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1. Calsyn JD, Green RA, Davis GJ, Reilly CM: Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral adrenocortical adenoma in a cat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2010 Jan-Feb;46(1):36-42
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  • [Title] Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral adrenocortical adenoma in a cat.
  • An ultrasound revealed bilateral adrenal gland enlargement.
  • Histopathology was consistent with a cortical adenoma in the right adrenal gland and a pheochromocytoma in the left adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / veterinary. Adrenocortical Adenoma / veterinary. Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20045835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Inan N, Arslan A, Akansel G, Anik Y, Balci NC, Demirci A: Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal masses. Eur J Radiol; 2008 Jan;65(1):154-62
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  • [Title] Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant adrenal masses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of dynamic MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of adrenal adenomas and malignant tumors, especially in cases with atypical adenomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four masses (48 adenomas, 16 malignant tumors) were included in this prospective study.
  • RESULTS: Chemical shift MR imaging was able to differentiate 44 out of 48 adenomas (91.7%) from non-adenomas.
  • The 4 adenomas (8.3%) which could not be differentiated from non-adenomas by this technique did not exhibit signal loss on out-of-phase images.
  • With a cut-off value of 30, SI indices of adenomas had a sensitivity of 93.8%, specificity of 100% and a positive predictive value of 100%.
  • On visual evaluation of dynamic MR imaging, early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 75% and punctate in 20,83% of the adenomas; while patchy in 56.25% and peripheral in 25% of the malignant tumors.
  • On the late phase images 58.33% of the adenomas showed peripheral ring-shaped enhancement and 10.41% showed heterogeneous enhancement.
  • At the 25th second, the SIs and wash-in rates of the adenomas were significantly higher than those of the malignant masses (p=0.010).
  • Time-to-peak enhancement of the malignant masses was significantly longer than that of the adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemical shift MR has a high sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of adenomas and malignant adrenal masses.
  • However, taking into consideration only the atypical adenomas, chemical shift MRI is of no diagnostic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 17466481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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3. Zhang W, Tang ZY, Wang WQ, Ning G: [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 26;86(48):3397-400
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  • [Title] [Metabolic syndrome in patients with adrenocortical adenoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients of adrenocortical adenoma.
  • METHODS: MS-related indexes, including waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting plasma glucose, plasma and urinary aldosterone, plasma potassium, basic and upright plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma and urinary cortisol, and plasma ACTH, were examined among 61 patients of aldosterone producing adenoma (APA, Group 1), 23 patients of cortisol-secreting adenoma (CSA, Group 2), 24 patients of nonfunctional adrenal adenoma (NAA, Group 3), and 26 healthy controls (Group 4).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with adrenocortical adenoma have a significantly high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially the patients of CSA and NAA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Metabolic Syndrome X / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17313850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Lipids; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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4. Arima K, Yamakado K, Suzuki R, Matsuura H, Nakatsuka A, Takeda K, Sugimura Y: Image-guided radiofrequency ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome: outcomes after mean follow-up of 33 months. Urology; 2007 Sep;70(3):407-11
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  • [Title] Image-guided radiofrequency ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome: outcomes after mean follow-up of 33 months.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and therapeutic effects of image-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation used for the treatment of adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome.
  • METHODS: From February 2003 to May 2005, 4 consecutive patients with adrenocortical adenoma and Cushing syndrome received percutaneous RF ablation.
  • All tumors were in the left adrenal gland, with a mean tumor size of 2.7 +/- 0.6 cm (range 2.0 to 3.5).
  • Both the serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels returned to normal and the symptoms related to Cushing syndrome had disappeared at the end of follow-up (range 20 to 46 months, mean 33) for a clinical success rate of 100%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using RF ablation for adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing syndrome is a feasible, safe, and promising treatment method in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Fluoroscopy / methods. Radiography, Interventional / methods. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 17905083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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5. Rohana AG, Ming W, Norlela S, Norazmi MK: Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):158-9
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  • [Title] Functioning adrenal adenoma in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • We report a case of a young hypertensive male who was first seen in 1998 with a right thalamic haemorrhage and uncontrolled hypertension.
  • CT abdomen showed a right adrenal tumour and a hyperplastic left adrenal gland.
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy performed followed by histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.
  • This was confirmed to be due to partial or late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • We discuss the association of partial CAH and adrenal tumours and the unmasking of the mineralocorticoid deficiency following adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications


6. Kim HY, Kim SG, Lee KW, Seo JA, Kim NH, Choi KM, Baik SH, Choi DS: Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea. Korean J Intern Med; 2005 Dec;20(4):303-9
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  • [Title] Clinical study of adrenal incidentaloma in Korea.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical, endocrinological and histological characteristics of adrenal incidentalomas.
  • METHODS: Eighty patients (41, males; 38, females; age range 17-80 years) who were diagnosed with adrenal incidentaloma at Korea University Hospital from 1992 to 2003 were studied retrospectively.
  • Pathologic examination revealed 16 adrenocortical adenomas (20%), five carcinomas (6%), 13 pheochromocytomas (16%), three metastatic cancers (4%), and other tumors (10%).
  • The diameter of the carcinomas (mean: 10.8 cm, range: 5-19 cm) were significantly larger than the diameter of benign adenomas (mean: 2.84 cm, range: 1-6 cm) (p=0.002).
  • Twenty-four patients with non-functioning tumors were followed up for a period of 3 to 72 months.
  • Changes in mass size and function were observed only between 10 and 26 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data show that an endocrine evaluation should be performed in all adrenal incidentalomas, and an adrenalectomy is recommended for tumors 5 cm or greater or tumors with adrenocortical hyperfunction.
  • In addition, these tumors should be monitored for changes in mass size and function for a follow up period of approximately 26 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Incidental Findings
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16491828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891076
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7. Szentirmai O, Winston KR, Jedlicka P, Lum GM: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;107(4 Suppl):328-9
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  • [Title] Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a child with systemic hypertension and adrenal adenoma. Case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Basal Ganglia / blood supply. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / etiology


8. Jeong BC, Park YH, Han DH, Kim HH: Laparoendoscopic single-site and conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a matched case-control study. J Endourol; 2009 Dec;23(12):1957-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe our initial clinical experience and assess the feasibility of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in the treatment of benign adrenal adenoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine patients undergoing LESS adrenalectomy for benign adrenal adenoma were compared with 17 patients undergoing conventional laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LESS adrenalectomy for benign adrenal adenoma is comparable to the conventional laparoscopic approach with regard to the operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, and degree of complication, and has demonstrated more desirable cosmetic outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 19909074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Sawazaki H, Segawa T, Yoshida K, Kawahara T, Inoue T, Soda T, Kamba T, Yoshimura K, Takahashi T, Nakamura E, Nishiyama H, Ito N, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):785-8
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  • [Title] [Hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma: a case report].
  • We present a case of hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipoma.
  • Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was a sarcoma of renal capsule origin.
  • En bloc resection of adrenal gland, tumor, and the kidney with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Histologically, the mass was diagnosed as hemorrhagic adrenocortical adenoma with myelolipomatous foci.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Myelolipoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17131868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Legmann P: [Adrenal incidentaloma: management approaches: CT - MRI]. J Radiol; 2009 Mar;90(3 Pt 2):426-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenal incidentaloma: management approaches: CT - MRI].
  • The adrenal gland may be affected by several pathologies, and the detection of an adrenal nodule may occur during the work-up of a biological abnormality, oncologic work-up, or be incidental.
  • Cross-sectional imaging has had a great impact on the diagnostic work-up of adrenal nodules.
  • CT, without and with intravenous contrast, is the first line imaging study for evaluation of adrenal nodules.
  • A spontaneous density below 10 HU confirms the benign nature of a nodule.
  • When lesions cannot be characterized, postcontrast CT or MR imaging, including in and out of phase imaging, may allow diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Diseases / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / radiography. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Ewing / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adult. Algorithms. Biopsy. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / radiography. Hematoma / diagnosis. Hematoma / radiography. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / radiography


11. Groussin L, Cazabat L, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Bertherat J: Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex. Horm Res; 2005;64(3):132-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal pathophysiology: lessons from the Carney complex.
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a main characteristic of CNC.
  • PPNAD is a very rare cause of Cushing's syndrome due to a primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations nor familial history.
  • Interestingly, patients with isolated PPNAD and no familial history of CNC can also present a germline de novo mutation of PRKAR1A.
  • Somatic mutations of PRKAR1A have been found in PPNAD as a mechanism of inactivation of the wild-type allele, in a patient already presenting a germline mutation, and in a subset of sporadic secreting adrenocortical adenomas with clinical, hormonal, and pathological features quite similar to PPNAD.
  • This review will summarize the recent findings on CNC from the perspective of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and PPNAD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / physiopathology. Adrenal Glands / physiopathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16192737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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12. Willenberg HS, Haase M, Papewalis C, Schott M, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR: Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression on normal and tumorous human adrenocortical cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(5-6):274-81
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  • [Title] Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor expression on normal and tumorous human adrenocortical cells.
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is not only the principal regulator of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but also exerts direct actions on peripheral tissues.
  • We analyzed the expression of CRH receptors in microdissected preparations of normal human adrenal glands and in adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumors, employing immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR of microdissected adrenal tissues, and in situ hybridization.
  • The effect of CRH on adrenal steroidogenesis was tested in adrenal cells.
  • In addition, we found a higher expression of CRH type-1 and 2 receptors mRNAs in preparations of adrenal cortices as compared to pheochromocytomas, a 6-fold increase in preparations of clinically unapparent adrenocortical adenomas, and a 10- to 60-fold increase in cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas.
  • Stimulation of the adrenal tumor cell line NCI-H295R with CRH elicited a 1.4-fold increase in DHEA secretion.
  • This result could be reproduced in a culture of primary human adrenocortical cells.
  • We conclude that adrenocortical cells exhibit a higher expression of functional CRH receptors than chromaffin cells and that CRH acts on adrenal DHEA production.
  • The data support the assertion of a direct action of CRH on human adrenocortical cells in addition to an intra-adrenal CRH receptor/adrenocorticotropin system.
  • Enhanced CRH1R expression may be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / chemistry. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemistry. Adrenocortical Adenoma / chemistry. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / chemistry. Pheochromocytoma / chemistry. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16721033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / CRF receptor type 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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13. Stratakis CA, Carney JA: The triad of paragangliomas, gastric stromal tumours and pulmonary chondromas (Carney triad), and the dyad of paragangliomas and gastric stromal sarcomas (Carney-Stratakis syndrome): molecular genetics and clinical implications. J Intern Med; 2009 Jul;266(1):43-52
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  • A number of other lesions have been described in the condition including pheochromocytomas, oesophageal leiomyomas and adrenocortical adenomas; CT is a novel form of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), a genetic condition with a female predilection.
  • We recently reported an international series of patients with CT, 34 females and three males (median age of presentation 21 years) who did not carry SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations.
  • The above have clinical implications (i) for patients with GISTs that are cKIT- and PDGFRA-mutation negative: these tumours are usually resistant to treatment with currently available tyrosine kinase inhibitors and may be part of a syndrome such as CT or CSS; and (ii) for patients with an inherited PGL syndrome, family history should be explored to identify any other tumours in the family, and in particular other endocrine lesions and GISTs.


14. Arai H, Kobayashi N, Nakatsuru Y, Masuzaki H, Nambu T, Takaya K, Yamanaka Y, Kondo E, Yamada G, Fujii T, Miura M, Komatsu Y, Kanamoto N, Ariyasu H, Moriyama K, Yasoda A, Nakao K: A case of cortisol producing adrenal adenoma without phenotype of Cushing's syndrome due to impaired 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity. Endocr J; 2008 Aug;55(4):709-15
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  • [Title] A case of cortisol producing adrenal adenoma without phenotype of Cushing's syndrome due to impaired 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activity.
  • This report concerns a case of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenoma without the phenotype of Cushing's syndrome.
  • A left adrenal tumor was incidentally detected in this patient.
  • A diagnosis of adrenal Cushing's syndrome was based on the results of endocrinological and radiological examinations, although she showed none of the physical signs of Cushing's syndrome, glucose intolerance, hypertension or dyslipidermia.
  • After a successful laparoscopic left adrenalectomy, the pathological diagnosis was adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Slow tapering of glucocorticoids was needed to prevent adrenal insufficiency after surgery, and the plasma ACTH level remained high even though the serum cortisol level had reached the upper limit of the normal range.
  • [MeSH-major] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18493111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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15. Terzolo M, Bovio S, Pia A, Osella G, Borretta G, Angeli A, Reimondo G: Subclinical Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1272-9
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  • Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (CS) is attracting increasing interest since the serendipitous discovery of an adrenal mass has become a rather frequent event owing to the routine use of sophisticated radiologic techniques.
  • Cortical adenoma is the most frequent type of adrenal incidentaloma accounting for approximately 50% of cases in surgical series and even greater shares in medical series.
  • Incidentally discovered adrenal adenomas may secrete cortisol in an autonomous manner that is not fully restrained by pituitary feedback, in 5 to 20% of cases depending on study protocols and diagnostic criteria.
  • The criteria for qualifying subclinical cortisol excess are controversial and presently there is no consensus on a gold standard for the diagnosis of this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology. Humans. Hypertension / diagnosis. Hypertension / epidemiology. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology. Incidental Findings. Pituitary-Adrenal System / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18209865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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16. Wosnitzer B, Gadiraju R: The role of nuclear imaging in multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1). Radiol Case Rep; 2010;5(4):452
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  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN 1) is a rare genetic disorder classically characterized by a predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet cells (1).
  • In addition to exhibiting these characteristic tumors, MEN 1 patients also have an increased propensity for other tumors such as carcinoids, adrenal adenomas, angiofibromas, and lipomas (1, 2, 3).
  • The tumors of MEN 1 are usually benign; however, malignancy of some carcinoid, islet cell, and gastrointestinal tract tumors can cause mortality (5, 6, 7, 8).
  • Diagnosis of MEN 1 is usually made by a combination of history and physical examination, biochemical serum testing, and various imaging modalities (9, 10).
  • We present a classic case of MEN 1 with unique presentation and diagnosis using predominantly nuclear imaging in order to emphasize the role of nuclear imaging in diagnosing and treating MEN 1.

