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1. Pauser U, da Silva MT, Placke J, Klimstra DS, Klöppel G: Cellular hamartoma resembling gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a solid tumor of the pancreas expressing c-kit (CD117). Mod Pathol; 2005 Sep;18(9):1211-6
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  • [Title] Cellular hamartoma resembling gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a solid tumor of the pancreas expressing c-kit (CD117).
  • We report on two adult patients, each with a solid tumor of the pancreas that presented with an unusual histology and seemed to follow a benign course.
  • Islets were lacking, but immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A and insulin revealed individual scattered insulin-producing cells distributed between acinar and ductal cells.
  • The spindle cell component tissue showed coexpression of CD34, c-kit (CD117) and bcl-2.
  • We propose to designate the tumors as 'cellular hamartoma resembling gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Pancreatic Diseases / pathology. Stem Cell Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15803185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Stem Cell Factor
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2. Iczkowski KA, Montironi R: Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate strongly expresses HER-2/neu. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Dec;59(12):1327-30
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  • [Title] Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate strongly expresses HER-2/neu.
  • Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma (ACBCC) is a rare neoplasm in the prostate.
  • Ten acinar adenocarcinomas of varying grades were also immunostained as controls.
  • Protein and mRNA expression were 2+ to 3+ (of 3+) in all patients with ACBCC, compared to a breast cancer control with strong reactivity, whereas protein expression was noted in only one acinar carcinoma and mRNA expression was absent in all acinar carcinomas.
  • Benign acini expressed HER-2/neu only in the basal layer.
  • The finding of strong, consistent HER-2/neu expression in ACBCC suggests that treatment with Herceptin (trastuzumab) may be effective in patients with this rare tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism


3. Knight JF, Shepherd CJ, Rizzo S, Brewer D, Jhavar S, Dodson AR, Cooper CS, Eeles R, Falconer A, Kovacs G, Garrett MD, Norman AR, Shipley J, Hudson DL: TEAD1 and c-Cbl are novel prostate basal cell markers that correlate with poor clinical outcome in prostate cancer. Br J Cancer; 2008 Dec 02;99(11):1849-58
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  • [Title] TEAD1 and c-Cbl are novel prostate basal cell markers that correlate with poor clinical outcome in prostate cancer.
  • Our aim was to identify novel basal cell markers and assess their prognostic and functional significance in prostate cancer.
  • RNA from basal and luminal cells isolated from benign tissue by immunoguided laser-capture microdissection was subjected to expression profiling.
  • The transcription factor TEAD1 and the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl were identified as novel basal cell markers.
  • Knockdown of either marker using siRNA in prostate cell lines led to decreased cell growth in PC3 and disrupted acinar formation in a 3D culture system of RWPE1.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19002168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / TEAD1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.3.2.27 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl; EC 6.3.2.- / CBL protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600693
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4. Said-Al-Naief N, Klein MJ: Clear cell entities of the head and neck: a selective review of clear cell tumors of the salivary glands. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Jun;2(2):111-5
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  • [Title] Clear cell entities of the head and neck: a selective review of clear cell tumors of the salivary glands.
  • Clear cell changes may be observed in virtually any benign or malignant tumor of epithelial, mesenchymal, melanocytic and hematopoietic derivation not be attributed to variable etiologies.
  • In general, benign and malignant clear cell neoplasms of the head and neck are rare.
  • This review will selectively discuss the clinicopathological features of salivary gland tumors with clear cell changes, which, at times, may pose a diagnostic challenge and dilemma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 20614333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807545
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Clear cell tumors / Head and neck / Salivary gland tumors
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5. Cariaga-Martinez AE, Lorenzati MA, Riera MA, Cubilla MA, De La Rossa A, Giorgio EM, Tiscornia MM, Gimenez EM, Rojas ME, Chaneton BJ, Rodríguez DI, Zapata PD: Tumoral prostate shows different expression pattern of somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) and phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 (PTPN6) according to tumor progression. Adv Urol; 2009;:723831
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  • [Title] Tumoral prostate shows different expression pattern of somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) and phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 (PTPN6) according to tumor progression.
  • Many studies on SHP-1 revealed that the expression of this protein was diminished or abolished in several of the cancer cell lines and tissues examined.
  • However, it is necessary to confront the cell lines data with real situation in cancer cases.
  • Our studies have shown that epithelial expressions of both proteins, SHP-1 and SSTR2, in normal and benign hyperplasia are localized in the luminal side of duct and acinar cells.

