the results of traditional in vivo studies on the role of POMC peptides in adrenal development, maintenance, and function in the context of findings in a mouse model genetically lacking all POMC-derived peptides.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17222502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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6. Raha D, Nehar S, Paswan B, Rebuffat P, Neri G, Naskar R, Kumari K, Raza B, Rao NV, Macchi C, Sen NS, Nussdorfer GG, Ahmad MF: IGF-I enhances cortisol secretion from guinea-pig adrenal gland: in vivo and in vitro study. Int J Mol Med; 2007 Jul;20(1):91-5
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  • [Title] IGF-I enhances cortisol secretion from guinea-pig adrenal gland: in vivo and in vitro study.
  • IGF-I and its receptor are expressed in the adrenal gland of humans and bovines, the secretion of which they seem to stimulate.
  • In vivo experiments showed that prolonged IGF-I administration raised the plasma concentration of cortisol in both normal and dexamethasone/captopril-treated guinea pigs, thereby ruling out the possibility that IGF-I may act by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the renin-angiotensin system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / administration & dosage. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17549394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Inositol Phosphates; 41613-02-9 / inositol 1,2,3-trisphosphate; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9G64RSX1XD / Captopril; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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7. Yang M, Kim SH, Kim JC, Shin T, Moon C: Toluene induces depression-like behaviors in adult mice. Toxicol Res; 2010 Dec;26(4):315-20
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  • The weight of the adrenal gland and the size of adrenocortical cells were significantly higher in toluene-treated mice compared to vehicle-treated controls.

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  • (PMID = 24278539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1976-8257
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3834495
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal gland / Animal model / Behavior / Depression / Toluene
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8. Goñi Iriarte MJ: [Cushing's syndrome: special issues]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 May;56(5):251-61
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  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de Cushing: situaciones especiales.
  • The present article reviews: Corticotrophin (ACTH) independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, which is characterized by aberrant adrenal receptors due to either ectopic expression or to overexpression (eutopic expression).
  • Micronodular adrenal hyperplasia, which provokes small pigmented nodules in the adrenal gland with atrophy of the internodal tissue.
  • The term subclinical Cushing's syndrome, coined in 1981, should be used in patients with clinically non-functioning adrenal adenomas but who show autonomous cortisol production that is insufficient to generate overt Cushing's syndrome.
  • One hundred thirty-six pregnancies have been described in 122 women, with a gestational age at diagnosis of 18.4+/-1 weeks.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secretion. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / classification. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / complications. Adult. Child. Female. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / complications. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / surgery. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Incidence. Male. Metyrapone / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / epidemiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications / etiology. Pregnancy Complications / physiopathology. Pregnancy Complications / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19627746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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9. Seim I, Carter SL, Herington AC, Chopin LK: The proximal first exon architecture of the murine ghrelin gene is highly similar to its human orthologue. BMC Res Notes; 2009;2:85
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  • Using quantitative, real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we demonstrated that extended exon 1 containing Ghrl transcripts are largely confined to the spleen, adrenal gland, stomach, and skin.

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  • (PMID = 19426541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-0500
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC research notes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Res Notes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2689246
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10. Teramae H, Fujimoto W, Seino S, Iwanaga T: Cellular expression of Noc2, a Rab effector protein, in endocrine and exocrine tissues in the mouse. Histochem Cell Biol; 2007 Jan;127(1):1-11
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  • Western blotting detected a Noc2-immunoreactive band of 38 kDa in isolated pancreatic islets, the adrenal gland, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland.
  • Immunostaining for Noc2 labeled endocrine cells in the adrenal medulla and adenohypophysis, pancreatic islet cells, thyroid parafollicular cells, and gut endocrine cells, supporting the notion that Noc2 is a Rab effector protein shared by amine/peptide-secreting endocrine cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Animals. Immunohistochemistry. Islets of Langerhans / chemistry. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Pituitary Gland / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Salivary Glands / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16835753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Rph3al protein, mouse
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11. Dutriez-Casteloot I, Breton C, Coupé B, Hawchar O, Enache M, Dickes-Coopman A, Keyzer Yd, Deloof S, Lesage J, Vieau D: Tissue-specific programming expression of glucocorticoid receptors and 11 beta-HSDs by maternal perinatal undernutrition in the HPA axis of adult male rats. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Apr;40(4):257-61
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  • The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is a major target of early-life programming.
  • We showed previously that perinatal maternal 50% food restriction leads to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity and disturbs glucocorticoid feedback in adult male rats.
  • In the adrenal gland, maternal food restriction decreased 11beta-HSD2 mRNA.
  • [MeSH-minor] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 / biosynthesis. 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 / genetics. 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 / biosynthesis. 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 / genetics. Animals. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Pituitary-Adrenal System / anatomy & histology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / enzymology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Receptors, Mineralocorticoid / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18548384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / Receptors, Mineralocorticoid; EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1; EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2; EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
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12. Malendowicz LK, Rucinski M, Belloni AS, Ziolkowska A, Nussdorfer GG: Leptin and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Int Rev Cytol; 2007;263:63-102
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  • [Title] Leptin and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • Evidence has been accumulated that leptin, like other peptides involved in the central regulation of food intake, controls the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, acting on both its central and peripheral branches.
  • Leptin, along with Ob-R, is expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, where it modulates corticotropin-releasing hormone and ACTH secretion, probably acting in an autocrine-paracrine manner.
  • Only Ob-R is expressed in the adrenal gland, thereby making it likely that leptin affects it by acting as a circulating hormone.
  • Although in vitro and in vivo findings could suggest a glucocorticoid secretagogue action in the rat, the bulk of evidence indicates that leptin inhibits steroid-hormone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
  • In contrast, leptin enhances catecolamine release from the adrenal medulla.
  • Leptin and/or Ob-R are also expressed in pituitary and adrenal tumors, but little is known about the role of this cytokine in the pathophysiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Leptin / physiology. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17725965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0074-7696
  • [Journal-full-title] International review of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Rev. Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leptin; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Leptin; 0 / leptin receptor, human
  • [Number-of-references] 234
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13. Kelestimur F: Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev; 2006 Aug;3 Suppl 3:451-4
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  • [Title] Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia results from a defect in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone.
  • The ACTH stimulation test is the best screening test for evaluating adrenal gland functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital

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  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2007 Sep;5(1):470
  • (PMID = 17551465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-4753
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Endocrinol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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14. Varan A, Büyükpamukçu N, Cağlar M, Köksal Y, Yalçn B, Akyüz C, Kutluk T, Büyükpamukçu M: Prognostic significance of metastatic site at diagnosis in Wilms' tumor: results from a single center. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Apr;27(4):188-91
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of metastatic site at diagnosis in Wilms' tumor: results from a single center.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic significance of pulmonary and liver involvements present at diagnosis in children with Wilms' tumor.
  • From 1971 to 2002, 57 patients with stage IV Wilms' tumor were diagnosed, treated, and followed in the authors' institution.
  • Nephrectomy with tumor resection was performed and appropriate chemotherapy was given to all the patients.
  • Thirty-seven patients had only lung metastases, 12 had only liver metastases, 6 had both lung and liver metastases, 1 had adrenal gland metastases, and 1 had other site metastases.
  • Liver involvement at diagnosis indicates a worse prognosis than lung involvement.
  • Wilms' tumor patients with liver metastases should be treated with more intensive regimens than those with lung metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Wilms Tumor / secondary


15. Tsuchiya Y, Nakajima M, Takagi S, Katoh M, Zheng W, Jefcoate CR, Yokoi T: Binding of steroidogenic factor-1 to the regulatory region might not be critical for transcriptional regulation of the human CYP1B1 gene. J Biochem; 2006 Mar;139(3):527-34
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  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1, which catalyzes 17beta-estradiol 4-hydroxylation, is expressed in steroid-related tissues including ovary, testis, and adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / physiology. Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1. Humans. Mice. Protein Binding / genetics. Steroidogenic Factor 1

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  • (PMID = 16567417.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-924X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CREB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases; EC 1.14.14.1 / CYP1B1 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cyp1b1 protein, mouse; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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16. Sinelnikov AO, Abujudeh HH, Chan D, Novelline RA: CT manifestations of adrenal trauma: experience with 73 cases. Emerg Radiol; 2007 Mar;13(6):313-8
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  • [Title] CT manifestations of adrenal trauma: experience with 73 cases.
  • Adrenal injuries, although an uncommon consequence of abdominal trauma, are important to recognize.
  • If bilateral, adrenal trauma could result in life-threatening adrenal insufficiency.
  • Furthermore, in the setting of trauma, adrenal injury can point to other concomitant injuries and has been associated with overall increased morbidity and mortality.
  • In the past, before the advent of computed tomography (CT), detection was difficult, and the diagnosis was often made only at surgery or postmortem.
  • Today, the diagnosis of adrenal injuries can be quickly and accurately made with CT.
  • This retrospective review was carried out to identify, describe, and analyze different CT appearances of adrenal injuries and correlated with associated injuries and observed clinical context and outcomes.
  • A patient cohort of CT-detected adrenal injuries was identified through a radiology software research tool by searching for keywords in radiology reports.
  • Between April 1995 and October 2004, 73 cases of CT-detected adrenal injuries were identified, including 48 men and 25 women, with an age range 6 to 90 years and a mean age of 42.7 years.
  • Isolated adrenal trauma was seen in only 4% of the cases.
  • The CT findings of adrenal trauma were focal hematoma (30%), indistinct (27%) or enlarged (18%) adrenal gland, gross (15%) or focal (7%) adrenal hemorrhage, and adrenal mass (11%).
  • Active adrenal bleeding was seen in one case (1.4%).
  • The incidence of adrenal trauma was estimated to be 0.86%.
  • The most common CT manifestations of adrenal trauma include focal hematoma, indistinct or ill-defined adrenal gland, adrenal enlargement or mass, and gross or focal adrenal hemorrhage in a normal-sized gland.
  • Operative intervention is typically required only for the associated injuries, which commonly accompany adrenal trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / injuries. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / diagnostic imaging

