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1. Shigematsu K, Nishida N, Sakai H, Igawa T, Toriyama K, Nakatani A, Takahara O, Kawai K: Synaptophysin immunoreactivity in adrenocortical adenomas: a correlation between synaptophysin and CYP17A1 expression. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Dec;161(6):939-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synaptophysin immunoreactivity in adrenocortical adenomas: a correlation between synaptophysin and CYP17A1 expression.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: The adrenal cortex is not considered to be an intrinsic part of the diffuse neuroendocrine system, but adrenocortical neoplasms possess neuroendocrine properties.
  • In this study, we examined synaptophysin (SYP) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression in adrenocortical adenomas in relation to adrenal function.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 50.7 and 98.6% of the cortical adenomas showed SYP and NCAM immunoreactivities respectively.
  • There was no apparent difference in NCAM immunoreactivity among the adenomas.
  • However, the immunostaining for SYP was significantly stronger in cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) than in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA), nonfunctioning adenomas (NFA), showing no clinical or endocrinological abnormality, or adenomas associated with preclinical Cushing's syndrome (preCS).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We propose that SYP expression in adrenocortical cells may be involved in some aspect of adrenal function such as transport or secretion of glucocorticoids.

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  • (PMID = 19755404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 1.14.99.9 / CYP17A1 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase
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2. Lubikowski J, Umiński M, Andrysiak-Mamos E, Pynka S, Fuchs H, Wójcicki M, Szajko M, Moleda P, Post M, Zochowska E, Kiedrowicz B, Safranow K, Syrenicz A: From open to laparoscopic adrenalectomy: thirty years' experience of one medical centre. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Jan-Feb;61(1):94-101
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  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) has become the standardized treatment of benign adrenal lesions over the last two decades, making the indications to open adrenalectomy (OA) limited.
  • The purpose of this study was to show the thirty years of experience in open (OA) and laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) gained in one medical centre as well as to compare the results of OA and LA performed for benign adrenal lesions.
  • Analyzed factors included patients demographic data, ASA score, indication for surgery, tumour size and side, characteristics of the removed tumours, intraoperative and postoperative outcome of LA and OA, postoperative pain sensation, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and conversion rate from LA to OA.
  • The mean operative time was longer in the LA group (137 v. 82 min., p < 0.0001) and the blood loss was lower in LA group (110 v. 254 mL, p < 0.0001).
  • The mean time until resumption of normal diet was shorter after LA (22 v. 44 h), as was the mean time until ambulation (17 v. 36 h), mean length of the hospital stay (4.6 v. 6.8 days), and mean time until return to normal activities (14 v. 23 days, p < 0.0001 for each difference).
  • The analgesic requirement on the first and the second day postoperatively was lower in the LA group (p < 0.0001).
  • The rate of the conversion from LA to OA was 16%.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was adenoma of the adrenal gland in the majority of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that LA is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated procedure.
  • It may be recommended as a "gold standard" surgery in a case of benign functioning or non-functioning adrenal tumours with diameter less than 8 cm. (Pol J Endocrinol 2010; 61 (1): 94-101).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Male. Middle Aged. Poland. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20205111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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3. Ridho FE, Adam FM, Adam JM: Adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Med Indones; 2009 Apr;41(2):87-93
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor, which is unidentified before the imaging procedures conducted for an abnormality which is initially unforeseen as an adrenal disease.
  • Symptoms and/or clinical signs of adrenal tumor do not have to be present prior to a diagnosis.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma can be divided into non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, hypersecreting tumor, primary adrenal carcinoma, other adrenal mass, and metastases.
  • The majority of adrenal tumor is non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, but it is always considered as hypersecreting tumor until proven otherwise.
  • Some conditions that can be found due to hormonal activity of adrenal incidentaloma is subclinical Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, aldosteronoma (Conn's disease), and several tumors which secrete androgen and sex hormone.
  • Diagnostic approach of adrenal incidentaloma is focused on two main problems, which are, whether the lesion is hormonally active even though lacking characteristic clinical signs, and whether the lesion is benign or malignant; thus it needs hormonal and radiologic evaluation, even a fine needle biopsy.
  • The management for adrenal incidentaloma includes surgical removal for hormonally active adrenal tumors, or inactive tumors with size less than 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Aldosterone / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Incidental Findings. Renin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Indonesia / epidemiology. Morbidity / trends

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  • (PMID = 19390128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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4. Pawlikowski M, Winczyk K, Sledź B: Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2008;46(1):51-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 in adrenal tumors.
  • Angiotensin II is well known to affect the adrenal cell growth and function.
  • Angiotensin receptors AT1 and AT2 were found to be present in the normal adrenal gland.
  • However, the data on the expression of the angiotensin receptors in the adrenal tumors are very scarce.
  • To overcome this gap, the paraffin sections of the adrenal cortical tumors and of pheochromocytomas from the archival material were immunostained with antibodies raised against AT1 (sc-1173) and AT2 (sc-9040) receptor proteins.
  • In hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and in benign adrenocortical adenomas, both functioning and non-functioning, the AT1 immunostaining was present mainly in the cell membranes.
  • A positive immunoreaction was also found in the subpopulation of cell nuclei and within the cytoplasm.
  • In the adrenal cancer, as well as in pheochromocytomas, neither cell membranes nor cell nuclei were immunostained with anti-AT1 antibody.
  • Our data indicates that the expression of AT1 receptors is altered in adrenal cancer and in pheochromocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18296263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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5. Shigematsu K, Nakagaki T, Yamaguchi N, Kawai K, Sakai H, Takahara O: Analysis of mRNA expression for steroidogenic enzymes in the remaining adrenal cortices attached to adrenocortical adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Jun;158(6):867-78

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of mRNA expression for steroidogenic enzymes in the remaining adrenal cortices attached to adrenocortical adenomas.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We have recently demonstrated that the adrenal cortices attached to aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) contained microscopic subcapsular micronodules suggestive of active aldosterone production.
  • In this study, we used in situ hybridization to investigate the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes in the adrenal cortices attached to cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA) and clinically silent adenoma (non-functioning adenoma; NFA), in addition to APA.
  • Most of the cortical nodules in zona fasciculata to zona reticularis showed a suppressed steroidogenesis in the cortices attached to adenoma, but some expressed intensely all necessary steroidogenic enzyme mRNAs for cortisol synthesis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is thus necessary to keep in mind, on the occasion of subtotal adrenalectomy, that lesions with the potential to later develop into functional adrenocortical nodules may be present in other parts of the ipsilateral or contralateral adrenal cortices.

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  • (PMID = 18505908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPATA7 protein, human; EC 1.14.15.6 / Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme; EC 1.14.99.9 / CYP17A1 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.9 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 2.8.2.- / Sulfotransferases; EC 2.8.2.2 / alcohol sulfotransferase
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6. Bagwan IN, Cook G, Mudan S, Wotherspoon A: Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:116
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  • BACKGROUND: The most common tumours of the adrenal gland are adenoma, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and metastases.
  • Although the imaging features of these tumours are established, the imaging characteristics of uncommon adrenal masses are less well known.
  • In patients with extradrenal tumour, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Sixteen months later on staging CT scan a 2 x 2 cm adrenal mass was detected, which increased in size over a period of time to 3 x 3 cm in size.
  • Adrenalectomy was performed and histological examination revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma within an adrenal adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The present case highlights the unusual behaviour of an oesophageal adenocarcinoma causing metastasis to an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Endocr J. 2005 Dec;52(6):785-8 [16410674.001]
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  • (PMID = 17949483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2100056
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7. Schittenhelm J, Jacob SN, Rutczynska J, Tsiflikas I, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extra-adrenal paravertebral myelolipoma mimicking a thoracic schwannoma.
  • Myelolipoma of the adrenal gland is composed of both adipose tissue and normal haematopoietic elements.
  • Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with adenoma of the adrenal gland and an additional paravertebral lesion in the thoracic spine.
  • Post-mortem histopathology showed the incidental finding of a paravertebral myelolipoma.

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  • [Cites] Radiographics. 2005 Jan-Feb;25(1):69-85 [15653588.001]
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  • (PMID = 21686745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027965
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8. Denzinger S, Burger M, Hartmann A, Hofstaedter F, Wieland WF, Ganzer R: Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma. APMIS; 2007 Apr;115(4):381-4
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma.
  • We report on a 50-year-old patient with a giant benign adenoma of the adrenal cortex, which ruptured spontaneously, leading to life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Following emergency adrenalectomy with sparing of the ipsilateral kidney, an adenoma of the adrenal cortex with a diameter of 18 cm and a weight of 1400 g was found.
  • A detailed literature search showed this to be the largest benign tumor of the adrenal cortex described so far.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this unusual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Middle Aged. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / pathology. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17504308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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9. Blanco C, Maqueda E, Rubio JA, Rodriguez A: Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy secondary to adrenal adenoma: metyrapone treatment and laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):164-7
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy secondary to adrenal adenoma: metyrapone treatment and laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is a rare and difficult to diagnose disorder.
  • We describe the case of a 30-yr-old woman presenting with symptoms and signs of mild hypercortisolism, in which ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed.
  • An abdominal computed tomography scan confirmed a left adrenal mass.
  • While diagnosis work-up was still in progress, the patient became pregnant and wanted to carry her pregnancy to full-term.
  • Pathologic examination of the gland showed a benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The patient developed secondary adrenal insufficiency and was discharged on 20 mg hydrocortisone daily dose.
  • No apparent metyrapone-induced teratogenic effects were observed and there was no clinical or biochemical suppression of adrenocortical function.
  • In conclusion, in adrenal Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy, medical treatment with metyrapone as soon as the diagnosis is made, in combination with laparoscopic surgery during the second trimester, are useful in preventing complications secondary to hypercortisolism and safe both for the mother and infant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Metyrapone / therapeutic use. Pregnancy Complications / therapy


