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1. Białas M, Szczepański W, Szpor J, Okoń K, Kostecka-Matyja M, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Tomaszewska R: Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland: a case report and literature review. Pol J Pathol; 2010;61(2):97-102
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland: a case report and literature review.
  • Adenomatoid tumour (AT) is a rare, benign neoplasm of mesothelial origin, which usually occurs in the genital tract of both sexes.
  • Occasionally these tumours are found in extra genital locations such as heart, pancreas, skin, pleura, omentum, lymph nodes, retroperitoneum, intestinal mesentery and adrenal gland.
  • The most important thing about these tumours is not to mis-diagnose them as primary malignant or metastatic neoplasms.
  • We present a case of an adrenal AT in a 29-year-old asymptomatic male.
  • The tumour was an incidental finding during abdominal CT-scan for an unrelated condition.
  • We also present a review of the literature concerning adrenal gland AT and give possible differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Asymptomatic Diseases. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Radiography, Abdominal. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20924994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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2. Gazula S, Mammen KJ: Schwannoma with concomitant tuberculosis in the adrenal gland. Indian J Urol; 2007 Oct;23(4):469-70

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  • [Title] Schwannoma with concomitant tuberculosis in the adrenal gland.
  • Schwannoma is a rare primary tumor originating in the neural sheath with a good prognosis.
  • We present a case in which a retroperitoneal mass arising from the adrenal gland was excised and histopathology revealed a schwannoma with coexisting tuberculosis.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a schwannoma and tuberculosis coexisting in the adrenal gland.

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  • [Cites] Prog Urol. 2002 Jun;12(3):450-3 [12189753.001]
  • [Cites] Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 1999 Apr;25(1):24-6 [10758658.001]
  • [Cites] World J Urol. 2002 Sep;20(4):232-3 [12215852.001]
  • [Cites] Prog Urol. 2003 Feb;13(1):128-30 [12703369.001]
  • [Cites] Urology. 2003 Dec;62(6):993-7 [14665342.001]
  • (PMID = 19718306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-1591
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2721582
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal schwannoma / granulomatous inflammation / tuberculosis
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3. Komatsu S, Watanabe R, Naito M, Mizusawa T, Obara K, Nishiyama T, Takahashi K: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland. Int J Urol; 2006 May;13(5):606-7
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  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from adrenal gland in adulthood, diagnosed preoperatively as having non-functional adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunohistological examination revealed the definite diagnosis as primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Although primitive neuroectodermal tumor is a highly malignant neoplasm, there is no evidence of local recurrence and distant metastasis 16 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16771733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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4. Bastide C, Arroua F, Carcenac A, Anfossi E, Ragni E, Rossi D: Primary malignant melanoma of the adrenal gland. Int J Urol; 2006 May;13(5):608-10
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  • [Title] Primary malignant melanoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Primary malignant melanoma of the adrenal gland is an established entity.
  • Because of the high frequency of adrenal gland metastases from malignant melanoma and pigmented pheochromocytoma, several rigid diagnostic criteria have been established for accepting an adrenal melanoma as primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16771734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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5. Grubor N, Colović R, Radak V, Colović N: [Isolated hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 May-Jun;134(5-6):241-3
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  • [Title] [Isolated hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland].
  • INTRODUCTION: Hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland is extremely rare even in generalized hydatid disease, with less than 20 cases reported in world literature including those found in autopsy.
  • CASE OUTLINE: The authors present the second case of the adrenal gland hydatid cyst described in Serbian literature, in 52-year old woman.
  • However, during an open surgery, it turned out to be the cyst of the right adrenal gland.
  • The cyst as well as the entire adrenal gland was removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Echinococcosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Echinococcosis, Hepatic / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16972414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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6. Pisarek H, Stepień T, Kubiak R, Pawlikowski M: Somatostatin receptors in human adrenal gland tumors--immunohistochemical study. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(3):345-51
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptors in human adrenal gland tumors--immunohistochemical study.
  • Somatostatin receptors subtypes (SSTR 1-5) were demonstrated in surgically obtained adrenal gland tumors by means of immunohistochemistry (IHC).
  • Results of the present study demonstrate that somatostatin receptors are expressed in adrenal tumors in a varied manner which is specific in each case.

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  • (PMID = 19056539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor subtype-4; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1
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7. Burel-Vandenbos F, Cardot-Leccia N, Effi B, Varini JP, Saint-Paul MC, Michiels JF: [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Oct;25(5):386-8
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  • [Title] [An unusual tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Une tumeur inhabituelle de la surrénale.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are benign mesothelial tumors that usually affect the genital tract.
  • We report the case of a 65-year-old man with an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • This uncommon location and its histological heterogeneity can lead to a mistaken diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • Positive cells with mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry improve diagnosis.
  • The proper identification of this benign tumor in the adrenal gland and the knowledge of its differential diagnosis deserve attention to avoid invasive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphangioma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16498291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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8. Harzallah L, Zouari L, Ben Chérifa L, Harzallah F, Sriha B, Bakir D, Kraiem Ch: [Adrenal gland hemangioma: a case report]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2006 Dec;67(6):624-7
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  • [Title] [Adrenal gland hemangioma: a case report].
  • Hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor composed of angioblastic cells.
  • The adrenal gland localization is very rare, with only fifty cases reported in literature.
  • We report a case of adrenal gland hemangioma diagnosed in a 55-year-old woman who presented a cervical neoplasm.
  • The non-specific imaging features, the tumor size and the clinical context led to mandatory surgical resection.
  • The pathological examination established the diagnosis of adrenal gland hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Hemangioma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17194976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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9. Gruschwitz T, Breza J, Wunderlich H, Junker K: Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation. World J Urol; 2010 Jun;28(3):329-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation.
  • PURPOSE: There are often problems in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal gland tumors by imaging and histopathology.
  • On account of considerable differences in the therapy and aftercare of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, correct classification of tumor type is of greatest importance.
  • METHODS: DNA was isolated from tumor areas in paraffin sections and amplified by a modified protocol for DOP-PCR.
  • After labeling of tumor-DNA and normal DNA with biotin-dUTP and digoxigenin-dUTP, respectively, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried out according to standard protocols.
  • Retrospectively, 26 (16 adenomas and 10 carcinomas) tumors of the adrenal cortex were analyzed.
  • The mean number of genetic changes per tumor was 8.7 (range 6-12) in carcinomas.
  • The benign cortical tumors present 1.6 changes (range 0-3) per tumor.
  • Only a moderate correlation between number of alterations and size of tumor was seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evaluation facilitates differentiation between adrenal gland tumors.
  • Genetic tests should be used in routine diagnostics of adrenal specimens.
  • Potentially, fine-needle biopsy can be established as standard diagnostics of adrenal tumors with unknown genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Mapping. Cohort Studies. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20364258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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10. Lane BR, Tiong HY, Campbell SC, Fergany AF, Weight CJ, Larson BT, Novick AC, Flechner SM: Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy. J Urol; 2009 Jun;181(6):2430-6; discussion 2436-7
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  • [Title] Management of the adrenal gland during partial nephrectomy.
  • The indications for adrenalectomy in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy are not clearly defined and some surgeons perform it routinely for large and/or upper pole renal tumors.
  • We analyzed initial management and oncological outcomes of adrenal glands after open partial nephrectomy.
  • During partial nephrectomy the ipsilateral adrenal gland was resected if a suspicious adrenal nodule was noted on radiographic imaging, or if intraoperative findings indicated direct extension or metastasis.
  • Pathological analysis revealed direct invasion of the adrenal gland by renal cell carcinoma (1), renal cell carcinoma metastasis (2), other adrenal neoplasms (3) or benign tissue (42, 87%).
  • Metachronous adrenalectomy was ipsilateral (10), contralateral (2) or bilateral (3), revealing metastatic renal cell carcinoma in 11 patients.
  • We propose concomitant adrenalectomy only if a suspicious adrenal lesion is identified radiographically or invasion of the adrenal gland is suspected intraoperatively.
  • Even using such strict criteria only 13% of these suspicious adrenal nodules contained cancer.
  • The rarity of metachronous adrenal metastasis and the lack of an observable benefit to concomitant adrenalectomy support adrenal preservation during partial nephrectomy except as previously outlined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 19371896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Agarwal A, Mehrotra PK, Jain M, Gupta SK, Mishra A, Chand G, Agarwal G, Verma AK, Mishra SK, Singh U: Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy? World J Surg; 2010 Dec;34(12):3022-8
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  • [Title] Size of the tumor and pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS): can they predict malignancy?
  • The goal of this study was to find a correlation between the tumor size and malignant potential of PCC and determine whether the "Pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score" (PASS) proposed by Thompson can be applied to predict malignancy.
  • Tumor size was available for 90 tumors.
  • RESULTS: Of the benign cases, none developed recurrence or metastasis.
  • Of the sporadic benign cases, 21 (41%) patients with tumor size > 6 cm had a PASS of >4, and none of them developed metastasis.
  • No correlation was found between tumor size and PASS > 4 and PASS ≤ 4 (7.8 cm vs. 7.1 cm; p = 0.23).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20703467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Varkarakis IM, Mufarrij P, Studeman KD, Jarrett TW: Adenomatoid of the adrenal gland. Urology; 2005 Jan;65(1):175
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenomatoid of the adrenal gland.
  • Adenomatoid tumors are common in the genital tract but rare in the adrenal gland.
  • This type of adrenal tumor lacks specific radiographic features and can be confused preoperatively with more common adrenal gland tumors.
  • We present the case of a 54-year-old man with an incidental right adrenal mass with calcified components and elevated urinary levels of homovanillic acid that was found to be an adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Calcinosis / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Homovanillic Acid / urine. Humans. Incidental Findings. Kidney Calculi / complications. Kidney Calculi / radiography. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15667895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; X77S6GMS36 / Homovanillic Acid
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13. Berry ME: Adrenal gland disorders. Radiol Technol; 2009 Sep-Oct;81(1):57-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal gland disorders.
  • Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder.
  • This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated.
  • Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [ErratumIn] Radiol Technol. 2009 Nov-Dec;81(2):147
  • [ErratumIn] Radiol Technol. 2010 Sep-Oct;82(1):52
  • (PMID = 19738188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-5657
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiologic technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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14. Rampisela D, Donner LR: Perineurioma of the adrenal gland. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2009 Jul-Aug;33(4):165-8
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perineurioma of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors report the first case of perineurioma of the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor was composed of elongated wavy spindle cells focally arranged in a fascicular pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission

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  • (PMID = 19728233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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15. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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16. Dell'Avanzato R, Castaldi F, Giovannini C, Mercadante E, Cianciulli P, Carlini M: Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report. Chir Ital; 2009 Mar-Apr;61(2):231-6

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  • [Title] Giant symptomatic myelolipoma of the right adrenal gland: a case report.
  • Adrenal myelolipoma is an uncommon tumour of the adrenal gland, usually unilateral, frequently associated with hypertension and obesity, with a benign biological behaviour and without hormonal activity, first described in 1905.
  • The neoplasm consists of adipose tissue and myelopoietic cells of the bone marrow.
  • In this report a case of a 43-year-old male with a 22 x 18 x 9 cm giant myelolipoma, weighing 3500 g and originating from the right adrenal gland is described.
  • The different aetiological hypotheses of this rare neoplasm and its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19536999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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17. Chughtai B, Samadi D, Guru K, Frischer Z, Rehman J: Granulocytic sarcoma of the adrenal gland. Can J Urol; 2009 Aug;16(4):4760-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granulocytic sarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • We report a case of primary granulocytic sarcoma (GS) of the left adrenal gland, with no evidence of hematologic involvement.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of granulocytic sarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Sarcoma, Myeloid

