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1. Markou A, Tsigou K, Papadogias D, Kossyvakis K, Vamvakidis K, Kounadi T, Piaditis G: A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor. Hormones (Athens); 2005 Oct-Dec;4(4):226-30
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  • [Title] A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • We present a 39-year old female with a benign adrenal tumor characterized by autonomous secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone.
  • CT of the adrenals revealed a 2.5 x 3.0 cm tumor with characteristics of an adenoma on the left adrenal gland.
  • Further investigations revealed suppressed basal ACTH levels, loss of diurnal rhythm of cortisol, and failure to suppress on low dose dexamethasone suppression test, suggesting autonomous cortisol secretion by the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Multiple Sclerosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aldosterone / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 16613821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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2. Zografos GN, Vasiliadis G, Farfaras AN, Aggeli C, Digalakis M: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors. JSLS; 2009 Apr-Jun;13(2):196-202
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Advances in imaging have improved early detection of primary and metastatic adrenal tumors.
  • The laparoscopic approach, the gold standard for benign adrenal diseases, is controversial for malignant adrenal tumors.
  • A prospective randomized study of the role of laparoscopic surgery in adrenal cancer is not feasible because of the rarity of the disease.
  • A review of the literature demonstrates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for solitary adrenal tumors.
  • In primary adrenal malignancies, the laparoscopic approach should be considered cautiously, only when it can achieve complete tumor resection with an intact adrenal capsule.
  • Conversion to an open procedure should be an early decision, prior to tumor morcellation or fracture of the tumor capsule.

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  • (PMID = 19660215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015945
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3. Ozimek A, Diebold J, Linke R, Heyn J, Hallfeldt K, Mussack T: Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):625-38
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  • [Title] Bilateral primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary adrenocortical carcinoma--review of the literature preoperative differentiation of adrenal tumors.
  • Most of the adrenal tumors that are incidentally detected are benign adenomas.
  • The incidence of malignant adrenal tumors including adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is rather low.
  • Unfortunately hitherto preoperative diagnosis of potentially malignant adrenal masses is still a main problem in the treatment of adrenal tumors.
  • The patient with ACC showed tumor progression with local and systemic recurrence despite adjuvant therapy with mitotane and additional surgical therapy.
  • We propose some guidelines for diagnosis and surgical management of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18490838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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4. Takehara K, Sakai H, Shono T, Irie J, Kanetake H: Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Int J Urol; 2005 Feb;12(2):121-7
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  • [Title] Proliferative activity and genetic changes in adrenal cortical tumors examined by flow cytometry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine differences in biological features among different adrenal tumors, we investigated the DNA ploidy, numerical chromosomal aberration and proliferative activity in human adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Our study included six adrenal cortical adenomas with Cushing syndrome, 12 adenomas with hyperaldosteronism, three non-functioning adenomas and three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of adrenal cortical carcinomas was markedly higher than that of adrenal cortical adenomas (209.4 vs 8.7).
  • In functional adrenal cortical adenomas, the LI was significantly lower in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004), although FCM results indicated that tetraploid patterns were more frequently observed in the former type.
  • Tumor size was significantly smaller in adenomas with hyperaldosteronism than in those with Cushing syndrome (P = 0.004).
  • Chromosome 17 showed disomy in all adrenal cortical adenomas, whereas chromosome 17 abnormalities were found in two of three adrenal cortical carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study characterized various biological features of benign and malignant adrenal cortical tumors.
  • The use of a combination of markers might provide additional information to assist our understanding of the clinical behavior of an individual adrenal cortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15733104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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5. Fagour C, Bardet S, Rohmer V, Arimone Y, Lecomte P, Valli N, Tabarin A: Usefulness of adrenal scintigraphy in the follow-up of adrenocortical incidentalomas: a prospective multicenter study. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Feb;160(2):257-64
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  • [Title] Usefulness of adrenal scintigraphy in the follow-up of adrenocortical incidentalomas: a prospective multicenter study.
  • OBJECTIVES: Prognostic factors for progression of benign adrenocortical adenomas (AI) remain poorly known.
  • We assessed the usefulness of (131)I-6-beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol scintigraphy (IMS) to predict the occurrence of adrenal hyperfunction or mass enlargement.
  • DESIGN: Fifty-one consecutive inpatients with unilateral AI and normal 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) were enrolled in a multicenter observational prospective study to investigate the relationship between the scintigraphic pattern and the progression of biological abnormalities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or tumor size.
  • Tumor size increased in 10% patients and was not associated with any scintigraphic pattern.

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  • (PMID = 18974229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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6. Komorowski J, Jurczynska J, Stepien T, Kolomecki K, Kuzdak K, Stepien H: Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery. Int J Mol Sci; 2010;11(6):2281-90
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  • [Title] Serum concentrations of TNF α and its soluble receptors in patients with adrenal tumors treated by surgery.
  • The peripheral blood levels of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors were studied in 39 patients with malignant and benign adrenal tumors treated by adrenalectomy.
  • The concentrations of TNF alpha were significantly elevated in patients with malignant tumors of the adrenal cortex and in patients with Conn's syndrome compared to control.
  • However, to confirm practicality of the evaluation of TNF alpha and its soluble receptors in differential diagnosis in patients with adrenal tumors, a larger study group is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / blood