10. Ouzounian S, Tissier F, Gouya H, Kujas M, Louvel A, Legmann P, Bertagna X: [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations]. Presse Med; 2005 Apr 09;34(7):511-5
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  • [Title] [Cushing's syndrome and adrenal adenoma. Two surprising associations].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie de Cushing et adénome cortico-surrénalien. Deux associations étonnantes.
  • CASES: In the first case, we describe the case of a patient with an adrenal adenoma 20 years before the occurrence of Cushing's disease related to the pineal gland.
  • In the second case, two members of the same family were diagnosed almost simultaneously with adrenal cortical adenoma (mother) and Cushing's disease (daughter).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15903005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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11. Ziaja J, Cholewa K, Mazurek U, Cierpka L: [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jul-Aug;59(4):330-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Molekularne podstawy syntezy aldosteronu i kortyzolu w prawidlowych nadnerczach i w gruczolakach kory nadnerczy.
  • The aim of the study is to present genes encoding enzymatic proteins of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis pathway, methods of their transcriptional activity measurement, mRNA expression of the genes in normal adrenal cortex, in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients with Conn and Cushing syndromes, as well as in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients, in which hormonal activity of the tumour was not confirmed.
  • According to presented papers mRNA expression of analyzed genes is best known in tissue obtained from tumours excised from patients with Conn syndrome.
  • On the other hand transcriptional activity of the genes within the other adrenocortical adenomas is documented in lesser degree.
  • It concerns particularly analyses of tissue material obtained from patients, in which hormonal activity of adrenal tumours was not confirmed with biochemical tests.
  • It should be also considered, that the frame of reference for the majority of molecular analyses of adrenocortical tumour tissues was material obtained from little number of normal adrenals, what decreases in some degree credibility of obtained results.
  • Mentioned above remarks may be the basis for conduction of further investigations based on larger material, obtained both from normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / enzymology. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reference Values. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18777504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.- / Mixed Function Oxygenases; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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12. Wu Z, Ni D, Yan Y, Li J, Wang B, Ouyang J, Zhang G, Ma X, Li H, Zhang X: Expression of angiotensin II receptors in aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland and their clinical significance. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2010 Aug;30(4):486-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of angiotensin II receptors in aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland and their clinical significance.
  • The expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) of the adrenal gland was detected, and their relationship with clinical indexes of APA was analyzed.
  • The mRNA expression of AT1R and AT2R in 50 cases of APA and tissues adjacent to tumors and 12 cases of normal adrenal tissues was detected by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • The expression of AT1R in adenoma, tissues adjacent to tumor, and normal tissues of the adrenal gland showed no significant differences.
  • The expression of AT2R in APA tissue was lower than that in normal adrenal gland tissues (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Aldosterone / blood. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / metabolism. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20714875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AGTR1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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13. Yip L, Tublin ME, Falcone JA, Nordman CR, Stang MT, Ogilvie JB, Carty SE, Yim JH: The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;17(3):846-52
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  • [Title] The adrenal mass: correlation of histopathology with imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help diagnose benign adrenal adenomas, but prior studies rely on nonoperative follow-up as proof of a lesion's benign nature.
  • Imaging results were considered to signify benign adrenal adenoma if one or more of the following was present: Hounsfield units <10 on unenhanced CT, contrast-enhanced CT quantifying absolute contrast washout of >60% or relative contrast washout of >40%, or MR with chemical-shift imaging demonstrating loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase images.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging in predicting benign adrenal adenoma were 57 and 94%, respectively.
  • Histopathology confirmed that all 66 adrenal masses with imaging characteristics suggesting benign adenoma were indeed benign lesions and included 61 benign adrenal adenomas and 5 benign nonadenomatous lesions (3 myelolipomas, 1 composite myelolipoma/adenoma, and 1 ganglioliponeuroma).
  • Malignant adrenal lesions were diagnosed in 17/130 (13%) masses: 8 metastases, 7 adrenal cortical carcinomas, 1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, and 1 ganglioneuroblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CT or MR characteristics predicted the presence of benign lesions with 100% specificity.
  • Every adrenal malignancy had CT or MR results that were inconsistent with benign adenoma (100% sensitivity).
  • To exclude malignancy, adrenal masses with non-benign imaging characteristics should be resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19960266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • There were 43 cortical adenomas, 11 cortical adrenocarcinomas and 20 PHEOs (including 5 malignant lesions).
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • There was no expression of Ki67 or p53 protein above the assumed level in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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15. Mac Gregor Gooch AL, Guillermina Velasco Diaz G, Carranza Lira S: [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 May;73(5):261-4
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  • [Title] [Virilizing adrenal adenoma: a report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma suprarrenal virilizante: comunicación de un caso.
  • Androgen excess can be due to different entities such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, ovarian tumors or adrenal tumors.
  • It is presented the case of a 26 year-old woman that suffered from amenorrhea, hirsutism, voice deepening, reduction of mammary volume and 10 kg weight loss, without response to different treatments.
  • The CAT scan and nuclear magnetic imaging of adrenal glands showed an oval retroperitoneal image of 7.2 x 6.5 x 8.4 cm at the right adrenal gland.
  • Surgery was performed and the right adrenal gland excised.
  • The histopathologic report indicated a benign cortical adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21966765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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16. Chen KT: Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):449-51
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  • [Title] Extraneous cells of hepatic origin in adrenal fine needle aspiration as a diagnostic pitfall: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: The fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic evaluations of most adrenal lesions are straightforward.
  • After delivery, computed tomography-guided FNA showed bland epithelial cells, and a diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • However, subsequent resection showed a myelolipoma of the adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: This case illustrated 2 cytodiagnostic pitfalls in adrenal fine needle aspirates.
  • First, the myeloid cells characteristic of a myelolipoma were not present in the FNA smears because a large portion of the lesion was composed of fibroadipose tissue.
  • Second, extraneous, benign cells of hepatic origin were misinterpreted as adrenal cortical adenoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hepatocytes / pathology. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16124179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Hennings J, Sundin A, Hägg A, Hellman P: 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):963-7
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  • [Title] 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate whether dexamethasone suppression treatment can improve (11) C-metomidate positron emission tomography (MTO-PET) detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism (PA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with proven PA and two patients with non-hyperfunctioning adrenocortical incidentalomas and small adrenocortical tumours observed on CT underwent MTO-PET before and 3 days after administration of oral dexamethasone suppression treatment.
  • RESULTS: All tumours were detected and categorised as adrenocortical by MTO-PET.
  • SUVhs as well as SUVmax were higher in PA compared to nonfunctional adenomas.
  • Normal adrenal cortex was suppressed after dexamethasone (p < 0.05), but tumour SUV was not significantly decreased after suppression in either PA or nonfunctional tumours (p > 0.05).
  • However, these changes caused no significant increase in the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a highly sensitive method for detecting and categorising even small adrenocortical tumours in PA.
  • In this series, dexamethasone-suppressed MTO-PET was unable to increase the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio to further facilitate detection of small adenomas in PA as an alternative to adrenal venous sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / drug therapy. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnostic imaging. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 20644954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5377-20-8 / metomidate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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18. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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19. Hirose A, Okada Y, Fukushima A, Tanaka Y: [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma]. J UOEH; 2005 Dec 1;27(4):315-23
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  • [Title] [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma].
  • We report a rare case of bilateral primary aldosteronism with renal cell carcinoma.
  • Abdominal CT and MRI revealed tumor masses in both adrenal glands, and a large left renal mass.
  • The preoperative diagnosis was primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas and left renal cell carcinoma.
  • The Pathological diagnosis was left renal cell carcinoma and bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas is relatively rare and its complication with renal cell carcinoma is an extremely rare case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications


20. Farkas A, Horányi J, Gláz E, Kulka J: [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Jul 3;146(27):1453-8
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  • [Title] [Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Oncocytás mellékvese-adenoma.
  • Oncocytic tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • The authors describe a case of a rare tumor arising in the adrenal gland.
  • The tumor 6 cm in diameter, connected to the right adrenal gland, was found incidentally in a healthy young man of 34 years of age, who suffered an accident and had a rib fracture.
  • The right adrenal gland with the tumor was removed by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological examination revealed an oncocytic adenoma of the adrenal cortex.
  • The authors describe the morphology and the differential diagnosis of this rare tumor of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male

