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1. Yang I, Delpolyi A, Sughrue ME, Rubenstein J, Bollen AW, Parsa AT: Sarcoidosis of the pineal gland: an unusual presentation of neurosarcoidosis. J Neurooncol; 2009 Jan;91(1):113-6
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  • [Title] Sarcoidosis of the pineal gland: an unusual presentation of neurosarcoidosis.
  • We report an unusual case of sarcoidosis involving the pineal gland with radiographic, histopathology, and clinical data.
  • MR imaging demonstrated an enhancing mass in the pineal region.
  • Histopathologic analysis did not reveal a pineoblastoma but instead revealed noncaseating granulomas within the pineal gland.
  • This mass lesion was diagnosed as solitary neurosarcoidosis of the pineal gland, without dissemination.
  • CONCLUSION: This is an unusual case of pineal sarcoidosis mimicking a tumor with associated MRI, CT and histopathologic findings reported together.
  • Although rare, sarcoidosis of the pineal gland should not be excluded from a comprehensive differential diagnosis of an enhancing pineal region mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis. Pineal Gland / pathology. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18759061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA100291
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS612821; NLM/ PMC4134350
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2. Taraszewska A, Matyja E, Koszewski W, Zaczyński A, Bardadin K, Czernicki Z: Asymptomatic and symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland. Folia Neuropathol; 2008;46(3):186-95

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  • [Title] Asymptomatic and symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland.
  • Glial cysts of the pineal gland are benign and mostly asymptomatic incidental lesions found in the brain MRI or at autopsy examinations.
  • In rare cases pineal cysts become symptomatic and require surgical intervention.
  • Symptomatic glial cysts may be clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from cystic neoplasms of the pineal region; therefore, histopathological diagnosis is critical for further prognosis and therapy in operated patients.
  • In this paper we present detailed histopathological characteristics of symptomatic glial cysts in 2 surgical cases and of asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland found at random in 3 autopsy cases.
  • Preoperative MR imaging suggested tumour of the pineal gland in case no. 2.
  • Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimens from both surgical and all autopsy cases revealed a characteristic pattern of cystic structures within the pineal gland, surrounded by layers of a dense fibrillar glial tissue and pineal parenchyma, consistent with non-neoplastic glial cysts.
  • Although histopathological findings in asymptomatic and symptomatic cysts are essentially the same, the cyst in surgical case 1 was unilocular and partly lined with ependymal cells, whereas the cysts in other cases were multilocular, comprising cavities of various size, formed in the central part of gliotic tissue or directly within the pineal parenchyma, and lacked ependymal lining.
  • Possible pathophysiological and clinicopathological significance of some morphological variants of pineal glial cysts is discussed.

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  • (PMID = 18825594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1641-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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3. Levidou G, Korkolopoulou P, Agrogiannis G, Paidakakos N, Bouramas D, Patsouris E: Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:59
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  • [Title] Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far.
  • METHODS-RESULTS: We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman.
  • The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI.
  • Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism.
  • However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma.
  • However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20849631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2949720
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4. Dagnino-Subiabre A, Orellana JA, Carmona-Fontaine C, Montiel J, Díaz-Velíz G, Serón-Ferré M, Wyneken U, Concha ML, Aboitiz F: Chronic stress decreases the expression of sympathetic markers in the pineal gland and increases plasma melatonin concentration in rats. J Neurochem; 2006 Jun;97(5):1279-87
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  • [Title] Chronic stress decreases the expression of sympathetic markers in the pineal gland and increases plasma melatonin concentration in rats.
  • Specifically, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the expression of sympathetic markers in the rat epithalamic pineal gland by immunohistochemistry and western blot, whereas the plasma melatonin concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay.
  • We found that chronic stress decreased the expression of three sympathetic markers in the pineal gland, tyrosine hydroxylase, the p75 neurotrophin receptor and alpha-tubulin, while the same treatment did not affect the expression of the non-specific sympathetic markers Erk1 and Erk2, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
  • Our findings indicate that stress may impair pineal sympathetic inputs, leading to an abnormal melatonin release that may contribute to environmental maladaptation.
  • In addition, we propose that the pineal gland is a target of glucocorticoid damage during stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / blood. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Stress, Psychological / blood. Sympathetic Nervous System / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16539651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor; 0 / Tubulin; 142-10-9 / Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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5. Kniaz'kin IV: [Pineal gland and extrapineal melatonin in visceral organs during natural human aging]. Adv Gerontol; 2008;21(1):83-5
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  • [Title] [Pineal gland and extrapineal melatonin in visceral organs during natural human aging].
  • In order to define the functional morphology of the pineal gland (epiphysis) and to reveal extrapineal sources of melatonin (MT) during human aging, biopsy samples obtained from 175 male persons aged 16 to 84 were examined.

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  • (PMID = 18546829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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6. Lin'kova NS, Poliakova VO, Trofimov AV, Sevost'ianova NN, Kvetnoĭ IM: [Influence of peptides from pineal gland on thymus function at aging]. Adv Gerontol; 2010;23(4):543-6
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  • [Title] [Influence of peptides from pineal gland on thymus function at aging].
  • The interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution is considered in this review.
  • The research data about influence of thymus peptides on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus is summarized.
  • Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (epithalamin, epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (thymalin, thymogen) on involution of pineal gland.
  • The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

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  • (PMID = 21510076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Thymus Extracts; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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7. Korkushko OV, Lapin BA, Goncharova ND, Khavinson VKh, Shatilo VB, Vengerin AA, Antoniuk-Shcheglova IA, Magdich LV: [Normalizing effect of the pineal gland peptides on the daily melatonin rhythm in old monkeys and elderly people]. Adv Gerontol; 2007;20(1):74-85
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  • [Title] [Normalizing effect of the pineal gland peptides on the daily melatonin rhythm in old monkeys and elderly people].
  • In the course of aging both monkeys and people reveal decreased night and average daily level of melatonin in the blood plasma and reduced hormone circadian rhythm amplitude, which evidence the disorder of the pineal gland melatonin releasing function.
  • Peptide preparations of the pineal gland (Epithalamin--a complex of peptides isolated from the pineal gland and Epitalon--synthetic tetrapeptide) recover night release of endogenous melatonin and lead to the normalization of the hormone circadian rhythm in the blood plasma.
  • In elderly people Epithalamin and Epitalon modulate pineal gland functional state: people with pineal gland functional insufficiency report an increase of night melatonin level.
  • The preparations of the pineal gland, effectively increasing melatonin concentration and having no side effects, can be used in clinical geriatric practice.

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  • (PMID = 17969590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Peptides; 64082-79-7 / epithalamin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; O65P17785G / alanyl-glutamyl-aspartyl-glycine
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8. Nagaishi M, Suzuki R, Tanaka Y, Hoya K, Narita Y, Shinomiya A, Shibui S, Hyodo A: Pure germinoma of the pineal gland with synchronous spinal dissemination--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(6):505-8
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  • [Title] Pure germinoma of the pineal gland with synchronous spinal dissemination--case report.
  • An 11-year-old boy presented with pineal pure germinoma with spinal dissemination manifesting as a 1-month history of ocular motility disturbance and a history of abnormal sensations in the left leg persisting for several months.
  • Craniospinal magnetic resonance imaging showed an enhanced tumor in the pineal gland and widespread leptomeningeal dissemination in the spinal canal.
  • Biopsy of the pineal tumor was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meninges / pathology. Pineal Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20587981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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9. Bailey MJ, Cassone VM: Melanopsin expression in the chick retina and pineal gland. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Apr 4;134(2):345-8
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  • [Title] Melanopsin expression in the chick retina and pineal gland.
  • The chick retina and pineal gland exhibit circadian oscillations in biochemical and physiological processes in vivo and in vitro and entrain to 24 h LD cycles.
  • Opn4 mRNA is widespread in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, with highest levels of transcript abundance in the pineal gland and retina.
  • Opn4 mRNA is also regulated on a circadian basis in the pineal gland, reaching peak values of accumulation in the late subjective night.
  • In situ hybridization (ISH) revealed opn4 mRNA in areas associated with phototransduction and the visual system, including the pineal gland and optic tectum of the brain, along with GCL, inner nuclear layer (INL), and photoreceptor layer (PL) of the retina.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Retina / metabolism. Rod Opsins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15836930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Rod Opsins; 0 / melanopsin
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10. Favaron PO, Mançanares CA, De Carvalho AF, Ambrósio CE, Leiser R, Miglino MA: Gross and microscopic anatomy of the pineal gland in Nasua nasua--coati (Linnaeus, 1766). Anat Histol Embryol; 2008 Dec;37(6):464-8
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  • [Title] Gross and microscopic anatomy of the pineal gland in Nasua nasua--coati (Linnaeus, 1766).
  • The pineal gland or epiphysis of brain is endocrine, producing the melatonin.
  • Pineal gland was located in the habenular commissure in the most caudal portion of the third ventricular roof, lying in a dorso-caudal position from the base to the apex.
  • Pinealocytes were predominantly found in the glandular parenchyma.
  • Distinct and heterogeneous arrangements of these cells throughout the three pineal portions were observed as follows: linear cords at the apex, circular cords at the base of the gland, whereas at the body a transition arrangement was found.
  • The pineal gland was classified as subcallosal type [Rec. Méd.
  • 42, 25 (1979); The Pineal Organ, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag (1981)].
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / anatomy & histology. Pineal Gland / ultrastructure. Procyonidae / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 18803633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0264
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Naugler C, Xu Z: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pineal gland. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Nov;15(11):1284-6
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  • [Title] Pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pineal gland.
  • Metastases to the pineal gland are rare and reported cases have consisted primarily of gastrointestinal and lung primary malignancies.
  • Here we present the case of a 66-year-old female with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney and liver disease who was found at autopsy to have an unrecognized infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with metastases to the liver, lungs and pineal gland.
  • As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a metastasis of infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas to the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pineal Gland. Pinealoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18829324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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12. Zawilska JB, Lorenc A, Berezińska M, Vivien-Roels B, Pévet P, Skene DJ: Diurnal and circadian rhythms in melatonin synthesis in the turkey pineal gland and retina. Gen Comp Endocrinol; 2006 Jan 15;145(2):162-8
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  • [Title] Diurnal and circadian rhythms in melatonin synthesis in the turkey pineal gland and retina.
  • The pineal gland and retina of the turkey rhythmically produce melatonin.
  • In birds kept under a daily light-dark (LD) illumination cycle melatonin concentrations in the pineal gland and retina were low during the light phase and high during the dark phase.
  • The pineal and retinal melatonin rhythms mirror oscillations in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT; the penultimate enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway).
  • In contrast, in both the pineal gland and retina the activity of the enzyme hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) did not exhibit significant changes throughout the 24-h period.
  • Acute exposure of turkeys to light at night dramatically decreased melatonin levels in the pineal gland, retina and plasma.
  • The rhythms in AANAT activity and melatonin concentrations in the turkey pineal gland and retina were circadian in nature as they persisted under conditions of constant darkness (DD).
  • The findings indicate that melatonin rhythmicity in the turkey pineal gland and retina is regulated both by light and the endogenous circadian clock.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Melatonin / biosynthesis. Photoperiod. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Retina / metabolism. Turkeys / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16226264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-6480
  • [Journal-full-title] General and comparative endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.1.1.4 / Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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13. Klein DC: Evolution of the vertebrate pineal gland: the AANAT hypothesis. Chronobiol Int; 2006;23(1-2):5-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evolution of the vertebrate pineal gland: the AANAT hypothesis.
  • The defining feature of the pineal gland is the capacity to function as a melatonin factory that operates on a approximately 24 h schedule, reflecting the unique synthetic capacities of the pinealocyte.
  • When did a distinct pineal gland first appear?
  • As more knowledge has grown about the pinealocyte and the relationship it has to retinal photoreceptors, it has become possible to generate a plausible hypothesis to explain how the pineal gland and the melatonin rhythm evolved.