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  • (PMID = 20640152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1422-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Mol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904916
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; TNF α / TNF α R1 / TNF α R2 / adrenal tumors / adrenalectomy
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20110714
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7. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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8. McNicol AM: Lesions of the adrenal cortex. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1263-71
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  • [Title] Lesions of the adrenal cortex.
  • CONTEXT: In surgical pathology practice adrenal cortical tumors are rare.
  • However, in autopsy series adrenal cortical nodules are found frequently.
  • It is important to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions as adrenal cortical carcinoma is an aggressive tumor.
  • Molecular genetic investigations are providing new information on both pathogenesis of adrenal tumors and basic adrenal development and physiology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current knowledge on adrenal cortical development and structure that informs our understanding of genetic diseases of the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The understanding of basic developmental and physiologic processes permits a better understanding of diseases of the adrenal cortex.
  • The information coming from investigation of the molecular pathology of adrenal cortical tumors is beginning to provide additional tests for the assessment of malignant potential in diagnosis but the mainstay remains traditional histologic analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex. Adrenal Gland Diseases
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Growth. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18684025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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9. Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Comlekci A, Yesil S: Natural course of benign adrenal incidentalomas in subjects with extra-adrenal malignancy. Endocrine; 2009 Aug;36(1):135-40
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  • [Title] Natural course of benign adrenal incidentalomas in subjects with extra-adrenal malignancy.
  • Patients with extra-adrenal malignancies are diagnosed increasingly with benign adrenal tumors, as well as non-oncology subjects.
  • We aimed to demonstrate the natural course of adrenal adenomas in terms of mass size and hormonal status in oncology and non-oncology subjects.
  • We also compared the characteristics and behavior of adrenal adenomas with adrenal malignancies.
  • In our registry of adrenal tumors (n = 335), we prospectively evaluated 29 oncology subjects (EAM+) and age, gender, and follow-up duration matched 110 non-oncology subjects (EAM-) with adrenal adenomas.
  • We also included 16 subjects with adrenal malignancies (primary; 3 and metastasis; 13).
  • Tumor size was followed-up with CT or MRI at 6th and 12th months and annually in subsequent visits.
  • Initial tumor size, mean increase in tumor size, and number of subjects who showed mass enlargement or developed subclinical Cushing Syndrome were comparable (P > 0.05) between EAM+ and EAM- groups.
  • Subjects with malignant adrenal tumors were older (P = 0.06), had larger tumors at presentation (P < 0.001), and showed mass enlargement during a shorter follow-up duration (P < 0.001).
  • Oncology subjects with adrenal adenomas featured similar baseline and follow-up parameters in terms of mass enlargement and development of subclinical Cushing Syndrome when compared with non-oncology subjects.
  • Malignant adrenal tumors were characterized with large, rapidly growing tumors of older ages.
  • Conservative approach can be suggested to oncology subjects for adrenal adenomas unless clinical and radiological suspicion of adrenal malignancy is present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pheochromocytoma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19381885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Denzinger S, Burger M, Hartmann A, Hofstaedter F, Wieland WF, Ganzer R: Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma. APMIS; 2007 Apr;115(4):381-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma.
  • We report on a 50-year-old patient with a giant benign adenoma of the adrenal cortex, which ruptured spontaneously, leading to life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Following emergency adrenalectomy with sparing of the ipsilateral kidney, an adenoma of the adrenal cortex with a diameter of 18 cm and a weight of 1400 g was found.
  • A detailed literature search showed this to be the largest benign tumor of the adrenal cortex described so far.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this unusual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17504308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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11. Namour F, Ayav A, Lu X, Klein M, Muresan M, Bresler L, Tramoy D, Guéant JL, Brunaud L: Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors. World J Surg; 2006 Jul;30(7):1240-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of association between microsatellite instability and benign adrenal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The adrenal gland may give rise to pheochromocytomas, which are catecholamine-producing tumors originating from the adrenal medulla, or to adrenocortical tumors, which derive from the adrenocortical cortex and may be secreting or not.
  • Microsatellite loci were analyzed in 32 benign tumors, including 11 pheochromocytomas and 21 adrenocortical tumors, in patients with and without familial syndrome.
  • No microsatellite instability was detected in any tumor.
  • A second patient with a MEN-2A syndrome and a two-sided pheochromocytoma exhibited a loss of heterozygosity for D2S123 in the right tumor only and a retention of heterozygosity for all markers in the left tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microsatellite instability, evaluated by the five reference markers of the National Cancer Institute, is not a feature of benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alleles. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16715450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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12. Raparia K, Ayala AG, Sienko A, Zhai QJ, Ro JY: Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Oct;12(5):344-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms.
  • Myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare, and to our knowledge, only about 23 cases have been reported in the literature, including 13 carcinomas and 10 adenomas.
  • We recently experienced 4 cases of myxoid adrenal cortical neoplasms (3 benign and 1 borderline malignancy) and studied the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of these neoplasms.
  • Histologically, the tumor cells were arranged in delicate arborizing cords or trabecula with myxoid areas varying from 30% to 70%.
  • Three tumors were benign and 1 was of borderline morphology with mitoses of 3/10 high-power fields and mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism.
  • The tumor cells were positive for vimentin, synaptophysin, and inhibin but negative for cytokeratin.
  • Myxoid changes in adrenal cortical neoplasms are rare but can be seen in both an adenoma and a tumor of uncertain malignant potential.
  • The usual clinical and histological features can be applied to classify the lesions as benign, borderline tumor, or malignant.
  • In our series, there was no case with frank malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Inhibins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18774497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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13. Palazzo FF, Sebag F, Sierra M, Ippolito G, Souteyrand P, Henry JF: Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):893-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors.
  • Large tumors are resectable laparoscopically, but the long-term outcome and therefore appropriateness of LA for cortical tumors > 6 cm is not known.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the LA experience in our institution since its introduction in June 1994.
  • Patients who underwent LA for solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter without preoperative or intraoperative evidence of malignancy were reviewed.
  • Among them, 19 were solid cortical tumors > or = 60 mm in diameter with no overt malignant preoperative or intraoperative characteristics: 9 nonsecreting tumors, 8 Cushing's syndrome tumors (including 2 virilizing variants), 1 virilizing tumor, and 1 aldosteronoma.
  • The mean age of the patients was 49.9 years (range 22-77 years), and the mean tumor size was 69.0 mm (range 60-80 mm).
  • Histology confirmed a cortical adenoma in eight patients, malignant tumors in three, and indeterminate tumors in eight.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid cortical tumors without pre- or intraoperative evidence of malignancy is not contraindicated, and it is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on long-term outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Humans. Laparoscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16680605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Szabó PM, Wiener Z, Tömböl Z, Kovács A, Pócza P, Horányi J, Kulka J, Riesz P, Tóth M, Patócs A, Gaillard RC, Falus A, Rácz K, Igaz P: Differences in the expression of histamine-related genes and proteins in normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumors. Virchows Arch; 2009 Aug;455(2):133-42
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HISTAMINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differences in the expression of histamine-related genes and proteins in normal human adrenal cortex and adrenocortical tumors.
  • The expression of genes and proteins involved in the biosynthesis (histidine decarboxylase, HDC), action (histamine receptors: HRH1-HRH4), and metabolism of histamine is largely unknown both in the normal human adrenal cortex and in adrenocortical tumors.
  • In this study, we examined the expression of histamine-related genes and proteins and histamine content in normal adrenal cortex, benign adrenocortical adenomas, and malignant adrenocortical cancer (ACC).
  • We found that all proteins involved in histamine biosynthesis and action are present both in the normal adrenal cortex and in the tumors studied.
  • HDC expression and histamine content was highest in the normal tissues and lower in benign tumors, whereas it was significantly less in ACCs.
  • Adrenocortical tumorigenesis might, thus, be characterized by reduced histamine biosynthesis; furthermore, different adrenocortical tumor subtypes may show unique histamine receptor expression profiles.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Histamine / metabolism. Histidine Decarboxylase / metabolism. Receptors, Histamine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19568768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HRH4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Histamine; 0 / Receptors, Histamine H1; 0 / Receptors, Histamine H2; 0 / Receptors, Histamine H3; 820484N8I3 / Histamine; EC 4.1.1.22 / Histidine Decarboxylase
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15. Sturgeon C, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY, Kebebew E: Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg; 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy?
  • STUDY DESIGN: Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988 to 2000) were compared with benign functional or nonfunctional adrenal cortical adenomas (excluding aldosteronomas) operated on at our institution between January 1, 1993, and July 1, 2003.
  • RESULTS: We identified 457 patients with ACC and 47 patients with adrenal cortical adenomas; 376 and 44 neoplasms, respectively, had tumor size data available.
  • Tumor size was larger in ACC (12.0 +/- 5.6 versus 4.2 +/- 1.9 cm, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05).
  • For ACC presenting with local disease, the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of tumor size to predict malignancy were 96%, 52%, and 2.0, respectively, for tumors > or = 4 cm; 90%, 80%, and 4.4 for tumors > or = 6 cm; 77%, 95%, and 16.9 for tumors > or = 8 cm; and 55%, 98%, and 24.4 for tumors > or = 10 cm.
  • Assuming a pretest probability of malignancy of 5%, the likelihood ratios derived from this study yield a posttest probability of 10%, 19%, and 47% for cancer in adrenal cortical tumors > or = 4 cm, > or = 6 cm, and > or = 8 cm, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. SEER Program / statistics & numerical data. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16500246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Jurczyńska J, Stepień T, Lawnicka H, Stepień H, Krupiński R, Kołomecki K, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J: Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Jan-Feb;60(1):9-13
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peripheral blood concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and its soluble receptors (R1 and R2) in patients with adrenal cortex tumours treated by surgery.
  • INTRODUCTION: Neoangiogenesis appears to be an important event in tumour invasion and in the formation of metastases in many endocrine-related human cancers.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentrations of VEGF, sVEGFR1, and sVEGFR2 in patients with benign and malignant adrenal tumours treated by surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied the blood before surgery of 41 patients with adrenal cortex tumours and 10 normal subjects without hormonal or CT/USG pathology of the adrenal glands (controls).
  • We studied the blood after adrenalectomy of 16 patients with tumours of the adrenal cortex.
  • VEGF blood concentrations before surgery did not differ in the patients with the cortical tumours as compared to the controls.
  • After surgery VEGF concentrations decreased among the patients, taken in total, with adrenal cortex tumours and cortical adenomas.
  • After surgery, sVEGFR1 concentrations decreased significantly in the group with cortical adenomas only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral blood concentrations of VEGF and its receptors cannot be clinically valuable markers that discriminate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours before and after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19224499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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17. Treska V, Wirthová M, Hadravská S, Mukensnábl P, Kuntscher V, Kreuzberg B, Lisá L, Kozák K: [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia]. Zentralbl Chir; 2006 Feb;131(1):80-3
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  • [Title] [Giant bilateral adrenal myelolipoma associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia].
  • BACKGROUND: Myelolipoma is a rare benign tumor formed by mature fat tissue with strata of haematopoiesis.
  • It is usually localized in the region of the adrenal gland.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: The authors present a rare case of a giant bilateral myelolipoma emerging out of the adrenal gland cortex in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia, with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in a woman with pronounced virilism.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The coincidence of myelolipoma and congenital disorder with subsequent overproduction of the adrenocorticotropin hormone and androgens, might be explained by the incipient of myelolipoma through chronic hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland cortex.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / surgery. Myelolipoma / complications. Myelolipoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


18. Fenichel P, Bstandig B, Roger C, Chevallier D, Michels JF, Sadoul JL, Hieronimus S, Brucker-Davis F: Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Nov;69(5):453-8
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  • [Title] Unilateral testicular tumour associated to congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Failure of specific tumoral molecular markers to discriminate between adrenal rest and leydigioma.
  • Testicular adrenal rest tumours are frequently associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We report the case of a 30-year-old man who was explored for infertility, azoospermia and unilateral testicular tumour.
  • High levels of 17-OH progesterone and ACTH, low cortisol and undetectable gonadotropins levels, associated to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, led to the diagnosis of CAH by 21-OH deficiency with a composite heterozygoty.
  • The testicular tumour was first considered as adrenal rest.
  • However, histological analysis of this unilateral painful tumour showed a steroid-hormone-secreting cell proliferation with atypical and frequent mitosis.
  • To discriminate between a benign adrenal rest tumour and a possible malignant leydigioma, tumoral expression of specific gene products was analyzed by RT-PCR.
  • No 11-beta-hydroxylase nor ACTH receptor mRNAs could be found in the tumour, which did not behave like usual adrenal rest cells.
  • For this unilateral testicular tumour, the lack of adrenal-specific markers associated with a high rate of mitosis and pleiomorphism supported a leydigian origin with malignant potential.
  • However, lack of tumoral LH-R mRNA expression and a tumour-free 3-year follow-up led us to retain the diagnosis of adrenal rest tumour with loss of adrenal gene expression and progressive autonomous behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenal Rest Tumor / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / genetics. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Azoospermia / etiology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / blood. Gonadal Steroid Hormones / genetics. Gonadotropins / blood. Humans. Infertility, Male / etiology. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Testis / pathology