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  • (PMID = 16089107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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21. Ammoury RF, Heptulla RA, Tatevian N, Elenberg E: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Nephrol; 2006 Mar;21(3):433-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-year-old patient.
  • Adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma is extremely rare in pediatrics.
  • A 16-year-old patient was diagnosed with severe hypertension associated with a right adrenal mass.
  • MRI of the abdomen showed a heterogeneous adrenal mass 4.2x3.3 cm.
  • Laparoscopic resection of the mass was done, and the pathology revealed an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • This is a case in which an adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma, a benign and usually asymptomatic tumor, presented as severe hypertension resolving with surgical resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16382320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-041X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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22. Thorin-Savouré A, Tissier-Rible F, Guignat L, Pellerin A, Bertagna X, Bertherat J, Lefebvre H: Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4924-9
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  • [Title] Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis.
  • CONTEXT: In patients with a history of extraadrenal tumor, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy.
  • Detection of the malignant tissue is a difficult challenge when metastasis occurs in an adrenal adenoma, forming a collision/composite tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, AND SETTING: We report two patients with adrenal collision/composite tumors referred to two French university hospitals.
  • PATIENTS AND RESULTS: Two patients with histories of mammary and sigmoid carcinomas, respectively, presented with adrenal mass discovered 8 and 3 yr after surgical removal of the primary tumor.
  • In the two cases, computerized tomographic scan showed that the adrenal tumor contained two components with low and high attenuation values, respectively.
  • Uptake of iodocholesterol by the adrenal tumor in case 1 and elevated plasma ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone values in case 2 strongly argued for the diagnosis of primary adrenocortical tumors.
  • Enlargement of the adrenal mass during follow-up in case 1 and association of the adrenal lesion with a hepatic mass in case 2 led to adrenalectomy.
  • In both cases, histological examination of the tumor demonstrated the presence of metastatic carcinoma tissue in an adrenocortical adenoma, allowing classification of the neoplasia as a collision/composite tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations show that collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland formed by carcinoma metastasis in benign adenomas are a pitfall of iodocholesterol scintigraphy and/or plasma steroid assays to exclude the diagnosis of adrenal metastasis.
  • Conversely, computerized tomographic scan is a useful tool for the distinction between the benign and malignant tissues in adrenal collision/composite tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15914530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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23. Feng C, Li HZ, Yan WG, Luo YF, Cao JL: [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;27(8):486-8
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  • [Title] [The expression and significance of chromogranin A and synaptophysin in adrenal gland tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of chromogranin A (CgA) and synaptophysin (Syn) for differential diagnosis of different kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • METHODS: The samples of 69 adrenal gland tumors and 4 normal adrenal glands were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of chromogranin A and synaptophysin.
  • RESULTS: In the normal adrenal gland, CgA and Syn was exclusively detected in the medulla.
  • CgA was detected in all pheochromocytomas 25/25 (100%), and gave less or no expression in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Syn was detected in adrenocortical adenomas 27/28 (96.4%), adrenocortical carcinoma 7/8 (87.5%), pheochromocytoma 24/25 (96.0%) and adrenal metastatic carcinoma 6/8 (75.0%), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: There is statistically significant difference of CgA expression between adrenalcortical and adrenal medullary tumors, and also between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • CgA and Syn are immunohistochemically reliable markers in the differential diagnosis of various kinds of adrenal gland tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Chromogranin A / biosynthesis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Synaptophysin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16188147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin
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24. Liu SY, Ng EK, Lee PS, Wong SK, Chiu PW, Mui WL, So WY, Chow FC: Radiofrequency ablation for benign aldosterone-producing adenoma: a scarless technique to an old disease. Ann Surg; 2010 Dec;252(6):1058-64
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  • [Title] Radiofrequency ablation for benign aldosterone-producing adenoma: a scarless technique to an old disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in treating primary aldosteronism (PA) due to aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).
  • Its application on benign functional adrenal adenoma has never been prospectively described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21107117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Welsh SJ, Khan S: Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):161-9
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  • [Title] Radiological localizing techniques in adrenal tumors.
  • The characterisation of adrenal lesions is a common radiological dilemma.
  • Incidental adrenal lesions are commonly detected with computed tomography (CT), and lesion characterisation is critical.
  • The prevalence of incidental adrenal lesions has been reported to be 2.3% at autopsy and 0.5-2% with abdominal CT.
  • Although the majority of adrenal lesions are benign, in patients with an extra-adrenal primary cancer the probability of an adrenal mass being a metastasis is 52%.
  • Unfortunately, there may be significant overlap between the imaging appearances of benign lesions such as lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions, particularly metastases and small adrenal carcinomas.
  • This review highlights recent advances in radiological imaging of adrenal lesions and we discuss the relative merits of CT and magnetic resonance imaging to aid the identification of benign and malignant adrenal lesions and their roles, in combination with biochemical and clinical data, in recognizing common pathologies such as adrenal adenoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoma and metastases.
  • We also discuss the radiological characteristics of rarer adrenal lesions including lymphoma, neuroblastic tumours (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma), lipomatous tumours (myelolipoma, angiolipoma, teratoma, lipoma and liposarcoma), in addition to hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / radiography. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / radiography. Neuroblastoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19471240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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26. Mete O, Asa SL: Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):182-5
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  • [Title] Aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenoma with oncocytic change and cytoplasmic eosinophilic globular inclusions.
  • We report an interesting morphological alteration in the adrenal of a 72-year-old woman suffering from severe hypertension due to primary hyperaldosteronism.
  • The laparoscopic left adrenalectomy specimen revealed an adrenal cortical adenoma composed of varying proportions of oncocytic and clear cells, predominantly showing central oncocytic change.
  • Oncocytes also exhibited numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic globular inclusions, which are not commonly observed in aldosterone-producing adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Aldosterone / secretion. Inclusion Bodies / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19462261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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27. Garduno-García Jde J, Reza-Albarrán A, Márquez MA, Pérez FJ: [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Nov;57(9):421-5
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  • [Title] [Adrenal adenoma as a cause of Cushing's syndrome: twenty years' experience in a referral center in Mexico].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma adrenal como etiología de síndrome de Cushing: veinte años de experiencia en un centro mexicano de tercer nivel.
  • Adrenal adenomas are an uncommon cause of adult CS.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with CS caused by adrenal adenomas in a referral center.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional observational study of patients with a diagnosis of CS caused by adrenal adenomas managed in our center over a 20-year period.
  • Our clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this entity was analyzed.
  • The results of dynamic testing with dexamethasone suggested adrenal adenoma in 100% of the patients.
  • Seventy percent of adenomas were found in the left gland.
  • ACTH measurement in our center was not reliable in identifying adrenal adenoma as a cause of CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20863774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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28. Dinleyici EC, Dogruel N, Acikalin MF, Tokar B, Oztelcan B, Ilhan H: An additional child case of an aldosterone-producing adenoma with an atypical presentation of peripheral paralysis due to hypokalemia. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Nov;30(10):870-2
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  • [Title] An additional child case of an aldosterone-producing adenoma with an atypical presentation of peripheral paralysis due to hypokalemia.
  • Aldosterone-producing adenoma, which is characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, and elevated aldosterone levels with suppressed plasma renin activity, is a rare condition during childhood and is also potentially curable.
  • To the best of our knowledge, nearly 25 cases of childhood aldosterone-secreting adenoma have been reported in the literature to date.
  • Here we describe a 13-yr-old girl with primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to aldosterone-secreting adenoma.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed left adrenal mass.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and histopathological examinations showed benign adrenal adenoma.
  • This case demonstrates the importance of a systemic evaluation including blood pressure monitorization of children with hypokalemia as intermittent hypertension episodes may be seen; cases without hypertension may be misdiagnosed as rheumatological or neurological disorders such as hypokalemic periodic paralysis, as in our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypokalemia / etiology. Paralysis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18075291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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29. Nakamura A, Shimizu C, Nagai S, Taniguchi S, Umetsu M, Atsumi T, Wada N, Yoshioka N, Ono Y, Sasano H, Koike T: Unilateral adrenalectomy improves insulin resistance and polycystic ovaries in a middle-aged woman with virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jan;30(1):65-9
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  • [Title] Unilateral adrenalectomy improves insulin resistance and polycystic ovaries in a middle-aged woman with virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • A benign virilizing adrenal adenoma is rare among adrenal neoplasms in middle-aged women.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a left adrenal tumor, and an adrenocortical scintigraphy revealed uptake of the tracer on the left side.
  • Histopathological features of resected adrenal tumor were consistent with those of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Cortical atrophy and reduced expression of DHEA-ST were detected in the cortex of the adjacent non-neoplastic adrenal gland.
  • This is a very rare case of virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Insulin Resistance. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / therapy. Virilism / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17318025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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30. Friedrich-Rust M, Schneider G, Bohle RM, Herrmann E, Sarrazin C, Zeuzem S, Bojunga J: Contrast-enhanced sonography of adrenal masses: differentiation of adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Dec;191(6):1852-60
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  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced sonography of adrenal masses: differentiation of adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced sonography in the characterization of adrenal masses.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five consecutively registered patients with newly detected adrenal masses underwent hormonal evaluation and duplex and Doppler sonography followed by contrast-enhanced sonography and CT or MRI.
  • CT and MRI were used as the reference methods for the diagnosis of adenoma and myelolipoma.
  • Metastasis was diagnosed with fine-needle biopsy, and all other adrenal masses were diagnosed at adrenalectomy.
  • Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate the criteria for diagnosis of malignant adrenal masses.
  • RESULTS: Size greater than 4 cm and hypervascularization were found significantly more often in malignant than in benign lesions (71% vs 21% for size; 57% vs 7% for hypervascularization).
  • At contrast-enhanced sonography, early arterial or arterial contrast enhancement and rapid washout were seen in all patients with primary or secondary malignant lesions of the adrenal gland and in only 22% of patients with benign adrenal masses (p < 0.05).
  • In 32 of 35 patients (91%), findings at CT or MRI were congruent with those at contrast-enhanced sonography in regard to characterization of adenoma versus nonadenomatous lesion (p < 0.001).
  • In two of the 35 cases, however, all imaging methods favored the diagnosis of nonadenomatous lesion, but the histologic result after adrenalectomy was adrenal adenoma.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced sonography in the diagnosis of malignant adrenal mass were 100% and 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced sonography can be used to differentiate adenomas and nonadenomatous lesions with a sensitivity comparable with that of CT and MRI and may be a cost-effective method for preselection of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement / methods. Phospholipids. Sulfur Hexafluoride
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19020259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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31. Iihara M, Obara T: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Aug;106(8):479-83
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenal tumors].
  • Adrenal surgery is necessary for the management of functioning adrenal tumors, such as aldosterone-producing adenoma, cortisol-producing adenoma, and pheochromocytoma.
  • The role of adrenal imaging in primary hyperaldosteronism is to separate the surgically resectable unilateral aldosteronoma from bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Once the clinical diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism is confirmed, adrenal computed tomography (CT) with 3-mm sections should be the first imaging study.
  • If the results of CT and NP-59 scintigraphy are equivocal, adrenal venous sampling is necessary.
  • Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas are seen as adrenal masses 2.5 cm or larger in diameter in CT scanning.
  • When an adrenal mass measures more than 5 cm in diameter, a functioning adrenal carcinoma should be considered.
  • In the past decade, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has replaced open adrenalectomy as a standard operative procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Adrenal-sparing laparoscopic surgery has recently become a feasible option in patients with hereditary bilateral pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Medulla. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16119111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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32. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • Commonly, it is diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • However, some reports indicate synchronous occurrence with other lesions including adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • It has very rarely been reported to occur in association with adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Lumachi F, Borsato S, Tregnaghi A, Marino F, Fassina A, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Cecchin D, Bui F, Iacobone M, Favia G: High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Tumori; 2007 May-Jun;93(3):269-74
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  • [Title] High risk of malignancy in patients with incidentally discovered adrenal masses: accuracy of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The incidental finding of nonfunctioning adrenal masses (incidentalomas) is common, but no reliable criteria in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal masses have been defined.
  • The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the usefulness of adrenal imaging and image-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas with the aim of excluding or confirming malignancy before surgery.
  • METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients (18 men and 24 women; median age, 54 years; range, 25-75 years) with incidentally discovered adrenal masses of 3 cm or more in the greatest diameter were prospectively enrolled in the study.
  • RESULTS: The revised final pathology showed 30 (71.4%) benign (26 adrenocortical adenomas, of which 3 were atypical, 2 ganglioneuromas, and 2 nonfunctioning benign pheochromocytomas) and 12 (28.6%, 95% CI = 15-42) adrenal malignancies (8 adrenocortical carcinomas and 4 unsuspected adrenal metastases).
  • The definitive diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma was made according to Weiss criteria and confirmed on the basis of local invasion at surgery or metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the aim of selecting for surgery patients with a non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma of 3 cm or more in diameter, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology should be considered the strategy of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] 19-Iodocholesterol / analogs & derivatives. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Epinephrine / urine. Female. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Ganglioneuroma / surgery. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Iodine Radioisotopes. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Norepinephrine / urine. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiography, Abdominal. Renin / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17679462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 30461-91-7 / 19-Iodocholesterol; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 68232-36-0 / 6-iodomethylcholesterol; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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34. Comlekci A, Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Yesil S, Eraslan S: Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):40-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience.
  • To investigate clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters and follow-up findings of subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • CT was the most frequent radiological intervention that discovered adrenal masses (57%).
  • The vast majority of the participants (85.6%) had benign adrenal adenomas.
  • Primary adrenocortical malignancy was detected in 4 subjects (1.1%).
  • Subjects with adrenal adenomas had significantly smaller tumor diameters (P ≤ 0.001 vs. other tumors).
  • Sensitivity and specificity of 40 mm as a cut-off value in the differentiation of adrenal gland malignancies from benign tumors was 73.3 and 54.8%, respectively.
  • Most of the adrenal adenomas were non-functioning (73.5%).
  • During 24 months follow-up 10.2% of adenomas featured increase in tumor diameter and 2.06% developed sCS.
  • Most of the incidentally discovered adrenal tumors were non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • Clinically overt hormone hypersecretion syndromes were mainly shown in young subjects, while adrenal gland malignancies and sCS were more common in older ages.
  • Metabolic derangements were common; however, a possible independent association between adrenal adenoma and metabolic problems need to be elucidated with prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Metabolic Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aging. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Normetanephrine / urine. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19882253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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35. Inoue T, Ishiguro K, Suda T, Ito N, Suzuki Y, Taniguchi Y, Ohgi S: Laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy for adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(1):94-7
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy for adrenocortical adenomas causing Cushing's syndrome: report of a case.
  • Laparoscopic total adrenalectomy has become a standard technique for small adrenal tumors; however, bilateral adrenalectomy results in postoperative adrenal insufficiency, necessitating lifelong steroid replacement.
  • To preserve adrenocortical function in a 41-year-old woman with bilateral adrenocortical adenoma (BAA) causing Cushing's syndrome, we performed laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy.
  • We based our preoperative diagnosis of bilateral adrenocortical tumors causing Cushing's syndrome on the results of endocrinological investigations and imaging findings.
  • Thus, we performed lateral transperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy, preserving the adrenal glands, which were normal.
  • Pathological examination of both tumors confirmed the diagnosis of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The patient had no postoperative complications, and her adrenocortical function was normal without steroid replacement at her 10-month follow-up.
  • This report shows that Cushing's syndrome resulting from bilateral adenomas can be effectively treated by laparoscopic bilateral partial adrenalectomy as a minimally invasive, adrenocortical-preserving operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16378204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Jeong BC, Park YH, Han DH, Kim HH: Laparoendoscopic single-site and conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a matched case-control study. J Endourol; 2009 Dec;23(12):1957-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe our initial clinical experience and assess the feasibility of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in the treatment of benign adrenal adenoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients undergoing LESS adrenalectomy for benign adrenal adenoma were compared with 17 patients undergoing conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LESS adrenalectomy for benign adrenal adenoma is comparable to the conventional laparoscopic approach with regard to the operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, and degree of complication, and has demonstrated more desirable cosmetic outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 19909074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Contesse V, Reznik Y, Louiset E, Duparc C, Cartier D, Sicard F, Laquerriere A, Parmentier F, Kuhn JM, Vaudry H, Lefebvre H: Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2843-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies.
  • Two patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas underwent a series of pharmacological and physiological tests after pretreatment with dexamethasone.
  • In the two cases, 5-HT stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor cells with increased efficacy and/or potency to activate steroidogenesis by comparison with normal adrenocortical cells.
  • In the two adenoma tissues, immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of 5-HT-like immunoreactivity within clusters of steroidogenic cells, suggesting that 5-HT acted through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism to stimulate steroidogenesis.
  • In conclusion, this study provides the first observation of adrenocortical cortisol-producing adenomas hypersensitive in vivo and in vitro to serotonergic agonists.
  • Our results also show that cortisol-producing adenomas can express simultaneously several illegitimate receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Serotonin / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Horm Metab Res. 2005 Aug;37(8):528-9 [16138268.001]
  • (PMID = 15705918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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38. Lee R, Storr M, Hershfield NB: A case of Conn's syndrome revealed after oral sodium phosphate (Fleet) preparation for colonoscopy. J Dig Dis; 2010 Apr;11(2):111-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of Conn's syndrome revealed after oral sodium phosphate (Fleet) preparation for colonoscopy.
  • The patient was subsequently diagnosed with primary aldosteronism secondary to an adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • Bilateral adrenal venous sampling revealed excessive levels of aldosterone in the left adrenal vein prior to definitive surgery.
  • This case indicates that an oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation, though safe for most patients, can be complicated by a previously not diagnosed endocrine disease like the primary aldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) reported here.
  • This is the first report of a Conn's syndrome diagnosed after bowel cleansing with a sodium phosphate solution.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonoscopy / methods. Hyperaldosteronism / chemically induced. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Phosphates / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Administration, Oral. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Aldosterone / blood. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 20402838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of digestive diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphates; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; SE337SVY37 / sodium phosphate
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39. Guthoff M, Schnauder G, Kirchhoff K, Kurth R, Horger M, Müssig K: [Normokalaemic primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma--Case 06/2009]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2009 Jul;134(31-32):1582
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  • [Title] [Normokalaemic primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma--Case 06/2009].
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Ultrasound displayed no evidence of renal artery stenosis.
  • Renal function was normal.
  • MRI revealed an adenoma of the right adrenal gland.
  • DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND COURSE: The results were consistent with primary aldosteronism due to an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • The histological findings confirmed an adenoma of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aldosterone / blood. Aldosterone / secretion. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. Laparoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Renin / blood