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  • (PMID = 17252249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-3004
  • [Journal-full-title] Emergency radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerg Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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17. Sicard F, Contesse V, Lefebvre H, Ait-Ali D, Gras M, Cartier D, Decker A, Chartrel N, Anouar Y, Vaudry H, Delarue C: The N-terminal neurotensin fragment, NT1-11, inhibits cortisol secretion by human adrenocortical cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Aug;91(8):3131-7
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  • [Title] The N-terminal neurotensin fragment, NT1-11, inhibits cortisol secretion by human adrenocortical cells.
  • CONTEXT: Neurotensin (NT) modulates corticosteroid secretion from the mammalian adrenal gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of NT in the control of cortisol secretion in the human adrenal gland.
  • PATIENTS: Adrenal explants from patients undergoing expanded nephrectomy for kidney cancer were studied.
  • RESULTS: NT1-11, the N-terminal fragment of NT, dose-dependently inhibited basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol production by human adrenocortical cells in primary culture.
  • HPLC and RT-PCR analyses failed to detect any significant amounts of NT and NT mRNA, respectively, in adrenal extracts.
  • RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of NT receptor type (NTR) 3 mRNA but not NTR1 and NTR2 mRNAs in the human adrenal tissue.
  • However, the pharmacological profile of the adrenal NT1-11 receptor was different from that of NTR3, indicating that this receptor type is not involved in the action of NT1-11 on corticosteroidogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Adrenal Cortex / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Neurotensin / pharmacology. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16705076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Neurotensin; 0 / sortilin; 39379-15-2 / Neurotensin; 74032-89-6 / neurotensin (1-11); 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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18. Jenkins SA, Muchow M, Richards MP, McMurtry JP, Porter TE: Administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone during chicken embryonic development prematurely induces pituitary growth hormone cells. Endocrinology; 2007 Aug;148(8):3914-21
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  • However, it is unknown whether the developing adrenal gland is capable of mounting this response autonomously.
  • The present study determined whether stimulation of the adrenal gland in developing chicken embryos through administration of ACTH could induce a premature increase in GH cells.
  • These findings indicate that the embryonic adrenal gland, and ultimately anterior pituitary corticotrophs, may function to regulate pituitary GH cell differentiation during embryonic development.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / embryology. Somatotrophs / cytology. Somatotrophs / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / secretion. Animals. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Chick Embryo. Chickens. Corticosterone / blood. Corticosterone / pharmacology. Corticosterone / secretion. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17463063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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19. Jankord R, McAllister RM, Ganjam VK, Laughlin MH: Chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase augments the ACTH response to exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol; 2009 Mar;296(3):R728-34
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  • Female Yucatan miniature swine were treated with N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to test the effect of chronic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on the ACTH response to exercise.
  • In addition, we tested the effect of NOS inhibition on blood flow to tissues of the HPA axis and report the effects of handling and treadmill exercise on the plasma concentrations of ACTH and cortisol.
  • Chronic NOS inhibition decreased plasma NO(x) levels by 44%, increased mean arterial blood pressure by 46%, and increased expression of neuronal NOS in carotid arteries.
  • Vascular conductance was decreased in the frontal cortex, the hypothalamus, and the adrenal gland.
  • Chronic NOS inhibition exaggerated the ACTH response to exercise.
  • In contrast, chronic NOS inhibition decreased the ACTH response to restraint, suggesting that the role of NO in modulating HPA activity is stressor dependent.
  • These results demonstrate that NOS activity modulates the response of the neuroendocrine component of the HPA axis during exercise stress.

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  • (PMID = 19144752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6119
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR-048523; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-36088; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-52490; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR-18276
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; V55S2QJN2X / NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2665849
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21. Moon MJ, Oh DY, Moon JS, Kim DK, Hwang JI, Lee JY, Kim JI, Cho S, Kwon HB, Seong JY: Cloning and activation of the bullfrog apelin receptor: Gi/o coupling and high affinity for [Pro1]apelin-13. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Oct 15;277(1-2):51-60
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  • RT-PCR analysis and tissue binding assay reveal high expression of bfAPJ mRNA in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus, and moderate expression in the pituitary, testis, adrenal gland and lung.

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  • (PMID = 17825479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ligands; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / apelin-13 peptide; 9DLQ4CIU6V / Proline; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go
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22. Iihara M: [Therapeutic strategy for pheochromocytoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Oct;36(10):1623-6
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  • Pheochromocytoma is the most common type of neuroendocrine tumor arising from the adrenal gland.
  • Pheochromocytoma has been termed a 10% tumor because roughly 10% of such tumors are malignant, multifocal, bilateral, and arise in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery is a treatment of choice for bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Pheochromocytoma / drug therapy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery


23. Xu J, Wang R, Xie ZH, Odero-Marah V, Pathak S, Multani A, Chung LW, Zhau HE: Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis. Prostate; 2006 Nov 1;66(15):1664-73
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  • [Title] Prostate cancer metastasis: role of the host microenvironment in promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased bone and adrenal gland metastasis.
  • This study characterized the host microenvironmental role in cancer progression, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and bone and adrenal metastasis in parental ARCaP and its derived cell subclones.
  • RESULTS: ARCaP(E) cells, with cobblestone morphology, underwent EMT through cellular interaction with host bone and adrenal gland.
  • Lineage-derived ARCaP(M) cells, with spindle-shape fibroblastic morphology, exhibited decreased cell adhesion and increased metastasis to bone and adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ARCaP uniquely models the molecular basis of prostate cancer bone and adrenal metastases and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Clone Cells. Disease Progression. Environment. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Organ Specificity / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured


24. Calbo L, Catalfamo A, Sciglitano P, Calbo E, Plutino F, Campisi G, Didio V, Gorgone S: [Adrenal incidentaloma in elderly patients]. G Chir; 2010 Aug-Sep;31(8-9):409-12
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  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma in elderly patients].
  • The adrenal incidentaloma is a disease that, thanks to the progress of the modern diagnostic, means for the longer and more high quality of life, has given a progressive increase in its impact, which has become more apparent in the elderly population.
  • The authors after a review of literature on the impact and diagnostic, troubleshooting data endocrinology and imaging, these adrenal gland silent tumor clinically poses, envisage a therapeutic for use in older patient protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Frail Elderly. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laparoscopy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20843449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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25. Krause S, Schüler L: Behavioural and endocrinological changes in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) under domestication. J Anim Breed Genet; 2010 Dec;127(6):452-61
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  • This study aimed to quantify differences in response to stress between two strains of Syrian hamsters to evaluate the consequences of domestication in this species by measuring behavioural traits in the open-field, adrenal gland masses (ADR), and faecal and blood corticosterone concentrations (CC).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Animals. Animals, Domestic / genetics. Animals, Domestic / physiology. Animals, Domestic / psychology. Behavior, Animal. Body Weight. Breeding. Corticosterone / blood. Corticosterone / metabolism. Cricetinae. Endocrine Glands / physiology. Female. Founder Effect. Inbreeding. Male. Organ Size. Sex Characteristics

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
  • (PMID = 21077969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0388
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Anim. Breed. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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26. Iqbal CW, Wahoff DC: Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms. Curr Opin Pediatr; 2009 Jun;21(3):379-85
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To guide the clinician in the diagnostic evaluation of endocrine neoplasms, to distinguish between benign and malignant and determine when surgical referral is indicated.
  • Adrenal neoplasms cover a wide spectrum of disorder.
  • Malignant lesions of the adrenal gland carry a poor prognosis when complete surgical resection cannot be achieved.
  • Carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms, primarily of the appendix, associated with carcinoid syndrome in 10% of patients.
  • SUMMARY: Endocrine neoplasms are unusual in the pediatric population.
  • Their presence should raise concern about a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome and appropriate diagnostic and endocrine work-up.
  • Most neoplasms will require surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Morbidity. Prognosis. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19421059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-698X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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27. Ngan ES, Lee KY, Sit FY, Poon HC, Chan JK, Sham MH, Lui VC, Tam PK: Prokineticin-1 modulates proliferation and differentiation of enteric neural crest cells. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2007 Apr;1773(4):536-45
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  • They are involved in variety of activities in various tissues, including smooth muscle contraction of the gastrointestinal tract and promoting proliferation of endothelial cells derived from adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Gastrointestinal Tract / cytology. Neural Crest / cytology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endocrine-Gland-Derived / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17324478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Endocrine-Gland-Derived; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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28. Peltier J, Demondion X, Baroncini M, Wavreille G, Fontaine C, Drizencko A, Mauroy B, Le Gars D, Francke JP: Adrenal gland hypertrophy in a case of homolateral renal agenesis: case report with special emphasis on adrenal blood supply. Surg Radiol Anat; 2009 Jul;31(6):471-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal gland hypertrophy in a case of homolateral renal agenesis: case report with special emphasis on adrenal blood supply.
  • Hypertrophic suprarenal gland is an anomaly which can lead to serious complications during adrenalectomy under endoscopy because of abnormal veins of the retroperitoneum.
  • The authors report a rare dissection of a male which presented with this anomaly in a case of homolateral renal agenesis, highlighting this left pseudorenal vein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Kidney / abnormalities