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  • (PMID = 19365586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-6369
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2667939
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6. Williams MD, Chakravarti N, Kies MS, Maruya S, Myers JN, Haviland JC, Weber RS, Lotan R, El-Naggar AK: Implications of methylation patterns of cancer genes in salivary gland tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 15;12(24):7353-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: We investigated the methylation status and protein expression of four tumor suppressor genes to determine their role in salivary gland tumorigenesis.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed methylation-specific PCR and protein analyses of 29 normal salivary glands, 23 benign, and 79 malignant salivary gland neoplasms to determine the pattern and potential diagnostic and/or biological role of the RASSF1, RARbeta2, DAPK, and MGMT tumor suppressor gene methylation in these tumors.
  • Methylation occurred in 9 of 23 (39.1%) benign tumors; 3 (25.0%) pleomorphic adenomas and 6 (66.7%) Warthin's tumors at the MGMT, DAPK, or RASSF1 genes.
  • Methylation occurred in 33 of 79 (41.8%) malignant tumors; 8 (30.8%) adenoid cystic carcinomas, 6 (33.3%) mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 6 (42.9%) acinic cell carcinomas, and 13 (62.0%) salivary duct carcinomas.
  • RASSF1 and RARbeta2 represented 75.8% of methylation events occurring most frequently in salivary duct and acinic cell carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: (a) Benign and malignant salivary tumors differed in the frequency and pattern of gene methylation;.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Child. DNA Modification Methylases. DNA Repair Enzymes. Death-Associated Protein Kinases. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17189407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Death-Associated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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7. Darling MR, Tsai S, Jackson-Boeters L, Daley TD, Diamandis EP: Human kallikrein 8 expression in salivary gland tumors. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):169-74
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  • The aim of this study was to determine whether KLK8 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues.
  • Pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas NOS of both minor and major salivary glands were examined.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques

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  • (PMID = 20614312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK8 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807567
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Human kallikrein 8 / Immunohistochemistry / Kallikreins / Prognostic markers / Salivary gland tumors
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8. Darling MR, Jackson-Boeters L, Daley TD, Diamandis EP: [Human kallikrein 13 expression in salivary gland tumors]. Int J Biol Markers; 2006 Apr-Jun;21(2):106-110

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Petraki et al have previously described presence of hK13 in salivary gland tissue, localized to duct epithelia and some acinar cells.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether hK13 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues.
  • Pleomorphic adenomas (PA), adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA), acinic cell carcinomas (ACI), mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (ANOS) of both minor and major salivary glands were examined.

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  • (PMID = 28207129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6008
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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9. Machado MC, Machado MA, Perini MV, Herman P, Jukemura J, Leite KR, Bacchella T: Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: is the absence of neuroendocrine component related to a more malignant behavior? Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 Mar-Apr;55(82-83):708-10
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  • [Title] Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas: is the absence of neuroendocrine component related to a more malignant behavior?
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acinar cell carcinomas are uncommon malignant tumors of the pancreas, accounting for 1-2% of all the cases of exocrine pancreatic tumor.
  • Some authors have estimated acinar cell tumors to be as aggressive as ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas whereas other series showed acinar cell tumors to have a favorable clinical outcome.
  • This discrepancy in prognosis may be related to the cellular components of the tumor.
  • METHODOLOGY: With the aim to evaluate the possible relationship between the presence of neuroendocrine differentiation and behavior of these tumors, the authors reviewed all patients presenting acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas in the last 5 years with emphasis in the immunohistochemical evaluation.
  • RESULTS: Four patients presented neuroendocrine differentiation on immunohistochemical evaluation and had a more benign outcome.
  • This data suggests that this tumor is less aggressive than ductal adenocarcinoma and even with nodal involvement, long-term survival after complete resection can be achieved.
  • Due to the rarity of this pancreatic tumor, this relationship remains to be confirmed with a multicentric study including a larger number of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18613439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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10. Iczkowski KA: Current prostate biopsy interpretation: criteria for cancer, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and use of immunostains. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jun;130(6):835-43
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  • [Title] Current prostate biopsy interpretation: criteria for cancer, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and use of immunostains.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis begins by evaluating a focus of atypical single-cell layer lined acini according to the 3 minimal diagnostic criteria for cancer: an infiltrative pattern, nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia, and prominent nucleoli.
  • Atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for malignancy designates foci that have either qualitative or quantitative limitations in atypia precluding a definite cancer diagnosis.
  • Immunostaining for a marker of benign prostate (cytoplasmic keratin 34betaE12 or nuclear p63) and a marker of cancer (alpha-methylacyl coA racemase, clone P504S) may or may not resolve atypical small acinar proliferation diagnoses.
  • Performance of 34betaE12 and P504S immunostains resolved 76% of atypical small acinar proliferation diagnoses per consensus of 3 urologic pathologists studied; a technical limitation is preservation of the focus in question on the levels used for immunostaining.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16740037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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11. Andreadis D, Epivatianos A, Poulopoulos A, Nomikos A, Papazoglou G, Antoniades D, Barbatis C: Detection of C-KIT (CD117) molecule in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. Oral Oncol; 2006 Jan;42(1):57-65
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  • [Title] Detection of C-KIT (CD117) molecule in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours.
  • Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of 40 benign and 57 malignant salivary gland tumours were retrieved and retrospectively studied immunohistochemically using a polyclonal C-KIT antibody in an Envision/HRP technique.
  • In addition five samples of chronic submandibular sialadenitis, five normal minor salivary glands and parotid or submandibular gland tissue adjacent to benign tumour were also studied.
  • C-KIT expression was observed in cases of adenoid cystic, acinic cell polymorphous low grade, epithelial-myoepithelial, carcinosarcoma and basal cell adenocarcinomas, as in luminal cells of pleomorphic adenomas, in serous acinar and only in intercalated and a small number of striated ductal cells of inflammatory salivary gland tissue, whereas normal salivary lobules were generally negative except a weak positivity of intercalated cells.
  • Contrary to other reports, this study suggests that, C-KIT protein does not appear to be an exclusively specific marker for benign or malignant salivary gland neoplasms, but may be useful in differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma from polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma.
  • Furthermore its expression in serous acinar cells in sialadenitis and intercalated ductal cells in normal and inflammatory lesions may indicate a possible participation in pathogenesis of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16140564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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12. Foschini MP, Krausz T: Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;27(1):77-90
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  • [Title] Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential.
  • The clinicopathologic spectrum ranges from benign to malignant but there are important differences as compared with those of their salivary counterpart.
  • In the breast, benign adenomyoepithelioma is recognized in addition to malignant one, whereas in the salivary gland a histologically similar tumor is designated as epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma without a separate benign subgroup.
  • Key examples include mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / metabolism. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Adenomyoepithelioma / metabolism. Adenomyoepithelioma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20306833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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13. Weiler C, Reu S, Zengel P, Kirchner T, Ihrler S: Obligate basal cell component in salivary oncocytoma facilitates distinction from acinic cell carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(12):838-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Obligate basal cell component in salivary oncocytoma facilitates distinction from acinic cell carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis between benign salivary oncocytoma (ONC) and low-grade malignant acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) can be difficult due to a significant histomorphological overlap of the structural and cytological presentation of both tumor types.
  • The statistically significant stronger expression of CK7 in ONC and stronger expression of PAS and alpha-amylase in ACC in routine practice each is hampered by a pronounced overlap between both tumor groups.
  • The obligate presence of an additional small basal cell component in all cases of ONC, demonstrable with p63 and CK5/6, enables a straightforward distinction from ACC, being constantly devoid of a basal cell component.
  • The detection of this basal cell component in ONC in routine Hematoxylin-eosin stain is difficult and in some cases not possible; therefore, immunohistochemistry with p63 or CK5/6 is recommended for selected cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-5 / analysis. Keratin-6 / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Trans-Activators / analysis. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19646823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRT5 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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14. Partanen JI, Nieminen AI, Klefstrom J: 3D view to tumor suppression: Lkb1, polarity and the arrest of oncogenic c-Myc. Cell Cycle; 2009 Mar 1;8(5):716-24