19. Gruschwitz T, Breza J, Wunderlich H, Junker K: Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation. World J Urol; 2010 Jun;28(3):329-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improvement of histopathological classification of adrenal gland tumors by genetic differentiation.
  • PURPOSE: There are often problems in differentiating between benign and malignant adrenal gland tumors by imaging and histopathology.
  • On account of considerable differences in the therapy and aftercare of benign and malignant adrenal tumors, correct classification of tumor type is of greatest importance.
  • METHODS: DNA was isolated from tumor areas in paraffin sections and amplified by a modified protocol for DOP-PCR.
  • After labeling of tumor-DNA and normal DNA with biotin-dUTP and digoxigenin-dUTP, respectively, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was carried out according to standard protocols.
  • Retrospectively, 26 (16 adenomas and 10 carcinomas) tumors of the adrenal cortex were analyzed.
  • The mean number of genetic changes per tumor was 8.7 (range 6-12) in carcinomas.
  • The benign cortical tumors present 1.6 changes (range 0-3) per tumor.
  • Only a moderate correlation between number of alterations and size of tumor was seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic evaluation facilitates differentiation between adrenal gland tumors.
  • Genetic tests should be used in routine diagnostics of adrenal specimens.
  • Potentially, fine-needle biopsy can be established as standard diagnostics of adrenal tumors with unknown genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Mapping. Cohort Studies. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20364258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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20. Babinska A, Sworczak K, Wisniewski P, Nałecz A, Jaskiewicz K: The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Apr;116(4):246-51
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in histopathological diagnostics of clinically "silent" incidentally detected adrenal masses.
  • BACKGROUND: The detectability of adrenal incidentalomas (incidentally found adrenal tumours) in the whole population is estimated at 0.1%; 0.42% in non-endocrine patients and at 4.3% in oncologically diagnosed ones.
  • Even up to 16% of incidentalomas of adrenal glands can be malignant lesions.
  • The issue of crucial importance is the histopathological differentiation between benign lesions and malignant tumours of the adrenal cortex and medulla.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of p53, p21, PCNA and Ki67 in the tumour's tissue can be useful in the histopathological diagnostics of adrenal incidentalomas and whether it is important for prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our series consisted of 74 tumour samples from 164 patients operated for incidentalomas.
  • There were 43 cortical adenomas, 11 cortical adrenocarcinomas and 20 PHEOs (including 5 malignant lesions).
  • RESULTS: We found a statistically significant correlation between the expression of p53, p21, Ki67 and the differential diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma (for proteins: p53 p=0.010, for p21 p=0.010, for Ki67 p<0.001).
  • The statistical significant correlation between PCNA protein and diagnosis of adrenal cortical adenoma and adrenocortical carcinoma was not found.
  • The statistically significant correlation between p21, PCNA proteins and the diagnosis of benign and malignant PHEOs was not estimated.
  • There was no expression of Ki67 or p53 protein above the assumed level in benign and malignant pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. p21-Activated Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18393131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
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21. Schmitt A, Saremaslani P, Schmid S, Rousson V, Montani M, Schmid DM, Heitz PU, Komminoth P, Perren A: IGFII and MIB1 immunohistochemistry is helpful for the differentiation of benign from malignant adrenocortical tumours. Histopathology; 2006 Sep;49(3):298-307
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  • [Title] IGFII and MIB1 immunohistochemistry is helpful for the differentiation of benign from malignant adrenocortical tumours.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 22 benign and 17 malignant adrenocortical tumours and compared IGFII and CDK4 expression with known immunohistochemical as well as morphological criteria of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Golgi Apparatus / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16918977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
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22. Grogan RH, Mitmaker E, Vriens MR, Harari A, Gosnell JE, Shen WT, Clark OH, Duh QY: Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises? Surgery; 2010 Aug;148(2):392-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: does an adequate workup rule out surprises?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal incidentaloma remains a diagnostic challenge.
  • We sought to determine how accurately these guidelines identify functioning incidentalomas and how often these guidelines result in adrenalectomy for benign tumors.
  • METHODS: We catalogued adrenal incidentalomas from a retrospective review of 500 consecutive adrenalectomies at a single institution.
  • The outcome measures studied were patient demographics, preoperative biochemical analysis, imaging characteristics, tumor size, type of operation performed, and postoperative histologic diagnosis.
  • Size was the only significant characteristic that distinguished cortical cancers from benign adenomas.
  • We also found that 25% of cortisol-secreting incidentalomas were cystic, and that benign adenomas accounted for 42% of all tumors resected.
  • CONCLUSION: Current guidelines accurately predict the functional status of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • However, even with the most up-to-date diagnostic tools available, most adrenal incidentalomas resected are benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20576282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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23. Mazzuco TL, Chabre O, Sturm N, Feige JJ, Thomas M: Ectopic expression of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene is a sufficient genetic event to induce benign adrenocortical tumor in a xenotransplantation model. Endocrinology; 2006 Feb;147(2):782-90
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  • [Title] Ectopic expression of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor gene is a sufficient genetic event to induce benign adrenocortical tumor in a xenotransplantation model.
  • Aberrant expression of ectopic G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in adrenal cortex tissue has been observed in several cases of ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasias and adenomas associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • Although there is clear clinical evidence for the implication of these ectopic receptors in abnormal regulation of cortisol production, whether this aberrant GPCR expression is the cause or the consequence of the development of an adrenal hyperplasia is still an open question.
  • Moreover, we show that tumor development was ACTH independent.
  • Thus, a single genetic event, inappropriate expression of a nonmutated GPCR gene, is sufficient to initiate the complete phenotypic alterations that ultimately lead to the formation of a benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16254030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone; 0 / gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor; 128559-51-3 / RAG-1 protein; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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24. Gonzalez RJ, Shapiro S, Sarlis N, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Perrier ND, Evans DB, Lee JE: Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1078-85; discussion 1085-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of adrenal cortical carcinoma: a cautionary note.
  • BACKGROUND: While laparoscopic removal of small, benign, functioning adrenal tumors is accepted, laparoscopic resection of adrenal tumors that may be adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) remains controversial.
  • Open adrenalectomy remains the standard of care for patients presenting with an adrenal cortical tumor for which ACC is in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Carcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16360394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. O'Neill CJ, Spence A, Logan B, Suliburk JW, Soon PS, Learoyd DL, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS: Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct 1;102(5):450-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of incidentally discovered adrenal lesions is increasing due to the widespread use of abdominal imaging.
  • Although most incidentalomas are benign, larger suspicious lesions will require adrenalectomy.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for adrenal incidentaloma; and to compare clinical outcomes in those with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on the mode of presentation.
  • Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained adrenal tumor database.
  • Those with adrenal incidentaloma were selected and histopathology reviewed.
  • Benign, non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma was the most common histopathological finding (46 patients, 63%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentalomas have a small but important risk of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:450-453. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20734420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Fareau GG, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R: Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules. Endocr Pract; 2007 Oct;13(6):636-41
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  • [Title] Diagnostic challenges in adrenocortical carcinoma: recommendations for surveillance after surgical resection of selected adrenal nodules.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss challenges in the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma and to suggest surveillance measures after removal of selected adrenal nodules.
  • METHODS: We present the case of a 65-year-old man with worsening hypertension and new-onset hypokalemia attributed to primary hyperaldosteronism due to a 3-cm right adrenal nodule.
  • RESULTS: A laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed, and the histologic diagnosis was a benign adenoma.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed an 8-cm mass in the right adrenal bed and multiple hepatic metastatic lesions.
  • Particularly, we caution against undue reliance on the initial tumor size.
  • We recommend that abdominal imaging be performed every 3 months for the first year and every 6 months for the second year after surgical removal of selected adrenal nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17954420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Vilar L, Freitas Mda C, Canadas V, Albuquerque JL, Botelho CA, Egito CS, Arruda MJ, Moura e Silva L, Coelho CE, Casulari LA, Naves LA: Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):269-78
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: diagnostic evaluation and long-term follow-up.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cause and the clinical and laboratory features of adrenal incidentalomas (AI) in 52 patients and to assess the evolution of nonsurgically treated lesions during long-term follow-up.
  • Carcinomas were the largest adrenal masses (mean diameter, 11.7 +/- 1.3 cm).
  • During follow-up of 21 patients with nonsurgically treated AI for 6 to 36 months (mean, 24.8 +/- 8.9), no patient had tumor reduction or disappearance.
  • After 12 months of follow-up, however, a 45-year-old woman had adrenal mass enlargement from 3.2 cm to 4.4 cm; the excised lesion proved to be an adenoma.
  • Moreover, evidence of cortisol hypersecretion developed after 24 months of follow-up in a 30-year-old man with a 3.5-cm adenoma in the left adrenal gland.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that most AI are nonfunctioning benign lesions and emphasize the need for long-term follow-up of patients with conservatively managed lesions, in light of the potential for evolution to hormonal hypersecretion or tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Brazil. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8 [18463031.001]
  • (PMID = 18463032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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28. Nunes ML, Rault A, Teynie J, Valli N, Guyot M, Gaye D, Belleannee G, Tabarin A: 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning. World J Surg; 2010 Jul;34(7):1506-10
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for the identification of adrenocortical carcinomas among indeterminate adrenal tumors at computed tomography scanning.
  • BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) has been proposed for the evaluation of adrenal tumors.
  • However, only scarce data are available to evaluate its usefulness for the identification of primary adrenal carcinomas in patients with no previous history of cancer and equivocal tumors on computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Twenty-three consecutive patients without previous history of cancer investigated for adrenal tumors without features of benign adrenocortical adenoma on CT scan but no obvious ACC underwent 18F-FDG PET.
  • The ratio of maxSUV adrenal tumor on maxSUV liver (adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio) during 18F-FDG PET was compared to Weiss pathological criteria.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients had an adrenal adenoma, 2 had small size adrenal carcinomas (<5 cm), 1 had an angiosarcoma, and 3 had noncortical benign lesions.
  • An adrenal/liver maxSUV ratio above 1.6 provided 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20396886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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29. Comlekci A, Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Yesil S, Eraslan S: Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):40-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience.
  • To investigate clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters and follow-up findings of subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • CT was the most frequent radiological intervention that discovered adrenal masses (57%).
  • The vast majority of the participants (85.6%) had benign adrenal adenomas.
  • Subjects with adrenal adenomas had significantly smaller tumor diameters (P ≤ 0.001 vs. other tumors).
  • Sensitivity and specificity of 40 mm as a cut-off value in the differentiation of adrenal gland malignancies from benign tumors was 73.3 and 54.8%, respectively.
  • Most of the adrenal adenomas were non-functioning (73.5%).
  • During 24 months follow-up 10.2% of adenomas featured increase in tumor diameter and 2.06% developed sCS.
  • Young subjects featured more stable tumor diameter and hormonal status.
  • Most of the incidentally discovered adrenal tumors were non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • Clinically overt hormone hypersecretion syndromes were mainly shown in young subjects, while adrenal gland malignancies and sCS were more common in older ages.
  • Metabolic derangements were common; however, a possible independent association between adrenal adenoma and metabolic problems need to be elucidated with prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aging. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Normetanephrine / urine. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19882253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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30. Pinto EM, Billerbeck AE, Fragoso MC, Mendonca BB, Latronico AC: Deletion mapping of chromosome 17 in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors associated with the Arg337His mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2976-81
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  • [Title] Deletion mapping of chromosome 17 in benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors associated with the Arg337His mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor protein.
  • The human p53 tumor suppressor gene is located at the short arm of chromosome 17.
  • One boy had bilateral adrenocortical tumor.
  • In addition, the isolated loss of the entire chromosome 17 did not correlate with aggressive tumor behavior in these patients with adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Genes, p53. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 15741269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Sbiera S, Schmull S, Assie G, Voelker HU, Kraus L, Beyer M, Ragazzon B, Beuschlein F, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Saeger W, Bertherat J, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Oct;95(10):E161-71