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  • [ISSN] 1279-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
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29. Vuorenoja S, Rivero-Muller A, Kiiveri S, Bielinska M, Heikinheimo M, Wilson DB, Huhtaniemi IT, Rahman NA: Adrenocortical tumorigenesis, luteinizing hormone receptor and transcription factors GATA-4 and GATA-6. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Apr 15;269(1-2):38-45
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  • Luteinizing hormone (LH/hCG) responsiveness of normal and pathological human adrenal glands as well as the possibility of constitutive expressions of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in adrenal cortex has been reported.
  • The paucity of suitable models for adrenal tumorigenesis makes the establishment of proper animal models highly important.
  • LHR expression in the murine adrenal gland is an exception and not found in wild-type (WT) animal.
  • We have previously shown that ectopic LHR expression in the murine adrenal gland can be induced by chronically elevated LH levels.
  • We have generated a gonadotropin-responsive adrenal tumor model in gonadectomized transgenic (TG) mice expressing the inhibin alpha promoter/Simian Virus 40 T antigen transgene (inhalpha/Tag).
  • A functional link between LHR and GATA-4 actions in the adrenal pathophysiology is proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. GATA4 Transcription Factor / physiology. GATA6 Transcription Factor / physiology. Receptors, LH / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17337116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA4 protein, human; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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30. McHugh K: Renal and adrenal tumours in children. Cancer Imaging; 2007;7:41-51
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  • [Title] Renal and adrenal tumours in children.
  • The differential diagnosis of renal and supra-renal masses firstly depends on the age of the child.
  • Neuroblastoma (NBL) may be seen antenatally or in the newborn period; this tumour has a good prognosis unlike NBL seen in older children (particularly NBL in those aged 2-4 years).
  • Benign renal masses predominate in early infancy but beyond the first year of life Wilms' tumour is the most common renal malignancy, until adolescence when renal cell carcinoma has similar or increased frequency as children get older.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas also occur in childhood; these tumours are indistinguishable on imaging but criteria for the diagnosis of adrenal carcinoma include size larger than 5 cm, a tendency to invade the inferior vena cava and to metastasise.
  • The most topical dilemmas in the radiological assessment of renal and adrenal tumours are presented.
  • Topics covered include a proposed revision to the staging of NBL, the problems inherent in distinguishing nephrogenic rests from Wilms' tumour and the current recently altered approach regarding small lung nodules in children with Wilms' tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age of Onset. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroblastoma / epidemiology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / epidemiology. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / epidemiology. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17339140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
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31. Termote B, Verswijvel G, Palmers Y: Fat containing adrenal cavernous haemangioma: CT and MRI findings. JBR-BTR; 2007 Nov-Dec;90(6):516-8
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  • [Title] Fat containing adrenal cavernous haemangioma: CT and MRI findings.
  • We report a case of fat containing adrenal cavernous haemangioma.
  • Abdominal computed tomography images showed a large adrenal mass with calcifications and small well demarcated islets of intralesional fat.
  • Magnetic resonance images confirmed the presence of fat and furthermore demonstrated the peripheral spotty contrast enhancement with centripetal enhancement, assuming the possibility of cavernous haemangioma.The histological specimen confirmed cavernous haemangioma of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18376767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-7430
  • [Journal-full-title] JBR-BTR : organe de la Société royale belge de radiologie (SRBR) = orgaan van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Radiologie (KBVR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JBR-BTR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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32. Matysiak W, Jodłowska-Jedrych B: Does administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug determine morphological changes in adrenal cortex: ultrastructural studies. Protoplasma; 2010 Oct;246(1-4):109-18
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  • [Title] Does administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug determine morphological changes in adrenal cortex: ultrastructural studies.
  • In connection with the withdrawal of Vioxx© (rofecoxib) from pharmaceutical market, attempts were made to conduct electron-microscopic evaluation of cortical part of the adrenal gland in preparations obtained from animals under influence of the drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / drug effects. Adrenal Cortex / ultrastructure. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20721677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-6102
  • [Journal-full-title] Protoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Protoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2947012
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33. Matsumura S, Eguchi A, Kitabayashi N, Tanida M, Shen J, Horii Y, Nagai K, Tsuzuki S, Inoue K, Fushiki T: Effect of an intraduodenal injection of fat on the activities of the adrenal efferent sympathetic nerve and the gastric efferent parasympathetic nerve in urethane-anesthetized rats. Neurosci Res; 2010 Jul;67(3):236-44
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  • [Title] Effect of an intraduodenal injection of fat on the activities of the adrenal efferent sympathetic nerve and the gastric efferent parasympathetic nerve in urethane-anesthetized rats.
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of an intraduodenal injection of fat on the activities of the autonomic nerves innervating the adrenal gland and stomach in urethane-anesthetized rats.
  • An intraduodenal injection of corn oil suppressed adrenal efferent sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) and stimulated gastric efferent vagal nerve activity (GVNA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / innervation. Dietary Fats / administration & dosage. Dietary Fats / pharmacology. Duodenum / physiology. Efferent Pathways / drug effects. Parasympathetic Nervous System / drug effects. Stomach / innervation. Sympathetic Nervous System / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20362017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8111
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Fat Emulsions, Intravenous; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 25104-18-1 / Polylysine; 3IN71E75Z5 / Urethane; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase
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34. Cermeño-V JJ, Cermeño JR, Cova-V NM, Pérez GM: [Adrenocortical function in patients with systemic mycoses]. Invest Clin; 2007 Sep;48(3):341-8
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  • The systemic mycoses like paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis, are the main cause of adrenal insufficiency in the countries where they arc endemic.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the glucocorticoid adrenal function in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis hospitalized in the University Hospital "Ruiz y Pácz" of Ciudad Bolivar (Bolivar state) and in the Hospital "Luis Felipe Rojas Guevara", of El Tigre (Anzoátegui state), Venezuela, between January 2003 and January 2004.
  • The test of fast stimulation with synthetic adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) was applied to a total of 12 patients with diagnosis of some of these mycoses and data of epidemiologic interest were taken.
  • After the injection of synthetic ACTH, an increase of plasmatic cortisol values in the same rank for patients with a normal adrenal function was observed, but it was significantly lower than the observed for the control group.
  • These results suggest that there is an adrenal gland functional reserve diminution in patients with either Paracoccidioidomycosis or Histoplasmosis.
  • In patients with systemic mycoses, it is important to evaluate the response to the test of fast stimulation with ACTH due to the frequency of impairment of the glucocorticoid adrenal function in our location.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiopathology. Histoplasmosis / physiopathology. Paracoccidioidomycosis / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Function Tests. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. Adult. Aged. Comorbidity. Endemic Diseases. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Venezuela / epidemiology

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  • [ErratumIn] Invest Clin. 2007 Dec;48(4):543
  • (PMID = 17853793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0535-5133
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigación clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Clin
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Venezuela
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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35. Stoica G, Lungu G, Xie X, Abbott LC, Stoica HM, Jaques JT: Inherited tertiary hypothyroidism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain Res; 2007 May 7;1148:205-16
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  • The cerebellum, brain stem, neocortex, hippocampus and adrenal gland medulla appear to be most affected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / abnormalities. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / physiopathology. Animals. Female. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Nerve Degeneration / genetics. Nerve Degeneration / metabolism. Nerve Degeneration / physiopathology. Neurons / metabolism. Neurons / pathology. Organ Size / physiology. Pituitary Gland / abnormalities. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Rats. Rats, Mutant Strains. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology. Thyrotropin / metabolism. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17368429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1 R01 NS046214-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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36. Li ZL, Sun D, Kong CZ: [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug 15;47(16):1239-41
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study and summarize the diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 25 cases of adrenal corticomedullary mixed tumor from January 2000 to April 2008 were analyzed retrospectively, which including 9 males and 16 females.
  • Every case underwent b-ultrasound and CT normal plus extensive scan to make the diagnosis.
  • All of the cases had blood pressure fluctuation during dissection of the adrenal tumors, with the highest blood pressure reached to 230/140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa).
  • Postoperative histopathological study revealed that the pathological changes was corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland, which was supported by immunohistochemical study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases with complex phenomenon that can't explain with single cortical or medullary changes, it must beware of the mixed pathological changes in adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19781172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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37. Tanida M, Yamatodani A, Niijima A, Shen J, Todo T, Nagai K: Autonomic and cardiovascular responses to scent stimulation are altered in cry KO mice. Neurosci Lett; 2007 Feb 14;413(2):177-82
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  • Here, we show that in mice, olfactory stimulation with SGFO elevated activities of sympathetic nerves innervating the kidney, adrenal gland and brown adipose tissue as well as increasing BP and suppressing GVNA, whereas olfactory stimulation with SLVO decreased these sympathetic nerve activities and BP, and elevated GVNA.
  • Electrolytic lesions of the mouse hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) eliminated changes in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), BP and GVNA induced by either SGFO or SLVO.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue, Brown / blood supply. Adipose Tissue, Brown / innervation. Adipose Tissue, Brown / physiology. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / innervation. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Animals. Biological Clocks / drug effects. Biological Clocks / physiology. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Blood Pressure / physiology. Circadian Rhythm / drug effects. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Cryptochromes. Denervation. Kidney / blood supply. Kidney / innervation. Kidney / physiology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Mice, Knockout. Olfactory Pathways / drug effects. Olfactory Pathways / physiology. Regional Blood Flow / drug effects. Regional Blood Flow / physiology. Synaptic Transmission / drug effects. Synaptic Transmission / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17175102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cry1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cry1 protein, rat; 0 / Cry2 protein, mouse; 0 / Cry2 protein, rat; 0 / Cryptochromes; 0 / Flavoproteins
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38. Daunt N: Adrenal vein sampling: how to make it quick, easy, and successful. Radiographics; 2005 Oct;25 Suppl 1:S143-58
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  • [Title] Adrenal vein sampling: how to make it quick, easy, and successful.
  • Adrenal vein sampling has a reputation as a difficult procedure.
  • At the author's institution, adrenal vein sampling with computed tomographic (CT) and laboratory correlation has been performed more than 800 times in the past 10 years.
  • Adrenal vein sampling is used to determine whether autonomous hormone production is unilateral or bilateral; unilateral secretion can be treated with surgery.
  • The venous drainage of each adrenal gland is predominantly via a central vein.
  • Recognition of the right adrenal vein is the crux of adrenal vein sampling.
  • CT is useful in planning adrenal vein sampling by demonstrating the anatomy and positions of the adrenal veins.
  • A small amount of contrast material is injected gently and slowly into the adrenal vein; it is not necessary to perform formal venography to outline the entire gland.
  • To confirm that the vein is draining the majority of adrenal cortical blood, the adrenal vein sample should have a significantly higher level of cortisol than a peripheral sample.
  • Adrenal glands that are producing aldosterone demonstrate an aldosterone-cortisol ratio that is higher than the peripheral value.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Phlebotomy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 16227488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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39. Adler JT, Mack E, Chen H: Equal oncologic results for laparoscopic and open resection of adrenal metastases. J Surg Res; 2007 Jun 15;140(2):159-64
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  • [Title] Equal oncologic results for laparoscopic and open resection of adrenal metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: While open adrenalectomy is often performed for malignant adrenal tumors, increasing numbers of surgeons have adopted the laparoscopic approach.
  • The current study was undertaken to compare laparoscopic with open adrenalectomy for isolated adrenal metastases.
  • METHODS: From March 1993 to April 2006, 20 adults underwent adrenalectomy for isolated metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • Three patients were excluded because of a concomitant nephrectomy (2) and an unresectable tumor (1).
  • Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and oncologic outcomes of the remaining patients were reviewed and analyzed.
  • With a follow-up of up to 97 mo, there were no port site metastases, no tumor recurrences, and no difference in survival between laparoscopic and open adrenalectomy (median 19 months versus 17 months, 5-year survival 34% versus 54%, P=0.96).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When not limited by tumor size or invasion of surrounding tissue, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe alternative to open adrenalectomy with equivalent oncologic outcomes and clear postoperative benefit for patients with isolated metastases to the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17196989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Cui ZY, Ahn JS, Lee JY, Kim WS, Lim HY, Jeon HJ, Suh SW, Kim JH, Kong WH, Kang JM, Nam DH, Park K: Mouse orthotopic lung cancer model induced by PC14PE6. Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Dec;38(4):234-9
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  • The lung and other organs, including brain, liver, spleen, kidney, muscle, adrenal gland, and lymph node on knee, were removed and stained with H/E to detect the presence of tumor cells.