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  • (PMID = 19671233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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18. McLaughlin SA, Schmitt TM, Huguet KL, Menke DM, Nguyen JH: Myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland. Am Surg; 2005 Mar;71(3):191-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal masses have varying presentations.
  • Most commonly, adrenal masses are discovered incidentally on CT or MRI during an evaluation for an unrelated complaint.
  • Although the majority of these are nonfunctional cortical adenomas, hormonally active tumors and adrenocortical carcinoma must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • Rarely, retroperitoneal tumors may mimic an adrenal mass.
  • We report a case of a 49-year-old man with anemia and weight loss who was found to have a large retroperitoneal mass arising from the adrenal gland.
  • Surgical treatment involved en bloc resection of the right kidney, adrenal gland, segments 7 and 8 of the liver, and a portion of the right hemidiaphragm.
  • We believe that this is the first case report of a myofibrosarcoma of the adrenal gland.
  • We will briefly discuss the workup of an adrenal mass and focus on the diagnosis of myofibrosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Myosarcoma / pathology. Myosarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15869129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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19. Simone-Freilicher E: Adrenal gland disease in ferrets. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract; 2008 Jan;11(1):125-37, vii
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  • [Title] Adrenal gland disease in ferrets.
  • Adrenal gland disease in ferrets is unique to this species, with clinical signs and pathophysiology different from those seen in the dog.
  • The exact causes of the adrenal gland changes that lead to the disease are not known.
  • Signs of adrenal gland disease include progressive hair loss, pruritus, lethargy, atrophy, and, in female ferrets, vulvar swelling.
  • An understanding of the signs and physiologic changes is necessary for diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / veterinary. Ferrets
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Male. Photoperiod. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18165141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-9194
  • [Journal-full-title] The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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20. Avram AM, Fig LM, Gross MD: Adrenal gland scintigraphy. Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;36(3):212-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal gland scintigraphy.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging provide exquisite images of the adrenal glands and offer the best initial imaging approach in the evaluation of patients with suspected adrenal disease.
  • However, an assessment of anatomy is only a portion of the diagnostic effort, which begins with a biochemical evaluation to establish the presence of adrenal gland dysfunction.
  • With a confirmed biochemical diagnosis in hand, a logical and stepwise diagnostic approach can be tailored to a particular patient.
  • Where scintigraphy fits in the evaluation of diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla in the context of high-resolution imaging and which radiopharmaceuticals should be deployed has changed substantially during the last 2 decades.
  • Adrenal functional imaging has evolved from classic planar scintigraphy to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) using tracers that, by targeting specific metabolic or synthetic processes within the gland, have depicted adrenal pathophysiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Glands / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Iodobenzylguanidine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Cushing Syndrome / physiopathology. Cushing Syndrome / radionuclide imaging. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology. Hyperaldosteronism / radionuclide imaging. Incidental Findings. Iodine Radioisotopes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Paraganglioma / physiopathology. Paraganglioma / radionuclide imaging. Pheochromocytoma / physiopathology. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Virilism / physiopathology. Virilism / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16762612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 35MRW7B4AD / 3-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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21. Takao H, Doi I, Watanabe T: Ectopic thyroid in the adrenal gland: Computed tomography findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2006 Mar-Apr;30(2):221-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic thyroid in the adrenal gland: Computed tomography findings.
  • Ectopic thyroid in the adrenal gland is extremely rare, and its radiologic findings have not been reported in the radiologic literature.
  • A case of ectopic thyroid in the adrenal gland is reported, and its imaging findings on computed tomography are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Choristoma / radiography. Thyroid Gland. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16628035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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22. Knüttgen D, Wappler F: [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2007 Mar;42(3):170-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anaesthesia for patients with adrenal gland diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] Anästhesie bei Erkrankungen der Nebennierenrinde--Effizientes Risikomanagement von der Prämedikation bis zum Aufwachraum.
  • Perioperative management of patients with adrenal gland diseases requires detailed information on the individual endocrine status and the potential complications.
  • Addison's disease, after removal of a cortisol producing tumour or as the result of long-term therapy with glucocorticoids) consequent perioperative supplementation of hydrocortisone is mandatory.
  • Removal of a malignant tumour of the adrenal gland may induce massive haemorrhage, and thus anaesthetic management has to be modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / complications. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17366436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Mineralocorticoids
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23. Eloubeidi MA, Morgan DE, Cerfolio RJ, Eltoum IA: Transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland. Gastrointest Endosc; 2008 Mar;67(3):522-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland.
  • BACKGROUND: EUS-guided FNA is commonly performed to sample peri-intestinal targets such as the pancreas, lymph nodes, and the left adrenal gland.
  • To our knowledge, EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland has not been reported.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the feasibility and success in sampling an enlarged right adrenal gland.
  • PATIENTS: Consecutive patients that underwent EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland.
  • RESULTS: Over a span of 3.5 years, 4 patients underwent transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland with a curvilinear echoendoscope.
  • Four passes were performed in all cases, and the diagnosis was rendered on the first pass.
  • Three of the patients had metastatic lung cancer to the right adrenal gland; one was proven by surgical histopathologic examination.
  • One patient had a benign aspirate consistent with angiomyolipoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transduodenal EUS-guided FNA of the right adrenal gland is feasible and safe.
  • Future large-scale studies are needed to replicate our findings and to determine the rate of successful identification and sampling of the right adrenal gland with the curvilinear echoendoscope.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Endosonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Ampulla of Vater. Cohort Studies. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Duodenum. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18234198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Kalinin AP, Bogatyrev OP, Poliakova GA, Beloshitskiĭ ME, Britvin TA: [Adrenal gland surgery]. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk; 2005;(11):43-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal gland surgery].
  • The authors of the article analyze more than 30-year experience of surgical treatment of adrenal gland diseases, offering a detailed description of clinical and morphological features of the main nosological forms such as Itsenko-Cushing disease and syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, incidentaloma, and malignant adrenal tumors.
  • The paper contains basic diagnostic criteria, indications to operative treatment, and extents of surgery for each of the diseases considered, as well as comparative analysis of peculiarities of conventional ("open"), and endoscopic adrenal gland surgeries.
  • The article demonstrates significance of various immunohistochemical markers in differentiation between malignant and benign adrenal tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16408654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0869-6047
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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25. Karpac J, Kern A, Hochgeschwender U: Pro-opiomelanocortin peptides and the adrenal gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Feb;265-266:29-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pro-opiomelanocortin peptides and the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland regulates a number of essential biological functions through production of steroids and catecholamines.
  • Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides have been implicated in all aspects of generating, maintaining, and functioning of the adrenal glands.
  • An appreciation for the roles of POMC-derived peptides with respect to the adrenal has been gained from experiments in vitro, and in vivo in different animal models which surgically, pharmacologically, or genetically decrease or increase the amount of POMC peptides available.
  • Here we will summarize and discuss the results of traditional in vivo studies on the role of POMC peptides in adrenal development, maintenance, and function in the context of findings in a mouse model genetically lacking all POMC-derived peptides.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiology. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17222502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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26. Füredi G, Szilágyi A, Bencsik Z, Altorjay A: [Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland. Case report and review of the literature]. Orv Hetil; 2007 Aug 19;148(33):1563-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland. Case report and review of the literature].
  • Adenomatoid tumors of the adrenal gland are rather rare, asymptomatic neoplasias with benign behavior and usually are diagnosed incidentally.
  • The authors report a case of an adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland in a 32-year-old man who sought evaluation because of fever and renal pain.
  • During investigation a tumor, localized in right adrenal gland, was identified by ultrasonography and CT.
  • The patient underwent adrenalectomy with histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of adenomatoid tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Based on literature data the epidemiology, symptoms, differential diagnosis, treatments, histopathology and prognosis of adenomatoid tumors of the adrenal gland are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatoid Tumor. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fever / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Pain / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17686675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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27. Hardy R, Cooper MS: Adrenal gland and bone. Arch Biochem Biophys; 2010 Nov 1;503(1):137-45

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal gland and bone.
  • The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla.
  • Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone.
  • Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height.
  • It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself.
  • With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands. Bone and Bones
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Diseases / therapy. Animals. Bone Diseases / metabolism. Bone Diseases / therapy. Hormones / biosynthesis. Hormones / metabolism. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20542010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0384
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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28. Durie I, Van Loon G, Vermeire S, De Clercq D, Vanschandevijl K, Deprez P: Transrectal ultrasonography of the left adrenal gland in healthy horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2010 Sep-Oct;51(5):540-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transrectal ultrasonography of the left adrenal gland in healthy horses.
  • Little information is available on medical imaging of the adrenal glands in horses.
  • We investigated the feasibility of transrectal ultrasonography to characterize the normal equine adrenal gland.
  • Transrectal ultrasonography of the right adrenal gland was not feasible.
  • For the left adrenal gland, the left kidney, the abdominal aorta, the left renal artery, the left renal vein, and the cranial mesenteric artery were used as landmarks.
  • The size of the left adrenal gland was variable, but it generally appeared as a long, flat structure with a hyperechoic medulla surrounded by a hypoechoic cortex.
  • The most cranial part of the gland could not be delineated appropriately in 11 horses (44%).
  • The mean (+/-SD) thickness of the gland and medulla was 0.66 +/- 0.15cm (n = 25) and 0.28 +/- 0.09 cm (n = 25) near the caudal pole, 0.87 +/- 0.25 cm (n = 14) and 0.40 +/- 0.18 cm (n = 12) near the cranial pole, and 0.89 +/- 0.18 cm (n = 25) and 0.36 +/- 0.13 cm (n = 25) in the middle of the gland, respectively.
  • The mean (+/-SD) length of the entire adrenal gland and of the medulla was 6.22 +/- 0.77 cm (n = 14) and 5.45 +/- 0.71 cm (n = 6), respectively.
  • Transrectal ultrasonography allowed adequate visualization of the left adrenal gland in horses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 20973389.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Kirat D, Sallam K, Hayashi H, Miyasho T, Kato S: Presence of ten isoforms of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family in the bovine adrenal gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Jan 27;298(1-2):89-100

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presence of ten isoforms of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family in the bovine adrenal gland.
  • This study provides novel information regarding the existence and precise cellular localization of various monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in the mammalian adrenal gland.
  • RT-PCR results revealed that 10 MCT isoforms, namely MCT1, MCT2, MCT3, MCT4, MCT5, MCT8, MCT9, MCT10, MCT13, and MCT14 are expressed in the bovine adrenal gland.
  • MCTs (MCT1-MCT8) proteins were examined by Western blot analysis in the bovine adrenal gland.
  • The precise cellular localization of six MCT isoforms (MCT1-MCT5 and MCT8) within the different zones of the adrenal gland has been determined by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence confocal laser microscopy analyses.
  • To gain insight on the species differences for the expression profiles of MCT isoforms in this vital organ, we also examined the expression and cellular localization of MCT1-MCT8 in the rat adrenal gland.
  • Some discrepancies in MCTs profiles between cattle and rat have been observed in the different zones of the adrenal gland.
  • The tissue distribution pattern of MCT isoforms in the steroid-secreting adrenal cortex and catecholamine-secreting adrenal medulla suggests that they may play distinct roles in the regulation of the different hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal gland.
  • Also, it is possible that different MCT isoforms in adrenal gland can be differentially regulated under acute or chronic conditions.
  • This report can form the basis for future research on the regulation of these transporters in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Cattle / metabolism. Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18996437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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30. Kanczkowski W, Zacharowski K, Bornstein SR: Role of toll-like receptors and inflammation in adrenal gland insufficiency. Neuroimmunomodulation; 2010;17(3):180-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of toll-like receptors and inflammation in adrenal gland insufficiency.
  • Adrenal gland insufficiency - the clinical manifestation of deficient production or action of adrenal steroids - is a life-threatening disorder.
  • Among many factors which can predispose to primary adrenal failure, an autoimmune adrenalitis and infectious agents play a major role.
  • TLRs are implicated in adrenal cell turnover and steroidogenesis during inflammation.
  • Therefore, TLRs play a crucial role in the activation of adrenal inflammation mediating adrenal gland dysfunction during septicemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Insufficiency / immunology. Inflammation / immunology. Sepsis / complications. Sepsis / immunology. Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / immunology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Animals. Bacterial Infections / complications. Bacterial Infections / immunology. Bacterial Infections / physiopathology. Cytokines / metabolism. Humans. Immunity, Innate / immunology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20134197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimmunomodulation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimmunomodulation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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31. Kirat D: Effect of pectin feeding on monocarboxylate transporters in rat adrenal gland. J Comp Physiol B; 2010 Jan;180(1):57-65
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  • [Title] Effect of pectin feeding on monocarboxylate transporters in rat adrenal gland.
  • We have recently proved the expression and localization of seven monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1, MCT2, MCT3, MCT4, MCT5, MCT7, and MCT8) in the rat adrenal gland.
  • So far, there are no data reporting possible regulation of any MCT isoform in the adrenal gland.
  • This work aimed to study the effect of pectin feeding on the expression of MCTs (MCT1-MCT5, MCT7, and MCT8) and their cellular distribution in rat adrenal gland.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed extended distribution and distinctive increase in the immunoreactivities of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, MCT5, and MCT7 in the adrenal cortical zones, besides the increase in the immunoreactive intensity of MCT5 and MCT7 in the adrenal medulla of pectin-fed versus control rats.
  • Our data is the first to describe the up regulation of various MCTs in rat adrenal gland under the influence of pectin feeding.
  • This article suggests that monocarboxylate transporters have an important physiological role in the regulation of adrenal hormones as well as in cholesterol homeostasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage. Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters / metabolism. Pectins / administration & dosage