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  • [Title] High diagnostic and prognostic value of steroidogenic factor-1 expression in adrenal tumors.
  • CONTEXT: No immunohistochemical marker has been established to reliably differentiate adrenocortical tumors from other adrenal masses.
  • We hypothesized that expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), a transcription factor involved in adrenal development, is of value for the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses and predicts prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: SF-1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on tissue samples from 167 ACC, 52 adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), six normal adrenal glands, six normal ovaries and 73 neoplastic nonsteroidogenic tissues.
  • RESULTS: SF-1 protein staining was detectable in 158 of 161 (98%) evaluable ACC samples including 49 (30%) with strong SF-1 staining and in all normal and benign steroidogenic tissues.
  • Strong SF-1 protein expression significantly correlated with poor clinical outcome: tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 2.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-4.64] and for recurrence 3.91 (95% CI = 1.71-8.94).
  • Similar results were obtained in the independent cohort using RNA analysis [tumor stage-adjusted hazard ratio for death 4.69 (95% CI = 1.44-15.30)].
  • CONCLUSION: SF-1 is a highly valuable immunohistochemical marker to determine the adrenocortical origin of an adrenal mass with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20660055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1
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32. Tissier F: Classification of adrenal cortical tumors: what limits for the pathological approach? Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;24(6):877-85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Classification of adrenal cortical tumors: what limits for the pathological approach?
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and their therapeutics are sparse.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach in particular by Weiss system, brings sufficient elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor.
  • But some tumors of Weiss score of 2 or 3 can raise problems: are they benign, malignant or are they of uncertain malignant potential?
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21115156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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33. Stratakis CA, Boikos SA: Genetics of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing's syndrome: a new classification for bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Nov;3(11):748-57
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  • [Title] Genetics of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing's syndrome: a new classification for bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias.
  • The majority of benign lesions of the adrenal cortex seem to be linked to abnormalities of the cyclic AMP signaling pathway, whereas cancer is linked to aberrant expression of insulin-like growth factor II, tumor protein p53 and related molecules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / classification. Cushing Syndrome / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / classification. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / complications. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Animals. Humans. Hyperplasia / classification. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17955016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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34. Ren R, Guo M, Sneige N, Moran CA, Gong Y: Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Sep;126(3):389-98

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of adrenal cortical carcinoma: cytologic spectrum and diagnostic challenges.
  • We reviewed the cytologic features of 20 adrenal cortical carcinomas (ACCs; 9 primary and 11 metastatic) from 19 patients and highlighted diagnostic pitfalls.
  • Primary and metastatic ACCs were cytologically similar and showed a wide range of features varying from well-differentiated tumor resembling a benign cortical lesion or low-grade neuroendocrine tumor to poorly differentiated pleomorphic tumor mimicking poorly differentiated carcinoma, melanoma, or high-grade sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16880150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Kalinichenko OV, Myshunina TM, Tron'ko MD: [B-, H- and L-cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients with diseases of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999); 2010 Mar-Apr;82(2):53-8
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  • [Title] [B-, H- and L-cathepsin-like activity in blood plasma of patients with diseases of the thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands].
  • B-, H- and L-catepsine-like activity regarding Na-benzoyl-D,L-arginine-4-nitroanilide, L-leucine-4-nitroanilide and azocasein was studied in the blood plasma of patients with different diseases of thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands.
  • In diaseses of the adrenal glands the changes in the B- and L-catepsine-like activity were only shown in the blood plasma of patients with cerebral layer tumors but not the gland cortex: B-catepsine-like activity increased in the blood plasma of patients with benign or malignant tumors, and L-catepsine-like activity decreased under benign tumor from chromaffin tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / blood. Cathepsin B / blood. Cathepsin H / blood. Cathepsin L / blood. Parathyroid Diseases / blood. Thyroid Diseases / blood

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  • (PMID = 20684245.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ukraïnsʹkyĭ biokhimichnyĭ z︠h︡urnal (1999 )
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999)
  • [Language] ukr
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.1 / CTSB protein, human; EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B; EC 3.4.22.15 / CTSL1 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.15 / Cathepsin L; EC 3.4.22.16 / CTSH protein, human; EC 3.4.22.16 / Cathepsin H
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36. Plouin PF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Bertagna X: [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2008 Jan;192(1):73-82; discussion 83-5
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  • [Title] [COMETE, a network for the study and management of hypersecreting adrenal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Le réseau national COMETE sur les tumeurs de la surrénale.
  • Patients with adrenal tumors are at risk of the consequences of tumor growth (including metastasis) and of hormone hypersecretion.
  • Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas arise from the adrenal medulla and produce catecholamines; they may be benign or malignant, and sporadic or familial.
  • Adrenal adenomas and carcinomas arise from the adrenal cortex.
  • The overall objective of COMETE is to promote basic and clinical research into adrenal tumors.
  • This implies - in cross-sectional studies: collecting adrenal tumors, maintaining a collection of tumor and leukocyte DNA samples, keeping a computerized record of relevant biological and clinical data, and distributing biological samples and bioclinical information anonymously to collaborating research laboratories; in prospective studies: ensuring indefinite follow-up of patients with tumors at risk of malignancy or recurrence, which means establishing and maintaining a cohort of patients with large adrenocortical tumors or carcinomas anda cohort of patients with pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Societies, Medical / organization & administration

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  • (PMID = 18663983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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37. Fassnacht M, Weismann D, Ebert S, Adam P, Zink M, Beuschlein F, Hahner S, Allolio B: AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):4366-70
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  • [Title] AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • Immunohistochemistry for total AKT and pAKT was performed in pheochromocytomas (n = 8), ACC (n = 4), and normal adrenal glands (n = 2).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of pAKT/total AKT ratio in adrenal tissues was the main outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / physiology. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / analysis. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15855265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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38. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Weng J, Yeh RF, Shibru D, Khafnashar E, Chung KW, Hwang J, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):873-81
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  • [Title] Candidate diagnostic markers and tumor suppressor genes for adrenocortical carcinoma by expression profile of genes on chromosome 11q13.
  • As genes on this chromosome may be important in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma, we compared their expression profile between benign and malignant adrenocortical tissue.
  • METHODS: We used the Affymetrix GeneChip (U133 plus 2.0) array in 54 adrenocortical tumors (11 carcinoma and 43 benign).
  • The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determined the diagnostic accuracy of the differently expressed genes for distinguishing benign from malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: We found 25 of the 314 genes on chromosome 11q13 to be differentially expressed between adrenocortical carcinoma and benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • Six genes (SERPING1, MRPL48, TM7SF2, DDB1, NDUSF8, PRDX5) validated by RT-PCR were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (p<0.05) with an overall accuracy of 89% for SERPING1, 91% for MRPL48, 87% for TM7SF2, 88% for DDB1, 91% for NDUFS8, and 89% for PRDX5.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have identified 25 genes located on chromosome 11q13 that are downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and may be candidate tumor suppressor genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18324346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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39. Korzeniewska M, Kołomecki K, Stepień H, Naze M, Stepień T, Kuzdak K: [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Jan-Feb;56(1):39-44

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Assessment of pro- and antiangiogenic factors blood serum concentrations in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors].
  • THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluation the value of serum VEGF and soluble forms of VEGF receptors concentration as a marker of malignancy in patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty seven patients (18 female, 9 male; mean age 48+/-4.3 years) with adrenocortical carcinoma (N=8), adrenal metastases (N=4) and adrenocortical adenoma (N=15) were included in this study.
  • On the other hand the mean VEGF (334.2 pg/ml) concentration in patients with benign adrenocortical adenoma wasn't significant different than in control group (p>0.05) but mean sVEGFR-1 (21.7 pg/ml) and sVEGFR-2 (7106.4 pg/ml) concentrations were significantly lower than in the control (p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that determination of VEGF and sVEGFR concentration in the serum of patients with hormonal inactive adrenal tumors may be applied as an additional marker of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / blood

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  • (PMID = 16335673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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40. Cofield KR 3rd, Cantley LK, Geisinger KR, Zagoria RJ, Perrier ND: Adrenocortical carcinoma arising from a long-standing adrenal mass. Mayo Clin Proc; 2005 Feb;80(2):264-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma arising from a long-standing adrenal mass.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor with a dismal prognosis.
  • In stark contrast, benign incidental adrenal lesions are detected commonly on routine abdominal imaging.
  • We report a case of a 74-year-old man with a history of germ cell testicular carcinoma who presented with a 4.8-cm left adrenal lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15704782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Suh SI, Seol HY, Lee JH, Lee YH, Kim TK, Lee NJ, Woo JS, Kim IS: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the larynx. Head Neck; 2006 Apr;28(4):369-72
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  • [Title] Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the larynx.
  • BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells with acute and chronic inflammatory cells, is an unusual, benign solid mass that mimics a neoplastic process.
  • METHODS: We report a rare case of a patient with a laryngeal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
  • It showed medially high signal intensity and peripherally low signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, and it displayed a high magnetization transfer ratio; before surgery, it was believed to be a malignant tumor.
  • Pathologic features of the specimen were diagnostic for inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with chronic hoarseness who have a malignant-looking submucosal laryngeal mass, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor should be considered.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Hoarseness / etiology. Humans. Laryngoscopy. Larynx / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16470877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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42. Castellano JJ, Warren MW, Arroyo MR, Cendan JC: Laparoscopic resection of a virilizing adrenocortical tumor. JSLS; 2008 Jul-Sep;12(3):343-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a virilizing adrenocortical tumor.
  • Laparoscopic unilateral adrenalectomy with serum androgen surveillance may provide curative treatment for benign, functional adenomas.
  • Herein, we describe a case of laparoscopic resection of a testosterone-producing adrenal tumor in a sixteen-year-old female.

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  • (PMID = 18765068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Carney JA: Carney triad: a syndrome featuring paraganglionic, adrenocortical, and possibly other endocrine tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Oct;94(10):3656-62
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  • BACKGROUND: Two young women, each with paraganglioma and gastric stromal tumor, were encountered in the middle 1970s.
  • One also had an adrenal cortical adenoma and the other pulmonary chondroma.
  • Five additional patients with gastric stromal tumor, paraganglioma, and pulmonary chondroma were found, and all were young women.
  • The gastric lesion was usually the presenting tumor (75%), followed by the lung lesion (15%) and the paraganglionic tumor (10%).
  • The pulmonary tumors were asymptomatic and benign.
  • FOLLOW-UP: At follow-up, 80% of the patients were alive, two thirds with pulmonary chondroma, 25% with metastatic or residual gastric stromal tumor, and 5% with primary or metastatic paraganglioma.
  • Twenty percent of the patients were dead, usually from metastatic gastric stromal tumor, less frequently from metastatic paraganglioma.
  • CONCLUSION: The Carney triad is a chronic, persistent, indolent but sometimes fatal disorder of unknown etiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Chondroma. Esophageal Neoplasms. Leiomyoma. Lung Neoplasms. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Paraganglioma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carotid Body Tumor / pathology. Chronic Disease. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Male. Pheochromocytoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19723753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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44. Frigui M, Khabir A, Jallouli M, Mnif Z, Hdiji S, Elloumi M, Boudaouara T, Bahloul Z: [Recurrent inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with renal, retroperitoneal and lymph node involvement]. Rev Med Interne; 2009 Apr;30(4):372-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Recurrent inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with renal, retroperitoneal and lymph node involvement].
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are uncommon and benign tumors with unknown aetiology.