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  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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41. Alexandraki KI, Michail OP, Nonni A, Diamantis D, Giannopoulou I, Kaltsas GA, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Syriou V, Michail PO: Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review. Endocr J; 2009;56(6):817-24
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  • [Title] Corticomedullary mixed adrenal tumor: case report and literature review.
  • We report a 66-year-old woman with a mixed corticomedullary tumor of the left adrenal gland.
  • The patient was found to harbor an adrenal incidentaloma while investigated for a spigelian hernia.
  • Due to the atypical radiological features and the relatively large size of the adrenal lesion she underwent a left adrenalectomy following endocrine testing to exclude a functional lesion.
  • Subclinical Cushing's syndrome was suggested by the failure to obtain adequate cortisol suppression (less than 1.8 microg/dL) following dexamethasone administration pre-operatively; cortisol suppression was restored postoperatively following the excision of the tumor.
  • The finding of this case highlights the importance of this extremely rare entity which should be included in the long list of causes of adrenal incidentaloma since cases with intra-operative complications have been described.
  • The previously reported reappearance of this tumor in the contralateral adrenal gland emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hernia, Abdominal / complications

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  • (PMID = 19461165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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42. Cho HJ, Ki CS, Kim JW: Improved detection of germline mutations in Korean VHL patients by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis. J Korean Med Sci; 2009 Feb;24(1):77-83
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  • von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant inherited tumor syndrome characterized by the development of tumors in the eye, brain, spinal cord, inner ear, adrenal gland, pancreas, kidney, and epididymis, associated with germline mutations in the VHL gene.

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  • (PMID = 19270817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Gene Deletion / Korean / MLPA / VHL
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43. Miwa Y, Nakata M, Kurosawa A, Sasai H, Sasaki N: Adrenal diseases in ferrets in Japan. J Vet Med Sci; 2008 Dec;70(12):1323-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal diseases in ferrets in Japan.
  • Adrenal diseases are quite common in Japanese pet ferrets; however, there have been no reports concerning the epidemiology of ferret adrenal disease in Japan.
  • The purpose of this study was to collect epidemiological data on ferret adrenal disease in Japan by sending a questionnaire to veterinarians throughout Japan.
  • Sex, clinical signs, concurrent diseases, age and the sites of the affected adrenal gland in these cases were similar to those reported in North America.
  • Most pet ferrets in Japan are imported from North America, and their husbandry in Japan is similar to that in North America, which may be the cause of the similarity in ferret adrenal disease between North America and Japan.
  • Because a difference in the incidence of ferret adrenal diseases among countries has been reported, further research is necessary to investigate the factors related to the similarities and how to decrease the incidence of adrenal diseases in ferrets in Japan.

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  • (PMID = 19122398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Iizuka A, Haritani M, Shiono M, Sato M, Fukuda O, Hagiwara A, Miyazaki S, Tanimura N, Kimura K, Nakazawa K, Kobayashi M, Takahashi T, Saito T, Fukai K: An outbreak of systemic granulomatous disease in cows with high milk yields. J Vet Med Sci; 2005 Jul;67(7):693-9
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  • Pathologic examination of the three cows, including the two dead and one euthanized cow, revealed that the skin, liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, salivary glands, pancreas, adrenal glands, mammary glands, lymph nodes, and trigeminal ganglia had lymphocytic to lymphogranulomatous inflammation.
  • Inflammation predominated by lymphocytic infiltration was prominent in the heart, pancreas, mammary glands, adrenal gland, and trigeminal ganglia.

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  • (PMID = 16082117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. Droste SK, Chandramohan Y, Hill LE, Linthorst AC, Reul JM: Voluntary exercise impacts on the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mainly at the adrenal level. Neuroendocrinology; 2007;86(1):26-37
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  • [Title] Voluntary exercise impacts on the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mainly at the adrenal level.
  • RESULTS: After 4 weeks, the exercising animals showed significantly less body weight gain, less abdominal fat tissue, decreased thymus weight, and increased adrenal weight (relative to body weight).
  • Furthermore, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels were selectively increased in the right adrenal medulla indicating an increase in sympathoadrenomedullary capacity in exercising rats.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The differential responses in plasma corticosterone levels to different types of stress in the face of comparable responses in ACTH levels underscore the existence of critical regulatory control mechanisms at the level of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / metabolism. Physical Conditioning, Animal. Pituitary-Adrenal System / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17595533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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46. Utsumi T, Suzuki H, Nakamura K, Kim W, Kamijima S, Awa Y, Araki K, Nihei N, Naya Y, Ichikawa T: Renal cell carcinoma with a huge solitary metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland: a case report. Int J Urol; 2008 Dec;15(12):1077-9
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  • [Title] Renal cell carcinoma with a huge solitary metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is capable of metastasizing to several organs.
  • Synchronous isolated contralateral adrenal metastasis of the primary RCC is, however, very rare.
  • Herein we report a case of RCC with a huge solitary metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland that was surgically treated.
  • We scheduled nephrectomy for the left primary RCC and adrenalectomy for the right adrenal tumor.
  • However, at surgery we found a huge right adrenal tumor that had invaded the right kidney, right renal vein, and inferior vena cava.
  • Pathological findings demonstrated that the left renal tumor and right adrenal tumor had the same histology.
  • So far, there have been only two cases of a solitary contralateral metastatic adrenal tumor that was larger than the primary RCC, thus the present case is the third one.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Humans. Kidney / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19120516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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47. Lemos DR, Downs JL, Urbanski HF: Twenty-four-hour rhythmic gene expression in the rhesus macaque adrenal gland. Mol Endocrinol; 2006 May;20(5):1164-76
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  • [Title] Twenty-four-hour rhythmic gene expression in the rhesus macaque adrenal gland.
  • However, there is evidence from mouse studies that components of the circadian clock are also expressed within the adrenal gland itself.
  • In the present study we performed genome-wide expression profiling to determine whether the adrenal gland of rhesus monkeys shows temporal gene expression across a 24-h period.
  • Expression levels of Rev-erbalpha were higher at 0100 h than at 1300 h (P<0.05), and immunohistochemistry revealed a strong expression of this transcription factor specifically in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla.
  • Taken together, the data indicate that the primate adrenal gland shows rhythmic expression of genes associated with cell biology and synthesis of steroids and catecholamines.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Circadian Rhythm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation. Macaca mulatta / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16439464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG-19914; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG-23477; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-61766; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD-29186; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR-00163; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / TW/HD-00668
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ARNTL Transcription Factors; 0 / Arntl protein, mouse; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Cry1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cryptochromes; 0 / Flavoproteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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48. Pan W, Kastin AJ, Yu Y, Cain CM, Fairburn T, Stütz AM, Morrison C, Argyropoulos G: Selective tissue uptake of agouti-related protein(82-131) and its modulation by fasting. Endocrinology; 2005 Dec;146(12):5533-9
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  • The adrenal gland had a moderately fast uptake (but the highest initial volume of distribution), followed by the heart, lungs, and skeletal muscle.
  • Saturation of influx was determined by coadministration of excess unlabeled AgRP and was shown to be present in the liver and adrenal gland.
  • AgRP uptake by the liver and epididymal fat was significantly increased by overnight fasting, whereas that by the adrenal gland was significantly decreased in fasted mice.

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  • (PMID = 16141394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS46528; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA12865; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK62156; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK54880; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS046528; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS045751; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS45751
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Agouti-Related Protein; 0 / Albumins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / agouti-related protein (82-131), human
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49. Wang H, Zhou FJ, Qin ZK, Han H, Liu ZW: [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jan;24(1):76-8
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Adrenalectomy is a standard treatment for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Conventional open operation usually results in bigger incisions, more blood loss, and long hospital stay to patients; while laparoscopic approaches could make up above shortcomings, which is used to resect benign adrenal tumors gradually.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 10 patients with benign adrenal tumors undergone laparoscopic adrenalectomy were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the experiences and techniques in laparoscopic surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery for treatment of benign adrenal tumors has the advantages of minimal invasion, safety, and efficiency, and may be a primary therapeutic option for benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15642205.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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50. Lin SH, Yang SS, Chau T: A practical approach to genetic hypokalemia. Electrolyte Blood Press; 2010 Jun;8(1):38-50
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  • Assessment of history and blood pressure as well as the K(+) excretion rate and blood acid-base status can help differentiate between acquired and inherited causes of hypokalemia.
  • With respect to a high rate of K(+) excretion associated with faster Na(+) disorders (mineralocorticoid excess states), glucoricoid-remediable aldosteronism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to either 11β-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase deficiencies in the adrenal gland, and Liddle's syndrome and apparent mineralocorticoid excess in the kidney form the genetic causes.
  • Renal tubular acidosis caused by mutations in the basolateral Na(+)/HCO(3) (-) cotransporter (NBC1) in the proximal tubules, apical H(+)-ATPase pump, and basolateral Cl(-)/HCO(3) (-) exchanger (anion exchanger 1, AE1) in the distal tubules and carbonic anhydroase II in both are genetic causes with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis.

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  • (PMID = 21468196.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-9935
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrolyte & blood pressure : E & BP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrolyte Blood Press
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041498
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; acid-base equilibrium / aldosterone / blood pressure / genes / hypokalemia / mutation / renin / urine electrolyte
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51. Murgia C, Devirgiliis C, Mancini E, Donadel G, Zalewski P, Perozzi G: Diabetes-linked zinc transporter ZnT8 is a homodimeric protein expressed by distinct rodent endocrine cell types in the pancreas and other glands. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis; 2009 Jul;19(6):431-9
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  • Moreover, we show that ZnT8 is also expressed in other secretory cell types, namely the cubical epithelium that lines thyroid follicles and the cortex of the adrenal gland, suggesting a more widespread role in endocrine secretion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Animals. COS Cells. Caco-2 Cells. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cercopithecus aethiops. Dogs. Humans. Mice. Protein Multimerization. Rats. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Transfection


52. Hiasa M, Matsumoto T, Komatsu T, Moriyama Y: Wide variety of locations for rodent MATE1, a transporter protein that mediates the final excretion step for toxic organic cations. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol; 2006 Oct;291(4):C678-86
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  • Immunological techniques with specific antibodies against mMATE1 combined with RT-PCR revealed that mMATE1 is also expressed in various cells, including brain glia-like cells and capillaries, pancreatic duct cells, urinary bladder epithelium, adrenal gland cortex, alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans, Leydig cells, and vitamin A-storing Ito cells.