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  • (PMID = 19629922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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40. Monjero-Ares I, Gegundez-Gómez C, Couselo-Villanueva JM, Moreda-Pérez M, Jorge-Iglesias M, Torres-García I, Alvarez-Gutiérrez AE, Arija-Val JF: [Association of pheochromocytoma with contralateral nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma]. Cir Esp; 2006 Feb;79(2):126-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Association of pheochromocytoma with contralateral nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Asociación de feocromocitoma con adenoma suprarrenal contralateral no funcionante.
  • A 52-year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain, headaches and palpitations was admitted to our hospital for investigation of a bilateral adrenal tumor.
  • The definitive diagnosis was right pheochromocytoma and left adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Only four cases of pheochromocytoma associated with nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma have previously been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma

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  • (PMID = 16539953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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41. Fallo F, Pezzi V, Sonino N, Altavilla G, Barzon L: Adrenal incidentaloma in pregnancy: clinical, molecular and immunohistochemical findings. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 May;28(5):459-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma in pregnancy: clinical, molecular and immunohistochemical findings.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas detected during pregnancy are very rare, and the natural history of these tumors during gestation is unknown.
  • We report a case of a pregnant woman with an adrenal mass discovered serendipitously, who was followed-up during gestation and underwent adrenalectomy shortly after delivery.
  • Estrogens may indeed influence the function and proliferation of human adrenal cells, and a state of circulating estrogen excess can represent an in vivo model to test their effect on the adrenals.
  • No evidence of adrenal change in morphology and function was found in our patient throughout pregnancy, as shown by adrenal ultrasound imaging and adrenal hormone measurements.
  • Four months after delivery, the patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and pathologic analysis revealed a 2.7 cm benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The diameter of the adrenal mass at ultrasonography correlated highly with post-partum mass diameter measured by abdominal computed tomography (CT).
  • Quantitative expression of both ERalpha and ERbeta by real-time RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting findings did not differ among adenoma, normal adjacent adrenal and normal adrenal control tissues.
  • This case of an adrenal incidentaloma discovered during pregnancy shows that a close observation with endocrine investigations and ultrasonography could be an appropriate approach, delaying the decision of surgical intervention after delivery.
  • Estrogen receptor mRNA levels in the adrenal mass similar to those observed in normal adrenals suggest that estrogen oversecretion during pregnancy was not a risk factor for tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / immunology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / immunology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16075931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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42. Gupta RT, Ho LM, Marin D, Boll DT, Barnhart HX, Nelson RC: Dual-energy CT for characterization of adrenal nodules: initial experience. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jun;194(6):1479-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dual-energy CT for characterization of adrenal nodules: initial experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether use of dual-energy technique can improve the diagnostic performance of CT in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and metastatic lesions.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one adrenal nodules were prospectively identified in 17 patients who underwent dual-energy CT at 140 and 80 kVp.
  • The mean attenuation change (increase or decrease) between 140 kVp and 80 kVp was determined for each adrenal nodule.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-six adrenal nodules were benign adenomas (attenuation less than +10 HU or stability for at least 1 year).
  • Five adrenal nodules were classified as metastatic (rapid growth in 1 year and history of extraadrenal malignancy).
  • The mean attenuation change between 140 kVp and 80 kVp was 0.4 +/- 7.1 HU for adenomas and 9.2 +/- 4.3 HU for metastatic lesions (p < 0.003).
  • Fifty percent of adenomas had an attenuation decrease at 80 kVp.
  • With a decrease in attenuation at 80 kVp as an indicator of intracellular lipid within an adenoma, dual-energy CT has 50% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 28% negative predictive value in the diagnosis of adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A decrease in attenuation of an adrenal lesion between 140 kVp and 80 kVp is a highly specific sign of adrenal adenoma.
  • However, because an increase in attenuation at 80 kVp is seen with metastatic lesions and some adenomas, the sensitivity of this test is low.
  • These data suggest that dual-energy CT can be used to help differentiate some lipid-poor adrenal adenomas from metastatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20489086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Hori T, Taniguchi K, Kurata M, Nakamura K, Kato K, Ogura Y, Iwasaki M, Okamoto S, Yamakado K, Yagi S, Iida T, Kato T, Saito K, Wang L, Kawarada Y, Uemoto S: Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Dec 7;13(45):6094-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoembryonic antigen-producing adrenal adenoma resected using combined lateral and anterior transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery.
  • Computed tomography detected a left adrenal mass measuring 3.5 cm multiply 3.0 cm in diameter.
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the adrenal tumor only, with a maximum standardized uptake value of 2.8.
  • A diagnosis of CEA-producing benign adenoma was made.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a benign adenoma.
  • We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of CEA-producing adrenal adenoma, along with a review of the relevant literature, and discuss our laparoscopic surgery techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18023107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 11
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4250898
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44. Spinazzi R, Rucinski M, Neri G, Malendowicz LK, Nussdorfer GG: Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jun;90(6):3544-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells.
  • We previously found that orexin-A, via the OX1-R, stimulates cortisol secretion from dispersed human adrenocortical cells.
  • In this study, we demonstrate that six of eight cortisol-secreting adenomas expressed preproorexin mRNA, and seven of 10 adenomas contained measurable amounts of orexin-A but not orexin-B.
  • Normal adrenal cortexes neither expressed preproorexin nor contained orexins.
  • All adenomas expressed OX1-R and OX2-R mRNAs, and real-time PCR showed that the expression of both receptors was up-regulated in adenomas, compared with normal adrenal cortex.
  • Orexin-A concentration-dependently raised basal cortisol secretion from freshly dispersed normal and adenomatous cells, minimal and maximal effective concentrations being 10(-10) and 10(-8) m, and the peptide efficacy (percent increase elicited by 10(-8) m orexin-A) was significantly higher in adenomas than in the normal adrenal cortex.
  • Collectively, our findings allow us to conclude that the orexin system is overexpressed in cortisol-secreting adenomas and suggest that orexin-A may act as an autocrine-paracrine regulator of the secretory activity and growth of some of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Receptors, Neuropeptide / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15797953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / HCRT protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Orexin Receptors; 0 / Orexins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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45. Tan HS, Thai AC, Nga ME, Mukherjee JJ: Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Apr;34(3):271-4
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  • [Title] Development of ipsilateral adrenocortical carcinoma sixteen years after resection of an adrenal tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • INTRODUCTION: At times, it may be difficult to differentiate early stage, low-grade adrenocortical carcinoma from benign adrenal adenoma.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: A 53-year-old lady underwent right adrenalectomy for a 4-cm adrenocortical tumour causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Histology revealed an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Sixteen years later, she presented with a 14-cm adrenal tumour, again on the right side.
  • Histology confirmed adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • OUTCOME: She died of metastatic disease 17 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of long-term, systematic follow-up of patients treated for benign adrenal adenomas, especially if the tumour size exceeds 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15902349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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46. Mlika M, Farah F, Jarboui S, Abdessalem M, Zaouche A, Jilani SB, Zermani R: A benign cystic mass of the pancreas mimicking a malignant lesion. Pathologica; 2009 Dec;101(6):261-2
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  • [Title] A benign cystic mass of the pancreas mimicking a malignant lesion.
  • The case thus demonstrates a rare association between a cystic form of chronic pancreatitis and adrenal adenoma.
  • We report the case of a 46-year-old patient with no particular past medical history who presented with long lasting symptoms consisting in an abdominal pain and deterioration in general health.
  • Imaging findings (ultrasound, CT-scan, MRI) showed a 3-cm cystic lesion of the tail of the pancreas associated with a 3-cm adrenal mass.
  • Because of the suspicion of a malignant disease, surgical treatment was performed.
  • Pathological findings consisted in fibrotic chronic pancreatitis with canal dilatation and an adrenal adenoma.
  • Final diagnosis must be based on pathological features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20387716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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47. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK: Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • We report a case of a young hypertensive male who was first seen in 1998 with a right thalamic haemorrhage and uncontrolled hypertension.
  • CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.
  • This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications


48. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


49. Ong K, Tan KB, Putti TC: Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):e200-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myelolipoma within a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma.
  • Myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma is a very rare cause of adrenal incidentaloma, and only nine cases have been reported in the English and Japanese literature.
  • Clinical history, physical examination and laboratory results did not show any evidence to suggest metabolic disorder such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism or catecholamine hypersecretion.
  • The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a histopathological study confirmed the mass to be a non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma containing myelolipoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-functional adrenal cortical adenoma reported; in the nine cases of myelolipoma within an adrenal cortical adenoma reported previously, all the patients had Cushing's syndrome.
  • The literature on synchronous myelolipoma with adrenal adenoma, and myelolipoma within functional adrenal adenoma, is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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50. Lamas C, López LM, Lozano E, Atienzar M, Ruiz-Mondéjar R, Alfaro JJ, Botella F: Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Sep;117(8):440-5
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  • [Title] Myelolipomatous adrenal masses causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • Adrenal myelolipomas are uncommon benign tumors, composed of mature adipose tissue and haematopoietic elements in varying proportions.
  • They are usually asymptomatic, non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas, but there have been a few reports of myelolipomatous masses associated with adrenocortical hypersecretion.
  • We report two cases of large mixed adrenal tumors, with heterogeneous appearance and areas of fat density in imaging techniques, and with autonomous cortisol production leading to Cushing's syndrome.
  • Both underwent adrenalectomy and the histological study showed an adrenocortical adenoma with widespread myelolipomatous metaplasia.
  • We review all the previous reported cases of hypercortisolism associated with adrenal myelolipomas.
  • We also discuss the recommended diagnostic approach and therapeutic management of adrenal masses of lipomatous appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Myelolipoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Middle Aged. Obesity / complications

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
  • (PMID = 19373749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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51. Ors F, Lev-Toaff A, O'Kane P, Qazi N, Bergin D: Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma. Br J Radiol; 2007 Sep;80(957):e205-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paraovarian adrenal rest with MRI features characteristic of an adrenal adenoma.
  • We report MR and sonographic imaging features of an incidentally detected paraovarian adrenal rest in a 44-year-old woman who was being evaluated for menorrhagia.
  • This is the first report of chemical shift imaging identifying the presence of lipid within an adrenal rest as well as rapid washout of contrast.
  • Both of these MR characteristics are typically seen with an adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17928489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Tadjine M, Lampron A, Ouadi L, Bourdeau I: Frequent mutations of beta-catenin gene in sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Feb;68(2):264-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequent mutations of beta-catenin gene in sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Molecular alterations remain largely unknown in most sporadic adrenocortical tumours and hyperplasias.
  • In our previous work, we demonstrated the differential expression of several Wnt/beta-catenin signalling-related genes implicated in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias (AIMAH).
  • To better understand the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in adrenocortical tumours, we performed mutational analysis of the beta-catenin gene.
  • METHODS: We studied 53 human adrenocortical samples (33 adenomas, 4 carcinomas, 13 AIMAH, 3 ACTH-dependent adrenal hyperplasias) and the human adrenocortical cancer cell line NCI-H295R.
  • RESULTS: No mutations were detected in adrenocortical carcinomas, AIMAH and ACTH-dependent hyperplasias.
  • Genetic alterations were found in 5 (15%) out of 33 adenomas: three cortisol-secreting adenomas, one aldosterone-secreting adenoma and one nonfunctional adenoma.
  • In addition, cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was observed in mutated adenomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Activating mutations of exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene are frequent in adrenocortical adenomas, and further characterization of the Wnt/beta-catenin signalling pathway should lead to a better understanding of adrenal tumourigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. beta Catenin / genetics. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17854394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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53. Makino K, Kojima R, Nakamura H, Morioka M, Iyama K, Shigematsu K, Kuratsu J: Ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma in the spinal region: case report and review of the literature. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Oct;27(2):121-5
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  • [Title] Ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma in the spinal region: case report and review of the literature.
  • Ectopic adrenal cortical neoplasms are extremely rare; few involve the central nervous system (CNS).
  • We report a 17-month-old girl with spinal adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • In addition, the nuclei stained positive for steroidogenic factor 1 (Ad4BP/SF-1), which is involved in adrenal steroidogenesis.
  • This case confirms the occurrence of adrenocortical adenoma in the CNS.
  • We suggest that this tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Choristoma. Dura Mater / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Inhibins / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / metabolism. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 21046315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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54. Petramala L, Battisti P, Lauri G, Palleschi L, Cotesta D, Iorio M, De Toma G, Sciomer S, Letizia C: Cushing's syndrome patient who exhibited congestive heart failure. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jun;30(6):525-8
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  • In this article we report the case of a 28-yr-old woman with CS secondary to adrenal adenoma who exhibited congestive heart failure as an initial symptom.
  • An abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a 7-cm right adrenal mass.
  • A laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed and pathological examination of the gland showed a benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In conclusion we report the case of heart failure as the main clinical symptom in CS secondary to adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome. Heart Failure / etiology