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  • (PMID = 18818004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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45. Botsios D, Blouhos K, Vasiliadis K, Asimaki A, Tsalis K, Betsis D: Adrenocortical oncocytoma -- a rare tumor of undefined malignant potential: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(7):612-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical oncocytoma -- a rare tumor of undefined malignant potential: report of a case.
  • To our knowledge, only 23 cases have been reported in the world literature, most of which were benign and nonfunctioning.
  • We report a case of adrenocortical oncocytoma diagnosed by pathological examination of an extirpated right adrenal mass in a young woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17593485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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46. Beuschlein F, Reincke M: Adrenocortical tumorigenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Nov;1088:319-34

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Through the widespread use of imaging techniques with great sensitivity adrenal tumors are often diagnosed as an incidental finding.
  • Although the majority of these adrenal lesions are benign and without evidence of endocrine activity or malignancy, hormone hypersecretion needs to be ruled out by specific tests.
  • However, detection and differential diagnosis of these subtle changes in adrenal steroidogenesis can pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician and is dependent on tests with reliable sensitivity and specificity.
  • Regulation of adrenocortical development and growth, which results in clinical symptoms if disrupted, is dependent upon the distinct spatiotemporal expression of a variety of transcription factors as well as stimulation by extra-adrenal peptide hormones.
  • Contributions to the elucidation of growth regulation of the adrenal cortex come from rare familiar syndromes associated with adrenocortical tumors, expression studies of adrenal tumor samples, in vitro studies on adrenocortical tumor cell lines, and mouse models displaying adrenal growth defects.
  • In this review, we will summarize the important molecular aspects of adrenal tumorigenesis and highlight some prospects for clinical applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / pathology. Hyperaldosteronism / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17192577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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47. Adams DM, Lucky AW: Cervicofacial vascular anomalies. I. Hemangiomas and other benign vascular tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2006 May;15(2):124-32
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  • [Title] Cervicofacial vascular anomalies. I. Hemangiomas and other benign vascular tumors.
  • The most common vascular tumor is hemangioma, which is frequently seen in the head and neck area.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Airway Obstruction / etiology. Airway Obstruction / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Humans. Interferons / therapeutic use. Laser Therapy. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16616316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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48. Barzon L, Pacenti M, Masi G, Stefani AL, Fincati K, Palù G: Loss of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a and overexpression of type 1b receptor transcripts in human adrenocortical tumors. Oncology; 2005;68(4-6):414-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Ghrelin and GHS-R transcripts are expressed in normal adrenal cortex, with GHS-R1b mRNA levels being 5- to 10-fold higher than GHS-R1amRNA.
  • GHS-R1a was undetectable in about 60% of both benign and malignant tumor samples, except for cortisol-producing adenomas, which showed increased receptor expression.
  • At variance, GHS-R1b was overexpressed in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Downregulation ofGHS-R1a in adrenal tumors and the presence of high levels of GHS-R1b transcripts in adrenocortical tissue suggest a role for these receptors in adrenal function and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Ghrelin. Growth Hormone / pharmacology. Humans. Peptide Hormones / pharmacology. Peptides / genetics. Peptides / metabolism. RNA, Messenger. Receptors, Ghrelin. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16020971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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49. Tahar GT, Nejib KN, Sadok SS, Rachid LM: Adrenocortical oncocytoma: a case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 May;43(5):E1-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Oncocytic tumors of the adrenal gland are uncommon.
  • Most of these oncocytomas are benign and nonfunctioning.
  • We report the case of functioning adrenocortical located in the right adrenal gland in a 6-year-old girl who presented with pseudoprecocious puberty and elevation of the estradiol level.
  • The tumor was small and composed predominantly of oncocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18485928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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50. Slater EP, Diehl SM, Langer P, Samans B, Ramaswamy A, Zielke A, Bartsch DK: Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Apr;154(4):587-98
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  • OBJECTIVES: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm with extremely poor prognosis.
  • The comparative analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene-expression patterns of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors allows us to identify new tumor-suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes underlying adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Total RNA from fresh-frozen tissue of 10 ACC and 10 benign adrenocortical adenomas was isolated after histologic confirmation of neoplastic cellularity of at least 85%.
  • The reference consisted of pooled RNA of 10 normal adrenal cortex samples.
  • Amplified RNA of tumor and reference was used to synthesize Cy3- and Cy5-fluorescently labeled cDNA in a flip-color technique.
  • RESULTS: The comparative analysis of gene expression revealed many genes with more than fourfold expression difference between ACC and normal tissue (42 genes), cortical adenoma and normal tissue (11 genes), and ACC and cortical adenoma (21 genes) respectively.
  • As confirmed by real-time PCR, the IGF2 gene was significantly upregulated in ACCs versus cortical adenomas and normal cortical tissue.

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  • (PMID = 16556722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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51. Libè R, Fratticci A, Bertherat J: Adrenocortical cancer: pathophysiology and clinical management. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Mar;14(1):13-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • By contrast, benign adrenocortical tumors are frequent, underlying the importance of a correct diagnosis of malignancy of such tumors.
  • ACC can be diagnosed by the investigation of endocrine signs of steroid excess, symptoms due to tumor growth or an adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Imaging by CT-scan or MRI shows a large heterogeneous tumor with a low fat content.
  • Tumors localized to the adrenal gland (McFarlane stages 1 and 2) have a better outcome than invasive and metastatic tumors (stages 3 and 4).
  • Tumor removal by a specialized team is crucial for treatment and should always aim at complete removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Oncogenes / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17395972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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52. Fenske W, Völker HU, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Wortmann S, Schmidt M, Morcos M, Müller-Hermelink HK, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Glucose transporter GLUT1 expression is an stage-independent predictor of clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):919-28
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Accelerated glycolysis is a characteristic feature of cancer cells and in a variety of tumour entities key factors in glucose metabolism like glucose transporter 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and -3), transketolase like-1 enzyme (TKTL1) and pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK) are overexpressed and of prognostic value.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays of paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 167 ACCs, 15 adrenal adenomas and 4 normal adrenal glands.
  • GLUT1 and -3 were expressed in 33 and 17% of ACC samples respectively, but in none of the benign tumours or normal adrenals glands.
  • By contrast, TKTL1 and M2-PK were detectable in all benign tissues and the vast majority of ACCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19465749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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53. Nigawara T, Kageyama K, Sakihara S, Takayasu S, Kawahara M, Imai A, Ohyama C, Usui T, Sasano H, Suda T: A male case of nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency first manifested in his sixties with adrenocortical incidentaloma. Endocr J; 2008 May;55(2):291-7
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  • The two tumors in the left adrenal, which were interpreted as myelolipoma by imaging studies, were followed by sequential observation, whereas the contralateral large solid tumor associated with inhomogeneous radiological appearance was subsequently removed.
  • The resected tumor was diagnosed an adrenocortical adenoma, which was devoid of P450c21 immunoreactivity.
  • 21OHD is often associated with benign adrenocortical tumors, but bilateral adrenal tumors with heterogeneous components in both adrenals have not been reported to the best of our knowledge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone / blood. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aged. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18323673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68-96-2 / 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
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54. Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Clinical review: Adrenocortical carcinoma: clinical update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2027-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Patients present with hormone excess (e.g. virilization, Cushing's syndrome) or a local mass effect (median tumor size at diagnosis > 10 cm).
  • The following search terms were used in varying combinations: adrenal, adrenocortical, cancer, carcinoma, tumor, diagnosis, imaging, treatment, radiotherapy, mitotane, cytotoxic, surgery.
  • EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Tumors typically appear inhomogeneous in both computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with necroses and irregular borders and differ from benign adenomas by their low fat content.
  • Hormonal analysis reveals evidence of steroid hormone secretion by the tumor in the majority of cases, even in seemingly hormonally inactive lesions.
  • Local recurrence is frequent, particularly after violation of the tumor capsule.
  • Surgery also plays a role in local tumor recurrence and metastatic disease.
  • Adjuvant treatment options after complete tumor removal (e.g. mitotane, radiotherapy) are urgently needed because postoperative disease-free survival at 5 yr is only around 30%, but options have still not been convincingly established.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16551738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 156
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55. Ignaszak-Szczepaniak M, Horst-Sikorska W, Sawicka J, Kaczmarek M, Slomski R: The TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and predisposition to adrenocortical cancer in Polish patients. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jul;16(1):65-71
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  • We have analyzed the 72Pro polymorphic variant in patients with adrenocortical tumors to evaluate whether 72G--> C substitution at codon 72 of TP53 gene may be associated with increased risk for malignancy in adrenal cortex in comparison to the control group.
  • DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes of 46 Polish patients with adrenocortical tumors (17 malignant and 29 benign) and 50 controls was examined by PCR-HD method followed by direct sequencing.
  • The genotype Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro distribution was respectively 53%/35%/12% for cancers, 72%/28%/0% for benign tumors and 76%/24%/0% for controls.
  • High frequency of 72Pro allele in patients with carcinoma (29%) in comparison to the benign tumors (14%) and controls (12%) was statistically analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Polymorphism, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16786124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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56. Ahmed AA: Adrenocortical neoplasms in young children: age as a prognostic factor. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2009;39(3):277-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenal cortical neoplasms in pediatric patients are rare.
  • Imaging studies revealed neoplasms in the left adrenal gland in 3 cases and the right adrenal gland in 2 cases.
  • The tumors were grossly confined to the adrenal glands and ranged in diameter from 3 to 6 cm (mean 4.3 cm).
  • Despite histological and immunophenotypical evidence of malignancy, these localized adrenocortical neoplasms had a benign clinical course with no evidence of metastasis or recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child, Preschool. Dehydroepiandrosterone / blood. Dehydroepiandrosterone / urine. Female. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Prognosis. Testosterone / blood. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Virilism / diagnosis. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19667412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-8080
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 459AG36T1B / Dehydroepiandrosterone
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57. Ronchi CL, Sbiera S, Kraus L, Wortmann S, Johanssen S, Adam P, Willenberg HS, Hahner S, Allolio B, Fassnacht M: Expression of excision repair cross complementing group 1 and prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):907-18
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  • In other tumor entities, expression of excision repair cross complementing group 1 (ERCC1) predicts resistance to platinum compounds.
  • We have retrolectively established adrenal tissue microarrays and analyzed prospectively samples from 163 ACCs, 15 benign adrenal adenomas, and 8 normal adrenal glands by immunohistochemistry for ERCC1 protein expression.
  • ERCC1 protein was highly expressed in all normal adrenal glands, 14 benign tumors (93%) and in 75 ACCs (47%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Platinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19240185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Platinum Compounds; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases
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58. Kiiveri S, Liu J, Arola J, Heikkilä P, Kuulasmaa T, Lehtonen E, Voutilainen R, Heikinheimo M: Transcription factors GATA-6, SF-1, and cell proliferation in human adrenocortical tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2005 Apr 15;233(1-2):47-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Transcription factor GATA-6 is expressed in fetal and adult human adrenal cortex and has been suggested to have a role in adrenal androgen synthesis.
  • GATA-6 mRNA and protein expression was remarkably diminished in adrenocortical carcinomas as compared to normal adrenal cortex and adenomas (p<0.05).
  • In opposite to other tumor types GATA-6 expression was, however, high in virilizing carcinomas.
  • Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) has been functionally linked to GATA-6, and the expression of these two factors correlated in the adrenal tumors.
  • In contrast to GATA-6, we found upregulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and proliferation marker Ki67 in adrenocortical carcinomas indicating that GATA-6 is not linked to cell proliferation in human adrenal tumors.
  • Taken together, the present and earlier results link GATA-6 to adrenocortical steroidogenesis and to the benign adrenocortical phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Female. GATA6 Transcription Factor. Homeodomain Proteins. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear. Steroidogenic Factor 1. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15767045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse
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59. Tömböl Z, Szabó PM, Molnár V, Wiener Z, Tölgyesi G, Horányi J, Riesz P, Reismann P, Patócs A, Likó I, Gaillard RC, Falus A, Rácz K, Igaz P: Integrative molecular bioinformatics study of human adrenocortical tumors: microRNA, tissue-specific target prediction, and pathway analysis. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):895-906
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Thirty-six tissue samples including normal adrenocortical tissues, benign adenomas, and adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) were studied by simultaneous miR and mRNA profiling.
  • By calculating the difference between dCT(miR-511) and dCT(miR-503) (delta cycle threshold), ACCs could be distinguished from benign adenomas with high sensitivity and specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Computational Biology / methods. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. MicroRNAs / genetics. Signal Transduction / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Algorithms. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Female. Forecasting / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Organ Specificity / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19546168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs
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60. Al-Brahim N, Asa S: Myelolipoma with adrenocortical adenoma: an unusual combination that can resemble carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(2):103-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Myelolipoma is a benign tumor that occurs in the adrenal gland and rarely in extra-adrenal sites.
  • In this paper, we report three cases of adrenal myelolipoma associated with adrenocortical adenoma; in all three patients, the radiological appearance resembled adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of this combination as a pitfall in the correct diagnosis and management of patients with adrenal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17917001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Weismann D, Briese J, Niemann J, Grüneberger M, Adam P, Hahner S, Johanssen S, Liu W, Ezzat S, Saeger W, Bamberger AM, Fassnacht M, Schulte HM, Asa SL, Allolio B, Bamberger CM: Osteopontin stimulates invasion of NCI-h295 cells but is not associated with survival in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):232-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study, we demonstrated OPN and integrin alphavbeta3 expression in normal adrenal glands and benign adenomas, with staining seen exclusively in adrenocortical cells as well as even stronger staining in ACC.
  • This relationship remains of relevance to our understanding of carcinogenesis, but further studies are needed to address the physiological and pathological function of OPN in adrenal tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Osteopontin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Blotting, Western / methods. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Integrin alphaVbeta3 / analysis. Integrin alphaVbeta3 / genetics. Integrin alphaVbeta3 / metabolism. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Statistics, Nonparametric. Transfection / methods