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  • (PMID = 16641166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MATE1 protein, mouse; 0 / Organic Cation Transport Proteins; 0 / Protons; 66-40-0 / Tetraethylammonium
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53. Powner DJ, Boccalandro C: Adrenal insufficiency following traumatic brain injury in adults. Curr Opin Crit Care; 2008 Apr;14(2):163-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal insufficiency following traumatic brain injury in adults.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of traumatic brain injury, location of basilar skull fractures and edema or hemorrhage within the hypothalamic-pituitary axis appear correlated with secondary adrenal failure.
  • All patients sustaining severe traumatic brain injury should be tested for endocrine failure (adrenal, thyroid and growth hormone) 3 months after injury.
  • SUMMARY: Adrenal gland failure or the inability to produce adrenocorticotropin and other pituitary hormones may occur early after traumatic brain injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Brain Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 18388678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-5295
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in critical care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Crit Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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54. Seirafi H, Farnaghi F, Vasheghani-Farahani A, Alirezaie NS, Esfahanian F, Firooz A, Ghodsi SZ: Assessment of androgens in women with adult-onset acne. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Nov;46(11):1188-91
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  • BACKGROUND: Acne is generally recognized as a disorder of young adults; however, the referral of patients aged over 25 years with acne is increasing.
  • Disturbed androgen production in the ovaries or adrenal gland and impaired plasma transport of androgens in women with adult-onset acne or acne associated with hirsutism have been described.

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  • (PMID = 17988341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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55. Matsumoto T, Minegishi K, Ishimoto H, Tanaka M, Hennebold JD, Teranishi T, Hattori Y, Furuya M, Higuchi T, Asai S, Kim SH, Miyakoshi K, Yoshimura Y: Expression of ovary-specific acidic protein in steroidogenic tissues: a possible role in steroidogenesis. Endocrinology; 2009 Jul;150(7):3353-9
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  • The results demonstrate that the human and mouse OSAP expression profiles are similar; OSAP is prominently expressed in steroidogenic tissues with the highest level of expression observed in the adrenal gland.
  • Immunohistochemical studies show that mouse OSAP localizes almost exclusively to the steroid-producing cells of the ovary, adrenal gland, and testis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Animals. Eye Proteins. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Male. Membrane Proteins. Mice. Mitochondria / metabolism. Mitochondrial Proteins. Progesterone / biosynthesis. RNA Interference. Testis / metabolism. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 19325000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / MGARP protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / OSAP protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Steroids; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2703556
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56. Torres-Farfan C, Valenzuela FJ, Germain AM, Viale ML, Campino C, Torrealba F, Valenzuela GJ, Richter HG, Serón-Ferré M: Maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the capuchin monkey fetal adrenal gland. J Pineal Res; 2006 Aug;41(1):58-66
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  • [Title] Maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the capuchin monkey fetal adrenal gland.
  • The primate fetal adrenal reaches a large size relative to body weight followed by a rapid decrease in size in the postnatal period.
  • We tested the hypothesis that maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the primate fetal adrenal gland.
  • The absence of maternal melatonin selectively decreased fetal adrenal weight (Control: 488.8 +/- 51.5; LL: 363.2 +/- 27.7 and LL + Mel 519 +/- 46 mg; P < 0.05 ANOVA) without effecting fetal weight, placental weight or the weight of other fetal tissues.
  • Changes in fetal adrenal size were accompanied by an increase in the levels of Delta5-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) mRNA (Control: 0.8 +/- 0.2; LL: 5.2 +/- 0.6 and LL + Mel 0.8 +/- 0.1; 3beta-HSD/18S-rRNA; P < 0.05 ANOVA).
  • In vitro we found that maternal melatonin suppression increased basal progesterone production to levels similar to those of the adult adrenal gland (Control: 0.36 +/- 0.09; LL 0.99 +/- 0.13; LL + Mel 0.18 +/- 0.06 and adult: 0.88 +/- 0.10 ng/mg of tissue; P < 0.05 ANOVA) but no change in cortisol production.
  • Collectively, the effects of maternal melatonin suppression and their reversion by maternal melatonin replacement suggest that maternal melatonin stimulates growth and prevents maturation of the capuchin monkey fetal adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Fetal Development / physiology. Melatonin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16842542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; V27W9254FZ / Cortisone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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57. Białas M, Okoń K, Stachura J: Primary adrenal tumors--a 16-year experience in a single institution. Pol J Pathol; 2008;59(2):101-6
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  • [Title] Primary adrenal tumors--a 16-year experience in a single institution.
  • The incidence of primary adrenal gland tumors observed at the Pathology Department, Cracow, in the period of 16 years was examined.
  • The frequency of adrenal lesion in males and females was studied and compared.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / epidemiology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Hyperplasia / epidemiology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hyperplasia / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Poland / epidemiology. Sex Factors. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18669176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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58. Steensrud T, Müller LS, Sørlie D: Unilateral adrenal haemorrhage following systemic thrombolysis. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2008 May;7(3):430-1
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  • [Title] Unilateral adrenal haemorrhage following systemic thrombolysis.
  • We report a case of unilateral adrenal bleeding, worsened or initiated by systemic thrombolytic therapy given for a suspected myocardial infarction.
  • Initial clinical diagnosis was ruptured aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection.
  • A preoperative contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CT) scan showed a possible bleeding from the left adrenal gland.
  • An emergency left subcostal retroperitoneal approach revealed a ruptured and bleeding adrenal gland and its arteries were ligated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / chemically induced. Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Myocardial Infarction / drug therapy. Thrombolytic Therapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18256117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Feng YC, Yang ZG, Chen TW, Su XY, Deng W, Wang QL: Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma: a rare case depicted on multi-detector row computed tomography. Indian J Med Sci; 2010 Jan;64(1):37-40
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  • [Title] Adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma: a rare case depicted on multi-detector row computed tomography.
  • Primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma is rare malignant tumor with the characteristics of carcinoma and sarcoma.
  • To date, only one case of primary sarcomatoid carcinoma in the adrenal gland was reported.
  • We present here computed tomography appearance and pathological features of the case with primary adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma confirmed by pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinosarcoma / radiography. Multidetector Computed Tomography / methods. Radiographic Image Enhancement
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Contrast Media. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Rare Diseases. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 22301808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3654
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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60. Baume N, Steel G, Edwards T, Thorstensen E, Miller BF: No variation of physical performance and perceived exertion after adrenal gland stimulation by synthetic ACTH (Synacthen) in cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol; 2008 Nov;104(4):589-600
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  • [Title] No variation of physical performance and perceived exertion after adrenal gland stimulation by synthetic ACTH (Synacthen) in cyclists.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Athletic Performance / physiology. Bicycling / physiology. Physical Exertion / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18584198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-6319
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of applied physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Glucuronides; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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61. Valego NK, Rose JC: A specific CRH antagonist attenuates ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in ovine adrenocortical cells. Reprod Sci; 2010 May;17(5):477-86
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  • Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) has been detected in the adrenal gland of many species and may be involved in regulation of glucocorticoid secretion.
  • In cultured human fetal adrenal definitive/transitional zone cells, CRH upregulates the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor and steroidogenic enzymes and is blocked by the selective CRH type 1 receptor (CRH(1)) antagonist, antalarmin.
  • Based on these findings and evidence that antalarmin infusion into sheep suppressed prepartum increases in cortisol, we hypothesized that antalarmin would influence adrenal cortisol secretion.
  • These results suggest that antalarmin attenuates ACTH-induced cortisol secretion from cultured ovine adrenal cortical cells at a site distal to the ACTH receptor.

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  • (PMID = 20220106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-7205
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD017644; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD11210
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / antalarmin; 170809-51-5 / astressin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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62. Rubio E, González J, Jimenéz M, Lucena JL, Gimenez L, Martinez Arrieta F, Cuervas-Mons V, Turrión VS: Right adrenal metastases of hepatocarcinoma after liver transplantation: case report and literature review. Transplant Proc; 2009 Apr;41(3):1067-9
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  • [Title] Right adrenal metastases of hepatocarcinoma after liver transplantation: case report and literature review.
  • The adrenal gland is an uncommon site for metastasis from primary liver tumors.
  • Three years posttransplantation, a right adrenal mass was identified by CT.
  • PAAF was performed as well as adrenalectomy for a solitary adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent adrenalectomy for the right adrenal metastasis at 3 years following liver transplantation for HCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Everolimus. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


63. Iwakura H, Ariyasu H, Kanamoto N, Hosoda K, Nakao K, Kangawa K, Akamizu T: Establishment of a novel neuroblastoma mouse model. Int J Oncol; 2008 Dec;33(6):1195-9
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  • In an attempt to obtain transgenic mice carrying simian virus 40 T-antigen gene under control of tetracycline responsive elements with cytomegalovirus promoter, we found one line of mice exhibiting bilateral adrenal tumors by leakage expression of T-antigen in adrenal gland.
  • These adrenal tumors contained small round tumor cells with increased N/C ratio, showing chromogranin A and neuron specific enolase-like immunoreactivity.
  • By electron microscopy, tumor cells containing neuritic processes with synaptic vesicles surrounding them were observed.
  • These findings indicated that the adrenal tumor was a neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Neuroblastoma / pathology


64. Segawa N, Azuma H, Takahara K, Hamada S, Kotake Y, Tsuji M, Katsuoka Y: [Renal cell carcinoma with asynchronous contralateral adrenal metastasis and liver cirrhosis (four years after surgery): a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Dec;53(12):869-73
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  • [Title] [Renal cell carcinoma with asynchronous contralateral adrenal metastasis and liver cirrhosis (four years after surgery): a case report].
  • We report a case of adrenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
  • A 52-year-old man was referred to our hospital for a left renal mass.
  • A computed tomography revealed a left renal tumor.
  • Histopathological finding was renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • Four years after surgery, computed tomography revealed the presence of a mass on the right adrenal gland.
  • He was suspected of having a non-functioning adrenal tumor.
  • It is clinically rare for an RCC metastasis to the contralateral adrenal gland to occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Cirrhosis / complications