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  • [Title] 3D view to tumor suppression: Lkb1, polarity and the arrest of oncogenic c-Myc.
  • Tumor cells do exactly that by disrupting the organized architecture of epithelial cell layers during progression from contained benign tumor to full-blown invasive cancer.
  • However, it is still unclear whether tumor cells primarily break free by activating oncogenes powerful enough to cause chaos or by eliminating tumor suppressor genes guarding the order of the epithelial organization.
  • Studies in Drosophila have exposed genes that encode key regulators of the epithelial apicobasal polarity and which, upon inactivation, cause disorganization of the epithelial layers and promote unscheduled cell proliferation.
  • These polarity regulator/tumor suppressor proteins, which include products of neoplastic tumor suppressor genes (nTSGs), are carefully positioned in polarized epithelial cells to maintain the order of epithelial structures and to impose a restraint on cell proliferation.
  • In this review, we have explored the presence and prevalence of somatic mutations in the human counterparts of Drosophila polarity regulator/tumor suppressor genes across the human cancers.
  • We review the evidence linking Lkb1 protein to polarity regulation in the scope of our recent results suggesting a coupled role for Lkb1 as an architect of organized acinar structures and a suppressor of oncogenic c-Myc.
  • [MeSH-major] Drosophila Proteins / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Protein Kinases / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Cycle. Cell Polarity. Drosophila melanogaster / genetics. Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3. Humans. Oncogenes