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  • [Cites] Lancet. 2001 Mar 10;357(9258):783-91 [11253984.001]
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  • (PMID = 17646730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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55. Kamenicky P, Houdoin L, Ferlicot S, Salenave S, Brailly S, Droupy S, Meduri G, Sasano H, Suzuki T, Young J, Chanson P: Benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas produce small amounts of androgens. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Jun;66(6):778-88
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  • [Title] Benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas produce small amounts of androgens.
  • BACKGROUND: Serum androgen levels are below normal in patients with benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, owing to ACTH suppression.
  • The objective of the study was to analyse the androgen-producing ability of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • METHODS: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), Delta4androstenedione and testosterone concentrations were measured before and after adrenalectomy and then at 6-month intervals in 20 women (eight cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, six subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and six nonfunctional adenomas).
  • RESULTS: Before adrenalectomy, serum androgen concentrations were measurable in all women with clinically apparent and subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Postoperatively, during adrenocortical insufficiency, DHEAS, Delta4androstenedione and testosterone concentrations fell to near the detection limit in all patients with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas (P = 0.008 for each marker) and showed a similar tendency to fall in all patients with subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Pre- and post-treatment androgen concentrations did not differ in patients with nonfunctional adenomas.
  • The intensity of CYP17 and SULT2A1 expression was stronger in cortisol-secreting adenomas than in their adjacent normal adrenal tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: Both clinically apparent and subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas appear to show moderate autonomous androgen production.
  • Thus, weak androgen secretion in patients with adrenocortical tumours should not necessarily be considered as a sign of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17408424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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56. Rescinito G, Zandrino F, Cittadini G Jr, Santacroce E, Giasotto V, Neumaier CE: Characterization of adrenal adenomas and metastases: correlation between unenhanced computed tomography and chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Radiol; 2006 Feb;47(1):71-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of adrenal adenomas and metastases: correlation between unenhanced computed tomography and chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation of absolute attenuation values of unenhanced computed tomography (CT) with signal intensity (SI) quantitative analysis on chemical shift (CS) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in differentiating adrenal adenomas from metastases.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-one adrenal masses (27 adenomas, 14 metastases) were studied with CS MR imaging and unenhanced CT.
  • RESULTS: The mean attenuation value of metastases was significantly greater than that of adenomas (< 0.0001).
  • On MR, the mean SI-i of adenomas was significantly greater than that of metastases (P < 0.0001) and no overlaps were evident.
  • The CS-r of malignant and benign lesions overlapped considerably, and five adenomas (all with indeterminate Hounsfield Unit values at CT) were misclassified as potentially malignant.
  • CONCLUSION: Since CS MR imaging and CT both depict the presence of lipids within adrenal lesions, absolute attenuation values are highly correlated with MR quantitative analysis.
  • SI-i is the most reliable tool for differentiating adrenal adenomas from metastases, showing better accuracy than lesion-to-spleen CS-r, in particular for adenomas with indeterminate absolute attenuation values.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16498936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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57. Ng VW, Ma RC, So WY, Choi KC, Kong AP, Cockram CS, Chow CC: Evaluation of functional and malignant adrenal incidentalomas. Arch Intern Med; 2010 Dec 13;170(22):2017-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of functional and malignant adrenal incidentalomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses discovered inadvertently.
  • We undertook this study to review the clinical characteristics of patients with adrenal incidentalomas who presented to a tertiary endocrine center in Hong Kong.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of all 139 cases of adrenal incidentalomas that were referred to the Endocrine Centre of the Prince of Wales Hospital between June 1, 2000, and May 31, 2007.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (43.9%) had nonfunctional benign adrenal adenomas, 52 (37.4%) had functional lesions, 15 (10.8%) had malignant adrenal lesions, and the remaining 11 (7.9%) had varying adrenal disease.
  • Only 5 of the 27 patients with cortisol-secreting adrenal incidentalomas had symptoms or signs of excess cortisol levels at presentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentaloma is a commonly encountered clinical problem.
  • Functional or primary malignant adrenal incidentalomas can be detected at an earlier stage during hormonal and radiological evaluations, which provides an opportunity for further management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Aldosterone / secretion. Catecholamines / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion

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  • (PMID = 21149760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3679
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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58. Buurman H, Saeger W: Abnormalities in incidentally removed adrenal glands. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(3):277-82
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  • [Title] Abnormalities in incidentally removed adrenal glands.
  • The incidence and type of pathological findings in a large group of surgically removed adrenal glands were analyzed: 282 resected adrenals from the years 1995 to 2004 were examined; 242 adrenals were removed for therapy of renal cell carcinomas (in one case both adrenals were removed).
  • Other indications for adrenalectomies were malignant tumors (urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, etc.) and benign findings (oncocytoma, angiomyolipoma, pyelonephritis, etc.).
  • A total of 18 adrenals exhibited a metastasis or diffuse infiltration of the adrenal or para-adrenal tissue by a malignant tumor (17 renal cell carcinomas, 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma).
  • Seven adrenals exhibited an adenoma.
  • Eighty-nine adrenal hyperplasias were diagnosed.
  • The adrenals exhibited infiltration or metastasis by malignant tumors (6.4%), adrenal adenomas (2.5%), adrenal hyperplasias (31.6%), and other alterations (38.7%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17308364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Reimondo G, Angeli A: Management of adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;23(2):233-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Clinically inapparent adrenal masses, or adrenal incidentalomas, are discovered inadvertently in the course of work-up or treatment of unrelated disorders.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent tumour detected incidentally, but adrenocortical cancer, phaeochromocytoma and metastasis are not rare.
  • Two critical questions should be answered before trying to outline the management of adrenal incidentaloma:.
  • (1) identify either primary (adrenocortical cancer) or secondary (adrenal metastasis) malignancy;.
  • Radiological evaluation is the key to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumours.
  • Endocrine testing is necessary to exclude phaeochromocytoma in all patients with an adrenal incidentaloma because this tumour may remain undiagnosed after imaging studies.
  • The management of clinically inapparent adrenal adenomas may vary depending whether or not they are functioning.
  • It is reasonable to screen for primary aldosteronism all hypertensive patients and recommend adrenalectomy when an aldosterone-producing adenoma is confirmed.
  • A subset of adenomas secretes cortisol autonomously and may lead to mild hypercortisolism, a condition defined as subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Also the management of this condition is largely empirical, and data are insufficient to indicate the superiority of a surgical or non-surgical approach to managing patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Animals. Humans. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19500766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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60. Yan QZ, Li HZ, Pan DL: [Causes of delaying diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma and strategy therefore]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Nov 14;86(42):3002-4
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  • [Title] [Causes of delaying diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma and strategy therefore].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the causes of delaying diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma and discuss corrective strategies.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 267 patients of primary hyperaldosteronism with adrenal adenoma confirmed by operation 1995 - 2005 were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Confirmed diagnosis was made after a duration of (92 +/- 64) months (3 - 40 years) after the first visit.
  • 95.9% of the patients were diagnosed as with primary hypertension at the first visit without receiving relevant imaging examination of adrenal and endocrine examination.
  • Adrenal adenoma was discovered by computed tomography with thin coat screening in 267 patients and by ultrasonography in 151 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aldosterone / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chymosin / blood. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypokalemia / diagnosis. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17288816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.4 / Chymosin
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61. Boyle B, Butz H, Liko I, Zalatnai A, Toth M, Feldman K, Horanyi J, Igaz P, Racz K, Patocs A: Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas. Steroids; 2010 Oct;75(10):695-700

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in human adrenocortical adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in the normal human adrenal gland, however, no study has been performed to evaluate the separate expression of alpha- and beta-isoforms (GRalpha and GRbeta) in normal human adrenals and in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL: GRalpha and GRbeta mRNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR in 31 adrenal tissues including 19 non-functioning adenomas (NFA), 6 cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) and 6 normal adrenocortical tissues.
  • In addition, the presence and cellular localization of GRalpha and GRbeta proteins in adrenal tissues were studied by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Compared to normal adrenocortical tissues, both GRalpha and GRbeta mRNAs were significantly increased in CPA but not in NFA.
  • Using anti-GRalpha antibody a strong nuclear staining was observed in NFA and CPA, and a less remarkable immunoreactivity was detected in some nuclei of normal adrenocortical cells.
  • GRbeta immunostaining was absent in normal adrenal tissues and NFA, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear immunoreaction was found in CPA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Altered expression of GRalpha and GRbeta in CPA raises their possible role in the pathophysiology of these adrenal tumors, although further studies are needed to elucidate the potential significance of these findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20438742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5867
  • [Journal-full-title] Steroids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Steroids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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62. Anagnostis P, Karagiannis A, Tziomalos K, Kakafika AI, Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP: Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Jul-Sep;8(3):163-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: a diagnostic challenge.
  • The widespread application of abdominal imaging procedures has resulted in an increased frequency of clinically silent adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is a term applied to an accidentally discovered adrenal mass on imaging performed for the investigation of an unrelated complaint.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are a cluster of different pathologies, the majority of which are benign and non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Algorithms. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19671516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 181
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63. Mishra AK, Agarwal A, George RK, Gupta S, Mishra SK: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome: report of the initial six cases. Int Surg; 2009 Jan-Feb;94(1):31-4
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome: report of the initial six cases.
  • We report our experience with the initial six cases of transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome).
  • From 1997 to 2002, 6 patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome) were referred to the Department of Endocrine Surgery and underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy through the transperitoneal approach.
  • In all patients, the adrenal gland and the adenoma were successfully removed laparoscopically, and all patients were normokalemic and normotensive in the first follow-up after 6 months.