65. Garg S, Mathew M, Goel T: Adrenal schwannoma: a case report and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jul;50(3):587-8
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  • [Title] Adrenal schwannoma: a case report and review of literature.
  • Nerve sheath tumors occurring in the adrenal gland are uncommon.
  • Although schwannomas originating in retroperitoneal and juxta-adrenal locations have been reported, those occurring in adrenal gland are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17883147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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66. Jewell CW, Watson LE, Mock J, Dostal DE: Aldosterone receptor antagonists and cardiovascular disease: do we need a change of the guard? Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem; 2006 Apr;4(2):129-53
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  • Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid primarily produced in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 16611048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1871-5257
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular & hematological agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL68838
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Number-of-references] 169
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67. Sugama S, Wang N, Shimokawa N, Koibuchi N, Fujita M, Hashimoto M, Dhabhar FS, Conti B: The adrenal gland is a source of stress-induced circulating IL-18. J Neuroimmunol; 2006 Mar;172(1-2):59-65
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  • [Title] The adrenal gland is a source of stress-induced circulating IL-18.
  • The present study compared plasma IL-18 levels between sham-operated and adrenalectomized mice following stress to investigate whether the adrenal gland contributes to the elevation of circulating IL-18 during stress.
  • Two hours of stress provoked a robust, stressor-dependent, elevation of IL-18 mRNA and peptide in the adrenal gland in sham-operated mice.
  • These findings demonstrate that the adrenal gland is required to achieve elevation of circulating IL-18 during stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / blood. Stress, Physiological / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16359733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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68. Koehl M, Lemaire V, Le Moal M, Abrous DN: Age-dependent effect of prenatal stress on hippocampal cell proliferation in female rats. Eur J Neurosci; 2009 Feb;29(3):635-40
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  • Stressors occurring during pregnancy can alter the developmental trajectory of offspring and lead to, among other deleterious effects, cognitive deficits and hyperactivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • As hypothesized, we found an age-dependent effect of PS in female rats as cell proliferation was significantly decreased only when animals reached senescence, a time when adrenal gland weight also increased.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Glands / growth & development. Age Factors. Animals. Cell Count. Cytoprotection / physiology. Female. Organ Size / physiology. Pregnancy. Rats

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  • (PMID = 19238600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9568
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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69. Haritova AM, Schrickx J, Lashev LD, Fink-Gremmels J: Expression of MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP mRNA in tissues of turkeys. J Vet Pharmacol Ther; 2008 Aug;31(4):378-85
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  • Here we report for the first time the tissue distribution of these ABC efflux transporters in the gastrointestinal tract (crop, proventriculus, duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, caecum, colon) as well as in liver, kidney, lung, brain, adrenal gland, ovaries, oviduct and testes in BUT9 turkeys.

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  • (PMID = 18638299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2885
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1; 0 / Abcg2 protein, mouse; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 24CU1YS91D / danofloxacin; 4AF605U6JN / multidrug resistance-associated protein 2
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70. Hagiwara H, Usui T, Kimura T, Tagami T, Naruse M, Minamiguchi S, Kato T, Okuno H, Shimatsu A: Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):122-7
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  • [Title] Lack of ACTH and androgen receptor expression in a giant adrenal myelolipoma associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Myelolipomas of the adrenal gland are benign, nonfunctioning tumors.
  • Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia sometimes develop large and bilateral myelolipomas.
  • Although the precise pathogenesis of myelolipomas remains unclear, prolonged stimulation with high levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or adrenal androgens are assumed to have a causative role.
  • To clarify the role of ACTH and androgen in the pathogenesis of myelolipoma, we report a case of giant adrenal myelolipoma in a patient with poorly controlled congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • A 43-year-old female was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia at 6 years of age because of ambiguous genitalia.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a huge mass on the left adrenal gland, and an enlarged right adrenal mass.
  • Adrenalectomy for the left-side tumor was performed.
  • Histological study revealed that the tumor consisted of fat cells and myeloid components, findings compatible with adrenal myelolipoma.
  • Neither ACTH receptors nor androgen receptor was over-expressed in the tumor.
  • Our finding that the tumor did not over-express ACTH or androgen receptor suggests a limited direct role for these hormones in the development of the myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Myelolipoma / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Female. Genitalia, Female / abnormalities. Genitalia, Female / surgery. Humans. Receptors, Melanocortin / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18618087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Melanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.14.16 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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71. Baumann C, Davies B, Peters M, Kaufmann-Reiche U, Lessl M, Theuring F: AKR1B7 (mouse vas deferens protein) is dispensable for mouse development and reproductive success. Reproduction; 2007 Jul;134(1):97-109
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  • High levels of protein expression were found in the vas deferens and the adrenal gland, where sustained expression is dependent on androgen or ACTH respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Adrenal Glands / enzymology. Animals. Breeding. Epididymis / anatomy & histology. Epididymis / enzymology. Female. Fertility / genetics. Gene Expression. Gene Targeting. Homozygote. Immunoblotting. In Situ Hybridization / methods. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Organ Size. Progesterone / blood. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sperm Motility. Spermatozoa / physiology. Stromal Cells / enzymology. Testis / anatomy & histology. Testis / enzymology. Theca Cells / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17641092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reproduction
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; EC 1.1.1.21 / Akr1b7 protein, mouse; EC 1.1.1.21 / Aldehyde Reductase
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72. Mukherjee M, Muraleedharannair P, Karmakar UK, Datta BK, Sar TK, Chakraborty AK, Bhattacharya A, Choudhury A, Mandal TK: Toxicokinetics and recovery studies of dicamba dimethyl amine salt in goats following single oral administration. J Sci Food Agric; 2010 Jan 30;90(2):257-66
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  • In histopathological studies, cellular alterations in lungs, liver, kidney, adrenal gland and spleen were found.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Animals. Feces. Kidney / pathology. Liver / pathology. Lung / pathology. Spleen / pathology. Tissue Distribution

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.
  • (PMID = 20355040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the science of food and agriculture
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Sci. Food Agric.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Herbicides; 123F051HEM / dicamba dimethylamine; SJG3M6RY6H / Dicamba
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73. Schüle C, Baghai TC, Eser D, Schwarz M, Bondy B, Rupprecht R: Effects of mirtazapine on dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and cortisol plasma concentrations in depressed patients. J Psychiatr Res; 2009 Feb;43(5):538-45
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  • BACKGROUND: Among the neuroactive steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) is at least in part produced in the adrenal gland and is therefore under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-system.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Apparently, the decrease in COR and DHEA-S concentrations conjointly reflects an attenuating impact of mirtazapine on HPA axis activity, thereby decreasing the adrenal secretion of COR and DHEA-S.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / blood. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Depressive Disorder / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood. Mianserin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18706658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3956
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of psychiatric research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Psychiatr Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic; 250PJI13LM / Mianserin; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; A051Q2099Q / mirtazapine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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74. Zhang FR, Tao LH, Shen ZY, Lv Z, Xu LY, Li EM: Fascin expression in human embryonic, fetal, and normal adult tissue. J Histochem Cytochem; 2008 Feb;56(2):193-9
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  • Fascin was expressed in the cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland at 8-12 weeks of gestation, whereas immunoreactivity decreased from the zona glomerulosa through the zona reticularis and was essentially negative in the adrenal medulla of adults.

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  • (PMID = 17998567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 146808-54-0 / fascin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2324166
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75. Omata Y, Kano R, Masukata Y, Kobayashi Y, Igarashi M, Maeda R, Saito A: Development of Neospora caninum cultured with human serum in vitro and in vivo. J Parasitol; 2005 Feb;91(1):222-5
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  • CB-17 scid mice administered human serum daily and challenged with N. caninum died on day 20 or 22 after challenge, when large numbers of parasite clusters were found in the brain, oviduct, adrenal gland, lung, stomach, spleen, skeletal muscle, pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes.
  • These results suggest that adult human serum may have no inhibitory effect on the development of N. caninum in vitro and in vivo.

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  • (PMID = 15856911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3395
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Protozoan; 0 / Immune Sera
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76. Nakayama T: The genetic contribution of the natriuretic peptide system to cardiovascular diseases. Endocr J; 2005 Feb;52(1):11-21
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  • The NP family elicits a number of vascular, renal and endocrine effects that help to maintain blood pressure and extracellular fluid volume.
  • These effects are mediated by the specific binding of NP to cell surface receptors that have been characterized, purified and cloned from cells of the vasculature, kidney, adrenal gland and brain.