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  • [Cites] Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Apr;13(3):118-21 [11893525.001]
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  • (PMID = 19578859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-136X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative physiology. B, Biochemical, systemic, and environmental physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters; 0 / Pectins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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32. Parnaby CN, Galbraith N, O'Dwyer PJ: Importance of the adrenal gland blood supply during laparoscopic subtotal adrenalectomy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2010 May;20(4):311-5
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  • [Title] Importance of the adrenal gland blood supply during laparoscopic subtotal adrenalectomy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic subtotal adrenalectomy (LSA) has emerged as a treatment option in the management of certain adrenal pathologies.
  • After LSA, a satisfactory blood supply to the adrenal remnant is vital to preserve steroid function.
  • The aim of this study was to review the adrenal blood supply with relevance to LSA.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The adrenal blood supply was examined in three ways:.
  • 1) a review of six previous cadaver studies looking at adrenal blood supply;.
  • 2) a review of our 164 consecutive laparoscopic adrenalectomies (LAs) (January 1999-January 2009); the details of the main adrenal veins and variants had been prospectively recorded; and 3) dissection of 4 cadaver specimens (macroscopic and histologic examination was performed).
  • RESULTS: The six cadaver studies showed duplication or triplication of the main adrenal vein with variable frequency.
  • Four of six studies described smaller peripheral veins surrounding the adrenal gland.
  • The arterial supply appeared constant, with each adrenal gland supplied by up to 60 small arteries.
  • In our series of LA, the main adrenal vein was constant.
  • Our cadaver dissection showed the large number of small peripheral veins and arteries surrounding the adrenal gland.
  • Histology confirmed that these peripheral veins drained the adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After LSA, a nonfunctioning adrenal remnant is unlikely due to an inadequate arterial supply.
  • Division of the main adrenal vein appears safe, but excessive mobilization of the adrenal remnant should be avoided to prevent destruction of the peripheral veins.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 20210666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Kpodonu J, Warso MA, Massad MG: Osteosarcoma invading adrenal gland: rare cause of adrenal mass. Urology; 2005 Jun;65(6):1226
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  • [Title] Osteosarcoma invading adrenal gland: rare cause of adrenal mass.
  • Adrenal gland metastasis from osteogenic sarcoma is extremely rare and is an atypical location for metastasis.
  • Vascular hepatic exclusion techniques and the use of venovenous bypass with cardiac surgical techniques may be required to resect large adrenal masses that have invaded the inferior vena cava to achieve curative resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Osteosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15922441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Zeng ZC, Tang ZY, Fan J, Zhou J, Qin LX, Ye SL, Sun HC, Wang BL, Zhang JY, Yu Y, Cheng JM, Wang XL, Guo W: Radiation therapy for adrenal gland metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb;35(2):61-7
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy for adrenal gland metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The adrenal gland is a common site of extrahepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Methods previously tried for the management of adrenal gland metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma included surgical resection, transarterial chemoembolization or percutaneous ethanol injection, on the basis of case reports.
  • External beam radiation therapy has seldom been applied for patients with adrenal gland metastases.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively studied 22 patients with adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma who were treated with limited-field external beam radiation therapy.
  • The radiation dose to the adrenal lesion ranged from 36 to 54 (median 50) Gy, while the intrahepatic lesions were treated with either surgical resection or transarterial chemoembolization.
  • RESULTS: Among the 14 patients who had pain related to adrenal metastases, 11 (78.6%) had complete pain relief without medication that lasted until death.
  • No patient died from complications related to adrenal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Adrenal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma are sensitive to radiation treatment.
  • Radiation therapy with 50 Gy for adrenal gland metastases is a good palliative therapy with reasonable safety.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15709088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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35. Ates LE, Kapran Y, Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Dizdaroglu F: Cystic lymphangioma of the right adrenal gland. Pathol Oncol Res; 2005;11(4):242-4
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  • [Title] Cystic lymphangioma of the right adrenal gland.
  • Lymphangiomas are benign malformations of the vessels.
  • Lymphangioma of the adrenal gland is very rare.
  • Radiological examination revealed a 7 cm cystic lesion located in the right adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphangioma, Cystic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16388322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, CD34
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36. Guarner J, Paddock CD, Bartlett J, Zaki SR: Adrenal gland hemorrhage in patients with fatal bacterial infections. Mod Pathol; 2008 Sep;21(9):1113-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal gland hemorrhage in patients with fatal bacterial infections.
  • A wide spectrum of adrenal gland pathology is seen during bacterial infections.
  • We studied adrenal gland histopathology of 65 patients with bacterial infections documented in a variety of tissues by using immunohistochemistry.
  • Bacteria were detected in the adrenal of 40 (61%) cases.
  • Adrenal hemorrhage was present in 39 (60%) cases.
  • Bacteria or bacterial antigens were observed in 31 (79%) of the cases with adrenal hemorrhage including 14 with N. meningitidis, four with R. rickettsii, four with S. pneumoniae, three with group A streptococcus, two with S. aureus, two with B. anthracis, one with T. pallidum, and one with Legionella sp.
  • Bacterial antigens were observed in nine of 26 non-hemorrhagic adrenal glands that showed inflammatory foci (four cases), edema (two cases), congestion (two cases), or necrosis (one case).
  • Hemorrhage is the most frequent adrenal gland pathology observed in fatal bacterial infections.
  • Bacteria and bacterial antigens are frequently seen in adrenal glands with hemorrhage and may play a pathogenic role.
  • Although N. meningitidis is the most frequent bacteria associated with adrenal gland pathology, a broad collection of bacteria can also cause adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / pathology. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / pathology. Hemorrhage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18500257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Bacterial; 0 / Biomarkers
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37. Khilnani GC, Kumar A, Bammigatti C, Sharma R, Gupta SD: Hemorrhagic pseudocyst of the adrenal gland causing acute abdominal pain. J Assoc Physicians India; 2008 May;56:379-80
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  • [Title] Hemorrhagic pseudocyst of the adrenal gland causing acute abdominal pain.
  • Hemorrhagic pseudocysts of the adrenal gland are rare lesions that might be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.
  • Herein, we report a case of young married female presenting with acute pain abdomen and fever, who was diagnosed to have hemorrhagic pseudocyst of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18700646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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38. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19626294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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39. Tsoumakidou G, Buy X, Zickler P, Zupan M, Douchet MP, Gangi A: Life-threatening complication during percutaneous ablation of adrenal gland metastasis: Takotsubo syndrome. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2010 Jun;33(3):646-9
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  • [Title] Life-threatening complication during percutaneous ablation of adrenal gland metastasis: Takotsubo syndrome.
  • A rare life-threatening complication during percutaneous cryoablation of an adrenal gland metastasis from a lung carcinoma is reported.
  • These findings led to the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy left ventricular dysfunction syndrome.
  • This is the first case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurring as a complication during percutaneous ablation of an adrenal gland tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cryosurgery / adverse effects. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19495870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-086X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Tang L, Peng KM, Wang JX, Luo HQ, Cheng JY, Zhang GY, Sun YF, Liu HZ, Song H: The morphological study on the adrenal gland of African ostrich chicks. Tissue Cell; 2009 Aug;41(4):231-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The morphological study on the adrenal gland of African ostrich chicks.
  • The morphology of the adrenal gland has been studied for a number of animal species all over the world, yet the detailed data about ostrich chick has not been reported.
  • In the present study, the morphological features of the adrenal gland in African ostrich chicks were investigated by means of gross anatomy, light and electron microscope.
  • Differences between the left and right adrenal glands were found in shape, size and location.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Struthioniformes / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 19251295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3072
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue & cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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41. Kondo K, Chijiiwa K, Nagano M, Hamasuna R, Yamashita A, Marutsuka K, Takahashi N, Akiyama Y: Two-stage operation for hepatocellular carcinoma with synchronous bilateral adrenal gland metastasis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2008;15(2):232-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Cancer.

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  • [Title] Two-stage operation for hepatocellular carcinoma with synchronous bilateral adrenal gland metastasis.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently metastasizes to the adrenal glands.
  • The surgical strategy for HCC associated with bilateral adrenal gland metastasis is complicated because of the possibility of both postoperative hepatic failure and adrenal insufficiency.
  • We herein report a patient with HCC with synchronous bilateral adrenal gland metastasis that was treated successfully with a two-stage operation.
  • A 58-year-old man with HCC (12 cm in diameter) in the right lobe of the liver and bilateral adrenal gland tumors (right, 4 cm in diameter; left, 5 cm in diameter) was admitted to our hospital.
  • Two-stage surgery is a safe treatment option for giant HCC with synchronous bilateral adrenal gland metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18392722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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42. Lau SK, Weiss LM: Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland. Hum Pathol; 2007 Apr;38(4):656-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Calcifying fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • Calcifying fibrous tumor is an uncommon entity with distinctive pathologic features.
  • We report the clinical and pathologic features of an unusual case of calcifying fibrous tumor occurring in the adrenal gland of a 32-year-old woman.
  • The morphologic diagnosis of calcifying fibrous tumor was supported by diffuse positive immunoreactivity for factor XIIIa and absence of reactivity for muscle specific actin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase.
  • Although rare, awareness that calcifying fibrous tumor may occur at this particular site is important so as not to confuse this lesion with other mesenchymal neoplasms of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17078996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa
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43. Bedioui H, Jouini M, Nouira K, Bouzid T, Kacem M, Ben Safta Z: [Primary hydatid cyst of adrenal gland. Report of two cases]. Ann Chir; 2005 Feb;130(2):104-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary hydatid cyst of adrenal gland. Report of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Kyste hydatique primitif de la surrénale. A propos de deux cas.
  • Primary hydatid cyst of adrenal gland is still an exceptional localization.
  • The adrenal gland is an uncommon site even in our country in which echinococcal disease is endemic.
  • We report two cases of primary hydatid cyst of adrenal gland presented with isolated abdominal pain.
  • The diagnosis was based on CT-scan, which showed a cystic mass of respectively the right and left adrenal gland with a calcified wall.
  • The surgical treatment consisted on a total resection of the cyst, without rupture of the cystic wall and preserving the gland.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed on the macroscopic examination of the resected pieces.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / parasitology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Echinococcosis / radiography. Echinococcosis / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15737323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. Ortu M, Vaccarezza M, Trovati S, Galli M, Gervasoni C, Vella A: A martial arts injury: karate induced unilateral haematoma of the adrenal gland. Br J Sports Med; 2006 Aug;40(8):730-1; discussion 731

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A martial arts injury: karate induced unilateral haematoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal gland haematoma is often a complication of traumatic events.
  • The case is reported of a 45 year old man with unilateral non-symptomatic adrenal gland haematoma caused by a trauma during martial arts practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / injuries. Hematoma / diagnosis. Martial Arts / injuries

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  • [Cites] Surg Today. 2004;34(3):279-82 [14999546.001]
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  • (PMID = 16723403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0480
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of sports medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Sports Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2579477
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45. Ferreira M, de Abreu LC, Valenti VE, Meneghini A, Murad N, Ferreira C: Electric countershock and cold stress effects on liver and adrenal gland. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Mar;65(3):291-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Electric countershock and cold stress effects on liver and adrenal gland.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cold exposure induces glycogen and lipid depletion in the liver and the adrenal gland, respectively.
  • We aimed to evaluate the effects of electrical countershock on lipid depletion in the adrenal gland and on glycogen depletion in the liver.
  • RESULTS: The rats exposed to the cold stress presented the highest glycogen and lipid depletion in the liver and the adrenal gland, respectively.
  • Furthermore, we noted that the electrical countershock significantly increased lipid depletion in the adrenal gland and glycogen depletion in the liver.
  • One week after the electrical countershock, the liver and adrenal gland profiles were similar to that of the control group.
  • CONCLUSION: Electrical countershock immediately increased the glycogen depletion in the liver and the lipid depletion in the adrenal gland of rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Electric Countershock / adverse effects. Hypothermia, Induced / adverse effects. Lipid Metabolism / physiology. Liver / metabolism. Liver Glycogen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20360920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liver Glycogen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2845770
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cold / Electrical Countershock / Hypothermia / Rats / Stress
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46. Niaz WA, Alvi S: Metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2008 May;18(5):305-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland.
  • A case of metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland is presented who had fluctuating blood pressure with episodic headache and raised urinary VMA levels.
  • Thoraco-abdominal resection of the tumour resulted in control of blood pressure and patient was asymptomatic at 4 months follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Pheochromocytoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 18541088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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47. Nakagawa-Mizuyachi K, Takahashi T, Kawashima M: Calcitonin directly increases adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated corticosterone production in the hen adrenal gland. Poult Sci; 2009 Oct;88(10):2199-205
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Calcitonin directly increases adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated corticosterone production in the hen adrenal gland.
  • The binding site of CT in the membrane fraction of the adrenal gland in hens was determined using a [125I]CT binding assay system.
  • The binding properties in the adrenal gland satisfied the criteria of a receptor-ligand interaction in terms of specificity, reversibility, and saturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Calcitonin / physiology. Chickens / physiology. Corticosterone / physiology. Receptors, Calcitonin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19762876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-5791
  • [Journal-full-title] Poultry science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Poult. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcitonin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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48. Buyukkayhan D, Ozturk MA, Kurtoglu S, Koklu E, Yikilmaz A: Effect of antenatal betamethasone use on adrenal gland size and endogenous cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone in preterm neonates. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Nov;22(11):1027-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of antenatal betamethasone use on adrenal gland size and endogenous cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone in preterm neonates.
  • AIM: To assess the effect of antenatal betamethasone use on adrenal gland size and adrenal hormones in preterm neonates who had gestational ages of 27-36 weeks.
  • In addition, adrenal gland length and width were determined on the first day of life.
  • There was no significant difference between the study groups with regard to adrenal gland length and width (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that betamethasone use in preterm neonates reduces endogenous 17-OHP and cortisol levels; however, it has no effect on adrenal gland size.
  • [MeSH-major] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Betamethasone / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Hydrocortisone / blood. Infant, Premature / blood. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / blood