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  • [ErratumIn] Chronobiol Int. 2006;23(4):903
  • (PMID = 16687276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.1.87 / AANAT protein, human; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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14. Lassman AB, Bruce JN, Fetell MR: Metastases to the pineal gland. Neurology; 2006 Oct 10;67(7):1303-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastases to the pineal gland.
  • We identified 10 patients with symptomatic metastases to the pineal gland.
  • Hence, metastatic disease, albeit uncommon, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pinealoma / epidemiology. Pinealoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17030775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ryzhak AP, Kostiuchek IN, Kvetnoĭ IM: [Effect of pineal gland peptides on morphofunctional structure of the pancreas in ageing]. Adv Gerontol; 2007;20(2):97-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Effect of pineal gland peptides on morphofunctional structure of the pancreas in ageing].
  • A study of pineal gland peptides effect on morphology and functions of the pancreas in the model of premature ageing in rats was performed with respect to the need in methods for premature ageing prevention.
  • Structural, morphological and functional alterations in pancreas tissue, suggesting premature ageing of the gland, were identified by methods of immunohistochemistry and electronic microscopy.
  • There was registered a geroprotective effect of the pineal gland peptides on pancreas tissue, manifested in the resistance of the latter to the impact of stress factors entailing premature ageing.

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  • (PMID = 18306696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Peptides; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 64082-79-7 / epithalamin; 9007-92-5 / Glucagon; O65P17785G / alanyl-glutamyl-aspartyl-glycine
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16. Kozina LS, Arutjunyan AV, Khavinson VKh: Antioxidant properties of geroprotective peptides of the pineal gland. Arch Gerontol Geriatr; 2007;44 Suppl 1:213-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antioxidant properties of geroprotective peptides of the pineal gland.
  • It was shown that peptide preparations from the pineal gland (epithalamin and epitalon) possess antioxidant properties exceeding in some cases the effects of the well-known scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the melatonin, which is also produced by the pineal gland.
  • Thus, the results of our experiments testify that the pineal gland peptides enhance the antioxidant defense system, which can contribute to their geroprotective properties.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Antioxidants / physiology. Melatonin / pharmacology. Oligopeptides / physiology. Peptides / pharmacology. Peptides / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17317455.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-4943
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gerontology and geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Gerontol Geriatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 64082-79-7 / epithalamin; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; O65P17785G / alanyl-glutamyl-aspartyl-glycine
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17. Gubina-Vakulik GI, Bondarenko LA, Gevorkian AR: [The morphological response of the pineal gland of old animals on course of melatonin injections]. Adv Gerontol; 2009;22(4):626-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The morphological response of the pineal gland of old animals on course of melatonin injections].
  • On the old (18-20 months) male rats of Wistar population the influence of the 10 days evening melatonin injections in physiological rang doses on morphological state pineal gland, was studied.
  • It has been shown, that the course of melatonin injections to old rats brings appearance of histological pattern of pineal gland activation: increasing of area of pinealocytes nuclear and density of nuclear and cytoplasm with stein by hallocyanine on total nucleic acid that means stimulation to material both indole, and peptide nature production.
  • Using of melatonin in dose 0.05 mg/kg mass of the body is sparing for pinealocytes of the old rats and slows the apoptosis processes on background of polyploidization.
  • Using of melatonin in dose 0,5 mg/kg mass of the body causes cell's overstrain and induces the forced apoptosis.
  • It's possible to suppose that the geroprotective effect of the evening injections of melatonin is increased due to stimulation of the biosynthesis of neuropeptides in pineal gland.

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  • (PMID = 20405730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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18. Arushanian EB, Beĭer EV: [Temporal organization of immune function and the pineal gland involvement]. Usp Fiziol Nauk; 2006 Apr-Jun;37(2):3-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Temporal organization of immune function and the pineal gland involvement].
  • Some reviewed data shown that fluctuations of different immunological parameters may be result of rhythmical activity of the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Chronobiology Phenomena / physiology. Immune System / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16758881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1798
  • [Journal-full-title] Uspekhi fiziologicheskikh nauk
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Usp Fiziol Nauk
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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19. Wu YH, Swaab DF: The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer's disease. J Pineal Res; 2005 Apr;38(3):145-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer's disease.
  • The pineal gland is a central structure in the circadian system which produces melatonin under the control of the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN).
  • The SCN and the output of the pineal gland, i.e. melatonin, are synchronized to the 24-hr day by environmental light, received by the retina and transmitted to the SCN via the retinohypothalamic tract.
  • Degeneration of the retina-SCN-pineal axis may underlie these changes.
  • Our recent studies indicate that a dysfunction of the sympathetic regulation of pineal melatonin synthesis by the SCN is responsible for melatonin changes during the early AD stages.
  • Reactivation of the circadian system (retina-SCN-pineal pathway) by means of light therapy and melatonin supplementation, to restore the circadian rhythm and to relieve the clinical circadian disturbances, has shown promising positive results.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / physiology. Alzheimer Disease / physiopathology. Melatonin / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15725334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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20. Ivanov SV: [Menopause--a key aspect of aging: role of the pineal gland]. Adv Gerontol; 2007;20(4):19-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Menopause--a key aspect of aging: role of the pineal gland].
  • To estimate the sign and measure of changes of the pineal gland volume in perimenopausal period a magnetic-resonance tomography studies of the head of men (n=72) and women (n=74) of 38-61-year old were organized, in group divided into two subgroups with a space of 2 years.
  • For estimation of possible dependency of the pineal gland volume on the reproductive cycle phase the similar study was organized in groups of women of the first (n=34) and second mature age (n=41) with regular cycle who were divided into subgroups by the phase of the cycle fixed retrospectively by the basal temperature graphs.
  • The valid reduction of the pineal gland volume was registered in women of ovulate phase as well as during perimenopausal period.
  • In context of literary data concerning recurrence and age dynamic of melatonin production by the pineal gland participation of pineal gland in "shutdown" of reproductive functions in women is supposed.

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  • (PMID = 18383705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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21. Gubina-Vakulik GI, Bondarenko LA, Sotnik NN: [Long round-the-clock illumination as a factor of accelerated ageing of pineal gland]. Adv Gerontol; 2007;20(1):92-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Long round-the-clock illumination as a factor of accelerated ageing of pineal gland].
  • On sexually matured male rabbits of Shinhilla breed kept in round-the-clock illumination within 5 months, dynamic of changes of structure of pineal gland was investigated.
  • Round-the-clock illumination should be considered as the factor promoting accelerated aging of pineal gland.

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  • (PMID = 17969592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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22. Llambías EB, Mazzetti MB, Lelli SM, Aldonatti C, San Martín de Viale LC: Melatonin formation in pineal gland from rats with hexachlorobenzene experimental porphyria. Int J Toxicol; 2007 Nov-Dec;26(6):545-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melatonin formation in pineal gland from rats with hexachlorobenzene experimental porphyria.
  • Melatonin formation from tryptophan via serotonin shows diurnal rhythmicity in the pineal gland, and higher values are observed during the dark phase of an imposed light-dark cycle.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of tryptophan and its metabolites in pineal gland of normal and hexachlorobenzene-treated rats in order to find alterations potentially related to porphyria cutanea tarda.
  • Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity also increases by light in pineal gland from hexachlorobenzene-treated rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Int J Toxicol. 2008;27(3):301
  • (PMID = 18066970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 4Z87H0LKUY / Hexachlorobenzene; 54-16-0 / Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan; EC 1.14.16.4 / Tryptophan Hydroxylase; EC 2.1.1.4 / Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; P4TO3C82WV / N-acetylserotonin
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23. Huang TS, Ruoff P, Fjelldal PG: Diurnal expression of clock genes in pineal gland and brain and plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol in Atlantic salmon parr and smolts. Chronobiol Int; 2010 Oct;27(9-10):1697-714
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diurnal expression of clock genes in pineal gland and brain and plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol in Atlantic salmon parr and smolts.
  • In Atlantic salmon, the preadaptation to a marine life, i.e., parr-smolt transformation, and melatonin production in the pineal gland are regulated by the photoperiod.
  • However, the clock genes have never been studied in the pineal gland of this species.
  • The aim of the present study was to describe the diurnal expression of clock genes (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock) in the pineal gland and brain of Atlantic salmon parr and smolts in freshwater, as well as plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol.
  • The measured clock genes in both pineal gland and brain and the plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol showed significant daily variations in parr under LD in wk 6, whereas these rhythms were abolished in smolts under LL in wk 12.
  • In parr, the pineal Per1-like and Cry2 expression peaked in the dark phase, whereas the pineal Clock expression was elevated during the light phase.
  • Although this study presents novel findings on the clock gene system in the teleost pineal gland, the role of this system in the regulation of smoltification needs to be studied in more detail.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Clocks / genetics. Brain / physiology. Melatonin / metabolism. Pineal Gland / physiology. Salmo salar / growth & development. Salmo salar / physiology. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20969518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-6073
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Cryptochromes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins; EC 3.6.3.9 / Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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24. Feillet CA, Mendoza J, Pévet P, Challet E: Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats. Eur J Neurosci; 2008 Dec;28(12):2451-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats.
  • In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN).
  • In behaviourally arrhythmic SCN-lesioned rats, we investigated the effects of daily restricted feeding (RF) on pineal melatonin synthesis.
  • RF restored not only a rhythmic transcription of the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis [arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] and a rhythmic expression of c-FOS but also a rhythmic synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland.
  • In control rats without functional SCN and fed ad libitum, a daily immobilization stress did not restore any rhythmicity in the pineal gland.
  • Interestingly, a combination of RF and daily stress prior to the time of food access did not markedly impair AaNat mRNA and c-FOS rhythmicity but did abolish the restoration of rhythmic pineal melatonin.
  • These data indicate that the synchronizing effects of RF on the pineal rhythmicity are not due to, and cannot be mimicked by, high levels of circulating glucocorticoids.
  • In keeping with the multi-oscillatory nature of the circadian system, the rhythmicity of pineal melatonin in mammals, until now an exclusive output of the SCN, can also be controlled by daily feeding cues when the SCN clock is lacking.
  • Thus, the present study demonstrates that daily RF in SCN-lesioned rats provides, probably via sympathetic fibres, synchronizing stimuli strong enough to drive rhythmicity in the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Clocks / physiology. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Feeding Behavior. Melatonin / biosynthesis. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / pathology. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19087173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9568
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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25. Lorenc-Duda A, Berezińska M, Bothorel B, Pévet P, Zawilska JB: Turkey retina and pineal gland differentially respond to constant environment. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol; 2008 Oct;194(10):907-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Turkey retina and pineal gland differentially respond to constant environment.
  • Dynamics of rhythmic oscillations in the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT, the penultimate and key regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis) were examined in the retina and pineal gland of turkeys maintained for 7 days in the environment without daily light-dark (LD) changes, namely constant darkness (DD) or continuous light (LL).
  • In the retina, a circadian AA-NAT activity rhythm disappeared after 5 days of DD, while in the pineal gland it persisted for the whole experiment.
  • No circadian rhythm was observed in the retinas of turkeys exposed to LL, although rhythmic oscillations in both AA-NAT and melatonin content were found in the pineal glands.
  • It is suggested that the retina of turkey is less able to maintain rhythmicity in constant environment and is more sensitive to changes in the environmental lighting conditions than the pineal gland.
  • Our results indicate that, in contrast to mammals, pineal glands of light-exposed galliformes maintain the limited capacity to rhythmically produce melatonin.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Environment. Pineal Gland / physiology. Retina / physiology. Turkeys / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 18751985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1351
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural. Behav. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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26. Iashmanov VA, Koshelevskiĭ VK: [The influence of geomagnetic field variations on the pineal gland circadian activity]. Adv Gerontol; 2008;21(3):382-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The influence of geomagnetic field variations on the pineal gland circadian activity].
  • Daily changes of geomagnetic field (GMF) of the Russian northwest region were studied in different seasons of years with high and low sun activities.
  • It has been suggested that the level of GMF in the environment influences the processes with nitric oxide participation, which effects on the melatonin production by pineal gland.
  • GMF, along with illumination, take part in circadian activity of pineal gland.