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  • (PMID = 27307880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4901017
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography / EGD, esophagogastroduodenoscopy / MEN 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 / MRI, magnetic resonance imaging
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17. de Matos LL, Trufelli DC, das Neves-Pereira JC, Danel C, Riquet M: Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review. Lung Cancer; 2006 Sep;53(3):381-6
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  • Neither of these patients had hypophysary microadenomas, adrenal adenomas or recurrence of CS after surgical treatment, demonstrating that CS was caused solely by the presence of the bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis


18. Halefoglu AM, Yasar A, Bas N, Ozel A, Erturk SM, Basak M: Comparison of computed tomography histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging for adrenal mass characterization. Acta Radiol; 2009 Nov;50(9):1071-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of computed tomography histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging for adrenal mass characterization.
  • BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) histogram analysis and chemical-shift magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently used modalities for adrenal mass characterization.
  • However, it is not yet clear which modality can be regarded as most sensitive in terms of adrenal mass characterization.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively compare CT histogram analysis and chemical-shift MRI in the characterization of adrenal masses.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between May 2007 and November 2008, 93 patients (45 males, 48 females; mean age 56.7 years, range 22-85 years) with 109 adrenal masses prospectively underwent both unenhanced CT and chemical-shift MRI examinations.
  • These masses consisted of 67 adenomas and 42 metastases.
  • Histogram analysis was applied with a circular region of interest (ROI) that recorded mean attenuation, total number of pixels, number of negative pixels, and the percentage of negative pixels on unenhanced CT images for each adrenal mass.
  • In chemical-shift MRI, signal intensity drop between in-phase and opposed-phase images was quantitatively calculated so that adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratios and adrenal signal intensity indexes were determined for each of the adrenal masses.
  • A mass was regarded as an adenoma if it contained more than 10% negative pixels by CT histogram analysis, showed an adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio of less than 0.71, and had an adrenal signal intensity index of more than 16.5% by chemical-shift MRI.
  • The results were compared to reveal which method was most sensitive in the diagnosis of adrenal masses and whether or not a correlation exists between these two modalities.
  • Final diagnoses were based on imaging follow-up of minimum 6 months, biopsy, surgery, and adrenal washout study.
  • RESULTS: On unenhanced CT examinations, all of the 67 adenomas and 21 out of 42 metastases exhibited negative pixels.
  • CT histogram analysis using a 10% negative pixel threshold gave a 91% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the diagnosis of an adenoma.
  • On chemical-shift MRI, for an adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio of less than 0.71, a 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity were achieved, while a 97% sensitivity and 93% specificity were obtained for an adrenal signal intensity index of more than 16.5% for adenoma diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: CT histogram analysis method using a 10% negative pixel threshold on unenhanced CT had a good sensitivity and perfect specificity for the differentiation of adrenal adenomas from non-adenomas.
  • In spite of the good results obtained with the CT histogram analysis method, chemical-shift MRI using adrenal-to-spleen chemical-shift ratio and adrenal signal intensity index formulas had a higher sensitivity and could help in the characterization of adrenal masses appearing indeterminate by CT histogram analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19863419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Saner-Amigh K, Mayhew BA, Mantero F, Schiavi F, White PC, Rao CV, Rainey WE: Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Mar;91(3):1136-42
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  • [Title] Elevated expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in aldosterone-producing adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: The mechanisms driving steroid production in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) are poorly defined.
  • However, previous studies have shown that steroid production in some cortisol-producing adenomas is regulated by aberrant expression of G protein-coupled receptors.
  • Aberrant adrenal expression of LH receptors has been shown to cause Cushing's syndrome, but the role of LH receptors in Conn's disease (hyperaldosteronism) has not been studied.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether APAs express elevated LH receptor, compared with normal adrenal (NA).
  • Aldosterone synthase transcription was studied in H295R adrenocortical cells transfected with an LH receptor expression construct and reporter constructs prepared from CYP11B2 5'-flanking DNA.
  • PATIENTS: The patient population consisted of 20 normal control adrenals and 18 adenomas from patients with APAs.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Regulation of CYP11B2 gene expression by aberrant LH receptor expression in aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma was measured.
  • CONCLUSION: LH receptor expression is elevated in many APAs, which makes LH a potential cause of the excessive production of aldosterone in a subset of these adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Aldosterone / metabolism. Receptors, LH / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / physiology. Corpus Luteum / physiology. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Ovarian Follicle / physiology. Plasmids. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16332935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43140
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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20. Slater EP, Diehl SM, Langer P, Samans B, Ramaswamy A, Zielke A, Bartsch DK: Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Apr;154(4):587-98
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  • [Title] Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm with extremely poor prognosis.
  • The molecular mechanisms of adrenocortical tumorigenesis are still not well understood.
  • The comparative analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene-expression patterns of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors allows us to identify new tumor-suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes underlying adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Total RNA from fresh-frozen tissue of 10 ACC and 10 benign adrenocortical adenomas was isolated after histologic confirmation of neoplastic cellularity of at least 85%.
  • The reference consisted of pooled RNA of 10 normal adrenal cortex samples.
  • RESULTS: The comparative analysis of gene expression revealed many genes with more than fourfold expression difference between ACC and normal tissue (42 genes), cortical adenoma and normal tissue (11 genes), and ACC and cortical adenoma (21 genes) respectively.
  • As confirmed by real-time PCR, the IGF2 gene was significantly upregulated in ACCs versus cortical adenomas and normal cortical tissue.
  • Genes that were downregulated in adrenocortical tumors included chromogranin B and early growth response factor 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive expression profiling of adrenocortical tumors by the cDNA microarray technique is a very powerful tool to elucidate the molecular steps associated with the tumorigenesis of these ill-defined neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 16556722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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21. Wolf A, Willenberg HS, Cupisti K, Schott M, Geddert H, Raffel A, Bornstein SR, Scherbaum WA, Knoefel WT: Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma: diagnostic and therapeutic management. Horm Metab Res; 2005 Jun;37(6):391-5
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  • [Title] Adrenal pheochromocytoma with contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma: diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • There is evidence for a close interrelation between the adrenomedullary and adrenocortical tissues, and there are well-characterized models of their paracrine interaction.
  • To contribute to the studies of systemic interactions between these tissues, we studied a 52-year-old female patient with a pheochromocytoma and a contralateral cortisol-producing adenoma.
  • Due to a misunderstanding, she presented to her family doctor to have an inherited kidney disease ruled out.
  • An adrenal mass was discovered incidentally by ultrasound.
  • A computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal masses.
  • Laboratory work-up, selective adrenal venous sampling and magnetic resonance imaging studies established the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma in the right-hand adrenal gland and a cortisol-producing adenoma on the left.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining against chromogranin A in a histological specimen obtained from the right-hand adrenal gland, while the left was negative; the left-hand adrenal gland stained positive against the ACTH receptor (MC2R) while the right was negative.
  • Genetically, the patient was negative for MEN2, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and mutations in subunits B, C, and D of the succinate dehydrogenase gene.
  • Although presence of bilateral adrenal adenomas or bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas in certain inherited disorders are possible, this rare case of an adrenal pheochromocytoma combined with a contralateral cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma may further underline the wide range of complex interactions between the two endocrine systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 16001333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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22. Broome JT, Gauger P: Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Jun;34(2):185-93
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  • [Title] Surgical techniques for adrenal tumors.
  • As technology has advanced, the options for the surgical management of adrenal disorders have also increased.
  • An understanding of the basic evaluation of adrenal tumors, patient specific factors, and the risks and benefits of available techniques will allow the clinician to select an appropriate treatment for each individual.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for functional adrenocortical adenomas including aldosteronomas, cortisol-producing adenomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • While minimally-invasive techniques offer shorter recovery times and less potential morbidity, more traditional approaches remain necessary for management of known or suspected adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Except in the case of pheochromocytoma, large adrenal tumors >6 cm should not be removed laparoscopically due to the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • This article will review basic surgical adrenal disorders, operative approaches, and delineate principles of patient and procedure selection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Length of Stay. Patient Selection. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19471241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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23. Ridho FE, Adam FM, Adam JM: Adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Med Indones; 2009 Apr;41(2):87-93
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma is an adrenal tumor, which is unidentified before the imaging procedures conducted for an abnormality which is initially unforeseen as an adrenal disease.
  • Symptoms and/or clinical signs of adrenal tumor do not have to be present prior to a diagnosis.
  • Adrenal Incidentaloma can be divided into non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, hypersecreting tumor, primary adrenal carcinoma, other adrenal mass, and metastases.
  • The majority of adrenal tumor is non-hypersecreting adrenal adenoma, but it is always considered as hypersecreting tumor until proven otherwise.
  • Some conditions that can be found due to hormonal activity of adrenal incidentaloma is subclinical Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, aldosteronoma (Conn's disease), and several tumors which secrete androgen and sex hormone.
  • Diagnostic approach of adrenal incidentaloma is focused on two main problems, which are, whether the lesion is hormonally active even though lacking characteristic clinical signs, and whether the lesion is benign or malignant; thus it needs hormonal and radiologic evaluation, even a fine needle biopsy.
  • The management for adrenal incidentaloma includes surgical removal for hormonally active adrenal tumors, or inactive tumors with size less than 4 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Aldosterone / blood. Catecholamines / urine. Incidental Findings. Renin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Indonesia / epidemiology. Morbidity / trends

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  • (PMID = 19390128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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24. Tissier F, Cavard C, Groussin L, Perlemoine K, Fumey G, Hagneré AM, René-Corail F, Jullian E, Gicquel C, Bertagna X, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Perret C, Bertherat J: Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 1;65(17):7622-7
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  • [Title] Mutations of beta-catenin in adrenocortical tumors: activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is a frequent event in both benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors.
  • Adrenocortical cancer is a rare cancer with a very poor prognosis.
  • The genetic alterations identified to date in adrenocortical tumors are limited.
  • We investigated whether Wnt pathway activation is involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • In a series of 39 adrenocortical tumors, immunohistochemistry revealed abnormal cytoplasmic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in 10 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 11 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • An activating somatic mutation of the beta-catenin gene was shown in 7 of 26 adrenocortical adenomas and in 4 of 13 adrenocortical carcinomas; these mutations were observed only in adrenocortical tumors with abnormal beta-catenin accumulation and most were point mutations altering the Ser45 of exon 3 (in the consensus GSK3-beta/CK1 phosphorylation site).
  • Functional studies showed that the activating Ser45 beta-catenin mutation found in the adrenocortical cancer H295R cell line leads to constitutive activation of T-cell factor-dependent transcription.
  • This is the first molecular defect to be reported with the same prevalence in both benign (27%) and malignant (31%) adrenocortical tumors. beta-Catenin mutations are also the most frequent genetic defect currently known in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In adrenocortical adenomas, beta-catenin alterations are more frequent in nonfunctioning tumors, suggesting that beta-catenin pathway activation might be mostly involved in the development of nonsecreting adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • The very frequent and substantial accumulation of beta-catenin in adrenocortical carcinomas suggests that other alterations might also be involved.
  • This finding may contribute to new therapeutic approaches targeting the Wnt pathway in malignant adrenocortical tumors, for which limited medical therapy is available.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 16140927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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26. Krzysztof K, Wiktor B, Tadeusz Ł, Waldemar B, Magdalena K, Janusz D: Neuroendocrine tumours--analysis of own material--a nine--year retrospective study. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Mar-Apr;57(98):236-41
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  • RESULTS: In the present study were observed 6 cases of carcinoids localized in ileum, cecum and sigmoid colon, 1 case of gastrinoma in pancreatic head localization, 1 case of insulinoma localized in pancreatic tail, 1 case of vipoma localised in pancreatic head, 2 cases of nesidioblastoma and 1 case of microcystic adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in pancreatic tail localization and 1 case of nonspecific apudoma observed in ileum.
  • In adrenal glands we observed 10 benign and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma (one bilateral female case with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2A).
  • The clinical manifestations of some neuroendocrine tumours are not specific, so it causes a lot of difficulties in early diagnosis and treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20583420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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27. Johnson PT, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics; 2009 Sep-Oct;29(5):1333-51
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  • [Title] Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls.
  • The adrenal gland is involved by a range of neoplasms, including primary and metastatic malignant tumors; however, the most common tumor detected is the incidental benign adenoma.
  • Although computed tomographic (CT) findings will not always yield a definitive diagnosis, attention to these findings provides a road map to guide image interpretation.
  • Adenomas typically demonstrate rapid washout, which is defined as an absolute percentage washout (APW) of more than 60% and a relative percentage washout (RPW) of more than 40% on delayed images.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma typically has an RPW of less than 40%; however, large size and heterogeneity are more reliable indicators of the diagnosis than are washout values.
  • Washout characteristics of pheochromocytoma are variable; in conjunction with high levels of dynamic enhancement, pheochromocytomas may mimic adenoma (ie, APW > 60%, RPW > 40%).
  • After contrast material administration, metastases usually demonstrate slower washout on delayed images (APW < 60%, RPW < 40%) than do adenomas, although hypervascular metastases may enhance similarly to pheochromocytoma.
  • Finally, a number of nonadrenal pathologic conditions have been reported to mimic adrenal masses at CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Glands / radiography. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Image Enhancement / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19755599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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28. Dossett LA, Rudzinski ER, Blevins LS, Chambers EP Jr: Malignant pheochromocytoma of the organ of Zuckerkandl requiring aortic and vena caval reconstruction. Endocr Pract; 2007 Sep;13(5):493-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of a malignant pheochromocytoma located in the organ of Zuckerkandl that required aortic and vena caval resection and reconstruction.
  • RESULTS: A 46-year-old man was referred for evaluation of a 1.4-cm left adrenal mass incidentally discovered on an abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan.
  • Imaging characteristics of the left adrenal mass were consistent with a benign adenoma, but CT also demonstrated a hypervascular para-aortic mass.
  • 123I-metaiodo-benzylguanidine scanning with fusion CT imaging demonstrated increased radiopharmaceutical uptake within the para-aortic mass consistent with a paraganglioma in the organ of Zuckerkandl.
  • The mass was excised en bloc, including portions of the aorta, inferior vena cava, and right ureter.
  • The remaining right ureter and kidney were removed to avoid the possibility of a urine leak from an ureteroureterostomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Aorta, Abdominal / surgery. Para-Aortic Bodies / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17872352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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29. Abdullah N, Khawaja K, Hale J, Barrett AM, Cheetham TD: Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;18(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Primary hyperaldosteronism with normokalaemia secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome) in a 12 year-old boy.
  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism secondary to an adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome).
  • The hypertension resolved following excision of the adrenal tumour.
  • Normokalaemia with potassium >4.0 mmol/l is very unusual in patients with Conn's syndrome and has not been described in childhood before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension / etiology. Potassium / blood