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  • (PMID = 20101888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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49. Ma G, Liu SW, Zhao ZM, Lin XT, Lou L, Li ZP, Tang YC, Zhong SZ: Sectional anatomy of the adrenal gland in the coronal plane. Surg Radiol Anat; 2008 May;30(3):271-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sectional anatomy of the adrenal gland in the coronal plane.
  • To provide practical anatomic data for the imaging diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal disease, we investigated the anatomy of the adrenal gland and its relationships to regional structures using 31 sets of serial coronal sections of upper abdomen of Chinese adult cadavers and correlated coronal magnetic resonance (MR) images of ten upper abdomens of adult healthy volunteers and coronal reconstructed multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) images of five patients without lesions in the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal glands were visualized mainly on the successive coronal sections between 18 mm anterior to the posterior margin of inferior vena cava and 24 mm posterior to the posterior margin of inferior vena cava.
  • In general, the left adrenal gland was visualized two sections earlier than the right adrenal gland.
  • On the plane through the anterior parts of bilateral renal hili (A18), the appearance rate of bilateral adrenal glands was 100%, and the maximal measurements of bilateral adrenal glands were visualized.
  • The length, width, thickness of right adrenal body, thickness of medial limb and lateral limb were, respectively, 34.02 +/- 2.12 mm, 10.91 +/- 0.89 mm, 5.82 +/- 0.26 mm, 2.78 +/- 0.08 mm, 2.62 +/- 0.06 mm, whereas the measurements of left adrenal gland were 28.31 +/- 2.46 mm, 18.40 +/- 1.06 mm, 6.84 +/- 0.24 mm, 3.02 +/- 0.08 mm, 2.86 +/- 0.07 mm, respectively.
  • The coronal plane has superior advantage in showing the bilateral adrenal glands.
  • The shapes of adrenal glands are various, whereas the range of adrenal thickness is quite narrow.
  • The thickness of adrenal medial and lateral limbs, especially the thickness of lateral limb are useful for the diagnosis of the bilateral adrenocortical disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 18246295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0930-1038
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Radiol Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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50. Gurbuz R, Guven S, Kilinc M, Abasiyanik F, Gokce G, Piskin MM: Primary hydatid cyst in adrenal gland: a case report. Int Urol Nephrol; 2005;37(1):21-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hydatid cyst in adrenal gland: a case report.
  • The hydatid cyst of the adrenal gland is extremely rare pathology of the adrenal gland; here we report an adrenal hydatid cyst that presented as a solitary renal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / parasitology. Echinococcosis

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  • (PMID = 16132752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antinematodal Agents; 81G6I5V05I / Mebendazole
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51. Capaldo A, Gay F, Laforgia V, De Falco M, Varano L: The adrenal gland of Triturus carnifex after glucagon administration. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol; 2006 Oct;145(2):188-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The adrenal gland of Triturus carnifex after glucagon administration.
  • The present work was undertaken in order to investigate the influence of endocrine pancreas on the adrenal gland of Triturus carnifex.
  • Our experiments aimed at studying the effects of intraperitoneal injections of glucagon on ultrastructural morphological and morphometrical features of steroidogenic and chromaffin tissues, as well as serum levels of aldosterone, corticosterone, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E).
  • With regard to chromaffin tissue, in January glucagon played a stimulatory role on PNMT enzyme, eliciting an increase in the presence of E granules, and a decrease in the presence of NE granules, in the chromaffin cells.
  • Moreover, increased E serum levels and decreased NE serum levels were found.
  • In November, glucagon gave rise to a decrease in the presence of NE and E granules in the cells; E serum levels were strongly increased, whereas NE serum levels did not undergo any significant change.
  • These findings suggest an involvement of the endocrine pancreas of the newt in the modulation of adrenal gland activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Aldosterone / blood. Animals. Corticosterone / blood. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Epinephrine / blood. Lipid Metabolism. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Norepinephrine / blood. Seasons

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  • (PMID = 16870482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6433
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon; EC 2.1.1.28 / Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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52. Silva J, Cachulo Mdo C, Leitão-Marques A: Secondary hypertension to rare adrenal gland tumor. Arq Bras Cardiol; 2010 Dec;95(6):e144-7
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  • [Title] Secondary hypertension to rare adrenal gland tumor.
  • The ganglioneuroma is a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system and may be associated with hypersecretion of vasoactive substances responsible for various symptoms and signs such as hypertension.
  • The authors report a case of ganglioneuroma and a literature review, focusing on the most important aspects of diagnosis and therapy.
  • The patient had recurrent symptomatic hypertensive crises, having performed an imaging study that found a nodule in the right adrenal gland.
  • As neuroblastic tumors are radiologically undistinguishable, the patient underwent excision, confirming the diagnosis by pathology analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Ganglioneuroma / complications. Hypertension / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21271185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4170
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng; por; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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53. Raghay K, García-Caballero T, Bravo S, Alvarez CV, González R, Diéguez C, Beiras A, Fraga M, Gallego R: Ghrelin localization in the medulla of rat and human adrenal gland and in pheochromocytomas. Histol Histopathol; 2008 01;23(1):57-65
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  • [Title] Ghrelin localization in the medulla of rat and human adrenal gland and in pheochromocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin is predominantly produced by neuroendocrine cells of stomach and has been expressed in several normal and tumour endocrine tissues.
  • It has been reported that the localization of ghrelin is exclusively in the cortex of human and rat adrenal gland and in adrenocortical tumours.
  • This prompted us to analyze the expression of this peptide in medulla of human and rat adrenal glands and in human pheochromocytomas.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Analysis of ghrelin mRNA expression in rat adrenal gland was conducted by means of semi-quantitative RT-PCR.
  • Ghrelin localization was studied in medulla of human and rat adrenal gland by immunohistochemistry.
  • Finally, Western blotting analysis was performed with goat ghrelin antibody in the cortex and in the medulla of rat adrenal gland.
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR demonstrated expression of ghrelin mRNA in rat adrenal gland.
  • Furthermore, we showed ghrelin immunoreactivity in the medulla of human adrenal gland and in pheochromocytomas.
  • However, the cortex of rat adrenal gland only expressed ghrelin precursor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to demonstrate a medullar expression of ghrelin in human and rat adrenal gland; we also showed ghrelin expression in pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Peptide Hormones / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Ghrelin. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin

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  • (PMID = 17952858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin
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54. Erem C, Hacihasanoglu A, Ersöz HO, Reis AK, Calik A, Ukinç K, Koçak M: Pheochromocytoma combined with pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome in the same adrenal gland. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Jun;28(6):561-5
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  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma combined with pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome in the same adrenal gland.
  • Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) occasionally associates with pathological lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • The coexistence of PHEO and pre-clinical Cushing's syndrome (PCS) of the same adrenal gland has rarely been reported.
  • A 52-yr-old Turkish woman was hospitalized at Farabi Hospital for further examinations of a right adrenal mass that was incidentally discovered by abdominal ultrasonography during examinations for abdominal bloating and "gas" in other hospital.
  • Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a solid round tumor approximately 4 cm in diameter, located in the right adrenal gland.
  • A 131 lodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131 I-MIBG) scan revealed uptake within tumor in the right adrenal gland.
  • To our knowledge, the present report is a rare case of PHEO combined with PCS in the same adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Catecholamines / blood. Dexamethasone. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperplasia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


55. Candanedo-González FA, Vela Chávez T, Cérbulo-Vázquez A: Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland with osteoclast-like giant cells. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):75-81
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma (PLMS) of the adrenal gland is a rare tumor in an unusual location.
  • A primary PLMS of the left adrenal gland is reported in a 59-yr-old Mexican woman who presented progressive flank pain and weight loss.
  • The tumor measured 16 cm in diameter, showed markedly pleomorphic and osteoclast-like giant cells, necrosis, and high mitotic activity (average 15 per 10 high-power fields).
  • DNA content analysis by flow cytometry showed that tumor was diploid, with a high level of apoptosis.
  • Extra-adrenal primary sites of origin were clinically excluded.
  • This is the second case of adrenal PLMS reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / secondary. Osteoclasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Peters J: Secretory and cytosolic (pro)renin in kidney, heart, and adrenal gland. J Mol Med (Berl); 2008 Jun;86(6):711-4

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  • [Title] Secretory and cytosolic (pro)renin in kidney, heart, and adrenal gland.
  • In the adrenal gland, secretory renin is expressed and provides the basis for an intra-adrenal angiotensin (ANG) II amplification system.
  • The adrenal gland additionally expresses cytosolic renin, which is targeted to mitochondria.
  • Adrenal cytosolic renin increases aldosterone production plasma renin independently.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Cytosol / metabolism. Kidney / metabolism. Myocardium / metabolism. Renin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18368380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-2716
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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57. Golden SH, Malhotra S, Wand GS, Brancati FL, Ford D, Horton K: Adrenal gland volume and dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol correlate with total daily salivary cortisol in African-American women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Apr;92(4):1358-63
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  • [Title] Adrenal gland volume and dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol correlate with total daily salivary cortisol in African-American women.
  • Alternative measures (salivary cortisol and adrenal gland volume) have not been systematically compared with 24-h urine free cortisol (UFC) in a healthy population.
  • 1) to determine whether 24-h UFC and total daily salivary cortisol correlated with each other, adrenal gland volume, and salivary cortisol after dexamethasone suppression and 2) to evaluate the association of adrenal gland volume with salivary cortisol after dexamethasone suppression.
  • Adrenal gland volume was measured by computed tomography scan.
  • RESULTS: Dexamethasone-suppressed salivary cortisol levels correlated strongly with individual, timed salivary cortisol measurements, total daily salivary cortisol (rs=0.75; P=0.0001; n=20), and adrenal gland volume (rs=0.66; P=0.004; n=17).
  • Total daily salivary cortisol and adrenal gland volume also correlated (rs=0.46; P=0.04; n=19).
  • In contrast, 24-h UFC levels did not correlate with any of the other hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis measures.
  • CONCLUSION: A dexamethasone suppression test or adrenal gland volume may be alternative measures for characterizing subtle subclinical hypercortisolism in healthy adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Dexamethasone. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Saliva / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17284636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 5 K23 DK071565; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00052
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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58. Bertolini G, Furlanello T, Drigo M, Caldin M: Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2008 Sep-Oct;49(5):449-53
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  • [Title] Computed tomographic adrenal gland quantification in canine adrenocorticotroph hormone-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • We conducted a retrospective study to determine whether multidetector computed tomography (CT) could be of value for adrenal gland assessment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
  • Adrenal gland attenuation and volume values of 49 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were recorded and age, body weight, and gender were examined to determine if a relationship existed between these variables and adrenal gland morphology.
  • There was not a statistically significant difference in mean X-ray attenuation of the left vs. right adrenal gland in normal dogs (35.3 +/- 6.1 HU), or in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.
  • The mean adrenal X-ray attenuation (+/- standard deviation [SD]) in dogs with microadenoma was 33.1 +/- 6.8 vs. 31.8 +/- 12.7 HU for dogs with macroadenoma, and these values were not statistically different.
  • The mean volume of the left adrenal gland in normal dogs (0.59 +/- 0.17 cm3) was greater than that of the right adrenal gland (0.54 +/- 0.19 cm3) (P < 0.05).
  • The mean CT volume (+/- SD) of the adrenal glands in dogs with microadenoma vs. macroadenoma were 1.60 +/- 1.25 vs. 2.88 +/- 1.60 cm3, respectively.
  • There was no effect of age or gender on adrenal gland morphology or X-ray attenuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Dog Diseases / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Animals. Case-Control Studies. Dogs. Female. Male. Pedigree. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18833952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Sakamoto N, Tojo K, Saito T, Fujimoto K, Isaka T, Tajima N, Ikeda K, Yamada H, Furuta N, Sasano H: Coexistence of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma and pheochromocytoma in an ipsilateral adrenal gland. Endocr J; 2009;56(2):213-9
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  • [Title] Coexistence of aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma and pheochromocytoma in an ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • A 40-year-old female, diagnosed as essential hypertension, demonstrated a 2 cm mass in left adrenal gland by computed tomography without abnormal endocrinological findings. (131)I-adosterol and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy at 39 years of age showed no abnormal accumulation.
  • Follow up (131)I-adosterol scintigraphy performed one year later showed apparently abnormal uptake and slightly elevated uptake in left adrenal gland.
  • Furthermore, selective adrenal venous sampling with intravenous ACTH infusion indicated aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma (APA) in left adrenal gland.
  • During operation of adrenal tumor, blood pressure elevated markedly and complication of pheochromocytoma (PC) was suspected.
  • Immunohistochemical findings after left adrenolectomy revealed that the adrenal mass was compatible with APA and PC.
  • Herein, we present an extremely rare case of the simultaneous occurrence of both APA and PC in an ipsilateral adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Female. Humans. Hypokalemia / complications. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19023159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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60. Kazarians B, Kausch I, Gellissen J, Doehn C, Jocham D: [Spontaneous hemorrhage of the adrenal gland during pregnancy]. Aktuelle Urol; 2007 Sep;38(5):403-5
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  • [Title] [Spontaneous hemorrhage of the adrenal gland during pregnancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Spontane Nebennierenblutung während der Schwangerschaft.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous hemorrhage is a rare cause of masses in the adrenal gland and must be differentiated from hemorrhage caused by trauma, neoplasm or metastases.
  • An MRI scan showed an adrenal hemorrhage, but a bleeding caused by a neoplasm was excluded by a post-partum MRI control only.
  • There was no evidence of a hormone-producing adrenal tumor, an adrenal insufficiency caused by the hemorrhage, or a coagulopathy.
  • CONCLUSION: Spontaneous hemorrhage in the adrenal gland is a rare condition in pregnancy.
  • The diagnosis is confirmed by MRI.
  • Adrenal function should be controlled during pregnancy and post-partum.
  • Recurrent hemorrhage and a neoplasm must be excluded by a post-partum MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases. Hemorrhage. Pregnancy Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Postpartum Period. Pregnancy. Time Factors