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  • (PMID = 19432170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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27. Catalá A: The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2010 Feb;1801(2):95-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.
  • The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity.
  • Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes.
  • Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3).
  • These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland.
  • In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators.
  • Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland.
  • Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions.
  • The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively.
  • The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways.
  • The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / physiology. Pineal Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19879958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; 25167-62-8 / Docosahexaenoic Acids; 27YG812J1I / Arachidonic Acid; EC 1.13.11.12 / Lipoxygenase
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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28. Møller M, Rath MF, Klein DC: The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: an antigen-presenting cell. Chronobiol Int; 2006;23(1-2):393-401
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: an antigen-presenting cell.
  • The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line.
  • We investigated this cell type in the pineal gland of mice.
  • Actively phagocytosing cells with a prominent lysosomal system were found in the pericapillary spaces of the mouse pineal gland following intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase.
  • This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase / metabolism. Animals. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Microscopy, Electron. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Monocytes / metabolism. Phagocytosis. Pineal Gland

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  • (PMID = 16687312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase
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29. Zawilska JB, Lorenc A, Berezínska M, Vivien-Roels B, Pévet P, Skene DJ: Photoperiod-dependent changes in melatonin synthesis in the turkey pineal gland and retina. Poult Sci; 2007 Jul;86(7):1397-405
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photoperiod-dependent changes in melatonin synthesis in the turkey pineal gland and retina.
  • The effect of photoperiod on melatonin content and the activity of the melatonin-synthesizing enzymes, namely, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, were investigated in the pineal gland and retina of turkeys.
  • Pineal, retinal, and plasma melatonin concentrations oscillated with a robust diurnal rhythm, with high values during darkness.
  • The duration of elevated nocturnal melatonin levels in the turkey pineal gland, retina, and plasma changed markedly in response to the length of the dark phase, being longest during the short photoperiod with 16 h of darkness.
  • By contrast, pineal and retinal hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities failed to exhibit any significant 24-h variation in the different photoperiods.
  • Peak values of melatonin and AANAT activity in the pineal gland (but not in the retina) were highest during the long photoperiod.
  • During the light phase, mean melatonin concentrations in the pineal gland and retina of turkeys kept under the long photoperiod were significantly higher compared with those from birds maintained under the regular and short photoperiods.
  • Finally, the magnitude of the light-evoked suppression of nighttime pineal AANAT activity was also influenced by photoperiod, with suppression being smallest under the long photoperiod.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / metabolism. Photoperiod. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Retina / metabolism. Retina / radiation effects. Turkeys / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17575188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-5791
  • [Journal-full-title] Poultry science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Poult. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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30. Gil E, Calderón C, Pelzer L, Domínguez S, Fogal T, Scardapane L, Piezzi RS: Morphological and biochemical study of the pineal gland of pregnant and non-pregnant female vizcachas (Lagostomus maximus maximus). Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2005 Oct;26(5):575-80
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphological and biochemical study of the pineal gland of pregnant and non-pregnant female vizcachas (Lagostomus maximus maximus).
  • OBJECTIVES: The morphological and biochemical aspects of the pineal gland of pregnant and non-pregnant female vizcachas were investigated to examine whether there is a relationship between the pregnancy and this gland.
  • Pineal and serum melatonin were investigated by radioimmunoassay.
  • These cells were more abundant in the pineal gland of pregnant females.
  • The pineal melatonin levels and the AA-NAT activity were higher in the pregnant females.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the morphological and biochemical changes in the pineal gland of pregnant vizcachas are associated with the gestation.
  • However, the relation between the pineal gland and the pregnancy is complex and further studies are necessaries to clearly establish it.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / metabolism. Pineal Gland / physiology. Pregnancy, Animal / metabolism. Pregnancy, Animal / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16264398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.1.1.4 / Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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31. Kaur C, Sivakumar V, Lu J, Ling EA: Increased vascular permeability and nitric oxide production in response to hypoxia in the pineal gland. J Pineal Res; 2007 Apr;42(4):338-49
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased vascular permeability and nitric oxide production in response to hypoxia in the pineal gland.
  • This study examined the factors that may be involved in altering the function of pineal gland in hypoxic conditions.
  • Adult Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia and the pineal gland was examined for the mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS) at 3 hr-14 days after hypoxic exposure by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
  • Melatonin content of the pineal gland, as determined by ELISA, was significantly reduced after the hypoxic exposure.
  • Our findings indicate that excess production of VEGF and NO in pineal gland in response to hypoxia may be involved in increased vascular permeability as evidenced by an enhanced leakage of rhodamine isothiocyanate (RhIC).
  • The increased vascular permeability may allow free access of serum-derived substances in the pineal gland that may affect the secretory function of the pinealocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoxia / physiopathology. Capillary Permeability / physiology. Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis. Pineal Gland / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17439550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Hif1a protein, rat; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Rhodamines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / vascular endothelial growth factor A, rat; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 36877-69-7 / rhodamine isothiocyanate; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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32. Sugama N, Park JG, Park YJ, Takeuchi Y, Kim SJ, Takemura A: Moonlight affects nocturnal Period2 transcript levels in the pineal gland of the reef fish Siganus guttatus. J Pineal Res; 2008 Sep;45(2):133-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Moonlight affects nocturnal Period2 transcript levels in the pineal gland of the reef fish Siganus guttatus.
  • In order to evaluate the perception and utilization of moonlight by the fish, the present study aimed to clone and characterize Period2 (Per2), a light-inducible clock gene in lower vertebrates, and to examine daily variations in rabbitfish Per2 (rfPer2) expression as well as the effect of light and moonlight on its expression in the pineal gland.
  • The rfPer2 expression in the pineal gland exhibited a daily variation with an increase during daytime.
  • Exposing the fish to light during nighttime resulted in a rapid increase of its expression in the pineal gland, while the level was decreased by intercepting light during daytime.
  • [MeSH-major] Fish Proteins / genetics. Light. Moon. Perciformes / genetics. Pineal Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18298465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-079X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Fish Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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33. Ohta T, Yachi K, Ogino A, Yokoyama T, Fukushima T, Watanabe T, Yoshino A, Katayama Y, Honma T, Sugitani M: Pleomorphic granular cell astrocytoma in the pineal gland: case report. Neuropathology; 2010 Dec;30(6):615-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pleomorphic granular cell astrocytoma in the pineal gland: case report.
  • Pleomorphic granular cell astrocytoma in the pineal region is exceedingly rare, and its clinicopathological features are distinctive.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass lesion at the pineal gland accompanied by obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • Variability was also observed in the eosinophilic granular bodies, Rosenthal fibers and spindle-shaped tumor cells.
  • Reticulin network was absent between the tumor cells, and granular cells with ballooned cytoplasm showing positive staining for PAS.
  • Pleomorphic granular cell astrocytoma is believed to be a form of astrocytoma originating from the pineal gland.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.
  • (PMID = 20113405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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34. Majewski P, Adamska I, Pawlak J, Barańska A, Skwarło-Sońta K: Seasonality of pineal gland activity and immune functions in chickens. J Pineal Res; 2005 Aug;39(1):66-72
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Seasonality of pineal gland activity and immune functions in chickens.
  • These two aspects of the immune response were correlated with the diurnal rhythm of pineal gland function, measured by the activity of N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis.
  • The results revealed seasonal changes in the circadian rhythm of pineal NAT activity occurring in parallel to the natural local geophysical seasons.
  • Moreover, the existence of bidirectional communication between the pineal gland and the activated immune system was supported by the decreased activity of pineal NAT in chickens with peritonitis compared with control birds.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyltransferases / metabolism. Immunity / physiology. Pineal Gland / enzymology. Seasons

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  • (PMID = 15978059.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.- / Acyltransferases; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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35. Bai L, Zimmer S, Rickes O, Rohleder N, Holthues H, Engel L, Leube R, Spessert R: Daily oscillation of gene expression in the retina is phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland. Brain Res; 2008 Apr 8;1203:89-96
Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Daily oscillation of gene expression in the retina is phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland.
  • The photoreceptive retina and the non-photoreceptive pineal gland are components of the circadian and the melatonin forming system in mammals.
  • For this purpose, the 24-h profiles of the expression of the genes coding for arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A), nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B), retinoic acid related orphan receptor beta (RORbeta), dopamine D4 receptor, and period2 (Per2) have been simultaneously recorded in the retina and the pineal gland of rats under short day (light/dark 8:16) and long day (light/dark 16:8) conditions.
  • The temporal phasing in the AA-NAT transcript amount between the retina and the pineal gland is retained under constant darkness suggesting that the intrinsic self-cycling clock of the retina oscillates in a phase-advanced manner with respect to the self-cycling clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls the pineal gland.
  • We therefore conclude that daily rhythms in gene expression in the retina are phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland, and that the same temporal relationship appears to be valid for the self-cycling clocks influencing the tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Gene Expression / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Retina / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18321474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Early Growth Response Protein 1; 0 / Egr1 protein, rat; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Per2 protein, rat; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins; 137750-34-6 / Receptors, Dopamine D4; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase
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36. Frydenberg E, Laherty R, Rodriguez M, Ow-Yang M, Steel T: A rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the pineal gland. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Oct;17(10):1326-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the pineal gland.
  • A rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour (RGNT) is a rare tumour with new information emerging.
  • We review the literature and describe the second patient with a RGNT arising from the pineal gland.