30. National Toxicology Program: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of decalin (CAS No. 91-17-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice and a toxicology study of decalin in male NBR rats (inhalation studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser; 2005 Jan;(513):1-316
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  • Male NBR rats do not produce alpha2u-globulin; the NBR rats were included to study the relationship of alpha2u-globulin and renal lesion induction.
  • Renal toxicity studies were performed in male F344/N and NBR rats.
  • Exposure-related hyaline droplet accumulation, degeneration and regeneration of renal cortical tubules, and granular casts occurred in the kidney of exposed F344/N male rats.
  • 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 25 male and 20 female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm decalin vapor 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 2 (five male renal toxicity rats), 6 (10 male and 10 female clinical pathology rats), or 14 (10 core study rats) weeks.
  • Urinalysis results indicated that decalin exposure caused increases in urine glucose and protein concentrations and enzyme activities that were consistent with the renal lesions observed microscopically.
  • Renal toxicity studies were performed on rats sacrificed at 2 and 6 weeks and at the end of the study.
  • In kidney tissue examined for cell proliferation, the numbers of PCNA-labeled cells and labeling indices were generally significantly greater than those of the chamber controls in exposed groups of rats at all three time points.
  • Incidences of renal tubule regeneration and granular casts in the medulla of the kidney in exposed male rats were increased, and the severities of hyaline droplets generally increased with increasing exposure concentration.
  • Incidences of renal tubule adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) and of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in 100 and 400 ppm males were significantly increased.
  • There was a significant association between nephropathy severity and adrenal pheochromocytoma incidence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of these studies, there was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of decalin in male F344/N rats based on increased incidences of renal tubule neoplasms.
  • The increased incidences of benign or malignant pheochromocytoma (combined) of the adrenal medulla in male rats were also considered to be exposure related.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Animal Feed / analysis. Animals. Atmosphere Exposure Chambers. Body Weight / drug effects. Female. Genitalia, Male / pathology. Kidney Diseases / chemically induced. Kidney Diseases / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mutagens / toxicity. Organ Size / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Reproduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15891779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] National Toxicology Program technical report series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Naphthalenes; 88451Q4XYF / decalin
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31. Araki A, Shinohara M, Yamakawa J, Tanaka M, Natsui S, Izumi Y: Gastric diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed as one of two left adrenal adenomas. Int J Urol; 2006 Jan;13(1):64-6
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  • [Title] Gastric diverticulum preoperatively diagnosed as one of two left adrenal adenomas.
  • A 47-year-old man was diagnosed with primary aldosteronism due to two left adrenal adenomas, suggested on computed tomography (CT) to be located at the upper and lower adrenal portion.
  • However, adosterol scintigraphy revealed negligible uptake at the upper portion of the left adrenal.
  • Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, but macroscopic examination of the specimen revealed only one adrenal tumor.
  • Postoperatively, aldosteronism resolved and repeat CT revealed staining of the adrenal pseudotumor when oral contrast was administered.
  • Since organs located near the adrenals can simulate adrenal tumors, caution must be exercised in interpreting suprarenal masses on CT.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent pseudotumor and true tumor of the ipsilateral adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Diverticulum, Stomach / diagnosis. Preoperative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16448434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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32. Almeida MQ, Fragoso MC, Lotfi CF, Santos MG, Nishi MY, Costa MH, Lerario AM, Maciel CC, Mattos GE, Jorge AA, Mendonca BB, Latronico AC: Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Sep;93(9):3524-31
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  • [Title] Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical tumors are heterogeneous neoplasms with incompletely understood pathogenesis.
  • IGF-II overexpression has been consistently demonstrated in adult adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyze expression of IGF-II and its receptor (IGF-IR) in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors and the effects of a selective IGF-IR kinase inhibitor (NVP-AEW541) on adrenocortical tumor cells.
  • PATIENTS: Fifty-seven adrenocortical tumors (37 adenomas and 20 carcinomas) from 23 children and 34 adults were studied.
  • Cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed in NCI H295 cells and a new cell line established from a pediatric adrenocortical adenoma.
  • RESULTS: IGF-II transcripts were overexpressed in both pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas and adenomas.
  • Otherwise, IGF-II was mainly overexpressed in adult adrenocortical carcinomas (270.5 +/- 130.2 vs. 16.1 +/- 13.3; P = 0.0001).
  • IGF-IR expression was significantly higher in pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas than adenomas (9.1 +/- 3.1 vs. 2.6 +/- 0.3; P = 0.0001), whereas its expression was similar in adult adrenocortical carcinomas and adenomas.
  • IGF-IR expression was a predictor of metastases in pediatric adrenocortical tumors in univariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.28-2.66; P = 0.01).
  • Furthermore, NVP-AEW541 blocked cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both cell lines through a significant increase of apoptosis.
  • CONCLUSION: IGF-IR overexpression was a biomarker of pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Additionally, a selective IGF-IR kinase inhibitor had antitumor effects in adult and pediatric adrenocortical tumor cell lines, suggesting that IGF-IR inhibitors represent a promising therapy for human adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics. Receptor, IGF Type 2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18611974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, IGF Type 2; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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33. Agha A, Iesalnieks I, Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ: [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours]. Zentralbl Chir; 2010 Jun;135(3):233-9
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  • [Title] [Surgical therapy for adrenal tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgische Therapie der Nebennierenrinden-Adenome.
  • Four endoscopic and four open accesses are available for the surgery of adrenal tumours.
  • The retroperitoneoscopic and laparoscopic accesses for benign adrenal tumours up to 6 cm are considered to be equivalent.
  • The surgeon should also be able to approach adrenal tumours conventionally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart , New York.
  • (PMID = 20549586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9592
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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34. Markou A, Tsigou K, Papadogias D, Kossyvakis K, Vamvakidis K, Kounadi T, Piaditis G: A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor. Hormones (Athens); 2005 Oct-Dec;4(4):226-30
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  • [Title] A unique case of a benign adrenocortical tumor with triple secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone: development of multiple sclerosis after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • We present a 39-year old female with a benign adrenal tumor characterized by autonomous secretion of cortisol, androgens, and aldosterone.
  • CT of the adrenals revealed a 2.5 x 3.0 cm tumor with characteristics of an adenoma on the left adrenal gland.
  • Complete clinical and biochemical remission of the disease was observed after left adrenalectomy.
  • Histology confirmed the presence of an adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The flare-up of an autoimmune disease (multiple sclerosis) postoperatively could be coincidental or possibly related to the high normalization of the high cortisol levels acting as a precipitating factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / adverse effects. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Multiple Sclerosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16613821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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35. Wang H, Zhou FJ, Qin ZK, Han H, Liu ZW: [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jan;24(1):76-8
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery for benign adrenal tumor: a report of 10 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Adrenalectomy is a standard treatment for benign adrenal tumors.
  • Conventional open operation usually results in bigger incisions, more blood loss, and long hospital stay to patients; while laparoscopic approaches could make up above shortcomings, which is used to resect benign adrenal tumors gradually.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 10 patients with benign adrenal tumors undergone laparoscopic adrenalectomy were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the experiences and techniques in laparoscopic surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery for treatment of benign adrenal tumors has the advantages of minimal invasion, safety, and efficiency, and may be a primary therapeutic option for benign adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy / methods. Laparoscopy. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15642205.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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36. Okosieme OE, Suruliram P, Brade L, Campbell A, Evans LM: Diuretic-induced hypokalaemia in patients with hypertension. Int J Clin Pract; 2006 Dec;60(12):1673-4
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  • Investigations revealed primary hyperaldosteronism due to an adrenal adenoma, and normal blood pressure was restored after surgical removal of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Female. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16669823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics
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37. Bourne AE, Bell SW, Wayment RO, Schwartz BF: Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation. Can J Urol; 2009 Jun;16(3):4694-6
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  • [Title] Primary Hodgkin lymphoma of the adrenal gland: a unique case presentation.
  • Adrenal "incidentalomas" are commonly found on body imaging, and treatment of these lesions 4 cm-6 cm in size is controversial.
  • Most of these lesions are benign adrenal cortical adenomas.
  • Lymphoma is a rare disease manifestation in the adrenal gland, and the overwhelming majority are metastatic lesions.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma has never been reported as a primary adrenal lesion.
  • We present a very unique case report of a 5 cm adrenal "incidentaloma" that represents the first reported case of primary Hodgkin lymphoma in the adrenal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Hodgkin Disease / surgery


38. López Martín L, García Cardoso JV, Gómez Muñoz J, González Enguita C: Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Dec;63(10):880-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal myelolipoma. Contribution of a case and bibliographic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the case of adrenal gland myelolipoma.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: The patient was a 29 year old who is diagnosed with an adrenal adenoma during an endocrinology review.
  • The pathological study confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal myelolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Myelolipoma

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  • (PMID = 21187573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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39. Oertli D: [Current concepts in minimal invasive endocrine surgery]. Ther Umsch; 2005 Feb;62(2):90-5
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  • During the past ten years, endoscopic adrenalectomy has emerged as the standard of treatment of benign diseases of the adrenal gland.
  • Prerequisits for all of these approaches are a positive preoperative localisation of the adenoma, an intraoperative parathormone testing, and the respective surgical experience in the minimal invasive technique.
  • Good indications are insulinomas that are located anteriorly or within the tail of the pancreatic gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Aged. Female. Humans. Insulinoma / surgery. Length of Stay. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Patient Selection. Postoperative Complications. Safety. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15756917.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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40. Kiiveri S, Liu J, Arola J, Heikkilä P, Kuulasmaa T, Lehtonen E, Voutilainen R, Heikinheimo M: Transcription factors GATA-6, SF-1, and cell proliferation in human adrenocortical tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2005 Apr 15;233(1-2):47-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcription factors GATA-6, SF-1, and cell proliferation in human adrenocortical tumors.
  • Transcription factor GATA-6 is expressed in fetal and adult human adrenal cortex and has been suggested to have a role in adrenal androgen synthesis.
  • In other tissues GATA-6 has been linked to the cell cycle regulation and the dedifferentiation of carcinoma cells.
  • GATA-6 has been shown to be downregulated in mouse adrenocortical tumors, but has not been studied in human adrenocortical tumors in detail.
  • We have now analyzed GATA-6 expression in 20 human adrenocortical adenomas and 16 carcinomas using Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry.
  • GATA-6 mRNA and protein expression was remarkably diminished in adrenocortical carcinomas as compared to normal adrenal cortex and adenomas (p<0.05).
  • Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) has been functionally linked to GATA-6, and the expression of these two factors correlated in the adrenal tumors.
  • In contrast to GATA-6, we found upregulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and proliferation marker Ki67 in adrenocortical carcinomas indicating that GATA-6 is not linked to cell proliferation in human adrenal tumors.
  • Taken together, the present and earlier results link GATA-6 to adrenocortical steroidogenesis and to the benign adrenocortical phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / chemistry. Adrenal Glands / cytology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Female. GATA6 Transcription Factor. Homeodomain Proteins. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear. Steroidogenic Factor 1. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15767045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GATA6 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA6 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / NR5A1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / steroidogenic factor 1, mouse
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41. Petramala L, Battisti P, Lauri G, Palleschi L, Cotesta D, Iorio M, De Toma G, Sciomer S, Letizia C: Cushing's syndrome patient who exhibited congestive heart failure. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jun;30(6):525-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this article we report the case of a 28-yr-old woman with CS secondary to adrenal adenoma who exhibited congestive heart failure as an initial symptom.
  • An abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a 7-cm right adrenal mass.
  • A laparoscopic right adrenalectomy was performed and pathological examination of the gland showed a benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In conclusion we report the case of heart failure as the main clinical symptom in CS secondary to adrenal adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Cushing Syndrome. Heart Failure / etiology