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  • (PMID = 19326399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alphaVbeta3; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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62. Solís-López DR, Rodríguez-Hernández Z, Solís-López DH: Incidental adreno-cortical adenoma, why surgery? a case report. P R Health Sci J; 2010 Jun;29(2):130-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental adreno-cortical adenoma, why surgery? a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Incidental adrenal tumors are commonly benign, but reports demonstrate that if the characteristics of the tumor are not clear, on images surgery is the procedure of choice.
  • Our objective through this case is to show that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe approach for adrenal incidental tumor regardless of radiological findings.
  • She went for check up and a left adrenal mass on MRI described as myelolipoma was found incidentally.
  • The pathological report was adrenal cortical adenoma with central hemorrhage and not a myelolipoma as described in images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal masses is a safe procedure for tumors of 6 cm regardless of the radiological description.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20496530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-0658
  • [Journal-full-title] Puerto Rico health sciences journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] P R Health Sci J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
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63. Nakamura A, Shimizu C, Nagai S, Taniguchi S, Umetsu M, Atsumi T, Wada N, Yoshioka N, Ono Y, Sasano H, Koike T: Unilateral adrenalectomy improves insulin resistance and polycystic ovaries in a middle-aged woman with virilizing adrenocortical adenoma complicated with Cushing's syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jan;30(1):65-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A benign virilizing adrenal adenoma is rare among adrenal neoplasms in middle-aged women.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a left adrenal tumor, and an adrenocortical scintigraphy revealed uptake of the tracer on the left side.
  • Histopathological features of resected adrenal tumor were consistent with those of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Immunoreactivity of all the steroidogenic enzymes was apparent in the tumor cells and particularly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (DHEA-ST) immunoreactivity was markedly expressed.
  • Cortical atrophy and reduced expression of DHEA-ST were detected in the cortex of the adjacent non-neoplastic adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Insulin Resistance. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / therapy. Virilism / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Endocrinol Invest. 2008 Apr;31(4):380-1 [18475059.001]
  • (PMID = 17318025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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64. Jain M, Kapoor S, Mishra A, Gupta S, Agarwal A: Weiss criteria in large adrenocortical tumors: a validation study. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):222-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Several systems including pathologic criteria alone or in combination with clinical features have been proposed to differentiate between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors and assess their prognosis.
  • RESULTS: The histological criteria of Weiss appeared to predict tumor prognosis accurately.
  • CONCLUSION: Weiss score was found to be a good prognostic factor for tumors of the adrenal cortex.

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  • (PMID = 20551521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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65. Crand A, Borson-Chazot F, Brue T: [Recent data in adrenocortical tumorigenesis]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S20-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Actualités dans la tumorigenèse surrénalienne.
  • Until now, surgery is the only curative treatment for tumors confined to the adrenal gland and there is a lack of an effective medical treatment for invasive or metastatic tumors due to the poor knowledge of the mechanisms underlying adrenocortical malignancy.
  • Moreover, histopathology is sometimes insufficient to establish an accurate diagnosis between a benign and a malignant adrenal tumor and a poor indicator of prognosis.
  • In the last decade, the study of rare genetic syndromes associated with adrenocortical carcinomas and the identification of genetic alterations in adrenal tumors has improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19878765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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66. Oller AR, Kirkpatrick DT, Radovsky A, Bates HK: Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2008 Dec 1;233(2):262-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed.
  • Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure.
  • Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands.
  • The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemically induced. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemically induced. Adrenocortical Adenoma / chemically induced. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / chemically induced. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Male. Models, Animal. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Pheochromocytoma / chemically induced. Powders. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / epidemiology. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / etiology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18822311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0333
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Powders; 7OV03QG267 / Nickel
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67. Papotti M, Volante M, Duregon E, Delsedime L, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Rosai J: Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):973-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The recent observation by our group of an adrenal myxoid tumor with morphologically borderline features, but aggressive clinical behavior prompted us to review a series of 196 adrenocortical lesions, comprising 122 carcinomas and 74 adenomas, to define the morphologic, phenotypical and clinical characteristics of adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features.
  • Fourteen cases, including 12 carcinomas and 2 borderline tumors, formed the basis of this report, and were characterized by a variably abundant myxoid component (from 5% to 90% of tumor) and 2 distinct cellular growth patterns: the first (10 cases), mostly associated with a predominant myxoid stromal component, was made of small cells with mild atypia arranged in cords and microcysts; the second (4 cases) was characterized by focal myxoid changes in tumors otherwise similar to conventional adrenocortical carcinoma, with large atypical cells having an eosinophilic cytoplasm and a diffuse or nodular architecture.
  • A peculiar reactivity to neurofilaments was seen, mostly associated to the presence of predominant rather that focal myxoid stromal changes, and in 40% of conventional adrenocortical carcinomas, thus representing an undescribed potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of adrenal lesions.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors probably represent a rare but histologically and phenotipically distinct entity and, although rare cases of benign lesions are on record, they seem to be generally associated to morphologic and clinical features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fetal Development. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20534995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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68. Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Slater EP, Langer P, Buchholz M, Ramaswamy A, Saeger W, Rothmund M, Fendrich V: Expression of the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail in adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with decreased survival. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 2;99(11):1900-7
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  • Increasing evidence suggests that EMT plays a pivotal role in tumour progression and metastatic spread.
  • Seventeen of 26 (65%) ACC tumour samples expressed Snail when assessed by immunohistochemistry.
  • Snail expression was neither detected in normal adrenocortical tissue, nor in benign adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cadherins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19018264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600683
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69. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Weng J, Yeh RF, Khanafshar E, Suh I, Barker C, Duh QY, Clark OH, Kebebew E: Identification of biomarkers of adrenocortical carcinoma using genomewide gene expression profiling. Arch Surg; 2008 Sep;143(9):841-6; discussion 846
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  • HYPOTHESIS: The gene expression profiles of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors are different.
  • PATIENTS: Eighty-five patients with benign adrenocortical tumors (n = 74) and adrenocortical carcinoma (n = 11).
  • INTERVENTION: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 89 adrenocortical tissue samples (11 malignant and 78 benign).
  • The criteria for differentially expressed genes between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors were a false discovery rate of less than 5% and an adjusted P < .01.
  • Of the 37 genes validated by RT-PCR, 22 were significantly differentially expressed between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (P < .05).
  • Five of these 22 genes had an AUC of 0.80 or greater (the AUC for IL13RA2 was 0.90; HTR2B, 0.87; CCNB2, 0.86; RARRES2, 0.86; and SLC16A9, 0.80), indicating high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: We identified 37 genes that are dysregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma, and several of the differentially expressed genes have excellent diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex. Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Chemokines / metabolism. Cyclin B / metabolism. Cyclin B2. Female. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. ROC Curve. Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18794420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCNB2 protein, human; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B2; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters; 0 / Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B; 0 / chemerin protein, human
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70. Tissier F: [Pathology of adrenocortical tumors: review and recent data]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Jun;70(3):179-85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Anatomie pathologique des tumeurs corticosurrénaliennes de l'adulte : état des lieux et données récentes.
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and their therapeutic is sparse.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach brings sufficient elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor but in few cases, it is insufficient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin E / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Mitosis. Mutation. Necrosis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19298951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / beta Catenin; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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76. Mazzuco TL, Chabre O, Feige JJ, Thomas M: Aberrant expression of human luteinizing hormone receptor by adrenocortical cells is sufficient to provoke both hyperplasia and Cushing's syndrome features. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jan;91(1):196-203
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  • CONTEXT: Aberrant expression of LH/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) receptor has been suggested in several cases of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with Cushing's syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the action of LH/hCG receptor on the development of adrenal hyperplasia.
  • RESULTS: The ectopic expression of this single nonmutated gene transduced into bovine adrenocortical cells was sufficient to induce not only the aberrant cortisol secretion but also hyperproliferation and benign transformation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that a single genetic event such as the inappropriate expression of the nonmutated LH/hCG receptor gene is sufficient to initiate the phenotypic changes that cause the development of a benign adrenocortical tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Receptors, LH / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16249277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Rag2 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, LH
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77. Malaisrie SC, Loebe M, Walkes JC, Reardon MJ: Coronary pseudoaneurysm: an unreported complication of Castleman's disease. Ann Thorac Surg; 2006 Jul;82(1):318-20
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  • Castleman's disease is considered a benign disease with very few reports of local invasion into adjacent structures.
  • Careful preoperative planning allowed the placement of a left ventricular assist device with eventual heart transplantation after complete resection of the tumor and unsuccessful myocardial revascularization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Cardiotonic Agents / therapeutic use. Chest Pain / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Coronary Artery Bypass. Fistula / etiology. Heart Failure / drug therapy. Heart Failure / etiology. Heart Failure / surgery. Heart Transplantation. Humans. Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Myocardial Infarction / etiology. Stents. Stroke Volume