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20594856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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37. Zawilska JB, Lorenc A, Berezińska M, Vivien-Roels B, Pévet P, Skene DJ: Daily oscillation in melatonin synthesis in the Turkey pineal gland and retina: diurnal and circadian rhythms. Chronobiol Int; 2006;23(1-2):341-50
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Daily oscillation in melatonin synthesis in the Turkey pineal gland and retina: diurnal and circadian rhythms.
  • The aim of the present study was to examine arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity and melatonin content in the pineal gland and retina as well as the melatonin concentration in plasma of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), an avian species in which several physiological processes, including reproduction, are controlled by day length.
  • The pineal gland and retina of the turkey rhythmically produced melatonin.
  • In birds kept under a daily LD cycle, melatonin levels in the pineal gland and retina were high during the dark phase and low during the light phase.
  • The pineal and retinal melatonin rhythms mirrored oscillations in the activity of AANAT, the penultimate enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway.
  • Rhythmic oscillations in AANAT activity in the turkey pineal gland and retina were circadian in nature, as they persisted under conditions of constant darkness (DD).
  • On the sixth day of DD, pineal AANAT activity was still markedly higher during the subjective dark than during the subjective light phase; whereas, AANAT activity in the retina did not exhibit significant oscillations.
  • The results indicate that melatonin rhythmicity in the turkey pineal gland and retina is regulated both by light and the endogenous circadian clock.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / metabolism. Oscillometry. Pineal Gland / anatomy & histology. Retina / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16687307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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38. Lukac T, Matavulj A, Matavulj M, Rajković V, Lazetić B: Photoperiodism as a modifier of effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on morphological properties of pineal gland. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2006 Aug;6(3):10-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photoperiodism as a modifier of effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on morphological properties of pineal gland.
  • The aim of our study was to determine, using histological and stereological methods, whether photoperiodism has any impact on the effects that chronic (three-month long) exposure to LF-EMF (50Hz) has on morphological characteristics on rat's pineal gland.
  • In the winter (short days, long nights), the activity of the pineal gland and neuroendocrine sensitivity is increased.
  • After sacrifice of animals, samples of pineal gland were processed for HE staining and then were analyzed using the methods of stereology.
  • Morphological changes of pineal gland at rats in the summertime were not as intense as in the winter and finding of the gland in the group II is compatible with those from the control group.
  • Photoperiodism is modifier of effect of LF-EMF on morphological structure of pineal gland, because the gland recovery is incomplete in winter and reversible in summer.

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  • (PMID = 16995841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
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39. Alicelebić S, Mornjaković Z, Susko I, Cosović E, Beganović-Petrović A: The role of pineal gland and exogenous melatonin on the irradiation stress response of suprarenal gland. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2006 Nov;6(4):18-21
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of pineal gland and exogenous melatonin on the irradiation stress response of suprarenal gland.
  • Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role.
  • In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland.
  • Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods.
  • The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

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  • (PMID = 17177642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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40. Mutlu FM, Akin R, Uysal Y, Unay B, Altinsoy HI, Bayraktar MZ: Aicardi syndrome: an unusual case associated with pineal gland cyst and ventricular septal defect. J Child Neurol; 2006 Dec;21(12):1082-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aicardi syndrome: an unusual case associated with pineal gland cyst and ventricular septal defect.
  • Aicardi syndrome is a cerebroretinal disorder consisting of a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical findings that includes the triad of infantile spasms, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and chorioretinal lacunae.
  • This report describes a 6-month-old girl who has all of the essential features suggestive of Aicardi syndrome, as well as a pineal gland cyst and ventricular septal defect.
  • Although the characteristic features of Aicardi syndrome have been described, its association with pineal gland cyst and ventricular septal defect has not been reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Cysts / pathology. Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / pathology. Nervous System Malformations / complications. Nervous System Malformations / pathology. Pineal Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17156705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0883-0738
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Konturek SJ, Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Zwirska-Korczala K, Reiter RJ: Day/night differences in stress-induced gastric lesions in rats with an intact pineal gland or after pinealectomy. J Pineal Res; 2008 May;44(4):408-15
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Day/night differences in stress-induced gastric lesions in rats with an intact pineal gland or after pinealectomy.
  • Besides the pineal gland, melatonin is also generated in large amounts in the gastrointestinal tract and due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; this indole might serve as local protective endogen preventing the development of acute gastric damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm. Melatonin / metabolism. Pineal Gland / surgery. Stomach Ulcer / blood. Stress, Physiological / blood

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  • (PMID = 18086146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-079X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radicals; 0 / Gastrins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Ptgs2 protein, rat; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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42. Nowicki M, Przybylska-Gornowicz B: Postnatal development of the pineal gland in the goat (Capra hircus)--light and electron microscopy studies. Pol J Vet Sci; 2006;9(2):87-99

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postnatal development of the pineal gland in the goat (Capra hircus)--light and electron microscopy studies.
  • This study was conducted to investigate structural transformations of the goat pineal gland during postnatal development.
  • Parallel to these changes, the pineal parenchyma underwent deep reorganization and the mosaic pattern, characteristic for newborns, disappeared.
  • At the same time the meshwork of blood vessels supporting the goat pineal gland developed conspicuously.
  • From fourth months to one year of postnatal life continuation of the growth of some pinealocyte organelles and very intensive development of all components of the pineal connective tissue were observed.
  • The investigations established intensive growth of the goat pineal to the age of 4 months, which included mainly some increase in the pinealocyte and their structures.
  • The pineal gland of 4-month- and 1-year-old goats showed morphological features which are considered as symptoms of high secretory activity.
  • The structure of the pineal gland in 3-year-old animals and the changes observed both in their pinealocytes and connective tissue in comparison with 1-year-old individuals point to some decrease in the goat pineal activity in this age.
  • [MeSH-major] Goats / growth & development. Pineal Gland / growth & development

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  • (PMID = 16780176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1505-1773
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of veterinary sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Vet Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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43. Juszczak M, Michalska M: [The role of the pineal gland and melatonin in the regulation of adenohypophysial hormone synthesis and secretion]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online); 2006;60:653-9
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  • [Title] [The role of the pineal gland and melatonin in the regulation of adenohypophysial hormone synthesis and secretion].
  • This paper reviews findings accumulated on the role of the pineal gland and its hormone,melatonin, in the regulation of hypothalamo-adenohypophysial system activity.

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  • (PMID = 17199107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1732-2693
  • [Journal-full-title] Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online)
  • [Language] POL
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Pituitary Hormones, Anterior; 0 / pineal peptide E5; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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44. Rath MF, Muñoz E, Ganguly S, Morin F, Shi Q, Klein DC, Møller M: Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland. J Neurochem; 2006 Apr;97(2):556-66
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  • [Title] Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland.
  • In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages.
  • Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland.
  • Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset.
  • Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes.
  • Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland.
  • Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology. Otx Transcription Factors / genetics. Pineal Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16539656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Otx Transcription Factors
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45. López-Muñoz F, Marín F, Alamo C: [The historical background of the pineal gland: II. From the seat of the soul to a neuroendocrine organ]. Rev Neurol; 2010 Jan 16-31;50(2):117-25
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  • [Title] [The historical background of the pineal gland: II. From the seat of the soul to a neuroendocrine organ].
  • [Transliterated title] El devenir historico de la glandula pineal: II. De sede del alma a organo neuroendocrino.
  • INTRODUCTION: Throughout history a number of speculations have been put forward concerning the functional role of the pineal gland, perhaps some of the most important being the neurophysiological proposals by Descartes.
  • DEVELOPMENT: The psychophysiological role conferred on the pineal gland by Descartes in the 17th century, that is, as the seat of the human soul, had barely any scientific support at the time.
  • Throughout the 18th century interest in the pineal gland gradually declined and it was considered to be just a vestigial evolutionary element until the second half of the 19th century, thanks to the boom of comparative anatomy, which confirmed the photoreceptive role of the parietal organ of the anurans, and of microscopic anatomy, which revealed the histological structure of the pineal gland of mammals.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the early 20th century the first data were published in the scientific literature on the endocrine aspect of the pineal gland (on the relation between pineal tumours and precocious puberty), but its ultimate confirmation took place in 1958, with the isolation of melatonin by the team led by Aaron B. Lerner.
  • Later, the term 'neuroendocrine transducer' was introduced to explain the principle of the pineal gland, that is to say, the transformation of information about light from the retina into an endocrine response consisting in the synthesis and release of the hormone melatonin.
  • In turn, this hormone acts as a powerful neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, which makes the pineal gland a kind of 'biological clock'.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland. Psychophysiology

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  • (PMID = 20112220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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46. Grozinsky-Glasberg S, Fichman S, Shimon I: Metastatic bronchial neuroendocrine tumor to the pineal gland: a unique manifestation of a rare disease. Hormones (Athens); 2010 Jan-Mar;9(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Metastatic bronchial neuroendocrine tumor to the pineal gland: a unique manifestation of a rare disease.
  • Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor (NET) to the pineal gland is a unique manifestation previously unreported in the literature.
  • We describe an unusual case of metastatic bronchial NET to the pineal gland in a 71-year-old male patient.
  • Due to increased uptake by the pituitary gland on the post-operative 111Indium-pentetreotide scintigraphy (Octreoscan), an intra-sellar mass was diagnosed and excised using a transsphenoidal approach; histology revealed an unrelated non-functional pituitary macroadenoma.
  • Four years later, a new mass appeared on MRI, involving the pineal gland, and was diagnosed on biopsy as a metastatic lesion from the original bronchial NET.
  • The case suggests that NETs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland metastases and that radiosurgery may be an effective alternative in the treatment of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Pinealoma / diagnosis. Pinealoma / secondary. Rare Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20363727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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47. Arav VI, Slesarev SM, Slesareva EV: A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2008 Sep;146(3):382-4