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  • [ErratumIn] Aktuelle Urol. 2007 Nov;38(6):475
  • (PMID = 17907068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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61. Fujiwara K, Matsumoto H, Yada T, Inoue K: Identification of the prolactin-releasing peptide-producing cell in the rat adrenal gland. Regul Pept; 2005 Mar 15;126(1-2):97-102
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  • [Title] Identification of the prolactin-releasing peptide-producing cell in the rat adrenal gland.
  • In particular, PrRP acts as a neurotransmitter that mediates stress and activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • Among peripheral tissues, appreciable levels of PrRP are found only in the adrenal gland; however, the PrRP-producing cells in the adrenal gland have not been identified.
  • In this study, we detected PrRP mRNA in the rat adrenal medulla.
  • So, we tried to identify the PrRP-producing cells in primary culture cells of the adrenal medulla.
  • We found immunopositive PrRP cells among the cultured cells from the adrenal gland, but not in the adrenal gland tissue, by means of immunocytochemistry.
  • The PrRP immunopositive cells were double positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which indicates that PrRP may be produced in a part of the adrenaline cells in the adrenal gland.
  • This is the first report that PrRP is produced in the adrenaline-containing cells of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Hypothalamic Hormones / biosynthesis. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Neuropeptides / biosynthesis. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15620421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-0115
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypothalamic Hormones; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Prlh protein, rat; 0 / Prolactin-Releasing Hormone; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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62. Li ZL, Sun D, Kong CZ: [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Aug 15;47(16):1239-41
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study and summarize the diagnosis and treatment for the corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 25 cases of adrenal corticomedullary mixed tumor from January 2000 to April 2008 were analyzed retrospectively, which including 9 males and 16 females.
  • Every case underwent b-ultrasound and CT normal plus extensive scan to make the diagnosis.
  • All of the cases had blood pressure fluctuation during dissection of the adrenal tumors, with the highest blood pressure reached to 230/140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa).
  • Postoperative histopathological study revealed that the pathological changes was corticomedullary mixed tumor of adrenal gland, which was supported by immunohistochemical study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In cases with complex phenomenon that can't explain with single cortical or medullary changes, it must beware of the mixed pathological changes in adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19781172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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63. Gupta R, Dinda AK: Ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland: a rare case. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):782-4
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  • [Title] Ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland: a rare case.
  • Ganglioneuromas, which are benign tumors of sympathetic nervous system, are rare to arise in adrenal gland.
  • We discuss the case of a 40-year-old female found to have a right adrenal mass during investigation of dull ache in right upper abdomen.
  • Histological examination showed the mass to be a ganglioneuroma arising in the adrenal gland.
  • In conclusion, ganglioneuroma occurs rarely in adrenal gland and pre-operative diagnosis is difficult since the symptoms are usually non-specific.
  • Histological examination is the mainstay of diagnosis and should be thorough to exclude neuroblastomatous foci, portending a worse outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18306553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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64. Lau SK, Spagnolo DV, Weiss LM: Schwannoma of the adrenal gland: report of two cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 May;30(5):630-4
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  • [Title] Schwannoma of the adrenal gland: report of two cases.
  • Primary schwannomas of the adrenal gland are extremely uncommon.
  • We report the clinical and pathologic features of two cases, occurring in a 73-year-old man and a 26-year-old woman, both of whom presented with abdominal pain and an adrenal mass on imaging studies.
  • The diagnosis of schwannoma was supported by positive immunoreactivity for S-100 protein and collagen IV and absence of reactivity for keratin, muscle related antigens, and CD34 in both cases.
  • Electron microscopy was also performed in the case of cellular schwannoma, which showed ultrastructural features confirming the diagnosis.
  • Because of its rarity, schwannoma occurring at this particular site can pose problems in diagnosis and should be distinguished from other spindle cell lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16699318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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65. Frederiks WM, Kümmerlin IP, Bosch KS, Vreeling-Sindelárová H, Jonker A, Van Noorden CJ: NADPH production by the pentose phosphate pathway in the zona fasciculata of rat adrenal gland. J Histochem Cytochem; 2007 Sep;55(9):975-80
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  • [Title] NADPH production by the pentose phosphate pathway in the zona fasciculata of rat adrenal gland.
  • Biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the cortex of the adrenal gland takes place in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria and requires NADPH.
  • However, the contribution of each enzyme to NADPH production in the cortex of adrenal gland has not been established.
  • The four enzymes have similar localization patterns in adrenal gland with highest activities in the zona fasciculata of the cortex.
  • The K(m) value of G6PD for glucose-6-phosphate was two times higher than the K(m) value of PGD for phosphogluconate.

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  • (PMID = 17533217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0U46U6E8UK / NAD; C24W7J5D5R / Androsterone; EC 1.1.1.37 / Malate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.43 / Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.49 / Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase
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66. Sokolov VI, Chumasov EI, Atagimov MZ: [The histogenesis of interrenal primordium of the adrenal gland in pig (Sus domestica)]. Morfologiia; 2006;129(3):59-62

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  • [Title] [The histogenesis of interrenal primordium of the adrenal gland in pig (Sus domestica)].
  • Using light, electron microscopy and cytochemistry, the early (embryonic week 4-8) stages of adrenal gland (AG) development were studied in domestic pig.
  • CC are located in the central part of the organ and form suprarenal tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / ultrastructure. Sus scrofa / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / embryology. Adrenal Cortex / ultrastructure. Adrenal Medulla / embryology. Adrenal Medulla / ultrastructure. Animals. Chromaffin Cells / ultrastructure. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17111663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1026-3543
  • [Journal-full-title] Morfologii︠a︡ (Saint Petersburg, Russia)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Morfologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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67. Sekiyama A, Ueda H, Kashiwamura S, Nishida K, Yamaguchi S, Sasaki H, Kuwano Y, Kawai K, Teshima-Kondo S, Rokutan K, Okamura H: A role of the adrenal gland in stress-induced up-regulation of cytokines in plasma. J Neuroimmunol; 2006 Feb;171(1-2):38-44
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  • [Title] A role of the adrenal gland in stress-induced up-regulation of cytokines in plasma.
  • Immobilization stress induced interleukin-18 accumulation in plasma and in the adrenal gland.
  • Inhibition on ACTH resulted in suppressed levels of IL-18 both in plasma and the adrenal gland.
  • This, together with the observation in stressed hemi-adrenalectomized mice that IL-6 levels in plasma were suppressed but up-regulated by recombinant IL-18, showed that the adrenal gland plays a crucial role in stress-related elevation of IL-6 in plasma via IL-18.
  • Adrenal gland is highlighted as an organ connecting the psychological, endocrine, and immune systems.
  • Controlling the secretion of IL-18 from the adrenal gland may serve as a possible preventative means against a stress-related disruption of host defenses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Cytokines / blood. Stress, Physiological / blood. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16253346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-18; 0 / Serpins; 0 / Viral Proteins; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 96282-35-8 / interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitor; EC 3.4.22.36 / Caspase 1
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68. Sun JP, Pei HT, Jin XL, Yin L, Tian QH, Tian SJ: Effects of acupuncturing Tsusanli (ST36) on expression of nitric oxide synthase in hypothalamus and adrenal gland in rats with cold stress ulcer. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Aug 28;11(32):4962-6

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  • [Title] Effects of acupuncturing Tsusanli (ST36) on expression of nitric oxide synthase in hypothalamus and adrenal gland in rats with cold stress ulcer.
  • AIM: To study the protective effect of acupuncturing Tsusanli (S(T)36) on cold stress ulcer, and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in hypothalamus and adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: Ulcer index in rats and RT-PCR were used to study the protective effect of acupuncture on cold stress ulcer, and the expression of NOS in hypothalamus and adrenal gland.
  • The expression of NOS2 and NOS3 in adrenal gland increased after cold stress, only the expression of NOS1 could be repressed with acupuncture.
  • There was no NOS2 expression in adrenal gland in rats with stress ulcer.
  • CONCLUSION: The protective effect of acupuncturing Tsusanli (S(T)36) on the expression of NOS in hypothalamus and adrenal gland can be achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Acupuncture / methods. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Hypothalamus / physiology. Nitric Oxide Synthase / genetics. Stomach Ulcer / therapy. Stress, Physiological / complications