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  • (PMID = 15758553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / Natriuretic Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Peptide
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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77. Atwell TD, Wass CT, Charboneau JW, Callstrom MR, Farrell MA, Sengupta S: Malignant hypertension during cryoablation of an adrenal gland tumor. J Vasc Interv Radiol; 2006 Mar;17(3):573-5
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  • [Title] Malignant hypertension during cryoablation of an adrenal gland tumor.
  • The authors report a case of hypertensive crisis during cryoablation of an adrenal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cryosurgery / adverse effects. Hypertension, Malignant / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006 Aug;17(8):1367-8 [16923989.001]
  • (PMID = 16567684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-0443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vasc Interv Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Horchani A, Nouira Y, Nouira K, Bedioui H, Menif E, Safta ZB: Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: a clinical study of six cases. ScientificWorldJournal; 2006;6:2420-5
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  • [Title] Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland: a clinical study of six cases.
  • Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland (HCAG) is an exceptional occurrence.
  • We report our experience of six cases of HCAG and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this hydatid localization.
  • Preoperative diagnosis was highly suggested by ultrasonography.
  • One patient had elevated urine VMA and was operated on with the diagnosis of cystic phaeochromocytoma.
  • The diagnosis of HCAG is based mainly on ultrasonography and CT scan.
  • Surgery with either partial or total excision of the cyst, with or without preservation of the adrenal gland, is the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / therapy. Echinococcosis / diagnosis. Echinococcosis / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17619711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Liegl B, Bennett MW, Fletcher CD: Microcystic/reticular schwannoma: a distinct variant with predilection for visceral locations. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jul;32(7):1080-7
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  • Schwannomas are benign, generally nonrecurring tumors most frequently arising in the subcutaneous tissue of adults with no sex predilection.
  • The tumor size ranged from 0.4 to 23 cm (median size 4.3 cm).
  • Two cases arose in subcutaneous tissue and 1 case each in the upper respiratory tract, the adrenal gland, and deep soft tissue.
  • A surrounding tumor capsule was highlighted with epithelial membrane antigen in 2 out of 10 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofilament Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18520439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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80. Bayne S, Jones ME, Li H, Pinto AR, Simpson ER, Liu JP: Estrogen deficiency leads to telomerase inhibition, telomere shortening and reduced cell proliferation in the adrenal gland of mice. Cell Res; 2008 Nov;18(11):1141-50
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  • [Title] Estrogen deficiency leads to telomerase inhibition, telomere shortening and reduced cell proliferation in the adrenal gland of mice.
  • We report here that estrogen deficiency caused by targeted disruption of aromatase in mice results in significant inhibition of telomerase activity in the adrenal gland in vivo.
  • Gene expression analysis showed that, in the absence of estrogen, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression is reduced in association with compromised cell proliferation in the adrenal gland cortex and adrenal atrophy.
  • Stem cells positive in c-kit are identified to populate in the parenchyma of adrenal cortex.
  • Analysis of telomeres revealed that estrogen deficiency results in significantly shorter telomeres in the adrenal cortex than that in wild-type (WT) control mice.
  • Thus, our data show for the first time that estrogen deficiency causes inhibitions of TERT gene expression, telomerase activity, telomere maintenance, and cell proliferation in the adrenal gland of mice in vivo, suggesting that telomerase inhibition and telomere shortening may mediate cell proliferation arrest in the adrenal gland, thus contributing to estrogen deficiency-induced aging under physiological conditions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / growth & development. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Animals. Cell Aging / genetics. Female. Gene Expression. Mice. Mice, Transgenic

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  • (PMID = 18936784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-7838
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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81. Bastide C, Arroua F, Carcenac A, Anfossi E, Ragni E, Rossi D: Primary malignant melanoma of the adrenal gland. Int J Urol; 2006 May;13(5):608-10
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  • [Title] Primary malignant melanoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Primary malignant melanoma of the adrenal gland is an established entity.
  • Because of the high frequency of adrenal gland metastases from malignant melanoma and pigmented pheochromocytoma, several rigid diagnostic criteria have been established for accepting an adrenal melanoma as primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16771734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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82. Karmazin A, Moore WV, Popovic J, Jacobson JD: The effect of letrozole on bone age progression, predicted adult height, and adrenal gland function. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;18(3):285-93
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  • [Title] The effect of letrozole on bone age progression, predicted adult height, and adrenal gland function.
  • Low-dose ACTH stimulation tests were performed to ascertain the effect of letrozole on adrenal gland function.
  • 1) letrozole decelerates skeletal maturation, resulting in significant increases in predicted adult height, and 2) letrozole causes mild adrenal suppression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Aromatase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Aromatase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Body Height. Bone Development / drug effects. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Growth Disorders / drug therapy. Nitriles / adverse effects. Nitriles / pharmacology. Triazoles / adverse effects. Triazoles / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15813607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 7LKK855W8I / letrozole; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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83. Dunning KK, Wudhikarn K, Safo AO, Holman CJ, McKenna RW, Pambuccian SE: Adrenal extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid cytology and immunophenotyping: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Sep;37(9):686-95
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  • [Title] Adrenal extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid cytology and immunophenotyping: a case report.
  • The cytologic findings of an extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) presenting as a large adrenal mass with leptomeningeal involvement diagnosed by CT-guided fine-needle aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology are described.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed leptomeningeal enhancement surrounding the conus medullaris and cauda equine, and a subsequent PET/CT demonstrated a large right adrenal gland mass.
  • Fine-needle aspiration of the adrenal mass showed occasional large pleomorphic cells with prominent nucleoli, moderate amounts of cytoplasm, and rare large cells with sparse cytoplasmic granules admixed with numerous small lymphocytes.
  • The cytologic findings of the neoplastic cells and the extensive panel of immunoperoxidase stains allowed the diagnosis of NKTCL, which was confirmed by the subsequent flow-cytometric immunophenotyping performed on the CSF.
  • This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of NKTCL diagnosed by FNA of the adrenal gland and by CSF cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / cerebrospinal fluid. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Fatal Outcome. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19373919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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84. Ruffoli R, Carpi A, Giambelluca MA, Grasso L, Scavuzzo MC, Giannessi F F: Diazepam administration prevents testosterone decrease and lipofuscin accumulation in testis of mouse exposed to chronic noise stress. Andrologia; 2006 Oct;38(5):159-65
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  • Diazepam may inhibit lipofuscinogenesis in liver and prevent the noise-induced reduction of the steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 16961568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-4569
  • [Journal-full-title] Andrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Andrologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipofuscin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; Q3JTX2Q7TU / Diazepam
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85. Vogl TJ, Zangos S, Eichler K, Balzer JO, Jacob U, Keilhauer R, Bauer RW: [Transarterial chemoperfusion of the pelvis--results in symptomatic locally recurrent tumors and lymph node metastases]. Rofo; 2007 Nov;179(11):1174-80
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate local transarterial chemoperfusion (TACP) of therapy-resistant, locally recurrent malignant tumors and lymph node metastases in the pelvis with respect to clinical response, tumor response and survival.
  • Depending on the tumor location and vascularization, a fluoroscopy catheter was placed either in the abdominal aorta or internal pelvic artery.
  • The tumor size was measured using CT or MRI.
  • In the case of clinical and radiological progression, therapy was stopped and the patient was referred to the hospital's tumor board.
  • Tumor-related pain, bleeding, restricted mobility of the lower extremities, incontinence, urinary tract obstruction, and constipation were reduced in 9/17, 5/6, 3/3, 1/3, 2/5, and 1/3 of cases (clinical response rate: 54%).
  • Radiologically, 4/24 (17%) patients showed PR, 12/24 (50%) SD, and 8/24 (34%) PD (tumor control (PR+SD): 67% of cases).
  • Tumor response (median survival since first TACP) was as follows: colorectal: 2 PR, 7 SD, 2 PD (11.5 months), ovarian: 1 SD, 2 PD (8.5 mon), cervical: 1 PR, 1 SD (6 mon), breast: 2 SD (6 mon), gastric: 1 PD (11 mon), adrenal gland: 1 PD (12 mon), anal: 1 PD (10 mon), prostate: 1 PD (20 mon), Gartner's duct: 1 PR (20 mon), renal cell carcinoma: 1 SD (10 mon).
  • CONCLUSION: Since tumor-related complaints were improved in 54% of the cases and control of tumor growth (PR+SD) was achieved in 67% of the cases, TACP for recurrent pelvic malignancies should be considered as a palliative oncological treatment option.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arteries. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Injections, Intra-Arterial / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Perfusion / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17805998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9029
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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86. Singh KP, Roy D: SKCG-1: a new candidate growth regulatory gene at chromosome 11q23.2 in human sporadic Wilms tumours. Br J Cancer; 2006 May 22;94(10):1524-32
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  • Using arbitrary primed-PCR (AP-PCR), we have identified a novel genetic alteration located at chromosome 11q23.2 and this genetic alteration was common in 38% of the human Wilms tumour samples analysed.
  • The transcript of SKCG-1 was abundantly present in brain, kidney, liver, testis, salivary gland, foetal brain, foetal liver, whereas relatively lower expression in heart, stomach, prostate and no expression in spleen, colon, lung, small intestine, muscle, adrenal gland, uterus, skin, PBL, and bone marrow was detected.
  • Thus, the findings of this study revealed (i) SKCG-1, a new gene located at 11q23.2 and harbouring genetic alteration in Wilms tumours, (ii) the presence of SKCG-1 gene transcripts in various human normal tissues and its lower expression or absence in Wilms and breast tumours indicate that it may be associated with tumour growth suppressor activity, (iii) the presence of an open reading frame in the cDNA sequence of SKCG-1 indicates that it has potential to encode a protein, (iv) increased cell growth by silencing this gene in HEK293 cells further supports a potential role of this gene in growth of kidney epithelial cells.
  • Our findings suggest that SKCG-1 may have a tumour suppressor role, and implicate genetic alteration in this gene as a potential oncogenic pathway and therapeutic target in kidney and breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16622458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY662656
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES010851; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 4788; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES 10851
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / SKCG-1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361289
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87. Hesketh SA, Leggett JD, Jessop DS: Chronic citalopram treatment does not sensitize the adrenal gland to ACTH (1-24) in rats. J Psychopharmacol; 2007 Nov;21(8):885-7
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  • [Title] Chronic citalopram treatment does not sensitize the adrenal gland to ACTH (1-24) in rats.
  • Thus we proposed the hypothesis that the corticosterone response to restraint in citalopram-treated rats was maintained due to increased adrenal sensitivity to lower ACTH levels.
  • Therefore we conclude that, under these experimental conditions, citalopram does not appear to sensitize the rodent adrenal gland to ACTH, and that other mechanisms may be responsible for the ACTH/corticosterone disconnection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Citalopram / pharmacology. Cosyntropin / pharmacology. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17715205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-8811
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors; 0DHU5B8D6V / Citalopram; 16960-16-0 / Cosyntropin; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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88. Suzuki S, Uchida D, Koide H, Suyama K, Shibata T, Yoshida T, Tanaka T, Noguchi Y, Saito Y, Tatsuno I: A possible association between aldosterone response to vasopressin and circadian change of aldosterone in the patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma. Peptides; 2008 Dec;29(12):2225-31
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  • Vasopressin was reported to stimulate secretion of both cortisol and aldosterone through eutopic V1a receptors in adrenal gland.
  • Recently, adrenal hyper-responsiveness of plasma cortisol to vasopressin with eutopic overexpession of V1a receptors has been reported in Cushing's syndrome, such as a majority of cases of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and some cases of Cushing's adenomas.
  • Vasopressin-loading test was performed in 10 patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma, and in 16 patients with non-functioning adrenal tumors.
  • The roles of the aldosterone response to vasopressin were analyzed in terms of hormonal secretion and the expression of V1a receptor mRNA on the operated adrenal gland in aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • We found that (1) a varying aldosterone response to vasopressin was observed, (2) absolute response of plasma aldosterone in aldosterone-producing adenoma was significantly higher than that in non-functioning tumor, (3) aldosterone response rate to vasopressin was significantly and negatively correlated with the decline rate (%) in plasma aldosterone from morning to evening in aldosterone-producing adenoma, (4) V1a receptor mRNA was expressed at various values in aldosterone-producing adenoma, and (5) surgical removal of aldosterone-producing adenoma eliminated the aldosterone response to vasopressin observed in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Aldosterone / blood. Circadian Rhythm. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Vasopressins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Aged. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Vasopressin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18838094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Vasopressin; 11000-17-2 / Vasopressins; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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89. Ramer JC, Benson KG, Morrisey JK, O'Brien RT, Paul-Murphy J: Effects of melatonin administration on the clinical course of adrenocortical disease in domestic ferrets. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2006 Dec 1;229(11):1743-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of melatonin on clinical signs, tumor size, and serum steroid hormone concentrations in ferrets with adrenocortical disease.
  • At 4-month intervals, a complete physical examination; abdominal ultrasonographic examination (including adrenal gland measurement); CBC; serum biochemical analyses; and assessment of serum estradiol, androstenedione, and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were performed.
  • Mean width of the abnormally large adrenal glands was significantly increased after the 12-month treatment period.
  • Oral administration of melatonin did not decrease adrenal gland tumor growth in treated ferrets.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / veterinary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Ferrets. Melatonin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17144819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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90. Rahmouni K, Sigmund CD, Haynes WG, Mark AL: Hypothalamic ERK mediates the anorectic and thermogenic sympathetic effects of leptin. Diabetes; 2009 Mar;58(3):536-42
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  • Blockade of ERK1/2 abolishes leptin-induced increases in sympathetic nerve traffic to thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT) but does not alter the stimulatory effects of leptin on sympathetic nerve activity to kidney, hindlimb, or adrenal gland.
  • In contrast, blockade of PI 3-kinase prevents leptin-induced sympathetic activation to kidney but not to BAT, hindlimb, or adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that hypothalamic ERK plays a key role in the control of food intake, body weight, and thermogenic sympathetic outflow by leptin but does not participate in the cardiovascular and renal sympathetic actions of leptin.