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  • (PMID = 16798241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Cardiotonic Agents
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78. Herbet M, Feige JJ, Thomas M: Insights into the role of genetic alterations in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 5;300(1-2):169-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Whereas benign adrenocortical tumors are frequent in the population, adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer.
  • Progressive transformation of a normal tissue into a benign tumor and ultimately into a carcinoma occurs via accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations.
  • Likewise, a multistage model has been proposed for the adrenal tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19007854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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79. Else T, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD: Evaluation of telomere length maintenance mechanisms in adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Apr;93(4):1442-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The clinical and pathological diagnosis of a malignant vs. benign adrenocortical tumor is sometimes challenging.
  • PATIENT SAMPLES: Samples included 24 ACCs, 11 adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), and three normal adrenal tissues.
  • None of the normal adrenal tissues (none of three) or ACA (none of 11) samples had signs of an active TMM.
  • Determination of telomere maintenance mechanisms in diagnostically challenging adrenocortical tumors might be of additional diagnostic value in the pathological diagnosis of malignant vs. benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Telomere

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  • (PMID = 18198226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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80. Stratakis CA: Adrenocortical tumors, primary pigmented adrenocortical disease (PPNAD)/Carney complex, and other bilateral hyperplasias: the NIH studies. Horm Metab Res; 2007 Jun;39(6):467-73
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  • It has been estimated that up to 1 in 10 adults has at least one adrenocortical nodule up to 1 cm on autopsy; these benign tumors may contribute to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, obesity and abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that can be linked to other serious disorders such as osteoporosis, depression and late-onset diabetes mellitus.
  • In addition, up to 1 in 1500 of these adrenal "incidentalomas" may hide a carcinoma, which, if diagnosed late or left untreated, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
  • Consistent with the theme of this symposium, in the present report, we review the efforts undertaken at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the last quarter century to unravel the complex clinical genetics and molecular mechanisms involved in adrenal tumorigenesis.
  • We first proposed that adrenocortical tumors form in a molecular sequence of events similar to that in other organs: as the pathology of the tumor increases towards malignancy, genetic changes accumulate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Diseases / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17578766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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81. Nocca D, Aggarwal R, Mathieu A, Blanc PM, Denève E, Salsano V, Figueira G, Sanders G, Domergue J, Millat B, Fabre PR: Laparoscopic surgery and corticoadrenalomas. Surg Endosc; 2007 Aug;21(8):1373-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the "gold standard" procedure for the treatment of benign lesions.
  • However, the situation is not so clearcut when the issue is laparoscopic excision of malignant adrenal tumors.
  • Twelve patients (9%) had a malignant tumor: nine corticoadrenalomas, one pleomorphic sarcoma, one metastatic deposit from a previously excised colonic cancer, and one malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • Five years later, the same patient had a reoperation for an intra-abdominal retrogastric recurrence of her tumor and continues to do well.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 17356945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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82. Zhang C, Mattern J, Haferkamp A, Pfitzenmaier J, Hohenfellner M, Rittgen W, Edler L, Debatin KM, Groene E, Herr I: Corticosteroid-induced chemotherapy resistance in urological cancers. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Jan;5(1):59-64
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DEXAMETHASONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone are widely used for medication of urological diseases, e.g., as cotreatment of advanced prostate cancer, to improve appetite, weight loss, fatigue, relieve bone pain, diminish ureteric obstruction, to reduce the production of adrenal androgens, as an antiemetic in patients undergoing chemo- and/or radiotherapy together with serving as "standard" therapy arm in randomized studies.
  • While the potent pro-apoptotic properties and the supportive effects of glucocorticoids to tumor therapy in lymphoid cells are well studied, the impact to growth of prostate and other urological carcinomas is unknown.
  • No difference in dexamethasone-mediated protection was found in normal, benign and malignant prostate tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects. Dexamethasone / adverse effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Urologic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16294015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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83. Jalali M, Krishnamurthy S: Comparison of immunomarkers for the identification of adrenocortical cells in cytology specimens. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Aug;33(2):78-82
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  • Five cases of carcinoma (4) and melanoma (1) metastases to the adrenal gland and five cases of renal-cell carcinoma were also included for comparison.
  • In benign adrenocortical lesions, A103 staining was noted in 82% of the destained Pap smears and in 92% of cell-blocks.
  • In comparison, calretinin staining was noted in 6% and 50% of destained smears and in 78% and 60% of the cell-blocks of benign and malignant adrenocortical lesions.
  • Inhibin alpha was not positive in any of the smears and showed the lowest level of positivity in the cell-block sections, namely in 11% of the benign lesions and 25% of the malignant lesions.
  • The specificity of A103 was lower than the other two makers, 90% vs. 100% because of positivity in metastatic melanoma in the adrenal gland.
  • The results of this study suggest that if metastatic melanoma in adrenal gland is not a consideration then A103 is the marker of choice for identifying cells of adrenocortical origin in the limited material available for diagnostic purposes in cytology specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism. Neoplasms / pathology. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16007649.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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84. Tissier F: [Sporadic adrenocortical tumors: genetics and perspectives for the pathologist]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Oct;28(5):409-16
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  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs corticosurrénaliennes sporadiques de l'adulte : aspects génétiques et perspectives pour le pathologiste.
  • Most adrenocortical tumors are benign; adrenocortical carcinomas are rare but their prognosis is poor and few therapeutic options are available.
  • In most adrenocortical tumors, the morphological approach provides enough elements to establish the differential diagnosis between a benign and a malignant tumor but in few cases, it is insufficient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19068395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE11A protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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85. Heyerdahl SL, Boikos S, Horvath A, Giatzakis C, Bossis I, Stratakis CA: Protein kinase A subunit expression is altered in Bloom syndrome fibroblasts and the BLM protein is increased in adrenocortical hyperplasias: inverse findings for BLM and PRKAR1A. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Jun;40(6):391-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Bloom syndrome is a genetic disorder associated with chromosomal instability and a predisposition to tumors that is caused by germline mutations of the BLM gene, a RecQ helicase.
  • Benign adrenocortical tumors display a degree of chromosomal instability that is more significant than benign tumors of other tissues.
  • In this study, we have investigated the PRKAR1A expression in primary human Bloom syndrome cell lines with known BLM mutations and examined the BLM gene expression in PPNAD and other adrenal tumor tissues.
  • The BLM protein was upregulated in PPNAD and other hyperplasias, compared to samples from normal adrenals and normal cortex, as well as samples from cortisol- and aldosterone-producing adenomas (in which BLM was largely absent).
  • These data reveal an inverse relationship between BLM and PRKAR1A: BLM deficiency is associated with a relative excess of PRKAR1A in fibroblasts compared to other PKA subunits; and PRKAR1A deficiency is associated with increased BLM protein in adrenal hyperplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / metabolism. Bloom Syndrome / metabolism. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / metabolism. DNA Helicases / metabolism. Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Cell Line. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Pigmentation Disorders / complications. Pigmentation Disorders / genetics. Pigmentation Disorders / metabolism. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RecQ Helicases