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  • [Title] A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats.
  • A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats and other rodents (e. g., ground squirrels) is proposed.
  • Epiphysectomy is carried out by resection of a fragment of the bone with the underlying pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19240866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4888
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Gerasimov AV, Logvinov SV, Kostyuchenko VP: Morphological changes in the pineal gland of rats under conditions of long-term exposure to bright light. Bull Exp Biol Med; 2010 Dec;150(1):86-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphological changes in the pineal gland of rats under conditions of long-term exposure to bright light.
  • Changes in the diurnal light cycle affect the morphofunctional state of the pineal gland.
  • These changes reflect plasticity of pinealocytes and adaptation of the gland to long-term 24-h light exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Light. Pineal Gland / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 21161060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-8221
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Exp. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Sprenger T, Willoch F, Miederer M, Schindler F, Valet M, Berthele A, Spilker ME, Förderreuther S, Straube A, Stangier I, Wester HJ, Tölle TR: Opioidergic changes in the pineal gland and hypothalamus in cluster headache: a ligand PET study. Neurology; 2006 Apr 11;66(7):1108-10
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  • [Title] Opioidergic changes in the pineal gland and hypothalamus in cluster headache: a ligand PET study.
  • Using PET with the opioidergic ligand [11C]diprenorphine, the authors demonstrate decreased tracer binding in the pineal gland of cluster headache patients vs healthy volunteers.
  • Opioid receptor availability in the hypothalamus and cingulate cortex depended on the duration of the headache disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Cluster Headache / radiography. Diprenorphine / pharmacokinetics. Hypothalamus / radiography. Narcotic Antagonists / pharmacokinetics. Pineal Gland / radiography

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  • (PMID = 16606930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Narcotic Antagonists; 1F0L5N25ZZ / Diprenorphine
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50. Wang GQ, Du YZ, Tong J: [Circadian rhythms and light responses of clock gene and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expressions in the pineal gland of rats]. Sheng Li Xue Bao; 2005 Feb 25;57(1):97-102
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  • [Title] [Circadian rhythms and light responses of clock gene and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expressions in the pineal gland of rats].
  • This study was to investigate the circadian rhythms and light responses of Clock gene and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) gene expressions in the rat pineal gland under the 12 h-light : 12 h-dark cycle condition (LD) and constant darkness (DD).
  • Sprague-Dawley rats housed under the light regime of LD (n=36) for 4 weeks and of DD (n=36) for 8 weeks were sampled for the pineal gland once a group (n=6) every 4 h in a circadian day.
  • The main results obtained are as follows. (1) In DD or LD condition, both of Clock and NAT genes mRNA levels in the pineal gland showed robust circadian oscillation (P< 0.05) with the peak at the subjective night or at night-time. (2) In comparison with DD regime, the amplitudes and the mRNA levels at peaks of Clock and NAT genes expressions in LD in the pineal gland were significantly reduced (P< 0.05). (3) In DD or LD condition, the circadian expressions of NAT gene were similar in pattern to those of Clock gene in the pineal gland (P> 0.05).
  • These findings suggest that the expressions of Clock and NAT genes in the pineal gland not only show remarkably synchronous endogenous circadian rhythmic changes, but also response to the ambient light signal in a reduced manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase / metabolism. CLOCK Proteins / metabolism. Circadian Rhythm. Light. Pineal Gland / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 15719143.001).
  • [ISSN] 0371-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Li Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins; EC 2.3.1.48 / Clock protein, rat; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase
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51. Razygraev AV, Arutiunian AV: [Pineal gland and brain structures monoamine oxidase activity in rats of different age]. Adv Gerontol; 2008;21(3):402-5
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  • [Title] [Pineal gland and brain structures monoamine oxidase activity in rats of different age].
  • Total monoamine oxidase activity was investigated in the pineal gland (epiphysis) and in three brain structures with the use of spectrophotometric method based on kynuramine oxidative deamination, the product (4-hydroxyquinoline) formation being detected at 327 nm.
  • In the pineal gland, olfactory tubercle cortex and median eminence (with surrounding tissue) the lowest activities (nmol/min per mg of the protein, M +/- m) were found in the group of rats aged 4-5 months (1.20 +/- 0.11; 0.62 +/- 0.05 and 4.36 +/- 0.25, respectively), whereas in the medial preoptic area the lowest activity was found in rats aged 1.5-2 months (1.55 +/- 0.11).

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  • (PMID = 19432173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxyquinolines; 363-36-0 / Kynuramine; 611-36-9 / 4-hydroxyquinoline; EC 1.4.3.4 / Monoamine Oxidase
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52. Couto-Moraes R, Palermo-Neto J, Markus RP: The immune-pineal axis: stress as a modulator of pineal gland function. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2009 Feb;1153:193-202
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  • [Title] The immune-pineal axis: stress as a modulator of pineal gland function.
  • The environmental light detected by the retina adjusts the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which innervate the pineal gland through a polysynaptic pathway.
  • During the night, this gland produces and releases the nocturnal hormone melatonin, which circulates throughout the whole body and adjusts several bodily functions according to the existence and duration of darkness.
  • We have previously shown that during the time frame of an inflammatory response, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inhibit while anti-inflammatory mediators, such as glucocorticoids, enhance the synthesis of melatonin, interfering in the daily adjustment of the light/dark cycle.
  • Taking into account the data obtained with models of inflammation and stress, we reinforce the hypothesis that the activity of the pineal gland is modulated by the state of the immune system and the HPA axis, implicating the darkness hormone melatonin as a modulator of defense responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Immune System / physiopathology. Pineal Gland / immunology. Pineal Gland / physiopathology. Stress, Psychological / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19236342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Inflammation Mediators; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; W980KJ009P / Corticosterone
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53. Herwig A, Revel F, Saboureau M, Pévet P, Steinlechner S: Daily torpor alters multiple gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Chronobiol Int; 2006;23(1-2):269-76

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  • [Title] Daily torpor alters multiple gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).
  • To reveal changes in the clockwork during torpor, we compared clock gene and neuropeptide expression by in situ hybridization in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and pineal gland of normothermic and torpid Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).
  • In the pineal gland, an important clock output, Aanat expression, peaked between ZT16 and ZT22 in normothermic animals.
  • Furthermore, the rhythmic gene expression in a peripheral oscillator, the pineal gland, is also affected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptation, Physiological. Gene Expression Regulation. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16687300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ARNTL Transcription Factors; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Neuropeptides; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase
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54. Dzerzhynsky ME, Gorelikova OI, Pustovalov AS: The interaction of the thyroid gland, pineal gland and immune system in chicken. Reprod Biol; 2006;6 Suppl 2:79-85
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  • [Title] The interaction of the thyroid gland, pineal gland and immune system in chicken.
  • The interaction of immunological system, thyroid and pineal gland was studied in 5-week old males of Gallus domesticus.
  • Several morphometrical parameters in pineal and thyroid glands were measured after bird immunization with human red blood cells and/or treatment with melatonin or seduxen, melatonin receptor blocker.
  • The immune system appears to directly activate the thyroid gland only in the presence of certain level of melatonin.
  • We suggest that the melatonin mechanism of action includes the enhancement of thyroid gland sensitivity to immune factors.
  • Seduxen prevented the stimulatory influence of the immune system on the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Chickens / immunology. Chickens / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weights and Measures. Diazepam / immunology. Diazepam / pharmacology. Erythrocytes / immunology. Humans. Immunization. Male. Melatonin / immunology. Melatonin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17220945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1642-431X
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; Q3JTX2Q7TU / Diazepam
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55. Kaur C, Sivakumar V, Ling EA: Expression of tranferrin receptors in the pineal gland of postnatal and adult rats and its alteration in hypoxia and melatonin treatment. Glia; 2007 Feb;55(3):263-73
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  • [Title] Expression of tranferrin receptors in the pineal gland of postnatal and adult rats and its alteration in hypoxia and melatonin treatment.
  • We examined expression of Tfrc in the pineal gland of rats of different ages from 1 day to 12 weeks.
  • It is suggested that Tfrc are required for uptake of iron for cell proliferation and maturation in the pineal gland upto 6 weeks of age.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypoxia, Brain / metabolism. Iron / metabolism. Melatonin / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Receptors, Transferrin / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17091493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1491
  • [Journal-full-title] Glia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Transferrin; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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56. Yellon SM, Kim K, Hadley AR, Tran LT: Time course and role of the pineal gland in photoperiod control of innate immune cell functions in male Siberian hamsters. J Neuroimmunol; 2005 Apr;161(1-2):137-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Time course and role of the pineal gland in photoperiod control of innate immune cell functions in male Siberian hamsters.
  • To determine whether the pineal gland influences these innate immune cell functions, hamsters were exposed to constant light.
  • The findings suggest that photoperiod and pineal gland function may regulate certain innate immune activities.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / radiation effects. Phagocytes / radiation effects. Photoperiod. Pineal Gland / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15748952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS40254
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluoresceins; 2044-85-1 / diacetyldichlorofluorescein
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57. Ghosal N, Furtado SV, Hegde AS: Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor pineal gland and tectum: an intraoperative diagnosis on smear preparation. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Aug;38(8):590-3
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  • [Title] Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor pineal gland and tectum: an intraoperative diagnosis on smear preparation.
  • We present an extremely rare case of newly described entity called rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT), involving the pineal gland, tectum, and the adjacent thalamus in a 22-year-old male.
  • The tumor was diagnosed intraoperatively on smear preparation on cytomorphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cytological Techniques / methods. Glioma / diagnosis. Intraoperative Care. Pineal Gland / pathology. Rosette Formation. Tectum Mesencephali / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Wongchitrat P, Felder-Schmittbuhl MP, Phansuwan-Pujito P, Pévet P, Simonneaux V: Endogenous rhythmicity of Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha in the hamster pineal gland is not driven by norepinephrine. Eur J Neurosci; 2009 May;29(10):2009-16
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  • [Title] Endogenous rhythmicity of Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha in the hamster pineal gland is not driven by norepinephrine.
  • Pineal melatonin is synthesized with daily and seasonal rhythms following the hypothalamic clock-driven release of norepinephrine (NE).
  • The pineal gland of rats and mice, like the biological clock, expresses a number of clock genes.
  • However, the role of pineal clock elements in pineal physiology is still unknown.
  • We found that Per1 and Cry2 genes were similarly regulated by the nocturnal release of NE: levels of Per1 and Cry2 mRNA displayed a nocturnal increase that was maintained after 2 days in constant darkness (DD) but abolished after 2 days under constant light (LL), a condition that suppresses endogenous NE release, or after an early night administration of the adrenergic antagonist propranolol.
  • This study confirms the daily regulation of Per1 and Cry2 gene expression by NE in the pineal gland of rodents and shows for the first time that a second set of clock genes, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha are expressed with a circadian rhythm independent of the hypothalamic clock-driven noradrenergic signal.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics. Biological Clocks / genetics. Circadian Rhythm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation. Norepinephrine / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19453634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9568
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ARNTL Transcription Factors; 0 / Arntl protein, mouse; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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59. Jimenez-Jorge S, Jimenez-Caliani AJ, Guerrero JM, Naranjo MC, Lardone PJ, Carrillo-Vico A, Osuna C, Molinero P: Melatonin synthesis and melatonin-membrane receptor (MT1) expression during rat thymus development: role of the pineal gland. J Pineal Res; 2005 Aug;39(1):77-83
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  • [Title] Melatonin synthesis and melatonin-membrane receptor (MT1) expression during rat thymus development: role of the pineal gland.
  • To gain insight into the relationship between thymus and pineal gland during rat development, the melatonin content as well as the activity and expression of the two key enzymes for melatonin biosynthesis, i.e.
  • The pineal gland begins to produce significant levels of melatonin around postnatal day 16, and this synthesis shows a circadian rhythm with high values during the dark period; therefore the nocturnal serum melatonin may inhibit thymic melatonin production.
  • In conclusion, these results show, for the first time, the presence of the biosynthetic machinery of melatonin and melatonin production in developing rat thymus and that the pineal gland may regulate this process.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase / biosynthesis. Acyltransferases / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Receptor, Melatonin, MT1 / biosynthesis. Thymus Gland / embryology