42. Nugent M, Waterman GS: An adrenal adenoma presenting with psychosis. Psychosomatics; 2006 Mar-Apr;47(2):175-7
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  • [Title] An adrenal adenoma presenting with psychosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / psychology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / psychology. Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis. Psychotic Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Dibenzothiazepines / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Quetiapine Fumarate

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  • (PMID = 16508033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychosomatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychosomatics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Dibenzothiazepines; 2S3PL1B6UJ / Quetiapine Fumarate
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43. Ziaja J, Cholewa K, Mazurek U, Cierpka L: [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jul-Aug;59(4):330-9
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  • [Title] [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Molekularne podstawy syntezy aldosteronu i kortyzolu w prawidlowych nadnerczach i w gruczolakach kory nadnerczy.
  • The aim of the study is to present genes encoding enzymatic proteins of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis pathway, methods of their transcriptional activity measurement, mRNA expression of the genes in normal adrenal cortex, in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients with Conn and Cushing syndromes, as well as in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients, in which hormonal activity of the tumour was not confirmed.
  • According to presented papers mRNA expression of analyzed genes is best known in tissue obtained from tumours excised from patients with Conn syndrome.
  • On the other hand transcriptional activity of the genes within the other adrenocortical adenomas is documented in lesser degree.
  • It concerns particularly analyses of tissue material obtained from patients, in which hormonal activity of adrenal tumours was not confirmed with biochemical tests.
  • It should be also considered, that the frame of reference for the majority of molecular analyses of adrenocortical tumour tissues was material obtained from little number of normal adrenals, what decreases in some degree credibility of obtained results.
  • Mentioned above remarks may be the basis for conduction of further investigations based on larger material, obtained both from normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / enzymology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / enzymology. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Hydrocortisone / biosynthesis. Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / genetics. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / genetics. Humans. Hyperaldosteronism / genetics. Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reference Values. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18777504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; EC 1.- / Mixed Function Oxygenases; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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44. Comlekci A, Yener S, Ertilav S, Secil M, Akinci B, Demir T, Kebapcilar L, Bayraktar F, Yesil S, Eraslan S: Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience. Endocrine; 2010 Feb;37(1):40-6
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma, clinical, metabolic, follow-up aspects: single centre experience.
  • To investigate clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters and follow-up findings of subjects with incidentally discovered adrenal tumors.
  • CT was the most frequent radiological intervention that discovered adrenal masses (57%).
  • The vast majority of the participants (85.6%) had benign adrenal adenomas.
  • Primary adrenocortical malignancy was detected in 4 subjects (1.1%).
  • Subjects with adrenal adenomas had significantly smaller tumor diameters (P ≤ 0.001 vs. other tumors).
  • Sensitivity and specificity of 40 mm as a cut-off value in the differentiation of adrenal gland malignancies from benign tumors was 73.3 and 54.8%, respectively.
  • Most of the adrenal adenomas were non-functioning (73.5%).
  • During 24 months follow-up 10.2% of adenomas featured increase in tumor diameter and 2.06% developed sCS.
  • Most of the incidentally discovered adrenal tumors were non-functioning adrenal adenomas.
  • Clinically overt hormone hypersecretion syndromes were mainly shown in young subjects, while adrenal gland malignancies and sCS were more common in older ages.
  • Metabolic derangements were common; however, a possible independent association between adrenal adenoma and metabolic problems need to be elucidated with prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Metabolic Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / physiopathology. Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / urine. Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / blood. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / urine. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / physiopathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / urine. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aging. Cushing Syndrome / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Metanephrine / urine. Middle Aged. Normetanephrine / urine. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19882253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0J45DE6B88 / Normetanephrine; 5001-33-2 / Metanephrine; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; Adrenal incidentaloma
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45. Lau SK, Weiss LM: The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):757-68
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  • [Title] The Weiss system for evaluating adrenocortical neoplasms: 25 years later.
  • The evaluation and categorization of adrenocortical neoplasms remain among the most challenging areas in adrenal pathology.
  • The Weiss system, first introduced 25 years ago, provides specific guidelines for differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma and is considered the standard for determining malignancy in tumors of the adrenal cortex.
  • Considerable advances in the understanding of the pathology of adrenocortical neoplasia have occurred since delineation of the Weiss system, offering alternative approaches to the contemporary assessment of adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19442788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Gockel I, Heintz A, Polta M, Junginger T: Long-term results of endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome. Am Surg; 2007 Feb;73(2):174-80
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  • [Title] Long-term results of endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome.
  • The long-term effect of adrenalectomy on aldosterone-producing adenomas of the adrenal gland is controversially discussed.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term course, with special consideration of factors of persisting hypertension after endoscopic adrenalectomy, for Conn's syndrome.
  • Between February 1994 and March 2004, 40 patients with Conn's syndrome underwent endoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Endoscopic adrenalectomy for Conn's syndrome leads to an immediate normalization of the electrolyte balance postoperatively, whereas hypertension resolves in 60.5 per cent of patients in the long-term course.

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  • (PMID = 17305298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Alam MM, Rahman MA, Naser MF, Hossain MS, Islam MA: Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Oct;19(4):632-5
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  • [Title] Testosterone secreting adrenal adenoma in an adult female patient.
  • Adrenal tumours that secrete testosterone are extremely rare and we describe such a case in a 35 years old female with virilization.
  • She had left adrenal adenoma 7.5 X 6.4 cm in size, her ovaries were normal.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20956912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
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48. Kamiyama T, Fukukura Y, Yoneyama T, Takumi K, Nakajo M: Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas: combined use of diagnostic parameters of unenhanced and short 5-minute dynamic enhanced CT protocol. Radiology; 2009 Feb;250(2):474-81
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  • [Title] Distinguishing adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas: combined use of diagnostic parameters of unenhanced and short 5-minute dynamic enhanced CT protocol.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively examine the diagnostic values of individual parameters obtained from unenhanced and 35-second and 5-minute contrast material-enhanced (enhanced) computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing adenomas, particularly lipid-poor adenomas, from nonadenomas and to determine the best diagnostic method by using these parameters.
  • The study population consisted of 61 patients (20 men and 41 women; mean age, 58 years) with 68 adrenal masses (53 adenomas and 15 nonadenomas).
  • Adenomas were classified as 30 lipid-rich (<or=10 HU) and 23 lipid-poor (>10 HU) adenomas by using unenhanced attenuation.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were calculated by using a threshold level of each parameter determined by the least sum of false-positive and false-negative cases and a combination of the threshold levels with 100% specificity.
  • RESULTS: The best results were obtained by using a combination of the threshold levels with 100% (15 of 15) specificity (presence of at least one of the following criteria for diagnosing adenomas: unenhanced attenuation of <or=19 HU, 5-minute attenuation of <or=50 HU, PEW of >or=45%, and RPEW of >or=31%).
  • Sensitivity was 94% (50 of 53) or 87% (20 of 23) and accuracy was 96% (65 of 68) or 92% (35 of 38) for diagnosing total adrenal adenomas or lipid-poor adenomas, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19037020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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49. Soon PS, Libe R, Benn DE, Gill A, Shaw J, Sywak MS, Groussin L, Bertagna X, Gicquel C, Bertherat J, McDonald KL, Sidhu SB, Robinson BG: Loss of heterozygosity of 17p13, with possible involvement of ACADVL and ALOX15B, in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. Ann Surg; 2008 Jan;247(1):157-64
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  • [Title] Loss of heterozygosity of 17p13, with possible involvement of ACADVL and ALOX15B, in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimal common region of loss on 17p13 in a cohort of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) (defined by a Weiss score > or =3) and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) (defined by a Weiss score <3) and subsequently to assess 3 genes in this region that could be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
  • METHODS: Using 12 microsatellite markers across 17p13, LOH analysis was performed on 37 paired blood and adrenocortical tumor samples (23 ACC and 14 ACA samples) to determine the minimal common region of loss for ACCs and ACAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 18156936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 1.13.11.31 / Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase; EC 1.3.- / Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases
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50. Peppa M, Pikounis V, Papaxoinis G, Macheras A, Economopoulos T, Raptis SA, Hadjidakis D: Adrenocortical carcinoma secreting cortisol, androgens and aldosterone: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:8951
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma secreting cortisol, androgens and aldosterone: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis and presents with mass effects and less often with signs of hormone excess (approximately 60% of all adrenocortical carcinoma's).
  • Hormonally active adrenocortical carcinomas most commonly secrete cortisol while the co-secretion of multiple steroid hormones is rare.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 59 year-old woman with a medical history of hyperaldosteronism due to a right adrenal adenoma.
  • During follow up, she showed symptoms of hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenemia and a rapid growth of the adrenal mass.
  • She underwent right adrenalectomy and the histology revealed the presence of an adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Six months post-operatively being on treatment with mitotane, she was diagnosed of metastatic disease to the liver.
  • CONCLUSION: The hormonal status should be carefully investigated in all cases of suspected adrenocortical carcinoma, as the pattern of hormone secretion may be a clue to the malignancy of an adrenal lesion.
  • In addition, more data are needed to clarify the clinical and prognostic significance of the combined production of all adrenocortical hormones affecting either the survival or the quality of life of adrenocortical carcinoma patients.

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  • (PMID = 20181215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2827070
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51. Bezerra MG, Latronico AC, Fragoso MC: [Endocrine tumors associated to protein Gsalpha/Gi2alpha mutations]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):784-90
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  • The G proteins couple an array of seven transmembrane receptors at the cell surface with a variety of intracellular effectors, which produce second messenger molecules.
  • A subset of endocrine tumors, such as GH- or ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, functioning thyroid adenomas, adrenocortical and gonadal tumors were associated with somatic activating mutations in the highly conserved codons of the Gs (Arg201 and Gln227) and Gi (Arg179 and Gln205) proteins.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Oncogenes / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16444361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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52. Razifar P, Hennings J, Monazzam A, Hellman P, Långström B, Sundin A: Masked volume wise Principal Component Analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate Positron Emission Tomography. BMC Med Imaging; 2009;9:6
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  • [Title] Masked volume wise Principal Component Analysis of small adrenocortical tumours in dynamic [11C]-metomidate Positron Emission Tomography.
  • METHODS: In this study, MVW-PCA was applied to 14 dynamic 11C-metomidate-PET (MTO-PET) examinations of 7 patients with small adrenocortical tumours.
  • Time activity curves derived from "50% cut-off" ROIs based on an isocontour function whereby the pixels with SUVs between 50 to 100% of the highest radioactivity concentration were delineated, showed a significant decrease of the SUVs in normal adrenal glands and in adrenocortical adenomas after cortisone treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Algorithms. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19386097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2342
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2680831
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53. Hennings J, Sundin A, Hägg A, Hellman P: 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):963-7
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  • [Title] 11C-metomidate positron emission tomography after dexamethasone suppression for detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate whether dexamethasone suppression treatment can improve (11) C-metomidate positron emission tomography (MTO-PET) detection of small adrenocortical adenomas in primary aldosteronism (PA).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with proven PA and two patients with non-hyperfunctioning adrenocortical incidentalomas and small adrenocortical tumours observed on CT underwent MTO-PET before and 3 days after administration of oral dexamethasone suppression treatment.
  • RESULTS: All tumours were detected and categorised as adrenocortical by MTO-PET.
  • SUVhs as well as SUVmax were higher in PA compared to nonfunctional adenomas.
  • Normal adrenal cortex was suppressed after dexamethasone (p < 0.05), but tumour SUV was not significantly decreased after suppression in either PA or nonfunctional tumours (p > 0.05).
  • However, these changes caused no significant increase in the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio (p > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: MTO-PET is a highly sensitive method for detecting and categorising even small adrenocortical tumours in PA.
  • In this series, dexamethasone-suppressed MTO-PET was unable to increase the tumour-to-normal adrenal ratio to further facilitate detection of small adenomas in PA as an alternative to adrenal venous sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / drug therapy. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnostic imaging. Hyperaldosteronism / drug therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 20644954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5377-20-8 / metomidate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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54. Li FY, Ren XB, Xu EP, Huang Q, Sheng HQ, Lv BJ, Lai MD: RegIV expression showing specificity to gastrointestinal tract and its potential role in diagnosing digestive tract neuroendocrine tumor. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2010 Apr;11(4):258-66
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  • To learn more about RegIV, we evaluated its distribution by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a total of 360 samples including 24 types of normal tissue, 40 benign and malignant lesions, and 18 neuroendocrine tumors.
  • We found that in normal tissues, in addition to its relative specificity for the gastrointestinal tract, RegIV was detected in the adrenal gland and mammary gland.
  • Studies on additional sets of colorectal tumor samples showed that RegIV expression was predominant in colorectal adenoma (87.5%) and peritumoral tissue (100%) but not in cancer tissue (30.8%).