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  • (PMID = 20099423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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64. Shiozawa M, Sata N, Endo K, Koizumi M, Yasuda Y, Nagai H, Takakusaki H: Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors. Abdom Imaging; 2009 Jan-Feb;34(1):113-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative virtual simulation of adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal endoscopic adrenalectomy (EA) is recognized as a principal procedure for benign adrenal tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 11 cases comprising 10 adrenal adenomas and one ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia admitted to Jichi Medical University Hospital, Tochigi, Japan, between November 2003 and October 2006.
  • 3D PVS images of ribs, vertebrae, kidneys, and adrenal tumors were generated and compared with real images obtained during EA.
  • RESULTS: The PVS images clearly showed the relative locations of the adrenal tumor, kidney, and adjacent anatomical structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18253779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Schittenhelm J, Ebner FH, Harter P, Bornemann A: Symptomatic intraspinal oncocytic adrenocortical adenoma. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(1):73-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Symptomatic intraspinal oncocytic adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Benign epithelial tumors are rarely found at this site.
  • We here present the case of a 44-year-old woman with a lesion in the cauda equina that fulfilled the radiologic criteria of schwannoma and caused clinical symptoms for 3 years.
  • This immunoprofile indicated adrenocortical origin.
  • The diagnosis of an oncocytic adrenal cortical adenoma was made.
  • These extraadrenal tumors are thought to arise from heterotopic adrenocortical tissue in the spinal cavity.
  • Oncocytic tumors are rare neoplasms and they comprise non-functioning variants of adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry excluded oncocytic paraganglioma, oncocytic meningioma, renal cell carcinoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, and granular cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19039533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Park SH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Lim JS, Kim KW: Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation. Korean J Radiol; 2007 Jul-Aug;8(4):328-35
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  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined.
  • The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test.
  • RESULTS: The twenty-five adenomas showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) attenuation values (mean+/-SD; 16.3+/-14.9) than the nonadenomas (38.1+/-6.8).
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 36%, 100%, 100%, 56%, and 64%, respectively, at a threshold of 10 HU; 60%, 100%, 100%, 67%, and 78%, respectively, at a threshold of 20 HU; and 72%, 95%, 95%, 73%, and 82%, respectively, at a threshold of 25 HU.
  • The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma.
  • The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17673844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627166
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67. Hosogi H, Nagayama S, Kanamoto N, Yoshizawa A, Suzuki T, Nakao K, Sakai Y: Biallelic APC inactivation was responsible for functional adrenocortical adenoma in familial adenomatous polyposis with novel germline mutation of the APC gene: report of a case. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Dec;39(12):837-46
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  • [Title] Biallelic APC inactivation was responsible for functional adrenocortical adenoma in familial adenomatous polyposis with novel germline mutation of the APC gene: report of a case.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients develop various extracolonic lesions, among which functional adrenocortical neoplasms are infrequent.
  • Furthermore, bilateral adrenocortical adenomas were detected, and functional analyses showed a hormonal secretion pattern consistent with Cushing's syndrome.
  • At 10 months post-operative with no detectable metastatic lesions, the residual colorectum and the larger, left adrenal gland were resected, and the hormonal hypersecretion was normalized.
  • Biallelic APC inactivation due to loss of the normal allele was evident in the adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunostaining for beta-catenin revealed diffuse cytoplasmic expression in resected tissues including adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Biallelic APC inactivation may play a role in developing cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma in FAP patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / metabolism. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Genes, APC / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19684041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein
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68. Wagnerova H, Dudasova D, Lazurova I: Hormonal and metabolic evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas. Neoplasma; 2009;56(6):521-5
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  • [Title] Hormonal and metabolic evaluation of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • The biochemical and hormonal data in patients with adrenal incidentalomas were evaluated to compare the differences between adrenal adenomas and other benign lesions and to find the relationship between metabolic parameters and adrenal hormones.
  • Ninety two patients (29men, age 20-90 years) with incidentally discovered unilateral or bilateral adrenal masses detected on CT were included in this study for the reasons others than adrenal pathology.
  • In the group of patients with adrenal masses the prevalence of arterial hypertension was three fold higher, the prevalence of DM was approximately five fold higher and the prevalence of the overweight and obesity two fold higher than is reported in the general population.
  • The most frequent adrenal masses were nonfunctional masses, the occurence of functional lesions was as follows: steroid enzymopathies (an exaggerated response of 17-OHP indicating a possible 21-hydroxylase deficiency), subclinical Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma (5%, 2%, 2% and 1% respectively).
  • There were no significant differences in evaluated data between patients with adenomas and hyperplasia and also no significant difference in evaluated data between lesions smaller than 3 cm and lesions greater than 3 cm.
  • In this study we confirmed a higher prevalence of symptoms characteristic for different metabolic syndromes in these patients with adrenal incidentalomas, which indicate systematic screening for the metabolic syndrome including evaluation of the insuline resistance in this patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Hormones / analysis. Metabolic Syndrome X / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2010 Nov;184(5):1925 [22519994.001]
  • (PMID = 19728761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Triglycerides; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
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69. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare cancer with a very poor prognosis.
  • The genetic alterations identified to date in adrenocortical tumors are limited.
  • We investigated whether Wnt pathway activation is involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • In a series of 39 adrenocortical tumors, immunohistochemistry revealed abnormal cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in 10 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 11 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • An activating somatic mutation of the beta-catenin gene was shown in 7 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 4 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas; these mutations were observed only in adrenocortical tumors with abnormal beta-catenin accumulation and most were point mutations altering the Ser45 of exon 3 (in the consensus GSK3-beta/CK1 phosphorylation site).
  • Functional studies showed that the activating Ser45 beta-catenin mutation found in the adrenocortical cancer H295R cell line leads to constitutive activation of T-cell factor-dependent transcription.
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In adrenocortical adenomas, beta-catenin alterations are more frequent in nonfunctioning tumors, suggesting that beta-catenin pathway activation might be mostly involved in the development of nonsecreting adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The very frequent and substantial accumulation of beta-catenin in adrenocortical carcinomas suggests that other alterations might also be involved.
  • This finding may contribute to new therapeutic approaches targeting the Wnt pathway in malignant adrenocortical tumors, for which limited medical therapy is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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70. Tian L, Guo Y, Wu YP, Liu LZ: [CT features of adrenal cortical adenoma: a report of 109 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Jan;27(1):66-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [CT features of adrenal cortical adenoma: a report of 109 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Adrenal cortical adenoma (ACA) is a common disease, and can be diagnosed easily with CT examination.
  • However, some atypical adenomas are likely to be misdiagnosed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 109 cases of ACA, 104 showed unilateral single adenoma, 1 showed unilateral 2 adenomas, and 4 showed bilateral adenomas.
  • The maximal diameter of non-functional adenomas was larger than that of Cushing's adenomas, and the latter was larger than that of Conn's adenomas.
  • The probability of degeneration was higher in large adenomas than in small adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18184467.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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71. Qiao ZW, Xia CM, Zhu YB, Shi WP, Miao F: First-pass perfusion computed tomography: initial experience in differentiating adrenal adenoma from metastasis. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Mar;73(3):657-63
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  • [Title] First-pass perfusion computed tomography: initial experience in differentiating adrenal adenoma from metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To differentiate adrenal adenoma from metastasis in patients using perfusion computed tomography (PCT) imaging.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two patients with adrenal masses underwent first-pass PCT imaging.
  • Of these patients, twenty-one were diagnosed with adrenal adenoma, and the others with metastases.
  • RESULTS: The perfusion parameters such as BV, BF and PS were statistically significant different between the two groups, with adenomas showing higher mean BV (12.18 versus 3.86), BF (97.51 versus 45.99) and PS (21.73 versus 10.93) compared with metastases (p<0.05).
  • For BV, a cutoff point of 7.30 was found to have a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 100% to differentiate between adenoma and metastasis.
  • The sensitivity and specificity were 81.0 and 80.0%, respectively, for BF with a cutoff point of 71.96; and 85.7 and 86.7%, respectively, for PS with a cutoff point of 12.70 to differentiate adenoma and metastasis.
  • A comparison of MVD counts from adenomas with those from metastases showed a significant difference (p<0.05).
  • However, no significant differences were observed in the four perfusion parameters and MVD between lipid rich and lipid poor adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: PCT may be useful for evaluating the neovascularization of adrenal masses and differentiating adenoma from metastasis on the basis of PCT parameters.
  • Adenomas show higher BV, BF and PS compared with metastases.
  • According our data, the optimal threshold BV is 7.30, resulting in a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 100% for the differentiation of adenoma from metastasis.
  • Adrenal adenomas have similar hemodynamic profiles, which are apparently independent of the lipid content of an adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Microcirculation. ROC Curve. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19200677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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72. Alam MM, Rahman MA, Naser MF, Hossain MS, Islam MA: Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Oct;19(4):632-5
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  • [Title] Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient.
  • Adrenal tumours that secrete testosterone are extremely rare and we describe such a case in a 35 years old female with virilization.
  • She had left adrenal adenoma 7.5 X 6.4 cm in size, her ovaries were normal.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20956912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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73. Abdullah N, Khawaja K, Hale J, Barrett AM, Cheetham TD: Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;18(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy.
  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome).
  • The hypertension resolved following excision of the adrenal tumour.
  • Normokalaemia with potassium >4.0 mmol/l is very unusual in patients with Conn's syndrome and has not been described in childhood before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Potassium / blood