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  • (PMID = 19221484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.- / STK11 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / LKB1 protein, Drosophila; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3; EC 2.7.11.26 / Par-1 protein, Drosophila
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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15. Vargas PA, Cheng Y, Barrett AW, Craig GT, Speight PM: Expression of Mcm-2, Ki-67 and geminin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. J Oral Pathol Med; 2008 May;37(5):309-18
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  • [Title] Expression of Mcm-2, Ki-67 and geminin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours.
  • The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Mcm-2, Ki-67 and geminin in salivary gland (SG) tumours, and to evaluate their usefulness for diagnosis or for prediction of tumour behaviour.
  • There were 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), 10 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas (CEPA), 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC), 10 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA), 10 pleomorphic adenomas (PA) and nine acinic cell carcinomas (AcCC).
  • LI did not correlate to tumour grade or outcome for any of the markers or tumour types.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Geminin. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Microarray Analysis. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18248354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0714
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / GMNN protein, human; 0 / Geminin; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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16. Guzzo M, Ferrari A, Marcon I, Collini P, Gandola L, Pizzi N, Casanova M, Mattavelli F, Scaramellini G: Salivary gland neoplasms in children: the experience of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Nov;47(6):806-10
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  • These results are presented in conjunction with a literature review of salivary tumors with a view to providing an up-to-date overview of the clinical course, prognosis, and treatment options for this rare tumor.
  • PROCEDURE: Fifty-two cases of epithelial salivary tumors were reviewed and the clinical-pathological information concerning tumor characteristics, therapy, and follow-up were collected.
  • RESULTS: The major salivary glands were the main site of tumor occurrence (79% of cases arose in parotid glands); 37 patients had benign tumors (pleomorphic adenoma), 15 had malignant tumors (12 mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 9 low grade).
  • All the patients were treated by surgery; local relapses after parotidectomy were 4% and 25%, in benign and malignant tumors, respectively.
  • When tumor enucleation was performed, recurrences occurred in 50% of benign neoplasms.
  • At the time of the report, all patients with benign tumors were alive, 35(95%) without evidence of disease; only one patient with malignant tumor died of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial salivary glands tumor in children had different characteristics compared with their adult counterpart with respect to the frequency of histotypes and site of occurrence, but their prognosis seems to be similar.
  • Parotidectomy (total or superficial) is the best choice for achieving good cure rates in both benign and malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / surgery. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16425245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Shigeishi H, Yoneda S, Taki M, Nobumori T, Ohta K, Higashikawa K, Yasui W, Kamata N: Correlation of human Bub1 expression with tumor-proliferating activity in salivary gland tumors. Oncol Rep; 2006 Apr;15(4):933-8
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  • [Title] Correlation of human Bub1 expression with tumor-proliferating activity in salivary gland tumors.
  • Human Bub1 plays an important role at the spindle assembly check-point to prevent cell cycle progression following spindle damage.
  • We examined the expression of Bub1 mRNA and protein in 21 human salivary gland tumors (7 pleomorphic adenomas, 2 warthin tumors, 5 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 3 adenoid cystic carcinomas and 4 acinic cell carcinomas) and 3 normal submandibular glands using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or western blotting.
  • The mean expression levels of Bub1 mRNA and protein were higher in malignant tumors (0.12+/-0.028/1.75+/-0.53) than normal submandibular glands (0.042+/-0.014/0.19+/-0.044) and benign tumors (0.058+/-0.01/0.97+/-0.44).
  • We analyzed its relation with the proliferative activity monitored by the Ki-67 labeling index by immunohistochemistry as well as the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by Western blotting.
  • These results indicate that increased expression of the human Bub1 gene is closely linked to abnormal cell proliferation in malignant conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Protein Kinases / genetics. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenolymphoma / genetics. Adenolymphoma / metabolism. Adenolymphoma / pathology. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / genetics. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / metabolism. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / genetics. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / genetics. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16525682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BUB1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Bub1 spindle checkpoint protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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18. Kaba S, Kojima M, Matsuda H, Sugihara S, Masawa N, Kobayashi TK, Fukuda T: Küttner's tumor of the submandibular glands: report of five cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Sep;34(9):631-5

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  • [Title] Küttner's tumor of the submandibular glands: report of five cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • Küttner's tumor (KT) is a benign tumor-like lesion of the salivary gland that mimics neoplasm clinically because of presentation as a hard mass.
  • Smears obtained from two cases contained moderate to large numbers of lymphoid cells without definite cytological atypia, scattered ductal structures, and acinar cell clusters.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16900478.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Lu YC, Fan WJ, Shen JX, Xiao P: [CT features of parotid tumors: an analysis of 133 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Nov;26(11):1263-7
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  • RESULTS: Among the 157 lesions, 110 (70.1%) were benign tumors, 18 (11.5%) were borderline tumors, and 29 (18.5%) were malignant tumors; 80 (72.7%) benign lesions and 14 (77.8%) borderline lesions located in the superficial lobe, whereas 7 (24.1%) malignant lesions located in the deep lobe and 10 (34.5%) in both the superficial lobe and the deep lobe; 99 (90.0%) benign lesions had sharp margins, 8 (44.4%) borderline lesions had sharp margins and 10 (55.6%) had partly unsharp margins, 10 (34.5%) malignant lesions had partly unsharp margins and 11 (37.9%) had unsharp margins.
  • Most benign lesions were round (68/110, 61.8%) or oval (23/110, 20.9%), while malignant lesions were often irregular (14/29, 48.3%).
  • No benign tumor involved adjacent structures.
  • CONCLUSION: On CT images, a parotid tumor located in the superficial lobe, with a round or oval contour and sharp margin, is more likely to be a benign tumor; otherwise, it might be a malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / radiography. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Gland / radiography. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17991330.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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20. Adley BP, Yang XJ: Application of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Feb;28(1):1-13
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  • Since its discovery, AMACR has gained wide acceptance for use in the diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma in conjunction with morphology and immunohistochemical staining for basal cell markers.
  • This review focuses on AMACR expression in prostate cancer and its morphologic variants, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenosis and benign conditions of the prostate.