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  • (PMID = 15978061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Melatonin, MT1; EC 2.1.1.4 / Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase; EC 2.3.- / Acyltransferases
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60. Maronde E, Pfeffer M, Glass Y, Stehle JH: Transcription factor dynamics in pineal gland and liver of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) adapts to prevailing photoperiod. J Pineal Res; 2007 Aug;43(1):16-24

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcription factor dynamics in pineal gland and liver of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) adapts to prevailing photoperiod.
  • Both events are linked to season-dependent alterations of the nocturnally elevated synthesis of the pineal hormone melatonin.
  • Dynamics in gene expression was investigated in the pineal gland [inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER)], and in the liver (ICER; C/EBPdelta; clock genes) using immunochemistry and reverse transcriptase PCR.
  • While in the pineal, ICER rhythms tightly follow the prior duration of light and dark with decreasing levels at the beginning of the dark period in both LP and SP, ICER is not rhythmic in liver.
  • Thus, in the Syrian hamster transcription factor expression patterns lock onto the prevailing photoperiod in two peripheral oscillators, the pineal gland and the liver, to function as mediators of suprachiasmatic nucleus-derived information on environmental light and dark.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / physiology. Photoperiod. Pineal Gland / physiology. Transcription Factors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17614831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transcription Factors; 135844-64-3 / Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator
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61. López-Muñoz F, Marín F, Alamo C: [The historical background of the pineal gland: I. From a spiritual valve to the seat of the soul]. Rev Neurol; 2010 Jan 1-15;50(1):50-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The historical background of the pineal gland: I. From a spiritual valve to the seat of the soul].
  • [Transliterated title] El devenir histórico de la glándula pineal: I. De válvula espiritual a sede del alma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Throughout history, the special anatomical location of the pineal gland in the central nervous system has given rise to a number of physiological hypotheses regarding the functional role of this organ.
  • DEVELOPMENT: In classical ancient times, the pineal body (conarium) was considered to be a sort of valve-like sphincter that regulated the flow of the spiritus animalis at the ventricular level.
  • But it was not until the 17th century that the pineal gland finally reached its highest levels of physiological significance, when Rene Descartes considered it to be the anatomical structure that housed the seat of the soul.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Cartesian hypotheses regarding the pineal gland did not arouse much interest in the scientific community of the time, and attention to this organ dwindled from then until the 20th century, when its neuroendocrinological nature was finally confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical / physiology. Neurology / history. Pineal Gland

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  • (PMID = 20073024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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62. Benova M, Herichova I, Stebelova K, Paulis L, Krajcirovicova K, Simko F, Zeman M: Effect of L-NAME-induced hypertension on melatonin receptors and melatonin levels in the pineal gland and the peripheral organs of rats. Hypertens Res; 2009 Apr;32(4):242-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of L-NAME-induced hypertension on melatonin receptors and melatonin levels in the pineal gland and the peripheral organs of rats.
  • Melatonin concentrations in the plasma, pineal gland, heart and kidney and melatonin receptor (MT(1)) density in the aorta were determined.
  • A significant daily rhythm of melatonin concentrations was found in the blood, pineal gland, kidney and heart of both control and hypertensive rats.
  • Peak nighttime pineal melatonin concentrations were higher in L-NAME-treated rats than in controls (3.38+/-0.48 vs. 1.75+/-0.33 ng per pineal gland).
  • Our results suggest that L-NAME treatment enhances melatonin production in the pineal gland, potentially by decreasing an inhibitory effect of NO on melatonin production in the pineal gland.
  • However, the enhanced pineal melatonin formation was insufficient to increase melatonin concentrations in circulation, heart and kidney of L-NAME-treated rats, indicating an increased use of melatonin in hypertensive animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Enzyme Inhibitors / toxicity. Hypertension / metabolism. Melatonin / metabolism. NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester / toxicity. Nitric Oxide Synthase / antagonists & inhibitors. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Receptors, Melatonin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19262491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4214
  • [Journal-full-title] Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hypertens. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Melatonin; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; V55S2QJN2X / NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
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63. Ivanov SV: [Substrates and possible mechanisms of pineal gland moon-sensory function in context of redusome hypothesis of aging and control of biological time in ontogenesis]. Adv Gerontol; 2008;21(3):488-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Substrates and possible mechanisms of pineal gland moon-sensory function in context of redusome hypothesis of aging and control of biological time in ontogenesis].
  • As a result of comparison of the normative factors on human pineal gland volume (8 age groups, n=411) with similar factors obtained in the days of the moon phase extremes (n=49) the following phenomena have been determined.
  • As a rule all the moon phase extremes, in particular the new moon, are accompanied by an appreciable reduce of pineal gland volume, a sort of systole.

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  • (PMID = 19432192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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64. Edmonds K, Riggs L, Masden T: Effects of photoperiod, melatonin, and the pineal gland on compensatory gonadal hypertrophy during postnatal development in the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris). Zoolog Sci; 2005 Jul;22(7):763-74
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of photoperiod, melatonin, and the pineal gland on compensatory gonadal hypertrophy during postnatal development in the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris).
  • The roles of photoperiod, melatonin, and the pineal gland in regulating the magnitude of compensatory gonadal hypertrophy (CGH) and other reproductive and non-reproductive organ growth during post-weaning development were examined in the marsh rice rat Oryzomys palustris.
  • Taken together, these data suggest that photoperiod, melatonin, and the pineal gland can affect and regulate reproductive (e.g., CGH in some cases) and non-reproductive growth during postnatal development in the marsh rice rat.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / pharmacology. Ovary / growth & development. Photoperiod. Pineal Gland / physiology. Sigmodontinae / growth & development. Testis / growth & development

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  • (PMID = 16082165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0289-0003
  • [Journal-full-title] Zoological science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zool. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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65. Sengupta A, Kumar Maitra S: The pineal gland, but not melatonin, is associated with the termination of seasonal testicular activity in an annual reproductive cycle in roseringed parakeet Psittacula krameri. Chronobiol Int; 2006;23(5):915-33
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The pineal gland, but not melatonin, is associated with the termination of seasonal testicular activity in an annual reproductive cycle in roseringed parakeet Psittacula krameri.
  • The role of the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin in the regulation of annual testicular events was investigated for the first time in a psittacine bird, the roseringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri).
  • An analysis of the data reveals that the pineal gland and its hormone melatonin may play an inhibitory role in the development of the testis until the attainment of the seasonal peak in the annual reproductive cycle.
  • However, in all probability, the termination of the seasonal activity of the testis or the initiation of testicular regression in the annual reproductive cycle appears to be the function of the pineal gland, but not of melatonin.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / physiology. Reproduction / physiology. Seasons. Testis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17050209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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66. Haldar C, Yadav R, Alipreeta: Annual reproductive synchronization in ovary and pineal gland function of female short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol; 2006 Aug;144(4):395-400
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Annual reproductive synchronization in ovary and pineal gland function of female short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.
  • We studied the annual correlation of ovarian activity and pineal gland in relation with seasonal variation and gestation of a tropical zone short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.
  • Plasma estradiol concentration ran parallel with ovarian activity and had an inverse relation with pineal mass and peripheral melatonin concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Chiroptera / physiology. Embryonic Development / physiology. Ovary / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Reproduction

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  • (PMID = 16730204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6433
  • [Journal-full-title] Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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67. Jangir OP, Suthar P, Shekhawat DV, Acharya P, Swami KK, Sharma M: The "third eye"-- a new concept of trans-differentiation of pineal gland into median eye in amphibian tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus. Indian J Exp Biol; 2005 Aug;43(8):671-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VITAMIN A .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The "third eye"-- a new concept of trans-differentiation of pineal gland into median eye in amphibian tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus.
  • Median third eye was found to develop from transplanted pineal gland of external gill stage tadpoles in the recipient 5 toe stage tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus.
  • Pineal gland along with a bit part of brain tissue of the donor external gill stage tadpole was cut out and transplanted into a pit made between two lateral eyes of 5 toe stage recipient tadpoles.
  • The median third eye could not develop when pineal gland of 5 toe stage mature tadpole was transplanted into the tadpole of the same age.
  • [MeSH-major] Bufonidae / growth & development. Eye. Morphogenesis. Pineal Gland

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  • (PMID = 16121707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5189
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of experimental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J. Exp. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11103-57-4 / Vitamin A
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68. Jia L, Wang Z, Chen Y: Distribution and cytoarchitecture of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in chick: a CTB-HRP study. Anat Histol Embryol; 2009 Feb;38(1):76-83