74. Yoon JH, Kim SH, Kim MA, Han JK, Choi BI: MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Jan-Feb;11(1):126-30
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  • [Title] MDCT and Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI findings of adrenal adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • We report a case of an adenoma arising from an ectopic adrenal gland mimicking a hepatocellular carcinoma in a heavy alcohol abuser.
  • A tumorectomy was performed and adrenal adenoma from an ectopic adrenal gland within the liver was confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Gadolinium DTPA. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / gadolinium ethoxybenzyl DTPA; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799643
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal adenoma / Ectopic adrenal gland / Liver / Magnetic resonance (MR) / Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)
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75. Ramacciato G, Mercantini P, La Torre M, De Ruvo N, Ercolani G, Stigliano A, Toscano V: Simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe for synchronous large adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3):381-5
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  • [Title] Simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is safe for synchronous large adrenal tumors.
  • Laparoscopy is now considered the gold standard for treating benign monolateral adrenal lesions.
  • We present the case of a patient affected by Cushing's syndrome due to large bilateral adrenal adenomas (7.5 cm) who underwent simultaneous laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • Laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy is a safe, effective procedure when performed by experienced hands and may be an alternative treatment for large adrenal lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17212901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015693
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76. Vesin C, Chabre O, Mallion JM, Chaffanjon P, Sturm N, Baguet JP: [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss; 2007 Feb;100(2):121-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and post-operative evolution of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome). A 12-years retrospective study].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostic et évolution postopératoire des patients opérés d'un adénome de Conn. Etude rétrospective sur 12 ans.
  • The prevalence and characteristics of patients operated for adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) as well as their post-operative arterial pressure evolution are varying through literature.
  • From 1993 to 2005, 24 patients (mean age = 46 +/-11 years) presented the biological criteria of primary hyperaldosteronism and benefited from adrenalectomy with confirmation of adrenal adenoma.
  • All adenomas measured more than 10 mm in scanner imaging.
  • Post-operative spontaneous normotensive patients had, at the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma, a more recent and non-refractory hypertension, with a lower number of antihypertensive drugs, a better response to spirinolactone and higher aldosterone plasmatic levels.
  • 1) Whether 70% of patients operated for adrenal adenoma are normotensive (with or without treatement) post-operatively, only 25% are definitely cured after 4 years.
  • Factors associated to a post-operative cure highlight the interest of an ealy diagnosis.
  • 2) There is probably an underdiagnosis of adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome) because neither adenomas with normokaliemia, nor adenomas <10 mm in scanner imaging have ever been diagnosed or at least, sent to surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17474497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives des maladies du coeur et des vaisseaux
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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77. Faria JF, Goldman SM, Szejnfeld J, Melo H, Kater C, Kenney P, Huayllas MP, Demarchi G, Francisco VV, Andreoni C, Srougi M, Ortiz V, Abdalla N: Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience. Radiology; 2007 Dec;245(3):788-97
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  • [Title] Adrenal masses: characterization with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy--initial experience.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively determine the accuracy of in vivo proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in distinguishing adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and metastases, with histologic or computed tomographic findings and follow-up data as the reference standards.
  • Sixty consecutive patients (24 male and 36 female patients; mean age, 53 years) harboring adrenal tumors larger than 2 cm in diameter (mean diameter, 4.6 cm +/- 3.4 [standard deviation]) entered the study and were examined with a 1.5-T MR imaging system and point-resolved multivoxel (1)H MR spectroscopy.
  • Thirty-eight patients had adenomas; 10, pheochromocytomas; five, carcinomas; and seven, metastases.
  • Metabolite ratios (choline-creatine, choline-lipid, lipid-creatine, and 4.0-4.3 ppm/creatine) and cutoff values (obtained by using receiver operating characteristic analyses) were obtained and compared for each type of adrenal mass, which was identified previously on the basis of clinical, hormonal, and pathologic evidence.
  • RESULTS: Cutoff values of 1.20 for the choline-creatine ratio (92% sensitivity, 96% specificity; P < .01), 0.38 for the choline-lipid ratio (92% sensitivity, 90% specificity; P < .01), and 2.10 for the lipid-creatine ratio (45% sensitivity, 100% specificity) enabled adenomas and pheochromocytomas to be distinguished from carcinomas and metastases.
  • A 4.0-4.3 ppm/creatine ratio greater than 1.50 enabled distinction of pheochromocytomas and carcinomas from adenomas and metastases (87% sensitivity, 98% specificity; P < .01).
  • CONCLUSION: (1)H MR spectroscopy can be used to characterize adrenal masses on the basis of spectral findings for benign adenomas, carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2007.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2009 Mar;250(3):955-6; author reply 955-6; discussion 956 [19244058.001]
  • (PMID = 18024453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Kim HY, Kim SG, Lee KW, Seo JA, Kim NH, Choi KM, Baik SH, Choi DS: Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea. Korean J Intern Med; 2005 Dec;20(4):303-9
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  • [Title] Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical, endocrinological and histological characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: Eighty patients (41, males; 38, females; age range 17-80 years) who were diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma at Korea University Hospital from 1992 to 2003 were studied retrospectively.
  • Pathologic examination revealed 16 adrenocortical adenomas (20%), five carcinomas (6%), 13 pheochromocytomas (16%), three metastatic cancers (4%), and other tumors (10%).
  • The diameter of the carcinomas (mean: 10.8 cm, range: 5-19 cm) were significantly larger than the diameter of benign adenomas (mean: 2.84 cm, range: 1-6 cm) (p=0.002).
  • Twenty-four patients with non-functioning tumors were followed up for a period of 3 to 72 months.
  • Changes in mass size and function were observed only between 10 and 26 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data show that an endocrine evaluation should be performed in all adrenal incidentalomas, and an adrenalectomy is recommended for tumors 5 cm or greater or tumors with adrenocortical hyperfunction.
  • In addition, these tumors should be monitored for changes in mass size and function for a follow up period of approximately 26 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16491828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891076
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79. Herrera JD, Davidson JA, Mestman JH: Hyperandrogenism due to a testosterone-secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor associated with a dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-secreting adrenal adenoma in a postmenopausal woman: case presentation and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2009 Mar;15(2):149-52
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TESTOSTERONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hyperandrogenism due to a testosterone-secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor associated with a dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-secreting adrenal adenoma in a postmenopausal woman: case presentation and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of hyperandrogenism attributable to the presence of an adrenal adenoma secreting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor secreting testosterone in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of total testosterone (348 ng/dL) and DHEA-S (2,058 microg/dL), and a left adrenal tumor (3 by 4 cm) was detected on abdominal computed tomographic scan.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, and the pathologic diagnosis was adrenal adenoma.
  • Bilateral oophorectomy was performed, and an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSION: After extensive review of the literature, we believe that this is the first reported case of a coincidental DHEA-S-secreting adrenal adenoma and a testosterone- secreting ovarian Leydig cell tumor causing signs of virilization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / metabolism. Hyperandrogenism / diagnosis. Hyperandrogenism / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Testosterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19289327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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80. Markou A, Tsigou K, Papadogias D, Kossyvakis K, Vamvakidis K, Kounadi T, Piaditis G: A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor. Hormones (Athens); 2005 Oct-Dec;4(4):226-30
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • We present a 39-year old female with a benign adrenal tumor characterized by autonomous secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone.
  • CT of the adrenals revealed a 2.5 x 3.0 cm tumor with characteristics of an adenoma on the left adrenal gland.
  • Complete clinical and biochemical remission of the disease was observed after left adrenalectomy.
  • Histology confirmed the presence of an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The flare-up of an autoimmune disease (multiple sclerosis) postoperatively could be coincidental or possibly related to the high normalization of the high cortisol levels acting as a precipitating factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Multiple Sclerosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16613821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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81. Gockel I, Heintz A, Kentner R, Werner C, Junginger T: Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome. Surg Endosc; 2005 Nov;19(11):1491-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperaldosteronism caused by an aldosterone-producing adenoma of the adrenal gland is regarded as the most common type of endocrine hypertension.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the changing pattern of the intraoperative blood pressure during endoscopic adrenalectomy recorded in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to patients with hormone-inactive incidentaloma and its possible influence by the surgical approach.
  • METHODS: From February 1994 to March 2004, 40 patients underwent endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome.
  • RESULTS: The adrenal gland was resected using the retroperitoneal in 25 and the transperitoneal approach in 15 patients with Conn's syndrome.
  • The increase in intraoperative blood pressure in patients with Conn's syndrome was significantly higher, for both systolic (p < 0.0001) and diastolic (p = 0.0037) readings, compared to that in patients with incidentaloma undergoing endoscopic adrenalectomy during the same period of time.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that relevant intraoperative increases in blood pressure occur in patients with Conn's syndrome despite prior therapy with an aldosterone antagonist, necessitating specific precautionary measures during anesthesia.

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  • [ErratumIn] Surg Endosc. 2006 Jan;20(1):180. Wetner, C [corrected to Werner, C]
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  • (PMID = 16222471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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82. Bourdeau I, Lampron A, Costa MH, Tadjine M, Lacroix A: Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2007 Jun;14(3):219-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary Cushing's syndrome is most often secondary to adrenocortical adenomas or carcinomas, and more rarely to bilateral adrenal hyperplasias.
  • Corticotropin-independent cortisol-producing hyperplasia is caused by micronodular diseases, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and nonpigmented micronodular hyperplasia and adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease can be found either alone or in the context of Carney complex, a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the pathophysiology of adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias became better understood following the identification of genes responsible for syndromes associated with corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome and the demonstration of aberrant expression and function of various hormone receptors in adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • This article reviews findings on the molecular and genetic aspects of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome including recent gene expression profiling studies of adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias and animal models that provided clues on the pathogenesis of primary Cushing's syndrome.
  • SUMMARY: A better understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias may lead to improved diagnostic and prognostic markers and treatment strategies to assist clinicians in the management of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17940443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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83. Adissu HA, Hayes G, Wood GA, Caswell JL: Cardiac myxosarcoma with adrenal adenoma and pituitary hyperplasia resembling Carney complex in a dog. Vet Pathol; 2010 Mar;47(2):354-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cardiac myxosarcoma with adrenal adenoma and pituitary hyperplasia resembling Carney complex in a dog.
  • The pathological evaluation revealed a left atrial ossifying myxosarcoma, bilateral adrenocortical adenomas, multifocal pituitary hyperplasia with expression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and multiple pituitary Rathke's cleft cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / veterinary. Myxosarcoma / veterinary. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Fatal Outcome. Female