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  • [ErratumIn] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2010 May;11(5):390
  • (PMID = 20349522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-1783
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / REG4 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852542
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55. Neri V, Ambrosi A, Fersini A, Valentino TP: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: transperitoneal lateral approach. Cases study. Ann Ital Chir; 2005 Mar-Apr;76(2):123-6
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  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: In the period 1997-September 2004 we treated 17 patients with adrenal pathology: eight patients underwent to an open anterior transperitoneal adrenalectomy and nine patients underwent a laparoscopic adrenalectomy with lateral transperitoneal approach.
  • In the postoperative period there were some bronchopneumonic infiltrates and some infections of the laparotomy in the open group; in the laparoscopic group there was a parietal haematomas that cleared up spontaneously, in correspondence of a trocar access.
  • DISCUSSION: Both procedures allow to achieve the complete resolution of the adrenal pathology if it is confined within the gland and no more than 8 cm. in size.
  • The advantages of a laparoscopic approach can be found in a minor surgical stress.
  • Therefore, the AA can believe that the laparoscopic approach is at present the gold standard in the treatment of all benign adrenal pathologies with a no more than 8 cm. size.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Safety. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16302650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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56. Gaujoux S, Pinson S, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Amar L, Ragazzon B, Launay P, Meatchi T, Libé R, Bertagna X, Audebourg A, Zucman-Rossi J, Tissier F, Bertherat J: Inactivation of the APC gene is constant in adrenocortical tumors from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis but not frequent in sporadic adrenocortical cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 1;16(21):5133-41
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  • [Title] Inactivation of the APC gene is constant in adrenocortical tumors from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis but not frequent in sporadic adrenocortical cancers.
  • PURPOSE: In adrenocortical tumors (ACT), Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation can be explained by β-catenin somatic mutations only in a subset of tumors.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ACTs from patients with FAP and sporadic adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) with abnormal β-catenin localization on immunohistochemistry but no somatic β-catenin mutations were studied.
  • RESULTS: Four ACTs were observed in three patients with FAP and were ACC, adrenocortical adenoma, and bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia, all with abnormal β-catenin localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Silencing. Genes, APC

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20978149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AMER1 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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57. Ikarashi T, Kamoi K, Asakawa K, Tanaka M, Miyakoshi M, Komeyama T, Morishita H, Usuda H, Emura I, Sasano H: A case of preclinical Cushing's syndrome associated with diurnal rhythms of ACTH and cortisol in blood: correlation with histological findings. Endocr J; 2006 Oct;53(5):609-13
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  • We describe a case of adrenocortical adenoma with preclinical Cushing's syndrome demonstrating diurnal rhythms of ACTH and cortisol in blood.
  • A 50-year-old man was admitted to the hospital for the evaluation of incidental right adrenal mass with hyperglycemia and hypertension.
  • Ultrasonogram, CT and scintiscan of (131)I adosterol all demonstrated an enlarged adrenal mass in the right adrenal gland.
  • The right adrenal gland was subsequently resected by laparoscopic surgery.
  • Histopathological findings of resected adrenal tumor were consistent with adrenocortical adenoma.
  • Adjacent non-neoplastic adrenal tissue demonstrated adrenocortical atrophy but DHEA-sulfotransferase immunoreactivity in the zona reticularis was detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Cushing Syndrome / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Circadian Rhythm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16896266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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58. Chiou TT, Chiang PH, Fuh M, Liu RT, Lee WC, Lee WC, Ng HY, Tsai YC, Chuang FR, Huang CC, Lee CT: Factors determining cardiovascular and renal outcomes after adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2009 May;218(1):17-24
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  • [Title] Factors determining cardiovascular and renal outcomes after adrenalectomy in patients with aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma.
  • Primary aldosteronism is an important cause of secondary hypertension, because it is potentially curable, especially in case of unilateral aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA).
  • However, the information is limited concerning the cardiovascular and renal outcomes in this patient population.
  • We studied 52 patients with APA in order to determine the pre-operative and post-operative factors predicting cardiovascular and renal outcomes.
  • Patients whose renal function worsened after adrenalectomy had significantly higher pre-operative plasma active renin levels.
  • Thus, in patients with APA, the presence of LVH is correlated with impaired renal function (lower eGFR).
  • In conclusion, pre-operative BP and post-operative plasma aldosterone are important in predicting post-adrenalectomy hypertension, and a lower pre-operative plasma renin predicts the improvement in renal function after adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma. Aldosterone / blood. Cardiovascular System / metabolism. Hypertension. Kidney

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  • (PMID = 19398869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-3329
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
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59. Inaba H, Suzuki S, Shigematsu S, Shinomiya K, Ohfusa H, Shimojo Y, Uehara T, Hashizume K: Leydig cell tumor and malignant lymphoma in a patient with nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Intern Med; 2009;48(8):601-5
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor and malignant lymphoma in a patient with nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • Five years earlier, he underwent simultaneous surgeries for an adrenal adenoma, a benign Leydig cell tumor (LCT), and a malignant lymphoma.
  • Based on the laboratory results, he was diagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD).
  • On immunohistochemistry analysis using the antibody against adrenal-specific 11beta-hydroxylase antibody, the LCT showed both properties as a testicular cell and as an adrenal cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / etiology. Lymphoma / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / etiology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / etiology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Hypoglycemia / diagnosis. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged


60. Bourdeau I, Lampron A, Costa MH, Tadjine M, Lacroix A: Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2007 Jun;14(3):219-25
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  • Primary Cushing's syndrome is most often secondary to adrenocortical adenomas or carcinomas, and more rarely to bilateral adrenal hyperplasias.
  • Corticotropin-independent cortisol-producing hyperplasia is caused by micronodular diseases, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and nonpigmented micronodular hyperplasia and adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease can be found either alone or in the context of Carney complex, a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, the pathophysiology of adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias became better understood following the identification of genes responsible for syndromes associated with corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome and the demonstration of aberrant expression and function of various hormone receptors in adrenocortical adenomas and adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia.
  • This article reviews findings on the molecular and genetic aspects of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome including recent gene expression profiling studies of adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias and animal models that provided clues on the pathogenesis of primary Cushing's syndrome.
  • SUMMARY: A better understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias may lead to improved diagnostic and prognostic markers and treatment strategies to assist clinicians in the management of corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Diseases / complications. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17940443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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61. Yener S, Genc S, Akinci B, Secil M, Demir T, Comlekci A, Ertilav S, Yesil S: Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma. Endocrine; 2009 Jun;35(3):365-70
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  • [Title] Carotid intima media thickness is increased and associated with morning cortisol in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Data regarding cardiovascular risk in subjects with non-functioning adrenal adenoma are limited.
  • The objectives of this study are to investigate carotid intima media thickness (IMT) as an indicator of atherosclerosis in subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (AI) and to evaluate the factors that could be associated with IMT.
  • Forty-nine subjects without findings of hypercortisolism or other adrenal gland disorders, 34 body mass index (BMI)-unmatched controls (C) and 18 BMI-matched controls (BC) were enrolled.
  • The correlation between morning cortisol and IMT may be associated with the effect of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis disturbances on vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carotid Arteries / pathology. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Tunica Intima / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Atherosclerosis / complications. Atherosclerosis / diagnosis. Atherosclerosis / metabolism. Atherosclerosis / pathology. Body Mass Index. Case-Control Studies. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19277910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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62. van Nederveen FH, de Krijger RR: Precursor lesions of the adrenal gland. Pathobiology; 2007;74(5):285-90
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  • [Title] Precursor lesions of the adrenal gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the existing literature for evidence that adrenocortical and adrenomedullary tumours develop through a multistep process of carcinogenesis.
  • RESULTS: In the adrenal cortex hyperplasia and adenomas are frequently observed tumours or tumour-like conditions.
  • In contrast, adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • Based on well-validated histopathological scoring systems, benign and malignant adrenocortical tumours can be separated, although a small subset of tumours remains hard to classify.
  • Although extensive follow-up studies might argue against multistep carcinogenesis, analysis of chromosomal imbalances and gene expression profiling studies in these tumours are inconclusive and could give support for both multistep pathogenesis or de novo genesis of carcinomas.
  • In the adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas (PCC) are the most frequent tumours in adults, with an incidence of 8 per million.
  • They can be divided into benign and malignant PCC, but the distinction can only be made when metastases are present.
  • In contrast to cortical tumours, the frequent 1p and 3q loss as an early event in tumourigenesis of benign PCC is verified in multiple studies.
  • CONCLUSION: Taken together, there appears to be a relationship between cortical and medullary hyperplasia on the one hand and cortical adenomas and PCC on the other.
  • However, whether there is a transition from benign to malignant tumours, both cortical and medullary, remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex / physiology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / physiology. Disease Progression. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17890895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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63. Unger N, Pitt C, Schmidt IL, Walz MK, Schmid KW, Philipp T, Mann K, Petersenn S: Diagnostic value of various biochemical parameters for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal mass. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Mar;154(3):409-17
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of various biochemical parameters for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal mass.
  • This study compared various biochemical parameters for the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal mass.
  • DESIGN: One hundred and fifty subjects were studied, including 24 histologically proven pheochromocytomas, 17 aldosterone-secreting and 21 cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas and 30 nonfunctioning adrenal masses, 16 patients with essential hypertension and 42 healthy normotensive volunteers.
  • CONCLUSION: Plasma metanephrines measured by RIA are reliable screening parameters for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.


64. Denzinger S, Burger M, Hartmann A, Hofstaedter F, Wieland WF, Ganzer R: Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma. APMIS; 2007 Apr;115(4):381-4
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  • [Title] Spontaneous rupture of a benign giant adrenal adenoma.
  • We report on a 50-year-old patient with a giant benign adenoma of the adrenal cortex, which ruptured spontaneously, leading to life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage.
  • Following emergency adrenalectomy with sparing of the ipsilateral kidney, an adenoma of the adrenal cortex with a diameter of 18 cm and a weight of 1400 g was found.
  • A detailed literature search showed this to be the largest benign tumor of the adrenal cortex described so far.
  • We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this unusual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Middle Aged. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / pathology. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17504308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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65. Hirose A, Okada Y, Fukushima A, Tanaka Y: [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma]. J UOEH; 2005 Dec 1;27(4):315-23
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  • [Title] [A rare case of primary aldosteronism caused by bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas with renal cell carcinoma].
  • We report a rare case of bilateral primary aldosteronism with renal cell carcinoma.
  • Abdominal CT and MRI revealed tumor masses in both adrenal glands, and a large left renal mass.
  • The preoperative diagnosis was primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas and left renal cell carcinoma.
  • The Pathological diagnosis was left renal cell carcinoma and bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Primary aldosteronism due to bilateral functioning adrenocortical adenomas is relatively rare and its complication with renal cell carcinoma is an extremely rare case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications


66. Nigawara T, Sakihara S, Kageyama K, Terui K, Takayasu S, Hatakeyama S, Ohyama C, Sasano H, Suda T: Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma. Intern Med; 2009;48(4):235-40
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  • [Title] Endothelial cyst of the adrenal gland associated with adrenocortical adenoma: preoperative images simulate carcinoma.
  • A 68-year-old woman was referred for characterization of a left adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Endocrinological examinations indicated subclinical Cushing's syndrome, whereas the large volume (10 cm in diameter) and heterogeneous configuration of the tumor raised a strong suspicion of adrenal carcinoma.
  • Histopathologically, this lesion was a thick hyaline-walled endothelial cyst, flanked with a compressed adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The puzzling image resemblance of a variation of adrenal cyst to carcinoma necessitated histological examination for confirmative diagnosis.
  • This is the first reported case of adrenal endothelial cyst associated with adrenocortical adenoma, the former of which alone is a rarity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19218775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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67. Contesse V, Reznik Y, Louiset E, Duparc C, Cartier D, Sicard F, Laquerriere A, Parmentier F, Kuhn JM, Vaudry H, Lefebvre H: Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2843-50
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  • [Title] Abnormal sensitivity of cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas to serotonin: in vivo and in vitro studies.
  • Two patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas underwent a series of pharmacological and physiological tests after pretreatment with dexamethasone.
  • In the two cases, 5-HT stimulated cortisol secretion from tumor cells with increased efficacy and/or potency to activate steroidogenesis by comparison with normal adrenocortical cells.
  • In the two adenoma tissues, immunohistochemical studies revealed the presence of 5-HT-like immunoreactivity within clusters of steroidogenic cells, suggesting that 5-HT acted through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism to stimulate steroidogenesis.
  • In conclusion, this study provides the first observation of adrenocortical cortisol-producing adenomas hypersensitive in vivo and in vitro to serotonergic agonists.
  • Our results also show that cortisol-producing adenomas can express simultaneously several illegitimate receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Serotonin / pharmacology