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  • (PMID = 16124046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4321910
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69. Niinobu T, Yamashita S, Nakagawa S, Amano M, Higaki N, Hayashida H, Nakao A, Takiuchi H, Sakon M: [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the adrenal gland metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1765-7
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for the adrenal gland metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma].
  • A 4 x 3.5 cm neoplasm at the left adrenal was detected by CT inspection this time.
  • The diagnosis was a metastatic adrenal gland tumor from HCC.
  • Pathologial diagnosis was a metastatic adrenal gland tumor from moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • When observing the adaptation standard strictly to the high-risk case, it was thought that the metastatic tumor extraction under laparoscopic surgery could become a low stress cure in consideration of QOL being useful as a local treatment for cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17212101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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70. Lim DY, Kim IS: Arecoline inhibits catecholamine release from perfused rat adrenal gland. Acta Pharmacol Sin; 2006 Jan;27(1):71-9
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  • [Title] Arecoline inhibits catecholamine release from perfused rat adrenal gland.
  • AIM: To study the effect of arecoline, an alkaloid isolated from Areca catechu, on the secretion of catecholamines (CA) evoked by cholinergic agonists and the membrane depolarizer from isolated perfused rat adrenal gland.
  • METHODS: Adrenal glands were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • The adrenal glands were perfused with Krebs bicarbonate solution by means of a peristaltic pump.
  • RESULTS: Arecoline (0.1-1.0 mmol/L) perfused into an adrenal vein for 60 min produced dose- and time-dependent inhibition in CA secretory responses evoked by acetylcholine (ACh) (5.32 mmol/L), 1.1-dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazinium iodide (DMPP) (100 micromol/L for 2 min) and 3-(m-choloro-phenyl-carbamoyl-oxy)-2-butynyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (McN-A-343) (100 micromol/L for 2 min).
  • Furthermore, in adrenal glands loaded with arecoline (0.3 mmol/L), CA secretory response evoked by Bay-K-8644 (10 micromol/L), an activator of L-type Ca(2+) channels, was markedly inhibited, whereas CA secretion by cyclopiazonic acid (10 micromol/L), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase, was not affected.
  • Nicotine (30 micromol/L), which was perfused into the adrenal gland for 60 min, however, initially enhanced ACh-evoked CA secretory responses.
  • CONCLUSION: Arecoline dose-dependently inhibits CA secretion from isolated perfused rat adrenal gland evoked by activation of cholinergic receptors.
  • This inhibitory effect of arecoline may be mediated by blocking the calcium influx into the rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells without the inhibition of Ca(2+) release from the cytoplasmic calcium store.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Arecoline / pharmacology. Catecholamines / secretion. Cholinergic Agonists / pharmacology. Nicotine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16364213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-4083
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta pharmacologica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Agonists; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Cholinergic Agonists; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Nicotinic Agonists; 4ALN5933BH / Arecoline; 54-77-3 / Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide; 55-45-8 / (4-(m-Chlorophenylcarbamoyloxy)-2-butynyl)trimethylammonium Chloride; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine; 71145-03-4 / 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester; EC 3.6.3.8 / Calcium-Transporting ATPases; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine; X9TLY4580Z / cyclopiazonic acid
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71. Gay F, Laforgia V, Capaldo A: Human follicle-stimulating hormone modulation of adrenal gland activity in the Italian crested newt, Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol; 2008 Sep;151(1):126-32
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  • [Title] Human follicle-stimulating hormone modulation of adrenal gland activity in the Italian crested newt, Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela).
  • The aim of the present study was to verify if human FSH influences the adrenal gland of the newt, Triturus carnifex.
  • The effects of human FSH on adrenal gland activity were observed in the morphological features of the steroidogenic and chromaffin adrenal cells, and in the serum levels of aldosterone, corticosterone, norepinephrine and epinephrine.
  • The results of the present study show that human follicle-stimulating hormone influences the activity of the newt adrenal gland, thus indicating a relationship between the annual sexual cycle and the annual adrenal cycle of the newt.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human / pharmacology. Triturus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18606237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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72. Sugama S, Wang N, Shimokawa N, Koibuchi N, Fujita M, Hashimoto M, Dhabhar FS, Conti B: The adrenal gland is a source of stress-induced circulating IL-18. J Neuroimmunol; 2006 Mar;172(1-2):59-65
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  • [Title] The adrenal gland is a source of stress-induced circulating IL-18.
  • The present study compared plasma IL-18 levels between sham-operated and adrenalectomized mice following stress to investigate whether the adrenal gland contributes to the elevation of circulating IL-18 during stress.
  • Two hours of stress provoked a robust, stressor-dependent, elevation of IL-18 mRNA and peptide in the adrenal gland in sham-operated mice.
  • These findings demonstrate that the adrenal gland is required to achieve elevation of circulating IL-18 during stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / blood. Stress, Physiological / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16359733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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73. DeWitt J, Alsatie M, LeBlanc J, McHenry L, Sherman S: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses. Endoscopy; 2007 Jan;39(1):65-71
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of left adrenal gland masses.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Although the left adrenal gland is readily visible by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), there are few published data on the utility of EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of this site.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of EUS-FNA of left adrenal gland masses.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we reviewed our EUS and cytology databases to identify consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland between January 1997 and January 2004.
  • RESULTS: Our searches resulted in the identification of a series of 38 consecutive patients who underwent EUS for the evaluation of a lung mass (n = 14), a pancreatic mass (n = 14), obstructive jaundice (n = 1), dysphagia (n = 2), an ampullary adenoma (n = 1), celiac block (n = 1), or a left adrenal gland mass (n = 5).
  • The mean maximal left adrenal mass diameter was 24 mm (range 7-66 mm).
  • Diagnoses after EUS-FNA (the mean number of passes was 3.6) were: metastatic lung cancer (n = 2), esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1), melanoma (n = 1), renal cell carcinoma (n = 1), and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (n = 1); primary pheochromocytoma (n = 1); benign adrenal tissue (n = 21); and granulomatous inflammation (n = 1).
  • The absence of a discrete adrenal mass on EUS occurred more frequently in patients with nondiagnostic biopsies than in those with diagnostic biopsies (56 % vs. 7 %; odds ratio 23.4, 95 %CI 3.5 - 157.0; P = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA of the left adrenal gland is safe and can be useful for the evaluation and staging of suspected malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endoscopy. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17252463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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74. Durocher F, Sanchez R, Ricketts ML, Labrie Y, Laudet V, Simard J: Characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2005 Nov;97(3):289-98

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  • [Title] Characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads.
  • The guinea pig adrenal gland, analogous to the human, possesses the capacity to synthesize C(19) steroids.
  • In order to further understand the control of guinea pig adrenal steroidogenesis we undertook the characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4)-isomerase (3beta-HSD) expressed in the adrenal gland.
  • A cDNA clone encoding guinea pig 3beta-HSD isolated from a guinea pig adrenal library is predicted to encode a protein of 373 amino acid residues and 41,475Da.
  • Ribonuclease protection assay suggests that this cDNA corresponds to the predominant, if not the sole, mRNA species detectable in total RNA from the guinea pig adrenal gland, ovary and testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / enzymology. Multienzyme Complexes / classification. Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism. Ovary / enzymology. Progesterone Reductase / classification. Progesterone Reductase / metabolism. Steroid Isomerases / classification. Steroid Isomerases / metabolism. Testis / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16143518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY914174
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase-delta(5) 3-ketosteroid isomerase; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone; 73R90F7MQ8 / Pregnenolone; EC 1.1.1.145 / Progesterone Reductase; EC 5.3.3.- / Steroid Isomerases
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75. Gao B, Meng F, Bian W, Chen J, Zhao H, Ma G, Shi B, Zhang J, Liu Y, Xu Z: Development and validation of pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score for predicting malignant pheochromocytomas. Urology; 2006 Aug;68(2):282-6
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  • [Title] Development and validation of pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score for predicting malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic performances of the pheochromocytoma of the adrenal gland scaled score (PASS) proposed in a previous report and that of a logistic model developed in this investigation.
  • METHODS: In all 130 patients with malignant or assumed benign pheochromocytomas, 15 predictive variables were observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ROC analysis indicated that the PASS could be used for the diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16904437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Schinner S, Bornstein SR: Cortical-chromaffin cell interactions in the adrenal gland. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(2):91-8

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  • [Title] Cortical-chromaffin cell interactions in the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal catecholamines and steroids are important regulators of the stress response, immune function, blood pressure, and energy homeostasis.
  • Historically, the two cell populations within the adrenal gland-the steroid-producing adrenocortical cells and the catecholamine-producing chromaffin cells-have been regarded as two independent endocrine systems.
  • Research on adrenal physiology and pathophysiology has therefore largely focused on the individual understanding of each cell type.
  • However, adrenal cortex and medulla appear to be interwoven and show multiple contact zones without separation by connective tissue or interstitial membranes.
  • In vitro studies, animal models, and the analysis of human adrenal pathophysiology have demonstrated critical importance of cortical-chromaffin crosstalk for adrenal function and disease.
  • Thus, chromaffin cells regulate steroid-hormone release by the adrenal cortex and steroids induce catecholamine production in the medulla.
  • Consequently, disorders of the adrenal cortex have been shown to affect chromaffin cell function and vice versa.
  • Mouse models of adrenal cortical dysfunction, such as the targeted disruption of the 21-hydroxylase- or the CRHR1 genes, show alterations in chromaffin cell function, while disruption of tyrosine hydroxylase, a key enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, impairs adrenal cortical function.
  • Accordingly, patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and Addison's disease show reduced catecholamine biosynthesis.
  • Here, we summarize the current view on intraadrenal communication with respect to adrenal pathophysiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / cytology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Cell Communication / physiology. Chromaffin Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / physiopathology. Animals. Humans. Receptor Cross-Talk / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16199893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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77. Cardoso CC, Bornstein SR, Hornsby PJ: Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland. Cell Transplant; 2010;19(5):565-72
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  • [Title] Optimizing orthotopic cell transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland.
  • Orthotopic cell transplantation models are important for a complete understanding of cell-cell interactions as well as tumor biology.
  • In published studies of orthotopic transplantation in the mouse adrenal gland, human neuroblastoma cells have been shown to invade and occupy the adrenal, but in these investigations a true orthotopic model was not established.
  • Here we show an orthotopic model in which transplanted cells are retained within the adrenal gland by formation of a fibrin clot.
  • To establish an appropriate technique, we used brightly fluorescent 10 microm polystyrene microspheres injected into the mouse adrenal gland.
  • In the absence of fibrinogen/thrombin for clot formation, much of the injected material was extruded to the outside of the gland.
  • When the microspheres were injected in a fibrinogen/thrombin mixture, fluorescence was confined to the adrenal gland.
  • As a model neoplastic cell originating from the cortex of the gland, we used a tumorigenic bovine adrenocortical cell line.
  • When 3 x 10(5) cells were implanted orthotopically, by 16 days the cell mass had expanded and had invaded the cortex, whereas when 1 x 10(5) cells were used, tumor masses were much smaller.
  • When mice were sacrificed at different time points, we found that tumor growth resulting was progressive and that by 26 days cells there was extensive invasion into the cortex or almost complete replacement of the cortex with tumor cells.
  • Orthotopic transplantation of 3 x 10(5) cells resulted in extensive invasion and destruction of the gland by 26 days.
  • In summary, the present orthotopic model for intra-adrenal cell transplantation is valuable for investigation of growth of neoplastic cells of both cortical and medullary origin and should be useful for future studies of cortex-medulla interactions.