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  • (PMID = 20110224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Andía Melero VM, García Centeno R, Fernández JB, Vigovich C, Sánchez García-Cervigón P, Jara Albarrán A: [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Nov;56(9):470-4
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  • [Title] [Feminizing adrenal tumours in Spain: report of a case and review of the five previously published patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores suprarrenales feminizantes en España: aportación de un caso y revisión de los cinco pacientes descritos.
  • Feminizing adrenal tumours are very rare.
  • We report the clinical and hormonal study of a case, a 49 years old male, since his first consultation until his death 6 years after the initial diagnosis, and a review of the other 5 Spanish patients previously published.
  • His initial symptoms were gynecomastia and libido decrease, with increase of plasmatic and urinary oestrogen levels, plasma testosterone near low normal level and a right adrenal gland tumour that, after its removal, showed a benign histology and was classified as an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The main special feature of this case is the apparently benign initial adrenal tumour with only oestrogen hypersecretion, and its relapse 3 years later with secretion of several steroid hormones, generalized metastasis and no response to medical therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Feminization / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20096213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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85. Ozturk E, Onur Sildiroglu H, Kantarci M, Doganay S, Güven F, Bozkurt M, Sonmez G, Cinar Basekim C: Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2009;121(11-12):372-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Computed tomography findings in diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • The adrenal gland is a common site of disease, with an abnormality prevalence as high as 9% in autopsy series.
  • With the increasing use of CT, adrenal lesions are frequently found in the daily practice of radiology and are diagnosed in up to 5% of CT examinations performed for varied reasons.
  • Imaging features on CT can establish a specific diagnosis of many of these lesions, including myelolipoma, hematoma and cysts.
  • Once a diagnostic dilemma, now adenomas can be accurately diagnosed using unenhanced CT, chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging and CT contrast washout analysis.
  • Because the adrenal gland is also a frequent site of metastasis, recent literature has focused on imaging characterization of adrenal masses for differentiation of adenomas from metastases.
  • In patients without known malignancy, most adrenal lesions are benign and a specific diagnosis can now be made on the basis of imaging features.
  • It is important to understand the prevalence of adrenal abnormalities because the gland is a common site of disorders, and the increased use of cross-sectional imaging has increased the frequency of detection of adrenal lesions.
  • The prevalence of disease is important in predicting the risk of malignancy when an adrenal mass is discovered in a patient without known cancer.
  • Detection of adrenal gland diseases has increased substantially with the advent and widespread use of imaging techniques.
  • Although several imaging modalities can be used, CT has a central role in both detection and differential diagnosis of an adrenal lesion.
  • The aim of this article is to review the CT findings of adrenal gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Reference Values. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19626294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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86. van Nederveen FH, de Krijger RR: Precursor lesions of the adrenal gland. Pathobiology; 2007;74(5):285-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Precursor lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the existing literature for evidence that adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumours develop through a multistep process of carcinogenesis.
  • RESULTS: In the adrenal cortex hyperplasia and adenomas are frequently observed tumours or tumour-like conditions.
  • In contrast, adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • Based on well-validated histopathological scoring systems, benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours can be separated, although a small subset of tumours remains hard to classify.
  • Although extensive follow-up studies might argue against multistep carcinogenesis, analysis of chromosomal imbalances and gene expression profiling studies in these tumours are inconclusive and could give support for both multistep pathogenesis or de novo genesis of carcinomas.
  • In the adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas (PCC) are the most frequent tumours in adults, with an incidence of 8 per million.
  • They can be divided into benign and malignant PCC, but the distinction can only be made when metastases are present.
  • In contrast to cortical tumours, the frequent 1p and 3q loss as an early event in tumourigenesis of benign PCC is verified in multiple studies.
  • CONCLUSION: Taken together, there appears to be a relationship between cortical and medullary hyperplasia on the one hand and cortical adenomas and PCC on the other.
  • However, whether there is a transition from benign to malignant tumours, both cortical and medullary, remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Disease Progression. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17890895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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87. Foti G, Faccioli N, Manfredi R, Mantovani W, Mucelli RP: Evaluation of relative wash-in ratio of adrenal lesions at early biphasic CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jun;194(6):1484-91
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - CT Scans.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of relative wash-in ratio of adrenal lesions at early biphasic CT.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of unenhanced attenuation and relative percentage wash-in ratio in early, that is, arterial and portal venous phase, biphasic CT in differentiating adrenal adenomas from metastatic lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred seven adrenal masses in 86 consecutively registered patients (45 men, 41 women; mean age, 56 years) were evaluated.
  • Diagnosis was achieved with percutaneous biopsy (n = 6), surgery (n = 13), and at least 1 year of imaging follow-up (n = 88).
  • Diameter and absolute attenuation values in each phase of CT were measured in a region of interest covering one to two thirds of a lesion.
  • Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy in differentiation of adenomas from metastatic lesions were calculated for unenhanced attenuation and for wash-in ratio.
  • RESULTS: The final diagnosis was metastasis in 51 cases and adenoma in 56 cases.
  • A significant difference was found between benign and malignant lesions in regard to diameter (p = 0.001), unenhanced CT attenuation (p = 0.001), and relative percentage wash-in ratio from the arterial to the portal venous scan (p = 0.014).
  • In the differentiation of benign from malignant lesions, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of unenhanced CT attenuation (at an 11-HU threshold) were 98%, 86%, 86%, 98%, and 92%, and those of relative percentage wash-in ratio from the arterial to the portal venous phase were 94%, 77%, 79%, 93%, and 85%.
  • CONCLUSION: Relative percentage wash-in ratio may help in differentiating adenoma from metastasis and in guiding the decision to perform CT directed at the adrenal glands when unenhanced CT is not available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Biopsy. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20489087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Liu XK, Liu XJ, Dong X, Kong CZ: [Clinical research about treatment for adrenal incidentalomas]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jun 1;46(11):832-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical research about treatment for adrenal incidentalomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic methods of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • Pathological results indicated that 34 cases were pheochromocytoma, 83 adrenal cortical adenoma, 5 adrenal cortical carcinoma, 3 metastases carcinoma, and 26 other benign tumors.
  • 3 cases of metastases carcinoma died in 1.5 years, 2 cases of cortical carcinoma died in 2.0 and 2.5 years for recurrence and metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical operations should be performed in malignant tumors, hypersecretion tumors, deuto-clinical adrenal cortical tumors, pheochromocytoma and those whose diameters of tumors are over 3 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19035218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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89. Sahdev A, Willatt J, Francis IR, Reznek RH: The indeterminate adrenal lesion. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:102-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The indeterminate adrenal lesion.
  • With the increasing use of abdominal cross-sectional imaging, incidental adrenal masses are being detected more often.
  • The important clinical question is whether these lesions are benign adenomas or malignant primary or secondary masses.
  • Benign adrenal masses such as lipid-rich adenomas, myelolipomas, adrenal cysts and adrenal haemorrhage have pathognomonic cross-sectional imaging appearances.
  • However, there remains a significant overlap between imaging features of some lipid-poor adenomas and malignant lesions.
  • The nature of incidentally detected adrenal masses can be determined with a high degree of accuracy using computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone.
  • We review the performance of the established and new techniques in CT, MRI and PET that can be used to distinguish benign adenomas and malignant lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20299300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 54
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842175
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90. Korets R, Berkenblit R, Ghavamian R: Incidentally discovered adrenal schwannoma. JSLS; 2007 Jan-Mar;11(1):113-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Adrenal Gland Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidentally discovered adrenal schwannoma.
  • Schwannoma is a rare tumor of neural crest cell origin that is rarely seen arising from the adrenal gland.
  • We report a case of an adrenal mass discovered incidentally in a 70-year-old man as part of a hematuria workup.
  • Metabolic evaluation was unremarkable, and imaging studies did not meet strict imaging criteria for a typical adenoma.
  • Following surgical excision and pathologic evaluation with confirmatory immunohistochemical staining, the mass was reported as a benign nerve sheath neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 17651570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015789
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91. Han XN, Chen B, Ye XD, Wang J, Liu GH: [Clinical manifestation and multiphasic spiral CT scanning features of abdominal pheochromocytoma: report of 70 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;31(2):139-42
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pheochromocytoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sixty cases had a tumor located in the adrenal gland, while 8 in retroperitoneal space, and 2 cases had both intraadrenal and ectopic lesions simultaneously.
  • Sixty patients had a benign pheochromocytoma, the other 10 had a malignant one or relapse after operation.
  • However, when a small tumor has moderate blood supply, it should be differentiated with an adrenal adenoma; when a big one has moderate blood supply, it should be differentiated with other malignant tumors.
  • Furthermore, a part of malignant pheochromocytomas is really difficult to be differentiated from some benign lesions by spiral CT images alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / radiography. Adenoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiographic Image Enhancement. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19538893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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92. Wang H, Zhou FJ, Qin ZK, Han H, Liu ZW: [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jan;24(1):76-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Adrenalectomy is a standard treatment for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Conventional open operation usually results in bigger incisions, more blood loss, and long hospital stay to patients; while laparoscopic approaches could make up above shortcomings, which is used to resect benign adrenal tumors gradually.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 10 patients with benign adrenal tumors undergone laparoscopic adrenalectomy were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the experiences and techniques in laparoscopic surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery for treatment of benign adrenal tumors has the advantages of minimal invasion, safety, and efficiency, and may be a primary therapeutic option for benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15642205.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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93. Halefoglu AM, Bas N, Yasar A, Basak M: Differentiation of adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using CT histogram analysis method: a prospective study. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Mar;73(3):643-51
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pheochromocytoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using CT histogram analysis method: a prospective study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) histogram analysis method in the differentiation of benign and malignant adrenal masses.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2007 and June 2008, 94 patients (46 males, 48 females, age range: 30-79 years, mean age: 57.7 years) with 113 adrenal masses (mean diameter: 3.03 cm, range: 1.07-8.02 cm) were prospectively evaluated.
  • These included 66 adenomas, 45 metastases and 2 pheochromocytomas.
  • Histogram analysis method was performed using a circular region of interest (ROI) and mean attenuation, total number of pixels, number of negative pixels and subsequent percentage of negative pixels were detected on both unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced CT images for each adrenal mass.
  • Final diagnoses were based on imaging follow-up of minimum 6 months, biopsy, surgery and adrenal washout study.
  • RESULTS: 51 of 66 adenomas (77.3%) showed attenuation values of < or =10HU and 15 (22.7%) adenomas showed more than 10HU on unenhanced CT.
  • All of these adenomas contained negative pixels on unenhanced CT.
  • Eight of 66 (12.1%) adenomas showed a mean attenuation value of < or =10HU on delayed contrast-enhanced scans and 45 adenomas (68.2%) persisted on containing negative pixels.
  • Both methods gave a 100% specificity for the diagnosis of adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The CT histogram analysis is a simple and easily applicable method which provides higher sensitivity than the commonly used 10HU threshold mean attenuation method of unenhanced CT and can replace it for the diagnosis of an adenoma.
  • But with contrast-enhanced CT, although 100% specificity is being maintained, the sensitivities obtained are very poor for each method and is therefore likely to limit CT histogram analysis to be used as a clinically useful adjunct in the diagnosis of adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19167179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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94. Nomikos IN, Zizi-Serbetzoglou A, Matsakis G, Elemenoglou J, Vamvakopoulos NC: Association of an oversized adrenal cortical adenoma with expression of pheochromocytoma-like neurosecretory features. J BUON; 2008 Jul-Sep;13(3):425-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of an oversized adrenal cortical adenoma with expression of pheochromocytoma-like neurosecretory features.
  • Abnormal stimulation of adrenal function may be either direct, affecting similarly cortical and medullary secretion, or indirect affecting primarily the medulla.
  • Indirect activation of clinically detectable adrenomedullary function may develop as a physical consequence of a non-functional adrenal tumor exerting pressure on the medulla by its size, location and direction of growth.
  • Our case of an oversized and overweight adrenal tumor associated with expression of late-onset pheochromocytoma-like clinical symptoms may be explained by the physical indirect rather than the biological direct activation of adrenomedullary function like hyperplasia or cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18979561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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95. Tadjine M, Lampron A, Ouadi L, Horvath A, Stratakis CA, Bourdeau I: Detection of somatic beta-catenin mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Sep;69(3):367-73

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of somatic beta-catenin mutations in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).
  • BACKGROUND: Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) leads to Cushing syndrome (CS) and is often associated with Carney complex (CNC).
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that beta-catenin mutations are frequent in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas and that the Wnt-signalling pathway is involved in PPNAD tumorigenesis.
  • We hypothesized that adrenocortical adenomas that form in the context of PPNAD may harbour beta-catenin mutations.
  • Tumor DNA was extracted from pigmented adrenocortical adenoma and nodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • In both cases, the mutations occurred in relatively large adenomas that had formed in the background of PPNAD.
  • Nuclear translocation of beta-catenin protein in the PPNAD adenoma suggests activation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway in PPNAD.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report, for the first time, beta-catenin mutations in adenomas associated with PPNAD, further implicating Wnt-beta-catenin signalling in tumorigenesis linked to bilateral adrenal hyperplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Genetic Testing. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / complications. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18419788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307371; NLM/ PMC3138207
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96. Bahrami A, Truong LD, Shen SS, Krishnan B: Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Feb;13(1):9-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases.
  • Synchronous renal and adrenal masses are uncommon.
  • Although adrenal masses in the context of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are often suspected as metastasis, other adrenal lesions with different therapeutic and prognostic implications may coexist with RCC.
  • In a retrospective review of 550 radical nephrectomies with ipsilateral adrenalectomy, 80 cases of coexisting renal and adrenal masses were identified.
  • The renal masses included 76 RCCs, 3 oncocytomas, and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland involving the kidney.
  • Although the gross pathologic impression of adrenal masses in the presence of RCC was metastasis, on histologic examination, 56% of them were found to be benign lesions (mostly adrenal adenoma/hyperplasia), whereas malignant involvement from RCC was seen in 43%.
  • The benign and malignant nature of the adrenal lesions in the context of RCC could not be discriminated based on the size of adrenal mass.
  • Because of the prognostic implication of direct or metastatic involvement of adrenal gland in the setting of RCC and the possibility of finding small metastatic foci, a meticulous gross and microscopic examination of adrenal glands is emphasized.
  • Rare unusual combinations of renal and adrenal lesions such as RCC and adrenal histoplasmosis, RCC and adrenal myelolipoma, renal oncocytoma, and adrenal pheochromocytoma are also described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19118776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Karikari IO, Uschold TD, Selznick LA, Carter JH, Cummings TJ, Friedman AH: Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Nov;59(5):E1144; discussion E1144
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma associated with spinal dysraphism: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: The authors report a primary spinal intramedullary adrenal cortical adenoma in a patient with spinal dysraphism presenting with bilateral leg pain and urinary frequency.
  • METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging, L2 laminectomy with resection of mass, and pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of resected mass revealed the diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Microscopic and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis as a primary intramedullary tumor of adrenal cortical origin.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of a primary adrenal tumor in the spinal cord is rare and difficult to explain based on our understanding of embryology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Dysraphism / complications

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  • (PMID = 17143207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Hwang WR, Ma WY, Tso AL, Pan CC, Chang YH, Lin HD: Pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical adenoma in the same gland. J Chin Med Assoc; 2007 Jul;70(7):289-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical adenoma in the same gland.
  • A right adrenal tumor was found incidentally during abdominal computed tomography exam in a 51-year-old female patient, who had had diabetes and hypertension for more than 10 years.
  • Therefore, adrenal cortical adenoma with subclinical Cushing's syndrome was highly suspected; however, further imaging studies, including magnetic resonance image and 131I-6beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol adrenal scintigraphy failed to discriminate an additional tumor.
  • After right adrenalectomy, a small adrenal cortical adenoma and a large pheochromocytoma were noted.
  • This is an extremely rare case of an adrenal incidentaloma consisting of both medullary and cortical tumors in the same gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17631466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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99. Inomoto C, Sato H, Kanai G, Hirukawa T, Shoji S, Terachi T, Kajiwara H, Osamura RY: Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Jul;35(2):57-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Black adrenal adenoma causing preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • Functioning black adrenal adenoma (BAA) rarely causes preclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS).
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed that she had a 15-mm in diameter, round, left adrenal adenoma.
  • The left adrenal adenoma was laparoscopically removed.
  • Examination of the surgical specimen revealed unilateral double adrenal adenomas of the left adrenal gland, one of which was a BAA.
  • The compact cell zones remained in the adrenal cortex adjacent to the BAA showed atrophic change.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21319027.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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100. Gruschwitz T, Breza J, Wunderlich H, Junker K: Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation. World J Urol; 2010 Jun;28(3):329-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation.
  • PURPOSE: There are often problems in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal gland tumors by imaging and histopathology.
  • On account of considerable differences in the therapy and aftercare of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, correct classification of tumor type is of greatest importance.
  • The purpose of this study was to define specific genetic alterations differentiating between adenomas and carcinomas.
  • Retrospectively, 26 (16 adenomas and 10 carcinomas) tumors of the adrenal cortex were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Genetic alterations were found in 5/16 adenomas (31.25%) and in all adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The benign cortical tumors present 1.6 changes (range 0-3) per tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evaluation facilitates differentiation between adrenal gland tumors.
  • Genetic tests should be used in routine diagnostics of adrenal specimens.
  • Potentially, fine-needle biopsy can be established as standard diagnostics of adrenal tumors with unknown genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics

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  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
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