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  • (PMID = 18401830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.6.1.- / Bloom syndrome protein; EC 3.6.4.- / DNA Helicases; EC 3.6.4.12 / RecQ Helicases
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86. Schwarte S, Brabant EG, Bastian L, Bruns F: Cortisol as a possible marker of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma: a case report with 3-year follow-up. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4A):1917-20
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  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumour, sometimes causing glucocorticoid hypersecretion.
  • CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old Caucasian woman presented with adrenal Cushing's disease.
  • Histological examination after a left adrenalectomy revealed a benign tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Diagnostic Errors. Hydrocortisone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17649795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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87. St Julien J, Ball D, Schulick R: Robot-assisted cortical-sparing adrenalectomy in a patient with Von Hippel-Lindau disease and bilateral pheochromocytomas separated by 9 years. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2006 Oct;16(5):473-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

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  • [Title] Robot-assisted cortical-sparing adrenalectomy in a patient with Von Hippel-Lindau disease and bilateral pheochromocytomas separated by 9 years.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease is a heritable syndrome that confers an increased risk of developing various benign and malignant tumors to those with a germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene.
  • He presented again at age 18 with a second pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland.
  • DNA analysis revealed a de novo Val84Leu mutation in the Von Hippel-Lindau gene, not seen in either parent.
  • The challenge presented was that of balancing the obvious benefits of cortical- sparing adrenalectomy with the risk of tumor recurrence in spared tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Robotics. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex. Child. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17004871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

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  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The third was a pediatric patient with a tumor showing a nodule-in-nodule pattern with insulin-like growth factor II expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aldosterone / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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89. de Fraipont F, El Atifi M, Cherradi N, Le Moigne G, Defaye G, Houlgatte R, Bertherat J, Bertagna X, Plouin PF, Baudin E, Berger F, Gicquel C, Chabre O, Feige JJ: Gene expression profiling of human adrenocortical tumors using complementary deoxyribonucleic Acid microarrays identifies several candidate genes as markers of malignancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1819-29

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to identify predictor sets of genes whose over- or underexpression in human sporadic adrenocortical tumors would help to identify malignant vs. benign tumors and to predict postsurgical metastatic recurrence.
  • Among these genes, there are probably new markers of tumor evolution that will deserve additional validation on a larger scale.
  • Taken together, these results show that the parallel analysis of the expression levels of a selected group of genes on microgram quantities of tumor RNA (a quantity that can be obtained from fine needle aspirations) appears as a complementary method to histopathology for the diagnosis and prognosis of evolution of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Markers. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Steroids / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Mar;90(3):1900-2 [15758065.001]
  • (PMID = 15613424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Steroids
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90. Capelle X, Syrios P, Chantraine F, Rigo V, Schaaps JP, Kridelka F, Foidart JM: [A rare case of placental chorioangioma associated with neonatal disseminated hemangiomatosis]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2009 May;38(3):246-9
ORBi (University of Liege). Free full Text at ORBi .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Placental chorioangioma is a benign vascular tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Female. Humans. Hydrops Fetalis / diagnosis. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy. Ultrasonography, Prenatal

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  • (PMID = 19303223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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91. Yang JY, Yang MQ, Luo Z, Ma Y, Li J, Deng Y, Huang X: A hybrid machine learning-based method for classifying the Cushing's Syndrome with comorbid adrenocortical lesions. BMC Genomics; 2008;9 Suppl 1:S23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Because more than one marker must be considered to obtain a classification of cancer or no cancer, and if cancer, to classify it as malignant, borderline, or benign, we must develop an intelligent decision system that can fullfill such an unmet medical need.
  • We provided statistical evidence that higher expression levels of hTERT, PCNA and Ki-67 etc. are associated with a higher risk that the tumors are malignant or borderline as opposed to benign.
  • While no significant difference was found between cell-arrest antigens such as P27KIP1 for malignant, borderline, and benign tumors, there was a significant difference between expression levels of such antigens in normal adrenal medulla samples and in adrenomedullary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / classification

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  • (PMID = 18366613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2164
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2386065
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92. McClelland S 3rd, Long DM: Genesis of the use of corticosteroids in the treatment and prevention of brain edema. Neurosurgery; 2008 Apr;62(4):965-7; discussion 967-8
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  • Galicich observed that patients given a large dose of corticosteroids just before craniotomy had a relatively benign postoperative course.
  • RESULTS: After publication, a revolution in brain tumor management occurred because corticosteroid therapy markedly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with brain tumors both in the United States and worldwide.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / history. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Brain Edema / history. Brain Edema / prevention & control. Physicians / history

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  • (PMID = 18496203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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93. Soon PS, Gill AJ, Benn DE, Clarkson A, Robinson BG, McDonald KL, Sidhu SB: Microarray gene expression and immunohistochemistry analyses of adrenocortical tumors identify IGF2 and Ki-67 as useful in differentiating carcinomas from adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Jun;16(2):573-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, ACTs with a score of 3 can be phenotypically benign or malignant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19218281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IGF2 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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94. de Reyniès A, Assié G, Rickman DS, Tissier F, Groussin L, René-Corail F, Dousset B, Bertagna X, Clauser E, Bertherat J: Gene expression profiling reveals a new classification of adrenocortical tumors and identifies molecular predictors of malignancy and survival. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1108-15
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering analysis discriminated robustly the malignant and benign tumors, and identified two groups of malignant tumors with very different outcome.
  • The molecular predictors of malignancy and of survival are reliable and provide valuable independent information in addition to pathology and tumor staging.
  • These original tools should provide important improvements for adrenal tumors management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Protein Kinases / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19139432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DLGAP5 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Bub1 spindle checkpoint protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / PTEN-induced putative kinase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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95. Louiset E, Isvi K, Gasc JM, Duparc C, Cauliez B, Laquerrière A, Kuhn JM, Lefebvre H: Ectopic expression of serotonin7 receptors in an adrenocortical carcinoma co-secreting renin and cortisol. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Dec;15(4):1025-34
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Abnormal expression of membrane receptors has been previously described in benign adrenocortical neoplasms causing Cushing's syndrome.
  • In particular, we have observed that, in some adreno corticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia tissues, cortisol secretion is controlled by ectopic serotonin(7) (5-HT(7)) receptors.
  • Tumor explants were obtained at surgery and processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and cell culture studies.
  • In addition, immunohistochemistry showed the occurrence of 5-HT(7) receptor-like immunoreactivity in carcinoma cells. mRNAs encoding renin as well as renin-like immunoreactivity were detected in endothelial and tumor cells.
  • The effects of 5-HT on adrenocortical tumor cells included a paradoxical inhibitory action on renin production and a stimulatory action on cortisol secretion involving 5-HT(7) receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Receptors, Serotonin / metabolism. Renin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Angiotensin II / pharmacology. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. Female. Hormones / pharmacology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Mast Cells / drug effects. Mast Cells / metabolism. Middle Aged. Phenols / pharmacology. Serotonin / pharmacology. Sulfonamides / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Vasoconstrictor Agents / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18708508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Receptors, Serotonin; 0 / SB 269970; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents; 0 / serotonin 7 receptor; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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96. Stratakis CA: Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev; 2008;13:117-32
SciCrunch. KEGG: Data: Disease Annotation .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) is caused by excess adrenal glucocorticoid secretion that is adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-dependent or independent; ACTH-independent adrenocortical causes of CS account for up to 20% of CS in adults, and 15% in children over age 7 years.
  • In both adults and children, adrenocortical lesions causing CS include the common, isolated and sporadic, solitary cortisol-producing adenoma, the rare adrenocortical cancer, and a spectrum of recently recognized, bilateral hyperplasias (bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias, BAHs): micronodular adrenal disease and its pigmented variant, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease are mostly genetic processes.
  • The majority of benign adrenocortical tumors associated with CS are associated with defects of the cAMP signaling pathway, whereas adrenal cancer is linked to aberrant expression of growth factors and germline or somatic mutations of tumor suppressor genes such as TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18493137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-7082
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Dev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 HD000642-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
  • [Number-of-references] 33
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS307822; NLM/ PMC3132884
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97. de Lange J, van den Akker HP, van den Berg H: Central giant cell granuloma of the jaw: a review of the literature with emphasis on therapy options. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2007 Nov;104(5):603-15
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Calcitonin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a benign lesion of the jaws with an unknown etiology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Age Distribution. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzamides. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Calcitonin / therapeutic use. Denosumab. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Interferons / therapeutic use. Osteoprotegerin / therapeutic use. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. RANK Ligand. Subgingival Curettage

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  • (PMID = 17703964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Osteoprotegerin; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RANK Ligand; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
  • [Number-of-references] 113
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98. Rubod C, Triboulet JP, Vinatier D: [Ovarian dermoid cyst complicated by chemical peritonitis. Case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Jul-Aug;35(7-8):651-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ovarian Cysts.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Kyste dermoïde de l'ovaire compliqué d'une péritonite chimique. A propos d'un cas.
  • Dermoid cyst is the most frequent benign ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 17602847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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99. Szabó D, Zsippai A, Bendes M, Tömböl Z, Szabó PM, Rácz K, Igaz P: [Pathogenesis of adrenocortical cancer]. Orv Hetil; 2010 Jul 18;151(29):1163-70
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • Whereas most cases occur in a sporadic setting, there are very rare hereditary forms that are important for the understanding of tumor pathogenesis.
  • The hereditary syndromes associated with adrenocortical cancer are: Li-Fraumeni's syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann's syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis, whereas multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney's complex and McCune-Albright's syndrome mostly predispose to benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • In this study, the pathogenesis of hereditary tumor syndromes, the alterations in sporadic tumors and the most recent molecular-bioinformatical observations are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Carney Complex / genetics. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit / metabolism. Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p53. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Signal Transduction. Up-Regulation. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20591784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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100. Preisz K, Kárpáti S: [Paraneoplastic pemphigus]. Orv Hetil; 2007 May 27;148(21):979-83
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. RITUXIMAB .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Paraneoplastic pemphigus is an autoimmune bullous skin disease induced by underlying malignant or benign neoplasias.
  • Beside treatment of the underlying tumor, a combination of systemic steroids with immunomodulators, cytostatic drugs, plasmapheresis, plasma exchange, intravenous gammaglobulin, or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) may be the most appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Autoantigens / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Plakins / genetics. Plakins / immunology. Plasma Exchange. Plasmapheresis. Respiratory Insufficiency / etiology. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 17513251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Plakins; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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