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  • (PMID = 20525431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-3892
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Transplant
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG020752-020006; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG020752; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287-14; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R37 AG012287
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-31-4 / Fibrin; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; EC 3.4.21.5 / Thrombin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246503; NLM/ PMC3735364
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78. Moore K, Leslie B, Salle JL, Braga LH, Bägli DJ, Bolduc S, Lorenzo AJ: Can we spare removing the adrenal gland at radical nephrectomy in children with wilms tumor? J Urol; 2010 Oct;184(4 Suppl):1638-43
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  • [Title] Can we spare removing the adrenal gland at radical nephrectomy in children with wilms tumor?
  • PURPOSE: In patients with Wilms tumor indications for adrenalectomy are not well-defined.
  • Following the rationale for preserving the adrenal gland in cases of other renal malignancies we determined predictors of adrenal involvement and the impact of adrenalectomy on retroperitoneal recurrence.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the record of patients who underwent surgical resection as primary treatment for Wilms tumor between 1990 and 2008 at 2 Canadian pediatric centers.
  • Patient and tumor characteristics were reviewed to determine potential links to adrenal involvement.
  • RESULTS: Of 180 patients diagnosed with Wilms tumor 95 underwent initial radical nephrectomy.
  • Mean ± SD age at diagnosis was 46 ± 38 months and mean survival followup was 189 ± 8.3 months.
  • Only 1 adrenal gland was reportedly positive for tumor invasion while peri-adrenal fat involvement was noted in 3 patients.
  • No studied patient or tumor characteristics predicted involvement.
  • No statistically significant difference in retroperitoneal recurrence was found between the groups in which the adrenal gland was removed vs preserved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal involvement in patients with Wilms tumor is rare and difficult to predict.
  • Preserving the adrenal gland was not associated with an increased risk of local recurrence.
  • Thus, it seems prudent to avoid adrenalectomy at radical nephrectomy when technically feasible, instead attempting to otherwise remove all peri-adrenal fat with the specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Nephrectomy. Wilms Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2010 Oct;184(4 Suppl):1642-3 [20728100.001]
  • (PMID = 20728101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Battista MC, Otis M, Côté M, Laforest A, Peter M, Lalli E, Gallo-Payet N: Extracellular matrix and hormones modulate DAX-1 localization in the human fetal adrenal gland. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5426-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extracellular matrix and hormones modulate DAX-1 localization in the human fetal adrenal gland.
  • CONTEXT: The orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1 is essential for human adrenal cortex development and functions as a transcriptional repressor of multiple genes implicated in steroidogenic pathways.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of the DAX-1 protein in human fetal adrenal glands and to assess whether this protein can be modulated by the extracellular matrix and hormones.
  • RESULTS: DAX-1 is localized mainly in the nucleus in the outer definitive zone and in the cytoplasm in the fetal zone, whereas the number of DAX-1 positive cells decreases from the external to the internal portion of the gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The localization of DAX-1 is compatible with the known functional properties of DAX-1 regarding the steroidogenic activity of adrenal cells.
  • Moreover, this study suggests that modulation of DAX-1 localization in the fetal adrenal gland by hormones and components of the extracellular matrix may represent a mechanism for controlling the expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the definitive and fetal zones.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / embryology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Extracellular Matrix / physiology. Hormones / physiology. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15956080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type IV; 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Hormones; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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80. Heitzmann D, Derand R, Jungbauer S, Bandulik S, Sterner C, Schweda F, El Wakil A, Lalli E, Guy N, Mengual R, Reichold M, Tegtmeier I, Bendahhou S, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Aller MI, Wisden W, Weber A, Lesage F, Warth R, Barhanin J: Invalidation of TASK1 potassium channels disrupts adrenal gland zonation and mineralocorticoid homeostasis. EMBO J; 2008 Jan 9;27(1):179-87
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  • [Title] Invalidation of TASK1 potassium channels disrupts adrenal gland zonation and mineralocorticoid homeostasis.
  • TASK1 (KCNK3) and TASK3 (KCNK9) are two-pore domain potassium channels highly expressed in adrenal glands.
  • We used task1-/- mice to analyze the role of this channel in adrenal gland function.
  • Patch-clamp experiments on adrenal cells suggest that task3 and other K+ channels compensate for the task1 absence.
  • Adrenal zonation appears as a dynamic process that even can take place in adulthood.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Homeostasis / genetics. Mineralocorticoids / antagonists & inhibitors. Mineralocorticoids / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / deficiency. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain / deficiency. Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18034154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2075
  • [Journal-full-title] The EMBO journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] EMBO J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoids; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain; 0 / potassium channel subfamily K member 3; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2206116
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81. Siddiqui NH, Jani J: Osteosarcoma metastatic to adrenal gland diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Sep;33(3):201-4
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  • [Title] Osteosarcoma metastatic to adrenal gland diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration.
  • Osteosarcoma, a primary malignant tumor of the long bones, frequently metastasizes to the lungs.
  • We report an unusual case of osteosarcoma metastatic to the right adrenal gland in a 37-yr-old male who presented 8 yr after remission with an adrenal mass.
  • A preoperative diagnosis was made by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy.
  • FNA biopsy revealed pleomorphic oval cells with prominent nucleoli, spindle cells, and giant tumor cells.
  • Immunocytochemical stains revealed positivity of tumor cells for vimentin and osteonectin.
  • The cytologic diagnosis of metastatic Osteosarcoma was made, which was later confirmed upon resection of tumor by histology.
  • Although the role of FNA in the diagnosis of primary bone tumors, including osteogenic sarcoma (OGS), remains controversial, this case, however, demonstrates the value of FNA biopsy combined with immunocytochemistry performed on the aspirated material in diagnosing osteosarcoma from an unusual location such as the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Osteosarcoma / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16078243.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Tóth IE, Wiesel O, Tóth DE, Boldogkoi Z, Halász B, Gerendai I: Transneuronal retrograde viral labeling in the brain stem and hypothalamus is more intense from the left than from the right adrenal gland. Microsc Res Tech; 2008 Jul;71(7):503-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transneuronal retrograde viral labeling in the brain stem and hypothalamus is more intense from the left than from the right adrenal gland.
  • Previous studies using the viral transneuronal tracing technique demonstrated central autonomic circuits involved in the innervation of the adrenal gland.
  • Since increasing number of data indicate laterality in the neuroendocrine system, we aimed to investigate whether the supraspinal innervation of the adrenal gland exhibits asymmetry or not.
  • The central circuitry involved in the innervation of the left and the right adrenal gland was studied in individual rats by dual transneuronal tracing using isogenic recombinant strains (Ba-DupGreen and Ba-Duplac expressing lacZ) of Bartha strain of pseudorabies virus.
  • Viral infection of brain nuclei (dorsal vagal nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, caudal raphe nuclei, A5 cell group, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus) from the left adrenal was more severe than that from the right organ.
  • The results indicate a predominance in the supraspinal innervation of the left adrenal gland, and that each adrenal gland is innervated both by side-specific neurons and by neurons that project to both organs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / virology. Brain Stem / virology. Herpesvirus 1, Suid / metabolism. Hypothalamus / virology. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 18393304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1059-910X
  • [Journal-full-title] Microscopy research and technique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microsc. Res. Tech.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Kamishima T, Harabayashi T, Ishikawa S, Kubota KC, Nonomura K, Omatsu T, Onodera Y, Shirato H, Terae S: Alveolar hydatid disease of the adrenal gland: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Jpn J Radiol; 2009 Jun;27(5):225-8

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  • [Title] Alveolar hydatid disease of the adrenal gland: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.
  • Primary alveolar echinococcosis of the adrenal gland is rare.
  • We report a case of alveolar hydatid disease of the adrenal gland that presented as a multiloculated cystic mass without calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / parasitology. Echinococcosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Radiographics. 1999 May-Jun;19(3):569-81 [10336189.001]
  • [Cites] Int Urol Nephrol. 1998;30(4):369-76 [9821036.001]
  • (PMID = 19554417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-1071
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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84. Lemos DR, Downs JL, Urbanski HF: Twenty-four-hour rhythmic gene expression in the rhesus macaque adrenal gland. Mol Endocrinol; 2006 May;20(5):1164-76
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  • [Title] Twenty-four-hour rhythmic gene expression in the rhesus macaque adrenal gland.
  • However, there is evidence from mouse studies that components of the circadian clock are also expressed within the adrenal gland itself.
  • In the present study we performed genome-wide expression profiling to determine whether the adrenal gland of rhesus monkeys shows temporal gene expression across a 24-h period.
  • Expression levels of Rev-erbalpha were higher at 0100 h than at 1300 h (P<0.05), and immunohistochemistry revealed a strong expression of this transcription factor specifically in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla.
  • Taken together, the data indicate that the primate adrenal gland shows rhythmic expression of genes associated with cell biology and synthesis of steroids and catecholamines.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Circadian Rhythm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation. Macaca mulatta / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16439464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG-19914; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG-23477; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-61766; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD-29186; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR-00163; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / TW/HD-00668
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ARNTL Transcription Factors; 0 / Arntl protein, mouse; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Cry1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cryptochromes; 0 / Flavoproteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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85. Vuković S, Lucić H, Zivković A, Duras Gomercić M, Gomercić T, Galov A: Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea. Anat Histol Embryol; 2010 Feb;39(1):59-66
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  • [Title] Histological structure of the adrenal gland of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Adriatic Sea.
  • The structure of the adrenal gland was studied in 11 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and five striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba).
  • In both species the adrenal gland consists of a cortex and a medulla; the cortex is divided into three zones.
  • The adrenal medulla in both species contains dark, epinephrine-secreting cells and light norepinephrine-secreting cells.
  • The gland is surrounded by a thick connective-tissue capsule, from where thick trabeculae extend towards the interior.
  • In the bottlenose dolphin invagination of the adrenal cortex into the medulla is obvious as well as medullary protrusions extending through cortex to the connective tissue capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / cytology. Bottle-Nosed Dolphin / anatomy & histology. Stenella / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Medulla / cytology. Adrenal Medulla / metabolism. Animals. Cerebral Cortex / cytology. Cerebral Cortex / metabolism. Croatia. Epinephrine / secretion. Oceans and Seas. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19912161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0264
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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86. Bertolini G, Furlanello T, De Lorenzi D, Caldin M: Computed tomographic quantification of canine adrenal gland volume and attenuation. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2006 Sep-Oct;47(5):444-8
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  • [Title] Computed tomographic quantification of canine adrenal gland volume and attenuation.
  • We conducted a retrospective study in presumed normal dogs to determine the adrenal gland attenuation and volume values.
  • Multidetector computer tomography (MDCT 16) analysis of the gland was carried out in 48 adult dogs without evidence of adrenal gland disease that underwent CT examination for acute spinal injuries.
  • The mean nonenhanced attenuation value +/- SD of the left adrenal gland was 36.0 +/- 5.3 HU (range: 22.0-42.0 HU).
  • The mean nonenhanced attenuation value +/- SD of the right gland was 34.3 +/- 7.0 HU (range: 20.4-48.6HU).
  • The mean enhanced attenuation value +/- SD were: left gland 101.5 +/- 10.6HU (range: 86.8-128.0 HU), and right gland 97.4 +/- 12.4 HU (range: 58.9-123.6 HU).
  • The mean CT volume +/- SD were: left gland was 0.60 cm3 (range: 0.20-0.95; SD 0.17), and right gland (0.55cm3, range: 0.22-1.01; SD 0.19).
  • There was no statistically significant difference between the left and right side or in adrenal measurements, because of body weight class effects.
  • The animal effect was the most important source of variation for all adrenal measurements.
  • Based on our study, CT is an effective method for assessing adrenal characteristics in the dog.
  • Normative CT data are provided to allow estimation of normal adrenal gland size and volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / radiography. Dogs / anatomy & histology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / veterinary. Animals. Dog Diseases / radiography. Female. Male. Pedigree. Predictive Value of Tests. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 17009504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Wu D, Tischler AS, Lloyd RV, DeLellis RA, de Krijger R, van Nederveen F, Nosé V: Observer variation in the application of the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):599-608
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  • [Title] Observer variation in the application of the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score.
  • Morphologic determination of the malignant potential of adrenal pheochromocytoma is a challenging problem in surgical pathology.
  • A multiparameter Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) was recently developed based on a comprehensive study of a single institutional cohort of 100 cases.
  • We further examined the utility of PASS by reviewing an independent single institutional cohort of adrenal pheochromocytomas as evaluated by 5 multi-institutional pathologists with at least 10 years experience in endocrine pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Severity of Illness Index. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19145205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Capaldo A, Gay F, De Falco M, Virgilio F, Laforgia V, Varano L: The adrenal gland of newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) following in vivo betamethasone administration. Anat Embryol (Berl); 2006 Nov;211(6):577-84
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  • [Title] The adrenal gland of newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) following in vivo betamethasone administration.
  • The response of the adrenal gland of Triturus carnifex to betamethasone administration was studied; the effects were evaluated by examination of the ultrastructural morphological features of the tissues as well as the serum levels of aldosterone, corticosterone, norepinephrine and epinephrine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Betamethasone / pharmacology. Triturus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16633818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2061
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomy and embryology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat. Embryol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9842X06Q6M / Betamethasone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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89. Bolton P, Budgell B, Kimpton A: Influence of innocuous cervical vertebral movement on the efferent innervation of the adrenal gland in the rat. Auton Neurosci; 2006 Jan 30;124(1-2):103-11
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  • [Title] Influence of innocuous cervical vertebral movement on the efferent innervation of the adrenal gland in the rat.
  • In general, in central nervous system intact anesthetized animals, adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity and catecholamine secretion increase in response to noxious somatic stimulation, and decrease in response to innocuous somatic stimulation.
  • In anesthetized rats, noxious chemical stimulation of the thoracic and lumbar interspinous tissues is associated with large increases in adrenal sympathetic efferent nerve activity and catecholamine secretion, with a clear segmental organization to the reflex apparent in spinalized animals.
  • However, the adrenal sympathetic nerve responses to mechanical stimulation in the form of pressure applied laterally to the lower thoracic and lower lumbar vertebrae do not display segmental organization, and the depressor response is more characteristic of responses to innocuous somatic stimulation despite the use of large forces (up to 3.0 kg).
  • Therefore, we sought to determine whether innocuous movements of the mechanoreceptor-rich deep tissues of the neck modulate the sympathetic outflow to the adrenal gland.
  • A computer driven small animal manipulator was used to impose ramp and hold rotational displacements (12 degrees /s, hold duration 2 s) of the 2nd cervical vertebra (range 2-30 degrees ) while recording multi-unit activity from sympathetic nerves innervating the adrenal gland.
  • While noxious forepaw pinch elicited an increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the adrenal gland, there was no significant change in sympathetic nerve activity with small (2 degrees or 6 degrees ) rotations.
  • Our data suggest that although noxious stimuli may modulate sympathetic outflow, it is rare for afferents signalling innocuous cervical vertebral movements to modulate sympathetic nerves innervating the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / innervation. Cervical Vertebrae / physiology. Movement / physiology. Neurons, Efferent / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16458616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1566-0702
  • [Journal-full-title] Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auton Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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90. Buhimschi CS, Turan OM, Funai EF, Azpurua H, Bahtiyar MO, Turan S, Zhao G, Dulay A, Bhandari V, Copel JA, Buhimschi IA: Fetal adrenal gland volume and cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ratio in inflammation-associated preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol; 2008 Mar;111(3):715-22
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  • [Title] Fetal adrenal gland volume and cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ratio in inflammation-associated preterm birth.
  • We sought to estimate the impact of intraamniotic inflammation on fetal adrenal gland volume and cortisol-to-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate ratio (fetal stress ratio) in pregnancies complicated by preterm birth.
  • Fetal adrenal gland volume was assessed by three-dimensional ultrasonography and corrected for estimated fetal weight.
  • RESULTS: Women with intraamniotic inflammation delivered earlier (27.8+/-3.4 weeks, n=16, compared with 32.3+/-3.0 weeks, n=35, P<.001), and their fetuses had higher cord blood IL-6 (P=.011) and higher corrected adrenal gland volumes (P=.027).
  • Cord blood IL-6 levels were in direct relationship with corrected adrenal volume (r=0.372, P=.019), fetal cortisol (r=0.428, P=.010), and DHEAS (r=0.521, P<.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Fetuses exposed to intraamniotic inflammation have higher adrenal gland volumes and lower cortisol-to-DHEAS ratios, suggesting that the fetal adrenocortical axis plays a role in the intrauterine adaptation to inflammation.