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  • [CommentIn] Horm Metab Res. 2005 Aug;37(8):528-9 [16138268.001]
  • (PMID = 15705918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 158165-40-3 / Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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68. Piaditis GP, Kaltsas GA, Androulakis II, Gouli A, Makras P, Papadogias D, Dimitriou K, Ragkou D, Markou A, Vamvakidis K, Zografos G, Chrousos G: High prevalence of autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion from adrenal adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Dec;71(6):772-8
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  • [Title] High prevalence of autonomous cortisol and aldosterone secretion from adrenal adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Previous studies based on standard endocrine testing have shown a variable incidence of autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS) or autonomous aldosterone secretion (AAS) in patients with single adrenal adenomas (SAA).
  • Patients We investigated 151 patients with SAA and 72 matched controls with normal adrenal computerized tomography.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Aldosterone / blood. Hydrocortisone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / administration & dosage. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / pharmacology. Case-Control Studies. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radioimmunoassay

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  • (PMID = 19226269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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69. Berber E, Mitchell J, Milas M, Siperstein A: Robotic posterior retroperitoneal adrenalectomy: operative technique. Arch Surg; 2010 Aug;145(8):781-4
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  • Pathology included benign adrenocortical adenoma in 3 patients, aldosteronoma in 2, and pheochromocytoma, subclinical Cushing syndrome, and lymphangioma in 1 patient each.
  • Owing to the limitations of a conventional laparoscopic PR approach, we believe that use of the robot is a refinement of the technique.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Diseases / surgery. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20713932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Reisch N, Scherr M, Flade L, Bidlingmaier M, Schwarz HP, Müller-Lisse U, Reincke M, Quinkler M, Beuschlein F: Total adrenal volume but not testicular adrenal rest tumor volume is associated with hormonal control in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;95(5):2065-72
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  • [Title] Total adrenal volume but not testicular adrenal rest tumor volume is associated with hormonal control in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • CONTEXT: Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) have been shown to develop adrenal adenomas and, in males, testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) at a high percentage.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the interrelation of adrenal masses and TARTs as well as factors stimulating tumor growth of orthotopic and ectopic adrenal tissue in 21-OHD.
  • Adrenal size and morphology was compared to 26 age-matched controls.
  • RESULTS: Combined adrenal volume of 21-OHD patients was significantly higher (median, 9.3 ml; range, 3.2-124.5 ml) in comparison to controls (median, 7.4 ml; range, 5.5-10.8 ml; P = 0.005).
  • None of the controls, but 42% of 21-OHD patients had an overall adrenal volume higher than 11 ml.
  • Total adrenal volume and tumor size but not TART volume correlated positively with current parameters of hormonal control (androstenedione, morning 17-OHP in serum, pregnanetriol in 24-h urine; P < 0.001 for each).
  • Baseline ACTH was independent of adrenal and TART volume.
  • There was no correlation of total adrenal or adrenal tumor size with TART volume.
  • CONCLUSION: These data provide indirect evidence that different factors regulate the growth of orthotopic adrenal tissue and ectopic adrenal remnants in TARTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / anatomy & histology. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Adrenal Rest Tumor / genetics. Adrenal Rest Tumor / pathology. Steroid 21-Hydroxylase / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20190160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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71. Meyer S, von Mach MA, Ivan D, Schäfer S, Habbe N, Kann B, Kann PH: Color-coded duplex endoscopic ultrasound of the adrenals. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Oct;31(10):882-7
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  • Imaging of the adrenals by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a valuable technique for detection and localization of adrenal lesions, but endosonomorphological tumor distinction remains difficult.
  • In this single-center study, the amount of blood flow in common adrenal lesions, such as adrenal adenomas, adrenal hyperplasia, and pheochromocytomas, was visualized by color-coded duplex EUS (CD-EUS) and was retrospectively analysed.
  • Therefore, we reviewed our EUS database to evaluate and correlate the perfusion patterns of common adrenal lesions with histologically confirmed diagnosis, possible malignancy, and endosonomorphological features such as echogeneity, echostructure, and tumor size.
  • In 38 consecutive patients (male=19; female=19; age: mean 53+/-16 yr SD), perfusion patterns of 46 histologically confirmed adrenal, para- or extra-adrenal lesions of adrenal origin (adenoma: no.
  • Compared to adenomas (p=0.003) and nodular hyperplasia (p=0.047), pheochromocytomas showed a significantly higher grade of perfusion.
  • There was no relationship between perfusion patterns and localization of pheochromocytomas (adrenal: 8; paraadrenal: 3; extra-adrenal: 4).
  • CD-EUS is an additional tool for adrenal endosonographic tumor distinction and seems to improve the endosonographic detection of pheochromocytomas by visualization of hypervascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Glands / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Endosonography / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 19092293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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72. Bovio S, Cataldi A, Reimondo G, Sperone P, Novello S, Berruti A, Borasio P, Fava C, Dogliotti L, Scagliotti GV, Angeli A, Terzolo M: Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Apr;29(4):298-302
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  • [Title] Prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma in a contemporary computerized tomography series.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas, defined as masses discovered incidentally during imaging investigation of non-adrenal disorders, have become a rather common finding in clinical practice.
  • The aim of the present study was to perform a prospective evaluation of the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas among subjects undergoing computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest in a screening program of lung cancer (Tic TAC study) in Piedmont, a region of Northwestern Italy.
  • Twenty-three patients with adrenal masses were identified: 21 adrenal adenomas, 1 myelolipoma, and 1 metastasis of lung cancer.
  • Therefore, the overall prevalence of adrenal lesions was 4.4%, and that of benign adrenal masses was 4.2%.
  • Another factor that influenced our results is that subject age is skewed towards the decades characterized by a greater occurrence of adrenal masses.
  • The outcome of this study confirms that we are presently able to identify incidentally discovered adrenal masses more often than in early years and that the prevalence of adrenal incidentalomas on CT images is approaching that of autopsy series.
  • The present study provides a reliable estimate of the prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma with currently used CT scanners.
  • Notwithstanding that our subjects were at increased risk of lung cancer, the rate of adrenal metastases was low.
  • We think that the present results can be generalized even if we may disclose the lack of histological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Incidental Findings. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16699294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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73. Oller AR, Kirkpatrick DT, Radovsky A, Bates HK: Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2008 Dec 1;233(2):262-75
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  • Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure.
  • Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands.
  • The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m(3) females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / chemically induced. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / chemically induced. Adrenocortical Adenoma / chemically induced. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / chemically induced. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Male. Models, Animal. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Pheochromocytoma / chemically induced. Powders. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / epidemiology. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / etiology. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 18822311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0333
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Powders; 7OV03QG267 / Nickel
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74. O'Neill CJ, Spence A, Logan B, Suliburk JW, Soon PS, Learoyd DL, Sidhu SB, Sywak MS: Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct 1;102(5):450-3
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of incidentally discovered adrenal lesions is increasing due to the widespread use of abdominal imaging.
  • Although most incidentalomas are benign, larger suspicious lesions will require adrenalectomy.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for adrenal incidentaloma; and to compare clinical outcomes in those with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on the mode of presentation.
  • Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained adrenal tumor database.
  • Those with adrenal incidentaloma were selected and histopathology reviewed.
  • Benign, non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma was the most common histopathological finding (46 patients, 63%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal incidentalomas have a small but important risk of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Incidental Findings

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  • [Copyright] J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:450-453. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20734420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Ziaja J, Chudek J, Król R, Stańczyk A, Pawlicki J, Gasińska T, Kajor M, Wiecek A, Cierpka L: [Long-term consequences of surgical excision of cortisol producing adrenocortical adenoma]. Endokrynol Pol; 2007 May-Jun;58(3):207-12
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  • [Title] [Long-term consequences of surgical excision of cortisol producing adrenocortical adenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Odległe nastepstwa chirurgicznego usuniecia gruczolaka kory nadnercza wytwarzajacego kortyzol.
  • INTRODUCTION: Surgical excision of adrenocortical tumour in patients with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome gives a chance for their entire cure.
  • The aim of the study was to analyse long term consequences of surgical excision of cortisol producing adrenocortical adenoma with a special attention on the influence of adrenalectomy on arterial blood pressure.
  • 46.7% of patients required supplementation with adrenal steroids.
  • 40% of patients reported a subjective withdrawal of all symptoms of the disease after surgery and 46.7% only partial remission.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical excision of cortisol producing adrenocortical adenoma results in improvement of blood pressure control and body weight reduction in a large percentage of patients with Cushing syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Hypertension / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17940986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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76. Eldeiry LS, Garber JR: Adrenal incidentalomas, 2003 to 2005: experience after publication of the National Institutes of Health consensus statement. Endocr Pract; 2008 Apr;14(3):279-84
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas, 2003 to 2005: experience after publication of the National Institutes of Health consensus statement.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical outcomes and follow-up imaging characteristics for incidentally discovered adrenal nodules at a large metropolitan health care center, as well as compliance with National Institutes of Health guidelines for the evaluation of these lesions.
  • METHODS: Between October 2003 and June 2005, computed tomographic (CT) scanning performed at Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates detected 165 adrenal nodules (incidentalomas) in 129 patients without extra-adrenal malignant lesions or evidence of adrenal hyperfunction.
  • RESULTS: Of the 165 adrenal incidentalomas, 96% were smaller than 4 cm.
  • For 95% of patients, the adrenal nodule did not necessitate intervention, including change in medication or surgical treatment.
  • Biochemical studies for adrenal hyperfunction were done in 39 of the overall 129 patients (30%), but in only 20 of 109 patients (18%) not seen by endocrinologists.
  • CONCLUSION: Most adrenal incidentalomas are benign, nonfunctional tumors.
  • Despite the 2002 National Institutes of Health guidelines, 82% of patients at our medical center with adrenal nodules who were not seen by endocrinologists did not have hormonal testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Incidental Findings

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr Pract. 2008 Apr;14(3):267-8 [18463031.001]
  • (PMID = 18463033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Tanaka K, Morishima Y, Ishii Y, Sakamoto T, Suzuki H, Otsuka F, Hizawa N: [Sarcoidosis presenting after successful treatment for Cushing syndrome]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Jun;47(6):501-6
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  • She had had a history of Cushing syndrome due to right adrenal adenoma, which was successfully treated by unilateral adrenalectomy two years before her admission to our department; however, the chest radiographic abnormalities and the skin lesions were not apparent at that time.
  • Skin biopsy specimens demonstrated noncaseating epithelioid cell granuloma, which was consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.
  • An elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level and increased accumulation of gallium-67 citrate in the pulmonary parenchyma and hilar lymph nodes also supported the diagnosis.
  • We should be aware of the possibility of the condition that steroid-responsive immune diseases such as sarcoidosis might be unmasked and develop after successful treatment for Cushing syndrome.


78. Blanco C, Maqueda E, Rubio JA, Rodriguez A: Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy secondary to adrenal adenoma: metyrapone treatment and laparoscopic adrenalectomy. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Feb;29(2):164-7
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy secondary to adrenal adenoma: metyrapone treatment and laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is a rare and difficult to diagnose disorder.
  • We describe the case of a 30-yr-old woman presenting with symptoms and signs of mild hypercortisolism, in which ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed.
  • An abdominal computed tomography scan confirmed a left adrenal mass.
  • While diagnosis work-up was still in progress, the patient became pregnant and wanted to carry her pregnancy to full-term.
  • Pathologic examination of the gland showed a benign adrenocortical adenoma.
  • The patient developed secondary adrenal insufficiency and was discharged on 20 mg hydrocortisone daily dose.
  • No apparent metyrapone-induced teratogenic effects were observed and there was no clinical or biochemical suppression of adrenocortical function.
  • In conclusion, in adrenal Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy, medical treatment with metyrapone as soon as the diagnosis is made, in combination with laparoscopic surgery during the second trimester, are useful in preventing complications secondary to hypercortisolism and safe both for the mother and infant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenalectomy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Metyrapone / therapeutic use. Pregnancy Complications / therapy