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  • (PMID = 16566275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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21. Abdul M, Mccray SD, Hoosein NM: Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (subtype A) in prostate cancer. Acta Oncol; 2008;47(8):1546-50
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  • METHODS: In this study, we have investigated, by immunohistochemistry, GABAar levels in 12 normal human prostate, 13 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 148 human prostate cancer specimens.
  • We have also examined the effect of several GABA agonists and antagonists on the in vitro proliferation of four human prostate cancer cell lines: LNCaP, MDA-PCA-2b, DU145 and PC3.
  • Also, low to moderate GABAar staining was observed in the acinar epithelium of 50 (33%) prostate cancer specimens.
  • A GABAa agonist isoguvacine, at doses between 5-50 microg/ml (31-310 microM), stimulated the proliferation of all four human prostate cancer cell lines, tested.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bicuculline / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Dihydroergotoxine / pharmacology. GABA Agonists / pharmacology. GABA Antagonists / pharmacology. GABA-A Receptor Agonists. GABA-B Receptor Agonists. Humans. Isonicotinic Acids / pharmacology. Male. Picrotoxin / pharmacology. Prostate / metabolism. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Receptors, GABA-B / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18607852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR16461
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GABA Agonists; 0 / GABA Antagonists; 0 / GABA-A Receptor Agonists; 0 / GABA-B Receptor Agonists; 0 / Isonicotinic Acids; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; 0 / Receptors, GABA-B; 11032-41-0 / Dihydroergotoxine; 124-87-8 / Picrotoxin; Y37615DVKC / Bicuculline; YTF580771Y / isoguvacine
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22. Awadallah NS, Shroyer KR, Langer DA, Torkko KC, Chen YK, Bentz JS, Papkoff J, Liu W, Nash SR, Shah RJ: Detection of B7-H4 and p53 in pancreatic cancer: potential role as a cytological diagnostic adjunct. Pancreas; 2008 Mar;36(2):200-6
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  • Some benign tissue components (intercalated cells/ducts, main pancreatic ducts, and acinar cells) were also positive for B7-H4 and/or p53.
  • Overall expression of B7-H4 in benign tissues, however, was relatively low compared with that seen in most carcinoma cases.
  • Despite potentially problematic expression in benign/normal cells, the 2 markers target different cellular components and demonstrate potential diagnostic use for detection of PDA in resected and EUS-FNA specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD80 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / chemistry. Pancreatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreas / chemistry. Pilot Projects. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Tissue Fixation. V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1

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  • (PMID = 18376314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1; 0 / VTCN1 protein, human
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23. Yamaguchi R, Tanaka M, Yokoyama T, Nonaka Y, Kojima K, Terasaki H, Yamaguchi M, Fukunaga M, Toh U, Nakashima O, Kage M, Yano H: Clinicocytopathology of breast cancers with a ring-like appearance on ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Pathol Int; 2010 Jan;60(1):22-6
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  • On breast cancer imaging some cancers have an anechoic or high-echoic zone in the tumor on ultrasonography and ring-shaped enhancement on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high intensity in the central area of the tumor on T2-weighted imaging, necessitating their differentiation from benign disease.
  • Histologically the cancer cells of these lesions showing a ring-like appearance were located in the periphery of the tumor, with a central hypocellular zone.
  • The percentage ratio of the cancer-zone width to the tumor diameter was 26.4 +/- 7.8 and 8.0 +/- 3.2 (mean +/- SD), respectively (P= 0.003).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis