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  • (PMID = 18310376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321-05; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD 047321-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321-03; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321-02; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interleukin-6; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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91. Bertagna F, Biasiotto G, Rodella C, Werner T, Giubbini R, Alavi A: Massive bilateral adrenal gland metastases from melanoma diagnosed by F18-FDG-PET/CT. Jpn J Radiol; 2009 Nov;27(9):392-3
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  • [Title] Massive bilateral adrenal gland metastases from melanoma diagnosed by F18-FDG-PET/CT.
  • We report a case of a 75-year-old man with a history of a malignant melanoma with massive bilateral adrenal gland metastases diagnosed by F18-FDG-PET/CT after 10 years of negative follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Melanoma / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • [Cites] Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006 Jul;33(7):854-5 [16699770.001]
  • [Cites] Cutis. 1999 May;63(5):275-8, 281-4 [10349543.001]
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  • (PMID = 19943154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-108X
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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92. Hoeflich A, Bielohuby M: Mechanisms of adrenal gland growth: signal integration by extracellular signal regulated kinases1/2. J Mol Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;42(3):191-203
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of adrenal gland growth: signal integration by extracellular signal regulated kinases1/2.
  • The adrenal gland influences a multitude of processes during stress response, but also potently affects the immune system, glucose metabolism, electrolyte or water homeostasis, and cardiovascular functions.
  • According to the present understanding, the adrenal cortex is tightly controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
  • However, control of the adrenal gland comprises a plethora of additional endogenous or exogenous factors.
  • In the present review, we summarize the current view of endocrine growth control in the adrenal gland.
  • We then discuss intracellular mechanisms of adrenal growth control and focus on extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), which have been demonstrated to be controlled by not only ACTH or angiotensin II, but also by a large number of additional effectors.
  • On the basis of these multiple exogenous or endogenous factors which impact on the adrenal gland through ERK1/2 activity, we speculate on a mechanism by which ERK1/2 act as a central integrative growth regulatory elements in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / growth & development. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19052254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6813
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • [Number-of-references] 157
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93. De Falco M, Sciarrillo R, Capaldo A, Russo T, Gay F, Valiante S, Varano L, Laforgia V: The effects of the fungicide methyl thiophanate on adrenal gland morphophysiology of the lizard, Podarcis sicula. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol; 2007 Aug;53(2):241-8
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  • [Title] The effects of the fungicide methyl thiophanate on adrenal gland morphophysiology of the lizard, Podarcis sicula.
  • Although the fungicide methyl thiophanate (MT) is not considering a specific reproductive and developmental toxicant, it can induce histopathological damages in rat thyroid and adrenal glands that have a pivotal role in both processes.
  • We investigated the MT effects on adrenal glands of Podarcis sicula lizard, the endemic species of Southern Italy living in open country and in cultivated fields.
  • We used 1.5% MT/water to pollute terraria, food, and water twice a week for 15 and 30 days, and we evaluated adrenal toxicity through biochemical (adrenal and pituitary hormone plasma levels) and histological parameters (adrenal gland histopathology).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Endocrine Disruptors / toxicity. Fungicides, Industrial / toxicity. Lizards. Thiophanate / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 17549544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-4341
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Fungicides, Industrial; 5Q0Y96D5I8 / Thiophanate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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94. Parnaby CN, Galbraith N, O'Dwyer PJ: Experience in identifying the venous drainage of the adrenal gland during laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Clin Anat; 2008 Oct;21(7):660-5

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  • [Title] Experience in identifying the venous drainage of the adrenal gland during laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for most adrenal tumors.
  • An important part of LA is the early identification and ligation of the adrenal veins.
  • The venous drainage from each adrenal gland is usually via a single vein: the right vein draining into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and the left vein into the left renal vein.
  • The aim of the study was to clarify if LA identified venous drainage and its variants.
  • Between January 1999 and January 2008, 142 consecutive patients underwent LA.
  • Adrenal vein anatomy was documented on a prospective database.
  • In total, 142 patients underwent 162 LA (right = 62, left = 66, bilateral = 17).
  • All adrenal veins were identified at the time of laparoscopy.
  • For 157 LA, the adrenal venous drainage was constant: right vein drained into the IVC and left vein drained into left renal vein.
  • Five patients had adrenal vein variants: two right veins draining separately into IVC (n = 1), two right veins draining into the IVC and right renal vein (n = 1), and two left veins draining separately into the left renal vein (n = 3).
  • Adrenal vein variants were present in patients with phaeochromocytomas (n = 4) or adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 1).
  • The laparoscopic approach allowed an excellent view of the main adrenal venous anatomy.
  • This has helped confirm the constant nature of the venous drainage and successfully identify variant adrenal veins.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / blood supply. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy. Veins / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Renal Veins / anatomy & histology. Vena Cava, Inferior / anatomy & histology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18816449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2353
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Feng C, Li HZ, Yan WG, Luo YF, Cao JL: [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;27(8):486-8
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  • [Title] [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin (Syn) for differential diagnosis of different kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • METHODS: The samples of 69 adrenal gland tumors and 4 normal adrenal glands were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of chromogranin A and synaptophysin.
  • RESULTS: In the normal adrenal gland, CgA and Syn was exclusively detected in the medulla.
  • Syn was detected in adrenocortical adenomas 27/28 (96.4%), adrenocortical carcinoma 7/8 (87.5%), pheochromocytoma 24/25 (96.0%) and adrenal metastatic carcinoma 6/8 (75.0%), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: There is statistically significant difference of CgA expression between adrenalcortical and adrenal medullary tumors, and also between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • CgA and Syn are immunohistochemically reliable markers in the differential diagnosis of various kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Chromogranin A / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Synaptophysin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16188147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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96. Mouracade P, Dettloff H, Schneider M, Debras B, Jung JL: Radio-frequency ablation of solitary adrenal gland metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. Urology; 2009 Dec;74(6):1341-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radio-frequency ablation of solitary adrenal gland metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the early clinical experience associated with radio-frequency (RF) ablation in patients with solitary adrenal gland metastasis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • METHODS: A total of 5 patients were treated with RF ablation of adrenal gland metastasis from RCC under computed tomography (CT) guidance between 2006 and 2007.
  • All patients underwent a tumor biopsy before RF.
  • Tumor control was defined as the absence of contrast enhancement in the tumor on CT.
  • RESULTS: Five patients were treated with a RF ablation of the adrenal metastasis.
  • The average age of the patients was 69.4 +/- 11.1 years (57-87), the average time between the radical nephrectomy and the onset of adrenal metastasis was 5.2 +/- 1.3 years (4-7), and average diameter of the tumor was 3.9 +/- 1.4 cm (2-6).
  • A year after RF, four patients had a total necrosis of their tumor on CT and 1 had an active tumor for which the patient received a second course of RF.
  • An abscess of the adrenal gland had occurred in 1 case requiring a percutaneous drainage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of metastatic adrenal gland with RF broadens the range of treatment of metastatic RCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19781749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Fumimura Y, Ikemura M, Saito Y, Sengoku R, Kanemaru K, Sawabe M, Arai T, Ito G, Iwatsubo T, Fukayama M, Mizusawa H, Murayama S: Analysis of the adrenal gland is useful for evaluating pathology of the peripheral autonomic nervous system in lewy body disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2007 May;66(5):354-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of the adrenal gland is useful for evaluating pathology of the peripheral autonomic nervous system in lewy body disease.
  • We investigated whether the adrenal gland, which is evolutionarily related to sympathetic ganglia and is routinely examined in general autopsy, could be used to assess pathology of the PANS in Lewy body disease.
  • Brains, spinal cords, and adrenal glands from 783 consecutive autopsy cases from a general geriatric hospital were examined immunohistochemically with antiphosphorylated alpha-synuclein antibodies and routine staining.
  • Lewy body-related alpha-synucleinopathy was found in 207 (26.4%) of 783 cases, with 1 case solely in the adrenal gland.
  • In all 18 PD cases with or without dementia and in 33 of 38 DLB cases, the adrenal gland was involved, but it was spared in all cases of amygdala variants.
  • Our results indicate that the adrenal gland can provide useful information for evaluation of the PANS in Lewy body disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Autonomic Nervous System / pathology. Lewy Body Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17483692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Synuclein; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
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98. Turan OM, Turan S, Funai EF, Buhimschi IA, Copel JA, Buhimschi CS: Fetal adrenal gland volume: a novel method to identify women at risk for impending preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Apr;109(4):855-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fetal adrenal gland volume: a novel method to identify women at risk for impending preterm birth.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk of preterm birth (delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation) by evaluating the fetal adrenal gland volume, hallmark of activation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography.
  • METHODS: We performed 3-dimensional ultrasound examination of the fetal adrenal gland volume in 126 singleton fetuses, prospectively comparing those born to mothers with signs or symptoms of preterm labor (n=53) to control subjects (n=73).
  • Multiplanar technique with rotational methods for measurement of fetal adrenal gland volume was performed by using Virtual Organ Computer-Aided Analysis (VOCAL) technology.
  • RESULTS: The fetal adrenal gland volume was successfully examined in 86.5% of the cases.
  • There was a direct relationship between the fetal adrenal gland volume and estimated fetal weight.
  • A corrected adrenal gland volume of greater than 422 mm3/kg was best in predicting preterm birth within 5 days from the time of the measurement.
  • Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the corrected adrenal gland volume was the only significant independent predictor factor of preterm birth within 5 days of measurement.
  • CONCLUSION: Corrected adrenal gland volume measurement may identify women at risk for impending preterm birth.

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  • [CommentIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jul;110(1):187; author reply 187-8 [17601919.001]
  • (PMID = 17400846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321-01; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD 047321; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321-03; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD047321-02
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Uberoi J, Munver R: Surgical management of metastases to the adrenal gland: open, laparoscopic, and ablative approaches. Curr Urol Rep; 2009 Jan;10(1):67-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of metastases to the adrenal gland: open, laparoscopic, and ablative approaches.
  • The adrenal gland is a potential site of metastasis for various malignancies.
  • Metastases to the adrenal gland are the second most common type of adrenal mass lesion after adenomas.
  • Differentiation of a metastatic lesion from a primary adrenal lesion can be challenging and requires the selective use of radiologic imaging, serologic testing, and adrenal biopsy.
  • In patients who present with an isolated adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy is often considered to aid in cancer control.
  • Numerous studies have reported improved survival with resection of solitary adrenal metastases for various types of primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 19116098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6285
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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100. Komissarenko IV, Rybakov SI, Kvacheniuk AN, Lazar' SI, Fedorova TI, Kovalenko AE, Mel'nik ND, Negrienko KV: [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors]. Klin Khir; 2005 Oct;(10):47-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Using magnetic-resonance tomography in differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands malignant tumors].
  • Possibilities of application of magnet-resonance tomography (MRT) for differential diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumors were studied up.
  • MRT was conducted to 39 patients with adrenal glands tumors, including 22 - with malignant adrenal gland tumor, 17 - with benign tumor of adrenal gland.
  • MRT constitutes the most effective method of topic diagnosis of the adrenal glands tumor, owes multipurpose possibilities, do not deliver radiation load, permits to visualize the vessels without the contrast media usage.
  • The tumor diameter more than 10,1 cm, irregular form, illegible edges, uneven contours, presence of lymphadenopathy, regional or remote metastases constitutes diagnostic criterions of the adrenal glands malignant tumors.
  • The intensity of MRT signal could not be used for differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors of adrenal glands.

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  • (PMID = 16509086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2130
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinichna khirurhiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Khir
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
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