79. Chervin RA, Danilowicz K, Pitoia F, Gómez RM, Bruno OD: [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma]. Medicina (B Aires); 2007;67(4):341-50
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  • [Title] [A study of 34 cases of adrenal incidentaloma].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio de 34 pacientes con incidentaloma suprarrenal.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma, a tumor discovered unexpectedly during imaging performed for non-adrenal related causes, has become a frequent clinical concern.
  • Although in most cases they are benign and hormonally nonfunctioning, it is important to appropriately identify those few cases of malignant or hyperfunctioning lesions of surgical resolution.
  • In the present retrospective study we analyzed 34 patients with adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Of these, 32% of the patients displayed hyperfunctioning pathologies that included subclinical Cushing's syndrome in four patients, probable primary hyperaldosteronism in two, late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia in one, adrerocortical carcinoma in one and pheochromocytoma in three.
  • CT and/or MRI permitted the identification of adenomas and were crucial to decide on surgery in two patients with nonfunctioning pheochromocytomas and in a patient carrying a primitive adrenocortical carcinoma, a diagnosis also suggested by a mixed pattern of hypersecretion of androgens and cortisol.
  • Nonfunctioning tumors were mainly adenomas (87%) with individual cases of histoplasmosis, pseudocyst, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia and mielolipoma.
  • The pathology associated with incidentalomas represents a broad spectrum of risk for patients and reaffirms the necessity for a meticulous clinical, biochemical, and imaging evaluation in order to make appropriate decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Androgens / secretion. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17891929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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80. Tsunoda K, Abe K, Yamada M, Kato T, Yaoita H, Taguma Y, Goto Y, Ioridani N: A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome. Hypertens Res; 2008 Aug;31(8):1669-75
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  • [Title] A case of primary aldosteronism associated with renal artery stenosis and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • We identified a left adrenal tumor, left renal atrophy, and left renal artery stenosis (RAS) in a 52-year-old man by MRI/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) during evaluation of hypertension.
  • An excessive response of aldosterone and cortisol to adorenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was found upon selective sampling of the left adrenal vein.
  • Selective renal venous sampling showed a left/right renal venous PRA ratio of 1.7.
  • We diagnosed this patient as having aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA) associated with renovascular hypertension (RVH) and preclinical Cushing's syndrome.
  • As an initial treatment, percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty was performed.
  • The renal dysfuntion that occurred prior to treatment seemed to prevent complete normalization of blood pressure.
  • [MeSH-major] Cushing Syndrome / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Hypertension, Renal / etiology. Renal Artery Obstruction / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Angiography. Blood Pressure. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged


81. Mantero F, Mattarello MJ, Albiger NM: Detecting and treating primary aldosteronism: primary aldosteronism. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Mar;115(3):171-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Idiopathic bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (IHA) and aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma (APA), are the leading causes of primary aldosteronism.
  • If a high ratio is found, a sodium loading test or a captopril test is warranted to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Adrenal gland imaging is important in subtype differentiation (APA vs IHA).
  • Adrenal venous sampling should be used when other tests prove inconclusive.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypertension / etiology. ROC Curve

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  • (PMID = 17427105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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82. Mahe E, El-Shinnawy I: A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Malays J Pathol; 2010 Dec;32(2):123-8
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  • [Title] A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • We present an intriguing case of adrenal myelolipomata occurring within an adrenocortical adenoma in concert with an ipsilateral clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
  • Computed tomography indicated a 2.5 cm right renal mass as well as a 5 cm right adrenal mass.
  • Histology of the renal mass was consistent with conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade III.
  • There was no extra-renal extension or lymphovascular invasion.
  • The adrenal mass was a cortical adenoma with solid and nested patterns, with discrete zones consisting of erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic cells intermixed with mature adipocytes.
  • We also present a relevant review of the literature pertaining to adrenal lesions.
  • In particular, we emphasize the epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical features that are helpful in determining the origin and malignant potential of adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology


83. Ilias I, Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Grossman AB, Pacak K: The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):587-99
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  • [Title] The optimal imaging of adrenal tumours: a comparison of different methods.
  • Computed tomography (CT; unenhanced, followed by contrast-enhanced examinations) is the cornerstone of imaging of adrenal tumours.
  • Attenuation values of <10 Hounsfield units on an unenhanced CT are practically diagnostic for adenomas.
  • Functional nuclear medicine imaging is useful for adrenal lesions that are not adequately characterised with CT and MRI.
  • Scintigraphy with [(131)I]-6-iodomethyl norcholesterol (a labelled cholesterol analogue) can differentiate adrenal cortical adenomas from carcinomas.
  • The specific and useful roles of adrenal imaging include the characterisation of tumours, assessment of true tumour size, differentiation of adenomas from carcinomas and metastases, and differentiation of hyperfunctioning from non-functioning lesions.
  • Adrenal imaging complements and assists the clinical and hormonal evaluation of adrenal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Medulla / pathology. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelolipoma / diagnosis. Myelolipoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17914090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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84. Unger N, Petersenn S, Mann K: [Diagnosis and therapy of endocrine hypertension]. Med Klin (Munich); 2006 Mar 22;101 Suppl 1:170-2
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of endocrine hypertension].
  • Once the diagnosis of hypertension is established, secondary forms should be considered.
  • Especially hormonally active adrenal tumors may allow specific treatment.
  • A unilateral adrenal adenoma has to be separated from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Determinations of 24-h urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine levels are established diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.
  • In conclusion, recently established biochemical methods are reliable screening parameters for the diagnosis of adrenal hypertension.
  • Endocrine hypertension due to adrenal tumors may be treated by minimally invasive surgery or specific antihypertensive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis. Hypertension / etiology. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Epinephrine / blood. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Norepinephrine / blood

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  • (PMID = 16802547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
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85. Bahrami A, Truong LD, Shen SS, Krishnan B: Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2009 Feb;13(1):9-15
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  • [Title] Synchronous renal and adrenal masses: an analysis of 80 cases.
  • Synchronous renal and adrenal masses are uncommon.
  • Although adrenal masses in the context of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are often suspected as metastasis, other adrenal lesions with different therapeutic and prognostic implications may coexist with RCC.
  • In a retrospective review of 550 radical nephrectomies with ipsilateral adrenalectomy, 80 cases of coexisting renal and adrenal masses were identified.
  • The renal masses included 76 RCCs, 3 oncocytomas, and 1 malignant pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland involving the kidney.
  • Although the gross pathologic impression of adrenal masses in the presence of RCC was metastasis, on histologic examination, 56% of them were found to be benign lesions (mostly adrenal adenoma/hyperplasia), whereas malignant involvement from RCC was seen in 43%.
  • The benign and malignant nature of the adrenal lesions in the context of RCC could not be discriminated based on the size of adrenal mass.
  • Because of the prognostic implication of direct or metastatic involvement of adrenal gland in the setting of RCC and the possibility of finding small metastatic foci, a meticulous gross and microscopic examination of adrenal glands is emphasized.
  • Rare unusual combinations of renal and adrenal lesions such as RCC and adrenal histoplasmosis, RCC and adrenal myelolipoma, renal oncocytoma, and adrenal pheochromocytoma are also described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Pheochromocytoma / pathology. Pheochromocytoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19118776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Fassnacht M, Weismann D, Ebert S, Adam P, Zink M, Beuschlein F, Hahner S, Allolio B: AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Jul;90(7):4366-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AKT is highly phosphorylated in pheochromocytomas but not in benign adrenocortical tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was the investigation of the role of AKT in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical tumors.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Total AKT and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) in 15 pheochromocytomas, nine aldosterone-producing adenomas, nine cortisol-producing adenomas, eight adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), and 15 normal adrenals were investigated by Western blot analysis.
  • Immunohistochemistry for total AKT and pAKT was performed in pheochromocytomas (n = 8), ACC (n = 4), and normal adrenal glands (n = 2).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of pAKT/total AKT ratio in adrenal tissues was the main outcome.
  • The pAKT/AKT ratio was significantly increased in pheochromocytomas (338 +/- 49% vs. 100 +/- 11%) but not in ACC, aldosterone-producing adenomas, and cortisol-producing adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence for increased activation of AKT in pheochromocytomas but not in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheochromocytoma / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15855265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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87. Szolar DH, Korobkin M, Reittner P, Berghold A, Bauernhofer T, Trummer H, Schoellnast H, Preidler KW, Samonigg H: Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT. Radiology; 2005 Feb;234(2):479-85
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinomas and adrenal pheochromocytomas: mass and enhancement loss evaluation at delayed contrast-enhanced CT.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively measure the adrenal gland attenuation and the percentage loss of adrenal gland enhancement at delayed contrast medium-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in patients with adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas and to compare these data with those in patients with adenomas and metastases.
  • Eleven patients with proved adrenocortical carcinoma, 17 with proved pheochromocytoma, 23 with adrenal adenoma, and 16 with metastasis to the adrenal gland underwent helical CT.
  • RESULTS: The mean attenuation of adenomas (8 HU +/- 18 [standard deviation]) was significantly lower than those of adrenocortical carcinomas (39 HU +/- 14), pheochromocytomas (44 HU +/- 11), and metastases (34 HU +/- 11) on nonenhanced CT scans (P < .001).
  • Although the mean attenuation values for nonadenomas (ie, adrenocortical carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases) were significantly higher than the value for adenomas on the 1-minute contrast-enhanced CT scans (P < .001), there was more overlap in attenuation between adenomas and nonadenomas on contrast-enhanced scans than on nonenhanced scans.
  • On the 10-minute delayed contrast-enhanced scans, the mean attenuation of adenomas (32 HU +/- 17) was significantly lower than the mean attenuations of carcinomas (72 HU +/- 15), pheochromocytomas (83 HU +/- 14), and metastases (66 HU +/- 13) (P < .001).
  • At optimal threshold values of 50% for absolute percentage of enhancement loss and 40% for relative percentage of enhancement loss at 10 minutes, both the sensitivity and the specificity for the diagnosis of adenoma were 100% when adenomas were compared with carcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: The enhancement loss in adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas is similar to that in adrenal metastases but significantly less than that in adrenal adenomas.
  • The percentage change in contrast material washout is a useful adjunct to absolute CT attenuation values in differentiating adrenal adenomas from adrenocortical carcinomas and pheochromocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / radiography. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2005 Sep;236(3):1112-3 [16118181.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2006 Jan;238(1):373; author reply 373-4 [16373781.001]
  • (PMID = 15671003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Papotti M, Volante M, Duregon E, Delsedime L, Terzolo M, Berruti A, Rosai J: Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):973-83
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  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features: a distinct morphologic and phenotypical variant exhibiting malignant behavior.
  • Myxoid changes have been rarely reported both in adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas.
  • The recent observation by our group of an adrenal myxoid tumor with morphologically borderline features, but aggressive clinical behavior prompted us to review a series of 196 adrenocortical lesions, comprising 122 carcinomas and 74 adenomas, to define the morphologic, phenotypical and clinical characteristics of adrenocortical tumors with myxoid features.
  • Fourteen cases, including 12 carcinomas and 2 borderline tumors, formed the basis of this report, and were characterized by a variably abundant myxoid component (from 5% to 90% of tumor) and 2 distinct cellular growth patterns: the first (10 cases), mostly associated with a predominant myxoid stromal component, was made of small cells with mild atypia arranged in cords and microcysts; the second (4 cases) was characterized by focal myxoid changes in tumors otherwise similar to conventional adrenocortical carcinoma, with large atypical cells having an eosinophilic cytoplasm and a diffuse or nodular architecture.
  • The above mentioned patterns were absent in all adenomas reviewed.
  • A peculiar reactivity to neurofilaments was seen, mostly associated to the presence of predominant rather that focal myxoid stromal changes, and in 40% of conventional adrenocortical carcinomas, thus representing an undescribed potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of adrenal lesions.
  • Myxoid adrenocortical tumors probably represent a rare but histologically and phenotipically distinct entity and, although rare cases of benign lesions are on record, they seem to be generally associated to morphologic and clinical features of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / secondary. Mucins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / embryology. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Fetal Development. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20534995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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89. Park SH, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Lim JS, Kim KW: Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation. Korean J Radiol; 2007 Jul-Aug;8(4):328-35
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  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma in unenhanced CT: new optimal threshold value and the usefulness of size criteria for differentiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal threshold for the attenuation values in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) and assess the value of the size criteria for differentiating between an adrenal adenoma and a nonadenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The unenhanced CT images of 45 patients at our institution, who underwent a surgical resection of an adrenal masses between January 2001 and July 2005, were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Forty-five adrenal masses included 25 cortical adenomas, 12 pheochromocytomas, three lymphomas, and five metastases confirmed by pathology were examined.
  • The mean attenuation values of an adrenal adenoma and nonadenoma were compared using an unpaired t test.
  • RESULTS: The twenty-five adenomas showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) attenuation values (mean+/-SD; 16.3+/-14.9) than the nonadenomas (38.1+/-6.8).
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 36%, 100%, 100%, 56%, and 64%, respectively, at a threshold of 10 HU; 60%, 100%, 100%, 67%, and 78%, respectively, at a threshold of 20 HU; and 72%, 95%, 95%, 73%, and 82%, respectively, at a threshold of 25 HU.
  • The adenomas had a significantly (p < 0.05) smaller diameter (2.44+/-1.24 cm) than the nonadenomas (5.09+/-2.37 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: The threshold attenuation values of 20 or 25 HU in the unenhanced CT appear optimal for discriminating an adrenal adenoma from a nonadenoma.
  • The size criteria are of little value in differentiating adrenal masses because of their low specificity or low sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17673844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627166
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90. Stout MD, Herbert RA, Kissling GE, Suarez F, Roycroft JH, Chhabra RS, Bucher JR: Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure. Toxicology; 2008 Feb 28;244(2-3):209-19
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  • In male rats, there was increased mineralization of the renal papilla at all exposure concentrations.
  • There were also increases in renal tubule hyperplasia at all exposure concentrations, and in adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) at 1800ppm; these lesions are thought to represent a continuum in the progression of proliferative lesions in renal tubule epithelium.
  • An increase in mononuclear cell leukemia at 1800ppm was an uncertain finding.
  • Adrenal medulla hyperplasia was increased at 1800ppm, and there was a positive trend for increases in benign or malignant pheochromocytomas (combined).
  • There were renal mesenchymal tumors, which have not been observed in historical control animals, in two female rats at 1800ppm.
  • Hepatocellular adenomas, and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) were increased in male and female mice exposed to 1800ppm.
  • There were also treatment-related increases in multiple adenomas in both sexes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemically induced. Adenoma / pathology. Animals. Carcinoma / chemically induced. Carcinoma / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Inhalation Exposure. Kidney Neoplasms / chemically induced. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / chemically induced. Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Survival Analysis. Weight Gain / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18178301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-483X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 ES999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 6QDY60NH6N / Methyl n-Butyl Ketone; U5T7B88CNP / methyl isobutyl ketone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS41357; NLM/ PMC2683681
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91. Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Kann PH, Fendrich V, Rothmund M, Langer P: Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Jul;392(4):437-43
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  • [Title] Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenal tumors are a common manifestation of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) syndrome.
  • A genotype-phenotype correlation has been described as well as the development of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Adrenal glands have been screened by biochemical analysis and either by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or computed tomography (CT) or both.
  • Age at diagnosis of MEN-1, type of adrenal tumor, genotype, therapy, and clinical characteristics have been analyzed.
  • RESULTS: In 21 (55%) patients, adrenal involvement of the disease was detected.
  • Adrenal lesions were detected in average 6.9 years after the initial diagnosis of MEN-1.
  • Twelve patients had unilateral while nine had bilateral adrenal lesions.
  • EUS detected all adrenal tumors, whereas CT failed in seven cases.
  • In three patients, functioning tumors (one pheochromocytoma, one bilateral Cushing adenoma, and one adrenocortical carcinoma) and one nonfunctioning adenoma were diagnosed by histology and biochemical assessment.
  • Nonfunctioning adrenal lesions, not characterized by histology yet, were found in 18 patients.
  • There was no statistical difference with regard to adrenal involvement between patients with germline mutations in exons 2 and 10 (12/21) and those with mutations in exons 3-9 (6/11).
  • CONCLUSION: MEN-1-associated adrenal tumors are mostly small, benign, and nonfunctioning and much more common than previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