91. Krishnam M, Tomasian A, Davies L, Littler J, Curtis J: CT-guided percutaneous transpulmonary adrenal biopsy - a technical note. Br J Radiol; 2008 Jul;81(967):e191-3
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  • [Title] CT-guided percutaneous transpulmonary adrenal biopsy - a technical note.
  • CT-guided percutaneous adrenal biopsy is commonly performed using a posterior or trans-abdominal approach.
  • However, trans-abdominal access to the gland may not be technically feasible in some patients.
  • In our case, CT-guided transthoracic percutaneous biopsy of the adrenal gland was performed with technical success, identifying the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18559898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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92. Matsushima K: Traumatic adrenal gland hematoma: FAST is an effective tool to screen. J Trauma; 2009 Sep;67(3):676
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  • [Title] Traumatic adrenal gland hematoma: FAST is an effective tool to screen.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Injuries / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / ultrasonography. Hematoma / ultrasonography. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19741419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Ludescher B, Najib A, Baar S, Machann J, Schick F, Buchkremer G, Claussen CD, Eschweiler GW: Increase of visceral fat and adrenal gland volume in women with depression: preliminary results of a morphometric MRI study. Int J Psychiatry Med; 2008;38(3):229-40
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  • [Title] Increase of visceral fat and adrenal gland volume in women with depression: preliminary results of a morphometric MRI study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Depression is often accompanied by increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT), stress, enlarged adrenal glands, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • VAT turn-over is regulated by adrenal stress hormones such as cortisol.
  • Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the adrenal volume as a marker for long-term stress and the volume fractions of several body fat compartments in healthy and depressive women.
  • Fat compartments (VAT, VAT in the upper abdomen, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and adrenal volume) were measured by MRI.
  • There was a significant correlation of age and Body Mass Index (BMI) with the visceral adipose tissue volume and adrenal gland size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increase of adrenal volume and VAT and the correlation of BDI with VAT in the upper abdomen support the hypothesis of long-term production of stress hormones in depression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Depressive Disorder / epidemiology. Intra-Abdominal Fat / anatomy & histology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers. Body Fat Distribution. Body Mass Index. Comorbidity. Control Groups. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / physiology. Middle Aged. Obesity / diagnosis. Obesity / epidemiology. Organ Size. Personality Inventory. Stress, Psychological / diagnosis. Stress, Psychological / epidemiology. Subcutaneous Fat. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19069569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2174
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of psychiatry in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Psychiatry Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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94. Bondarenko VO, Lutsevich OE, Poliakova GA: [Competitive hormonally active adrenal tumours (aldosteroma and pheochromocytoma)]. Klin Med (Mosk); 2009;87(9):58-62
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  • [Title] [Competitive hormonally active adrenal tumours (aldosteroma and pheochromocytoma)].
  • The development of two hormonally active tumours in one adrenal gland is a very rare event.
  • Classification of concomitant adrenal pathologies and proposals on its modification are presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / secretion. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19882884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia meditsina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Med (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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95. Nzegwu MA, Aghaji A: Neuroblastoma occurring in a 38-year old Nigerian man: a rare finding. Rare Tumors; 2009;1(1):e15
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  • In adults, abdomen/retroperitoneum are the primary sites and in children the adrenal gland.
  • Tumor resection revealed a grade III NB.

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  • (PMID = 21139886.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994447
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adult. / neuroblastoma
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96. Fontaine-Pérus J, Chéraud Y: Mouse-chick neural chimeras. Int J Dev Biol; 2005;49(2-3):349-53
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  • At the precise 18-24 somite level, they colonized host adrenal gland.

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  • (PMID = 15906250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-6282
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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97. Sampol Bas C, Peña Viloria C: [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2005 May-Jun;24(3):191-4
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  • [Title] [Uptake of 123I-MIBG in a hepatic hemangioma in the scintigraphic study of an adrenal gland lesion].
  • [Transliterated title] Captación de 123I-MIBG en un hemangioma hepático en el estudio gammagráfico de una lesión suprarrenal.
  • A 60 year old symptom free female in whom a lesion in left adrenal gland was found by chance in a CT scan is presented.
  • 123I-MIBG scintigraphy showed a non-physiological uptake in right adrenal gland that is still seen in the delayed image, with normal left gland.
  • MRI confirmed the presence of a mass in the left adrenal gland suggestive of an adenoma and found a lesion in the right hepatic area at the level of the previously seen MIBG image.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antidepressive Agents / adverse effects. Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology. Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use. Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects. Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Catecholamines / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Interactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fibula / injuries. Fibula / radiography. Fractures, Bone / complications. Fractures, Bone / radiography. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Psychotic Disorders / complications. Psychotic Disorders / drug therapy. Tibial Fractures / complications. Tibial Fractures / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15847786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors; 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
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98. Castillo OA, Vitagliano G, Villeta M, Arellano L, Santis O: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal teratoma. JSLS; 2006 Oct-Dec;10(4):522-4
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of adrenal teratoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Teratoma is a germ-cell tumor that commonly affects the gonads.
  • Teratomas confined to the adrenal gland are exceptional; only 3 cases have been reported in the English-language literature.
  • We report 2 cases of mature teratomas of the adrenal gland that were laparoscopically excised.
  • METHODS: Two patients (ages 8 and 61 years) were diagnosed with adrenal teratoma at our institution.
  • Radiological examination showed a solid 8-cm adrenal lesion in both cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal teratoma is rare.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pure adrenal teratoma.

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  • [Cites] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2001 Apr;11(2):144-7 [11330383.001]
  • [Cites] Endocr Pathol. 2002 Spring;13(1):59-64 [12114751.001]
  • [Cites] Surgery. 1999 Jul;126(1):90-4 [10418600.001]
  • (PMID = 17575773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015770
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99. Eder F, Halloul Z, Meyer F, Huth C, Lippert H: Surgery of inferior vena cava associated malignant tumor lesions. Vasa; 2008 Feb;37(1):68-80
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  • [Title] Surgery of inferior vena cava associated malignant tumor lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumor lesions of the inferior vena cava (IVC) can originate from the vein or can develop by malignant tumor infiltration from the surrounding tissue.
  • In this context, particular attention should be paid to tumor lesions with pegs into or within the IVC.
  • The aim of this series of a single surgical center was to analyze the perioperative management, the individual-specific and -adapted surgical technique, as well as the outcome including prognostic considerations in IVC-associated malignant tumor lesions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 6-year time period, all consecutive patients with IVC-associated malignant tumor lesions and their patient- and finding-specific characteristics were registered, data and parameters of the diagnostic and therapeutic management were documented, and both the short- and long-term outcomes (complication rate, perioperative morbidity/mortality, tumor recurrence rate, survival) were assessed with periodic follow-up investigations.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 12 patients were enrolled in the study from 1/1/2001-31/12/2006:6 primary IVC-tumors (leiomyosarcomas, 50%) and 6 secondary IVC-tumors (2 retroperitoneal tumor lesions, 16.7%, 3 renal cell carcinomas 25% and 1 carcinoma of the adrenal gland, 8.3%).
  • Three patients experienced recurrent tumor growth (27.5% out of n = 11).
  • While the overall mortality through the follow up observation period was 27.5%, the tumor-specific mortality was 16%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The primary surgical aim is RO resection to provide a long-term outcome with no tumor recurrence including the reconstruction of the IVC based on a reasonable risk-to-benefit ratio.
  • The favorable outcome of this case series demonstrates that IVC-associated tumor lesions can be approached if there is an appropriate expertise of the surgical team, a sufficient perioperative management and an adequate financial background with a reasonable survival rate.
  • The variable prognosis of the various tumor lesions depends on tumor entity, stage, resection status and individual risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vascular Surgical Procedures. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Female. Hospital Mortality. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Recurrence. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18512544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1526
  • [Journal-full-title] VASA. Zeitschrift für Gefässkrankheiten
  • [ISO-abbreviation] VASA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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100. Sharma N, Dogra PN, Mathur S: Functional adrenal oncocytoma: a rare neoplasm. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Oct-Dec;51(4):531-3
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  • [Title] Functional adrenal oncocytoma: a rare neoplasm.
  • Adrenal oncocytoma is a rare adrenal neoplasm with only 21 cases reported in English literature.
  • These adrenal tumors are usually nonfunctional and hence incidentally detected.
  • Most of these adrenal neoplasms are benign.
  • We report a rare case of adrenal oncocytoma that was functional and was successfully managed by laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19008586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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