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  • [ErratumIn] Pathol Int. 2010 Apr;60(4):336. Nonaka, Hideyuki [corrected to Nonaka, Yasuhide]
  • (PMID = 20055948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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24. Darling MR, Jackson-Boeters L, Daley TD, Diamandis EP: Human kallikrein 13 expression in salivary gland tumors. Int J Biol Markers; 2006 Apr-Jun;21(2):106-10
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  • Petraki et al have previously described presence of hK13 in salivary gland tissue, localized to duct epithelia and some acinar cells.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether hK13 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues.
  • Pleomorphic adenomas (PA), adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA), acinic cell carcinomas (ACI), mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (ANOS) of both minor and major salivary glands were examined.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Kallikreins / biosynthesis. Mouth Mucosa / metabolism. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16847813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK13 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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25. Borka K: [Claudin expression in different pancreatic cancers and its significance in differential diagnostics]. Magy Onkol; 2009 Sep;53(3):273-8
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  • The aim of our studies was to compare the different CLDN expression patterns in normal pancreas cells, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adenocarcinomas, mucinous cystic tumors and acinar cell carcinomas.
  • ) In addition to the well-known CLDN-1 and -4 expression CLDN-2, -3 and -7 proteins were demonstrated in ductal cells, while CLDN-3 and -7 proteins showed expression in acinar cells.
  • 3.) The level of CLDN-1, -4 and -7 protein expression in borderline cystic tumors is in between that of benign and malignant tumors.
  • 4.) This is a first review on childhood acinar cell carcinoma causing Cushing syndrome.
  • The adenocarcinomas and cystic mucinous tumors of exocrine origin denoted CLDN-1, -2, -4 and -7 positivity, whereas acinar cell carcinomas expressed only CLDN-1 and -2.
  • Considering the CLDN expression observed in normal pancreas cells, it can be established that CLDN-1, -2 and -4 proteins are definitely markers of ductal differentiation, CLDN-1 protein of acinar and CLDN-3 of endocrine differentiation. 2).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Claudins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19793693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN2 protein, human; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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26. Lewis CM, Herbert BS, Bu D, Halloway S, Beck A, Shadeo A, Zhang C, Ashfaq R, Shay JW, Euhus DM: Telomerase immortalization of human mammary epithelial cells derived from a BRCA2 mutation carrier. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Sep;99(1):103-15
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  • A novel human mammary epithelial cell line, HME348, was established from benign breast tissue from a 44-year-old germ-line BRCA2 mutation carrier with a history of stage 1 breast cancer.
  • Three clones derived from this culture were also p63(+)/ESA(+)/EMA(+/-) on glass but formed similar acinar structures with both luminal and myoepithelial cell differentiation in Matrigel confirming the mammary progenitor nature of these cells.
  • As this is the first report establishing and characterizing a benign human mammary epithelial cell line derived from a BRCA2 patient without the use of viral oncogenes, these cells may be useful for the study of BRCA2 function in breast morphogenesis and carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Culture Techniques / methods. Collagen / pharmacology. Comet Assay. Drug Combinations. Humans. Laminin / pharmacology. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Proteoglycans / pharmacology. Telomere / ultrastructure. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16541310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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27. Pauzar B, Staklenac B, Loncar B: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of follicular thyroid tumors. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):87-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this research was to make a detailed and objective determination of the morphological characteristics of cells in cytological smears in an attempt to distinguish benign from malignant follicular tumors.
  • We analyzed the cellularity of the smear, cohesion between follicular cells, acinar formations, bare nuclei, characteristics of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the presence of colloid.
  • The statistical analysis of cytological parameters has indicated that none of the cytological parameters alone is discriminating enough between non-tumor and tumor changes, or benign and malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • The analysis of age, sex, nodule size and ultrasound findings has not shown the correlation between any of these parameters with the malignant or benign follicular tumors.
  • The cytological analysis of the smears for patients with follicular tumors, in combination with clinical data and other diagnostic methods, contributes to more precise diagnostics, but is not sufficient for the differentiation between benign and malignant follicular tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20432738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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28. Molinié V, Baumert H: [New markers in prostate biopsies]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Oct;31(9):1009-24
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  • [Transliterated title] Nuevos marcadores en las biopsias de próstata.
  • This has been accompanied by a strong increase in the number of biopsies with ambiguous lesions, and an unequivocal diagnosis of malignancy is difficult to render, especially in the case of limited foci or in small atypical acinar lesions.
  • When assessing small foci of atypical glands upon needle biopsy, the pathologist searches for differences between the benign glands and atypical glands in terms of usual morphological features and in such cases, immunohistochemical stains for basal cell markers such as 34betaE12 antibody or antibodies directed against cytokeratin 5 and 6 and more recently p63 may be a useful adjuvant to identify basal cells which are typically present in benign glands but absent in prostatic carcinoma.
  • However several benign mimickers of prostate carcinoma, including atrophy, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, nephrogenic adenoma can stain negatively with these antibodies and thus a negative basal cell marker immunostain alone does not exclude a diagnosis of benignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18257370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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29. Zhang HZ, Jiang ZM, Shi L: [Pathologic characteristics of pseudohyperplastic prostatic adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Nov;36(11):742-5
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  • The incidence, morphology, pathologic differential diagnosis, tumor volume, preferred location and Gleason's score were studied.
  • Histologically, 66.7% of PHPA demonstrated direct transition with conventional acinar adenocarcinoma; and 76.7% of cases had coexisting conventional acinar adenocarcinoma in the remaining tissue blocks.
  • The tumor volume accounted for 5% to 100% of total carcinoma among core needle biopsy and 1% to 30% of total carcinoma among radical prostatectomy.
  • PHPA resembled benign prostate glands, in which the hyperplastic malignant acini were predominantly of medium to large size.
  • Although PHPA looked benign morphologically, 66.7% cases had stromal invasion, 6.7% had perineural invasion and 3.3% had bone metastasis.
  • The tumor was primarily located in the peripheral zone.
  • Majority of cases have concurrent conventional acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Prostatectomy