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  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Fagour C, Bardet S, Rohmer V, Arimone Y, Lecomte P, Valli N, Tabarin A: Usefulness of adrenal scintigraphy in the follow-up of adrenocortical incidentalomas: a prospective multicenter study. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Feb;160(2):257-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Usefulness of adrenal scintigraphy in the follow-up of adrenocortical incidentalomas: a prospective multicenter study.
  • OBJECTIVES: Prognostic factors for progression of benign adrenocortical adenomas (AI) remain poorly known.
  • We assessed the usefulness of (131)I-6-beta-iodomethylnorcholesterol scintigraphy (IMS) to predict the occurrence of adrenal hyperfunction or mass enlargement.
  • DESIGN: Fifty-one consecutive inpatients with unilateral AI and normal 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) were enrolled in a multicenter observational prospective study to investigate the relationship between the scintigraphic pattern and the progression of biological abnormalities of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or tumor size.

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  • (PMID = 18974229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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93. Lazúrová I, Dudásová D, Wagnerová H, Dravecká I, Petrásová D: Adrenal incidentalomas and the metabolic syndrome--are there any differences between adenoma and hyperplasia? Neoplasma; 2006;53(4):324-7
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  • [Title] Adrenal incidentalomas and the metabolic syndrome--are there any differences between adenoma and hyperplasia?
  • Authors evaluated the prevalence of symptoms of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in 25 patients with adrenal incidentalomas (10 men, 15 women) of the mean age 57.9+/-15 years.
  • 15 patients had adrenal adenoma determined by CT or MR scan and 10 had unilateral or bilateral hyperplasia.
  • Patients with adrenal adenomas had mildly but significantly higher body mass index (BMI, p<0.05) and insulin resistance calculated as HOMA IR (p<0.05) and FIRI (p<0.05) and significantly higher values of serum ferritin (p<0.01).
  • Plasma cortisol values were slightly but not significantly higher in the group with adrenal adenomas.
  • Authors conclude that adrenal adenomas are probably more related to the metabolic syndrome than adrenal hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Metabolic Syndrome X / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16830060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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94. Iacconi P, Donatini G, Iacconi C, De Bartolomeis C, Cucinotta M, Puccini M, Miccoli P: Unexpected histological findings of lesions diagnosed in the adrenal region in a series of 420 patients submitted to adrenal surgery. Review of our experience. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Oct;31(10):873-6
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  • [Title] Unexpected histological findings of lesions diagnosed in the adrenal region in a series of 420 patients submitted to adrenal surgery. Review of our experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of adrenal incidentalomas is reported to be up to 30% in the current literature; nevertheless, in some patients undergoing surgery, a final diagnosis of non-adrenal origin of the mass is performed.
  • In this paper we present our experience of 13 patients with unexpected histological findings of lesions diagnosed in the adrenal region.
  • Pre-operative diagnosis was: incidentaloma (34.0% of patients), Conn's adenoma (29.0%), Cushing's adenoma (13.9%), pheochromocytoma (8.8%), suspicious metastasis (7.3%), Cushing's disease (6.0%), other (1.0%).
  • RESULTS: Final histology revealed an unexpected diagnosis of non-adrenal origin of the mass in 13 patients (3.1%).
  • Histology demonstrated a benign neurogenic tumor in 10 patients.
  • In the other 3 patients diagnosis was respectively of lymphnode, hemangioma and a gastric metastasis of melanoma.
  • Mean operative time in this group was higher compared to laparoscopic resection for adrenal lesion (95.3 min vs 73.2 min).
  • CONCLUSION: A small percentage of our patients (3.1%) demonstrated unexpected findings of the lesion pre-operatively misinterpreted as an adrenal mass.
  • Despite a complete pre-operative assessment, adrenal lesions might reveal a different origin, increasing the surgical challenge as well as the morbidity for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenalectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenal Glands / surgery. Adult. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Laparoscopy. Male. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19092291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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95. Pittavini L, De Gaetano A, Solano G, Losito A: Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma. J Nephrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):614-6
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  • [Title] Resistant arterial hypertension: association with syncronous kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma.
  • The coexistence of renal cancer and adrenal adenoma is rare.
  • We report the case of a 60-year-old patient with synchronous hypernephroma and adrenal adenoma.
  • This suggests that the coexistence of kidney cancer and adrenal adenoma may be a curable cause of resistant hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications


96. Singh PK, Buch HN: Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;61(11):1168-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal incidentaloma: evaluation and management.
  • Adrenal incidentalomas are adrenal masses discovered incidental to imaging studies performed for reasons unrelated to adrenal pathology.
  • Although most adrenal incidentalomas are non-functioning benign adenomas, their increasing prevalence presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.
  • The assessment of adrenal incidentalomas is aimed at deciding whether or not the tumour should be surgically removed.
  • Biochemical screening for tumour hypersecretion is mandatory in all adrenal incidentalomas, since hormone secreting tumours may be clinically silent.
  • The diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma is of paramount importance because of its life-threatening complications.
  • Non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas need assessment for risk of malignancy, and this is based on the size of the tumour and its imaging characteristics.
  • The duration and frequency of reassessment remains unclear, as the natural history of adrenal incidentalomas has yet to be clearly defined, and there is a lack of controlled studies comparing surgical intervention with observation.
  • However, the possibility of acquiring autonomous hypersecretion or conversion to malignancy in an incidentaloma diagnosed to be a benign non-functioning lesion is very low, and most patients may be safely discharged after an initial follow-up period of 2 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidental Findings. Long-Term Care / methods. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18955573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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97. Fuller PJ, Alexiadis M, Jobling T, McNeilage J: Seladin-1/DHCR24 expression in normal ovary, ovarian epithelial and granulosa tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jul;63(1):111-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: The human DIMINUTO/DWARF1 homolog seladin-1/DHCR24 has been recently reported to be up-regulated in adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (GCT) as with adrenocortical adenomas arise from a steroidogenic tissue, respond to pituitary hormone stimulation and synthesize steroid hormones.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovary / metabolism. Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15963070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, LH; EC 1.3.- / Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors; EC 1.3.1.- / 3beta-hydroxysterol delta24-reductase; EC 1.3.1.- / DHCR24 protein, human
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98. Libé R, Mantovani G, Bondioni S, Lania AG, Pedroni C, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A: Mutational analysis of PRKAR1A and Gs(alpha) in sporadic adrenocortical tumors. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2005 May;113(5):248-51
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  • [Title] Mutational analysis of PRKAR1A and Gs(alpha) in sporadic adrenocortical tumors.
  • Little is known about the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors.
  • The cAMP-dependent pathway is physiologically activated by ACTH in adrenocortical cells and different components of this cascade may be altered in some functioning adrenocortical tumors.
  • Recently, mutations of the gene encoding the PKA type 1 A regulatory subunit (R1 A), PRKAR1A, associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at PRKAR1A locus, have been demonstrated in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), either isolated or associated with Carney complex.
  • Moreover, activating mutations of the Gs(alpha) gene (the gsp oncogene) have also been found in a small number of adrenocortical cortisol-secreting adenomas.
  • Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of such genetic alterations on a series of 10 ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome due to non-PPNAD adrenocortical adenomas.
  • In one single adenoma gsp mutation was detected.
  • PRKAR1A mutations and gsp oncogene, are a rare event in adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15926108.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Proteins; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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99. Halefoglu AM, Bas N, Yasar A, Basak M: Differentiation of adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using CT histogram analysis method: a prospective study. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Mar;73(3):643-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differentiation of adrenal adenomas from nonadenomas using CT histogram analysis method: a prospective study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) histogram analysis method in the differentiation of benign and malignant adrenal masses.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2007 and June 2008, 94 patients (46 males, 48 females, age range: 30-79 years, mean age: 57.7 years) with 113 adrenal masses (mean diameter: 3.03 cm, range: 1.07-8.02 cm) were prospectively evaluated.
  • These included 66 adenomas, 45 metastases and 2 pheochromocytomas.
  • Histogram analysis method was performed using a circular region of interest (ROI) and mean attenuation, total number of pixels, number of negative pixels and subsequent percentage of negative pixels were detected on both unenhanced and delayed contrast-enhanced CT images for each adrenal mass.
  • Final diagnoses were based on imaging follow-up of minimum 6 months, biopsy, surgery and adrenal washout study.
  • RESULTS: 51 of 66 adenomas (77.3%) showed attenuation values of < or =10HU and 15 (22.7%) adenomas showed more than 10HU on unenhanced CT.
  • All of these adenomas contained negative pixels on unenhanced CT.
  • Eight of 66 (12.1%) adenomas showed a mean attenuation value of < or =10HU on delayed contrast-enhanced scans and 45 adenomas (68.2%) persisted on containing negative pixels.
  • Both methods gave a 100% specificity for the diagnosis of adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The CT histogram analysis is a simple and easily applicable method which provides higher sensitivity than the commonly used 10HU threshold mean attenuation method of unenhanced CT and can replace it for the diagnosis of an adenoma.
  • But with contrast-enhanced CT, although 100% specificity is being maintained, the sensitivities obtained are very poor for each method and is therefore likely to limit CT histogram analysis to be used as a clinically useful adjunct in the diagnosis of adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Adrenocortical Adenoma / radiography. Pheochromocytoma / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19167179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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100. Hahner S, Stuermer A, Kreissl M, Reiners C, Fassnacht M, Haenscheid H, Beuschlein F, Zink M, Lang K, Allolio B, Schirbel A: [123 I]Iodometomidate for molecular imaging of adrenocortical cytochrome P450 family 11B enzymes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2358-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [123 I]Iodometomidate for molecular imaging of adrenocortical cytochrome P450 family 11B enzymes.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to advances in conventional imaging, adrenal tumors are detected with increasing frequency.
  • Furthermore, four patients with known adrenal tumors (two metastatic adrenal adenocarcinomas, one bilateral adrenocortical adenoma, and one melanoma metastasis) were investigated with [(123)I]iodometomidate-SPECT.
  • RESULTS: In cell culture experiments, all compounds potently inhibited both Cyp11B1 and Cyp11B2.
  • In patients, adrenocortical tissue showed high and specific tracer uptake in both primary tumor and metastases with short investigation time and low radiation exposure, whereas the non-adrenocortical tumor did not exhibit any tracer uptake.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully completed the development of an in vivo detection system of adrenal Cyp11B enzymes by [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy in both experimental animals and humans.
  • Our findings suggest that [(123)I]IMTO is a highly specific radiotracer for imaging of adrenocortical tissue.
  • Due to the general availability of SPECT technology, we anticipate that [(123)I]IMTO scintigraphy may become a widely used tool to characterize adrenal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / analysis. Iodine Radioisotopes. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Aged. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Etomidate / analogs & derivatives. Etomidate / chemistry. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Multigene Family. Radioactive Tracers. Whole Body Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18397978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioactive Tracers; 5377-20-8 / metomidate; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase; Z22628B598 / Etomidate
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