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  • (PMID = 18307877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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30. Li J, Yang SJ, Zhao XL, Zhang YQ, Li KN, Cui JH, Li J: [Significant increase of glucose transport activity in breast cancer]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;37(2):103-8
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  • RESULTS: In normal breast tissue and benign lesions of the breast, Glut-1 was undetectable or only weakly detectable in cytoplasm of ductal and acinar epithelia.
  • The over-expression of Glut-1 in breast carcinoma is tightly coupled with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, implying that Glut-1 may serve as a new marker in the early diagnosis and prognostication of breast malignancy as well as a new therapeutic target.

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  • (PMID = 18681321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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31. Godeiro KD, Frota AC, Antecka E, Odashiro AN, Maloney S, Fernandes B, Burnier MN Jr: Prostate-specific membrane antigen is undetectable in choroidal neovascular membrane. J Carcinog; 2006;5:21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II membrane glycoprotein expressed in benign and malignant prostatic tissues, in some non-prostatic tissues, and in the endothelium of tumor-associated neovasculature of non-prostatic neoplasm.
  • Some studies have suggested that the expression of PSMA is restricted to endothelium from tumor-associated neovasculature and might be stimulated by some tumor-secreted angiogenic factors.
  • However, no previous study demonstrating PSMA expression in non-related tumor neovasculature, such as CNVM, has been performed to date.
  • Antibody to an endothelial cell specific marker, factor VIII, was used to confirm the location of the endothelial cells.
  • Seventy-five percent of the secretory-acinar epithelium of the prostatic hyperplasia specimen stained positive, confirming that the immunohistochemical technique was correctly performed.
  • CONCLUSION: The absence of PSMA expression in non-tumoral neovasculature supports the theory, previously suggested, that endothelial cell PSMA expression may be stimulated by one or more tumor-secreted angiogenic factors.
  • Angiogenesis is very important in neoplasia and the endothelial expression of PSMA in tumor-associated neovasculature may represent a target for antineovasculature-based therapy.

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  • (PMID = 16911781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-3163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Carcinog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1560378
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32. Yaskiv O, Cao D, Humphrey PA: Microcystic adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a variant of pseudohyperplastic and atrophic patterns. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):556-61
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  • Cystic change in adenocarcinoma of the prostate is unusual and may be confused with benign cystic atrophy.
  • This alteration was defined as cystic dilatation and rounded expansion of the malignant gland profile, with a flat luminal cell lining layer.
  • The microcystic glands were typically adjacent to usual small acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • Ninety-six percent of the microcystic cases showed alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase overexpression and all cases showed complete basal cell loss (using 34betaE12 and p63 antibodies) in immunohistochemistry.
  • Microcystic adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a distinctive histomorphologic presentation of prostatic adenocarcinoma that is deceptively benign-looking at low magnifications.
  • Detection of intraluminal crystalloids or wispy blue mucin at low magnification, immunostains for alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase, and basal cells, and a search for adjacent usual small acinar adenocarcinoma are helpful diagnostic aids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Atrophy. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cysts / enzymology. Cysts / pathology. Humans. Male. Prostatectomy. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20216381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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33. Bhatia P, Srinivasan R, Rajwanshi A, Nijhawan R, Khandelwal N, Wig J, Vasishtha RK: 5-year review and reappraisal of ultrasound-guided percutaneous transabdominal fine needle aspiration of pancreatic lesions. Acta Cytol; 2008 Sep-Oct;52(5):523-9
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  • Seven cases (2.6%) yielded insufficient material for diagnosis; 260 cases were classified as benign (n=118) and malignant (n=142) lesions.
  • Of the 118 benign aspirates, the cytodiagnosis was acute/chronic inflammation in 24, tuberculosis in 1, benign cyst in 10 and a benign aspirate, not otherwise specified, in the remaining 83 cases.
  • Of the 142 malignant aspirates, the cytodiagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 126, neuroendocrine/carcinoid tumor in 7, papillary solid epithelial neoplasm in 2, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in 2, acinar cell carcinoma in 1 and metastatic small cell carcinoma in lung in 4 cases.

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Cytol. 2008 Sep-Oct;52(5):521-2 [18833811.001]
  • (PMID = 18833812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Haji BE, Das DK, Al-Ayadhy B, Pathan SK, George SG, Mallik MK, Abdeen SM: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of four special types of breast cancers: mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jul;35(7):408-16
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  • Recognition of special types of breast cancers by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology may have prognostic implications but some difficulties still exist in the ability of cytopathologists to determine the tumor subtypes.
  • Detailed cytomorphological features were studied in the four special and unusual types of breast cancer cases (8 cases of mucinous, 9 medullary, 9 apocrime, and 11 papillary) and compared between themselves and with those of 32 duct cell carcinomas, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • Papillary carcinomas were also compared with 10 benign papillary lesions.
  • In mucinous carcinoma, the frequency of signet ring cells (62.5%), and background pools of mucin (87.5%) were significantly higher than those of duct cell carcinoma (NOS), medullary carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma (P = 0.0408 to < 0.0001).
  • In medullary carcinomas, lymphomononuclear cell infiltration (100.0%) was observed in significantly higher number of cases than in papillary, mucinous, and apocrine types (P < 0.0001).
  • Abnormal apocrine cells and papillary formation, characterizing all the apocrine carcinomas and papillary carcinomas, respectively, were present in significantly lower number in other variants and in duct cell carcinoma (NOS) (P = 0.0002 to <0.0001).
  • Glycogen vacuoles (63.6%) were observed in a significantly higher number of papillary carcinoma as compared to duct cell carcinoma (NOS), apocrine, and medullary carcinomas (P = 0.0047 to 0.0022).
  • The significant parameters differentiating papillary carcinoma and benign papillary lesions were loose cohesive clusters (P = 0.001) and acinar formation by neoplastic cells (P = 0.0237).
  • Histopathology reports available in 36 cases, confirmed the cytodiagnosis of carcinoma in all 35 cases and the benign lesion in one case.
  • Cytological subtyping was confirmed in 13 of 16 special types of carcinomas and all the 15 duct cell carcinoma (NOS).
  • Thus, special and unusual variants of duct cell carcinomas like mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary have specific cytomorphological features, which differentiate them from one another and from duct cell carcinoma (NOS).
  • However, differentiating features between papillary carcinoma and benign papillary lesions were very few in this study.

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  • (PMID = 17580344.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Cheng L, Bostwick DG: Atypical sclerosing adenosis of the prostate: a rare mimic of adenocarcinoma. Histopathology; 2010 Apr;56(5):627-31
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  • AIMS: Sclerosing adenosis of the prostate is a benign, small, acinar proliferation in dense spindle cell stroma, with a distinct immunohistochemical profiles.
  • All cases of typical and atypical sclerosing adenosis displayed an intact basal cell layer, which was immunoreactive for high-molecular-weight keratin, S100 protein, smooth muscle actin, and prostate-specific antigen, with no differences between ASA and the control group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ASA is an unusual small, acinar proliferation of the prostate that may be mistaken for adenocarcinoma, and should be distinguished from other mimics, including atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, mesonephric remnant hyperplasia, and post-atrophic hyperplasia.
  • ASA is a benign lesion and aggressive treatment is unwarranted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sclerosis

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  • (PMID = 20459573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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36. Andreadis D, Epivatianos A, Mireas G, Nomikos A, Poulopoulos A, Yiotakis J, Barbatis C: Immunohistochemical detection of E-cadherin in certain types of salivary gland tumours. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Apr;120(4):298-304
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  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of 54 benign and 56 malignant tumours and 24 samples of normal and inflamed salivary gland tissue were studied immunohistochemically using an Envision/horseraddish peroxidase (HRP) technique.
  • RESULTS: In normal and inflamed salivary gland samples, E-cadherin was expressed at the membrane of acinar, myoepithelial and ductal cells located at cell-cell contact points.
  • Furthermore, a weak to moderate loss of expression which was related to tissue tumour subtype was seen in malignant tumours such as: adenoid cystic carcinomas; polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas; acinic cell carcinomas; and mucoepidermoid low-grade, epithelial-myoepithelial, lymphoepithelial and squamous low-grade carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cadherins / analysis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / chemistry. Carcinoma, Ductal / chemistry. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16623973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins
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37. Bonkhoff H: [Differential diagnosis of prostate cancer: impact of pattern analysis and immunohistochemistry]. Pathologe; 2005 Nov;26(6):405-21
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  • For each Gleason pattern exist a number of benign and malignant mimickers that can simulate prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Basal cell markers (34betaE12 and P63) are very useful to analyze histo-architectural features of small and large glandular lesions.
  • A number of lesions which may be confused with small acinar adenocarcinoma (Cowper's gland, nephrogenic metaplasia, mesonephric glands) and poorly differentiated prostate cancer (urothelial neoplasia, mucinous colon cancer and other metastatic lesions) lacks convincing PSA immunoreactivity.
  • Basal cell markers and the nuclear androgen receptors are important markers to differentiate Gleason grade 5 A und 5 B patterns from prostatic involvement by transitional cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cell Division / physiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16205899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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38. Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Prieto R, Blanca A, Montironi R: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the prostate. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jul;40(7):982-7
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  • In one case the diagnosis of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma admixed with conventional acinar adenocarcinoma was an unexpected finding at time of transurethral resection for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • Microscopically, all tumors contained lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, which comprised 10% to 90% of the entire tumor.
  • Morphologic recognition and distinction from other prostatic lesions and tumors with prominent lymphoid stroma is critical for its clinical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19269013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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