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distribution and cytoarchitecture of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in chick: a CTB-HRP study.
  • The neurons in bilateral superior cervical ganglia (SCG) innervating the chick pineal gland were labelled by using the technique of retrograde axonal labelling with cholera toxin B subunit linked to horseradish peroxidase (CTB-HRP).
  • According to the sizes of somal area and dendritic field, these sympathetic neurons projecting to the pineal gland were classified into four major groups: group I cells (52.4%) with a small somal area (303.5 microm(2) on average) and narrow dendritic field (3767.8 microm(2) on average), group II cells (39.0%) with a middle-sized somal area (473.3 microm(2)) and middle-sized dendritic field (7522.2 microm(2)), group III cells (6.4%) with a middle-sized somal area (473.4 microm(2)) and wide dendritic field (13 104.4 microm(2)), and group IV cells (2.2%) with a large somal area (940.7 microm(2)) and wide dendritic field (14 553.2 microm(2)).
  • Of these pineal projecting neurons, most took on a lesser dendritic field.
  • [MeSH-major] Chickens / anatomy & histology. Neurons / cytology. Pineal Gland / innervation. Sympathetic Nervous System / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 18983620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0264
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate
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69. Pishak VP, Bulyk RIe: [Circadian changes of the density of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the rat hypothalamus under conditions of diverse functional activiity of the pineal gland]. Fiziol Zh; 2008;54(4):11-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Circadian changes of the density of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the rat hypothalamus under conditions of diverse functional activiity of the pineal gland].
  • An immunohistochemical study of the density of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei with diverse functional activity of the pineal gland has been carried out.
  • The density of melatonin receptors 1A under conditions of the physiological function of the pineal gland was characterized by clear-cut diurnal variations.
  • Simultaneously, a dysfunction of the gland results in their marked disturbance.
  • In case of a hypofunction of the pineal body the density of the structures was reliably lower than in case of hyperfunction.
  • It has been demonstrated that in case of a suppressed activity of the pineal body the maximum number of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei shifts from 02.00 a.m. to 02.00 p.m. and constitutes 0.35+/-0.012 conventional units (c.u.) of density, whereas a larger index is noticed at 20 hours making up 0.43+/-0.015 c.u. of density when the gland is activated.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Neurons / metabolism. Pineal Gland / physiology. Receptor, Melatonin, MT1 / biosynthesis. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18756769.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Fiziolohichnyĭ zhurnal (Kiev, Ukraine : 1994)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fiziol Zh
  • [Language] ukr
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Melatonin, MT1
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70. Humphries A, Wells T, Baler R, Klein DC, Carter DA: Rodent Aanat: intronic E-box sequences control tissue specificity but not rhythmic expression in the pineal gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 May 30;270(1-2):43-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rodent Aanat: intronic E-box sequences control tissue specificity but not rhythmic expression in the pineal gland.
  • It is nearly exclusively expressed in the pineal gland and the retina.
  • A marked rhythm of Aanat gene expression in the rat pineal is mediated by cyclic AMP response elements located in the promoter and first intron.
  • Here we examined whether these elements contribute to rhythmic Aanat expression in the pineal gland.
  • However, these mutations enhanced ectopic expression establishing that the intronic Aanat E-box elements contribute to the gene's pineal specific expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase / genetics. Circadian Rhythm / genetics. E-Box Elements / genetics. Organ Specificity / genetics. Pineal Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17363136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ G9724886; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.3.1.5 / Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
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71. Nogami H, Ogasawara K, Mimura Y, Mogi K, Shutoh F, Hisano S: Developmentally-regulated expression of tissue-specific splice variant of rat vesicular glutamate transporter 1 in retina and pineal gland. J Neurochem; 2006 Oct;99(1):142-53

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Developmentally-regulated expression of tissue-specific splice variant of rat vesicular glutamate transporter 1 in retina and pineal gland.
  • We have found a splice variant of VGLUT1 mRNA that is expressed almost exclusively in photosensitive tissues, i.e. the retina and the pineal gland.
  • The variant accounted for approximately 70% and 25%of VGLUT1 mRNA in the adult retina and pineal gland, respectively.
  • On the other hand, variant expression did not parallel the development of rhodopsin-positive cells in the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Pineal Gland / physiology. Retina / physiology. Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16987242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Slc17a7 protein, rat; 0 / Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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72. Zhang JH, Liu JL, Wu YJ, Cui S: LIM homeodomain proteins Islet-1 and Lim-3 expressions in the developing pineal gland of chick embryo by immunohistochemistry. J Pineal Res; 2006 Oct;41(3):247-54

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] LIM homeodomain proteins Islet-1 and Lim-3 expressions in the developing pineal gland of chick embryo by immunohistochemistry.
  • LIM homeodomain proteins Islet-1 and Lim-3 expression and their role in nervous tissue and endocrine glands have been reported; however, nothing is known concerning Islet-1 and Lim-3 expression in the developing pineal gland of the chick embryo.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the ontogeny of Islet-1 and Lim-3 expression in the developing pineal gland of chick embryo using immunohistochemistry.
  • The results showed that Islet-1 and Lim-3 immunopositive cells were first detected in the pineal evagination of chick embryos at day 4 (E4) and E4.5 of incubation, respectively.
  • In the later developing stages, both Islet-1 and Lim-3 immunopositive cells were consistently detected in the follicular and parafollicular pinealocytes throughout the pineal gland.
  • These results suggest that both Islet-1 and Lim-3 may be involved in regulating the development and functional maturation of the pineal gland, although further studies are required in elucidating the functional roles of Islet-1 and Lim-3 and the related mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Pineal Gland / embryology

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  • (PMID = 16948785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / LIM-Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Lhx3 protein; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / insulin gene enhancer binding protein Isl-1
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73. Marcol W, Kotulska K, Larysz-Brysz M, Malinowska-Kołodziej I, Mandera M, Lewin-Kowalik J: Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein in normal pineal gland in children and young adult. J Mol Histol; 2006 Jan;37(1-2):5-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein in normal pineal gland in children and young adult.
  • In this study, we examined expression profile of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in normal pineal gland in children.
  • The material for analysis was obtained by biopsy of pineal parenchyma during surgery of pineal cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16832704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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74. Huang TS, Ruoff P, Fjelldal PG: Effect of continuous light on daily levels of plasma melatonin and cortisol and expression of clock genes in pineal gland, brain, and liver in atlantic salmon postsmolts. Chronobiol Int; 2010 Oct;27(9-10):1715-34
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  • [Title] Effect of continuous light on daily levels of plasma melatonin and cortisol and expression of clock genes in pineal gland, brain, and liver in atlantic salmon postsmolts.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the daily expression of clock (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock), the nuclear transcription factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR; CCAAT/enhancer binding protein, C/EBP), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (protein disulfide isomerase associated 3, PDIA3) genes in the pineal gland, brain, and liver of Atlantic salmon postsmolts reared under 12-h light:12-h dark (LD) regimes or under continuous light (LL) for 6 wks following transfer to seawater.
  • Similar variations were noted in the liver c/ebpα, pineal c/ebpδ, and pdia3 mRNAs.
  • Under LL, the clock and nuclear transcription factor mRNAs did not show any daily variation in the studied organs, with the exception of pineal pdia3.
  • Furthermore, LL had the opposite effect on the levels of melatonin and cortisol, as observed by the increase in pineal Clock, Per2, pparα, and c/ebpα and c/ebpδ mRNAs and decrease in liver Clock, Per2, and pparα mRNAs compared to those under LD.
  • The present findings show that the expression of clock genes is affected by the light across organs and that there is a relation between PPAR, C/EBP, and clock mRNAs; however, the functional role of the individual nuclear transcription factors related to this observation remains to be established in the pineal gland and liver. (Author correspondence: Tihu@nifes.no ).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / physiology. Cryptochromes / genetics. DNA Primers. Growth / radiation effects. Liver / physiology. Molting / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Seasons

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  • (PMID = 20969519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-6073
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cryptochromes; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Period Circadian Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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75. Carrera MP, Ramírez-Expósito MJ, Valenzuela MT, Dueñas B, García MJ, Mayas MD, Martínez-Martos JM: Renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in the pineal gland of rats with breast cancer induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea. Cancer Invest; 2006 Mar;24(2):149-53
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  • [Title] Renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in the pineal gland of rats with breast cancer induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pineal function has been considered particularly as a neuroendocrine modulator in hormone responsive tumors, like the hormone-dependent mammary tumors.
  • The complexity of the gland function, moreover, is denoted by the presence of a local renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) that regulates melatonin biosynthesis.
  • Our aim is to know their role in the regulation of pineal RAS and breast cancer.
  • DESIGN: Aminopeptidase N (APN), aminopeptidase B (APB) and aminopeptidase A (aspartyl- and glutamyl-aminopeptidase, APA) activities are measured in the pineal gland of rats with breast cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea (NMU).
  • RESULTS: Specific APN and APB activities in pineal gland of controls and NMU-treated rats were not modified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the local RAS in pineal gland is modified in rats with breast cancer induced by NMU through the inhibition of AspAP activity, which may lead to increased levels of Ang II.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminopeptidases / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / enzymology. Pineal Gland / enzymology. Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology

  • Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .
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  • (PMID = 16537183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea; EC 3.4.11.- / Aminopeptidases; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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76. Esteban MA, Cuesta A, Rodríguez A, Meseguer J: Effect of photoperiod on the fish innate immune system: a link between fish pineal gland and the immune system. J Pineal Res; 2006 Oct;41(3):261-6
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  • [Title] Effect of photoperiod on the fish innate immune system: a link between fish pineal gland and the immune system.
  • The pineal gland via its secretory product, melatonin, influences the light-dark rhythm in most vertebrates including fish.
  • The present results demonstrate that the humoral innate immune system has a circadian rhythm based on the light-dark cycle and that this cycle might be affected by the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Bass / immunology. Immunity, Innate / physiology. Photoperiod. Pineal Gland / physiology. Sea Bream / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16948787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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77. Zilberman-Peled B, Appelbaum L, Vallone D, Foulkes NS, Anava S, Anzulovich A, Coon SL, Klein DC, Falcón J, Ron B, Gothilf Y: Transcriptional regulation of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase-2 gene in the pineal gland of the gilthead seabream. J Neuroendocrinol; 2007 Jan;19(1):46-53
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  • [Title] Transcriptional regulation of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase-2 gene in the pineal gland of the gilthead seabream.
  • Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase; AANAT) is considered the key enzyme in the generation of circulating melatonin rhythms; the rate of melatonin production is determined by AANAT activity.
  • Here, the transcriptional regulation of pineal aanat (aanat2) of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) was investigated.
  • Real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification of aanat2 mRNA levels in the pineal gland collected throughout the 24-h cycle revealed a rhythmic expression pattern.
  • In cultured pineal glands, the amplitude was reduced, but the daily rhythmic expression pattern was maintained under constant illumination, indicating a circadian clock-controlled regulation of seabream aanat2.
  • In vivo transient expression analyses in zebrafish embryos indicated that these promoters contain the necessary elements to drive enhanced expression in the pineal gland.
  • Promoter sequence analyses revealed the presence of the photoreceptor conserved element and an extended E-box (i.e. the binding sites for BMAL/CLOCK and OTX5 that have been previously associated with pineal-specific and rhythmic gene expression).
  • [MeSH-major] Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Pineal Gland / enzymology. Sea Bream / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17184485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Otx Transcription Factors; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins; EC 2.3.1.48 / Clock protein, mouse; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase
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78. Wang GQ, Fu CL, Li JX, Du YZ, Tong J: Circadian rhythms and different photoresponses of Clock gene transcription in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Sheng Li Xue Bao; 2006 Aug 25;58(4):359-64
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  • [Title] Circadian rhythms and different photoresponses of Clock gene transcription in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland.
  • The aim of this study was to observe and compare the endogenous circadian rhythm and photoresponse of Clock gene transcription in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and pineal gland (PG) of rats.
  • [MeSH-major] CLOCK Proteins / genetics. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate / physiology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16906337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0371-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Li Xue Bao
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins
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79. Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Zwirska-Korczala K, Konturek SJ, Brzozowska I, Drozdowicz D, Sliwowski Z, Pawlik M, Pawlik WW, Hahn EG: Importance of the pineal gland, endogenous prostaglandins and sensory nerves in the gastroprotective actions of central and peripheral melatonin against stress-induced damage. J Pineal Res; 2005 Nov;39(4):375-85
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  • [Title] Importance of the pineal gland, endogenous prostaglandins and sensory nerves in the gastroprotective actions of central and peripheral melatonin against stress-induced damage.
  • The involvement of pineal gland, endogenous prostaglandins (PG) and sensory nerves in gastroprotective action of melatonin and L-tryptophan against WRS was studied in intact or pinealectomized rats or those treated with indomethacin or rofecoxib to suppress cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, respectively, and with capsaicin to induce functional ablation of the sensory nerves.
  • We conclude that, (a) exogenous melatonin and its precursor, L-tryptophan, attenuates WRS-induced gastric lesions via interaction with MT2 receptors, (b) this protective action of melatonin is because of an enhancement of gastric microcirculation, probably mediated by PGE2 derived from COX-2 overexpression and activity, the activation of brain-gut axis involving CGRP released from sensory nerves, and the release of gastrin and (c) the pineal plays an important role in the limitation of WRS-induced gastric lesions via releasing melatonin, which exerts gastroprotective and hyperemic activities against stress ulcerogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / administration & dosage. Melatonin / pharmacology. Pineal Gland / physiology. Prostaglandins / physiology. Stomach Ulcer / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16207293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrins; 0 / Prostaglandins; 83652-28-2 / Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin
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80. Turgut AT, Karakaş HM, Ozsunar Y, Altın L, Ceken K, Alıcıoğlu B, Sönmez I, Alparslan A, Yürümez B, Celik T, Kazak E, Geyik PÖ, Koşar U: Age-related changes in the incidence of pineal gland calcification in Turkey: A prospective multicenter CT study. Pathophysiology; 2008 Jun;15(1):41-8

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  • [Title] Age-related changes in the incidence of pineal gland calcification in Turkey: A prospective multicenter CT study.
  • The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the incidence of pineal gland calcification (PGC), to investigate the interaction of PGC and aging, and to compare the incidence of PGC among the populations living in Turkey.
  • This study provides some reference data for new clinical studies on the putative role of pineal gland in future.

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  • (PMID = 18420391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-4680
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathophysiology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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81. Li T, Howland HC: Role of the pineal gland in ocular development of the chick in normal and constant light conditions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Nov;47(11):5132-6
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  • [Title] Role of the pineal gland in ocular development of the chick in normal and constant light conditions.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of the pineal gland in development of the chick eye in normal and constant light (CL) conditions.
  • Half of the chicks in each group had their pineal glands surgically removed at 3 to 6 days after hatching.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although 12L/12D covering of the pineal gland can protect chick eyes from CL's effects (corneal flattening, shallowing of the anterior chamber, and hyperopia), the pineal gland does not appear to be necessary for normal growth in 12L/12D conditions, and its absence does not affect eye growth in CL conditions, with or without hoods or occluders.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye / growth & development. Light. Pineal Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anterior Chamber / anatomy & histology. Body Weights and Measures. Chickens. Circadian Rhythm. Cornea / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 17065535.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY 02994
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Tsai MH, Wei IH, Jiang-Shieh YF, Jou MJ, Ko MH, Chen HM, Wu CH: Expression of protein gene product 9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin in the pineal gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Neurosci Res; 2008 Mar;60(3):233-43

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  • [Title] Expression of protein gene product 9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin in the pineal gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
  • Hyperglycemia is a well-known factor in reducing nocturnal pineal melatonin production.
  • However, the mechanism underlying diabetes-induced insufficiency of pineal melatonin has remained uncertain.
  • This study was undertaken to examine the structure, innervation and functional activity of the pineal gland in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and image analysis.
  • The number of the pinealocytes and the volume of pineal were also estimated using stereologic quantification including the optical fractionator and Cavalieri's method.
  • It has also shown a progressive reduction of the total area of the pineal gland and the nuclear size of pinealocytes beginning at 4 weeks of induced diabetes.
  • Surprisingly, the immunoreactive intensities and protein amounts of serotonin (5-HT) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 in the pineal gland were progressively increased from 4 weeks of diabetes.
  • The increase in immunoreactivities in 5-HT and PGP 9.5 and shrinkage of pineal gland in the diabetic rats suggest an inefficient enzyme activity of the pinealocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Serotonin / metabolism. Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / metabolism. Ubiquitin Thiolesterase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18155792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-0102
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; EC 3.1.2.- / PGP9.5 protein, rat; EC 3.1.2.15 / Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
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83. Gunaratna PC, Cadle KK, Kissinger CB: An improved liquid chromatographic method with electrochemical detection for direct determination of serotonin in microdialysates from Caudate-putamen and pineal gland regions of rat brain. J Neurosci Methods; 2006 Jul 15;155(1):143-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An improved liquid chromatographic method with electrochemical detection for direct determination of serotonin in microdialysates from Caudate-putamen and pineal gland regions of rat brain.
  • Linear regression analysis of chromatographic peak area as a function of concentration in the range 5-1000 pg/mL gave correlation coefficients over 0.995.
  • The method has been applied to simultaneously measure extracellular 5-HT and 5-HIAA in brain microdialysates from the pineal gland and caudate-putamen of awake and freely-moving rats under basal conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromatography, Liquid / methods. Electrochemistry / methods. Neostriatum / chemistry. Neurochemistry / methods. Pineal Gland / chemistry. Serotonin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16567001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-0270
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 54-16-0 / Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid
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84. Bach AG, Mühlbauer E, Peschke E: Adrenoceptor expression and diurnal rhythms of melatonin and its precursors in the pineal gland of type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rats. Endocrinology; 2010 Jun;151(6):2483-93
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  • [Title] Adrenoceptor expression and diurnal rhythms of melatonin and its precursors in the pineal gland of type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rats.
  • A decrease in the nighttime release of the pineal hormone melatonin is associated with aging and chronic diseases in animals an humans.
  • The aim of this study was to detect crucially impaired steps in the pineal melatonin synthesis of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.
  • Therefore, plasma melatonin concentrations and the pineal content of melatonin and its precursors (tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin) were quantified in GK rats compared with Wistar rats (each group 8 and 50 wk old) in a diurnal manner (four animals per group and per time point).
  • Additionally, the expression of pineal adrenoceptor subtype mRNA was investigated.
  • We found that in diabetic GK rats, 1) inhibitory alpha-2-adrenoceptors are significantly more strongly expressed than in Wistar rats, 2) the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan is crucially impaired, and 3) the pineal gland protein content is significantly reduced compared with that in Wistar rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism. Melatonin / metabolism. Pineal Gland / metabolism. Receptors, Adrenergic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Body Weight. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Insulin / metabolism. Male. Radioimmunoassay. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tryptophan / metabolism


85. Koch M, Dehghani F, Habazettl I, Schomerus C, Korf HW: Cannabinoids attenuate norepinephrine-induced melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland by reducing arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity without involvement of cannabinoid receptors. J Neurochem; 2006 Jul;98(1):267-78
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  • [Title] Cannabinoids attenuate norepinephrine-induced melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland by reducing arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity without involvement of cannabinoid receptors.
  • The rat pineal represents an established model to investigate intracellular signaling processes because a well defined input, the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, is transformed via cAMP/Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms into an easily detectable output signal, the biosynthesis of melatonin.
  • Here we investigated the impact of cannabinoids on norepinephrine-regulated melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal.
  • Notably, cannabinoids were found to directly inhibit AANAT activity in lysates of the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase / metabolism. Cannabinoids / pharmacology. Melatonin / biosynthesis. Norepinephrine / pharmacology. Pineal Gland / drug effects. Receptors, Cannabinoid / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Area Under Curve. Cells, Cultured. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Organ Culture Techniques. Radiometry / methods. Rats. Rats, Wistar

  • Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .
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  • (PMID = 16805813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cannabinoids; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Cannabinoid; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine
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86. El Qandil S, Chakir J, El Moussaouiti R, Oukouchoud R, Rami N, Benjelloun WA, Lakhdar-Ghazal N: Role of the pineal gland and melatonin in the photoperiodic control of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the male jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a desert rodent. Brain Res Bull; 2005 Jan 15;64(5):371-80
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  • [Title] Role of the pineal gland and melatonin in the photoperiodic control of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the male jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), a desert rodent.
  • We investigated the role of the pineal gland and melatonin in the photoperiodic control of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
  • Exposure to short photoperiod and melatonin resulted in marked increase in the number of GnRH-containing cells in the preoptic area and mediobasal hypothalamus, whereas GnRH immunoreactivity of fibers and terminals in the median eminence decreased under these conditions.
  • This mechanism probably involves inhibition of GnRH release in the median eminence, with consequent accumulation of GnRH in perikarya of the preoptic area and mediobasal hypothalamus.
  • Interestingly, GnRH cells of the median eminence did not appear to be influenced by the photoperiod and pineal melatonin, whereas their number was increased by exogenous melatonin.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Melatonin / physiology. Photoperiod. Pineal Gland / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15607825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-9230
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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87. Zawilska JB, Lorenc A, Berezińska M: Regulation of serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in the chick pineal gland by UV-A and white light: role of MK-801- and SCH 23390-sensitive retinal signals. Pharmacol Rep; 2007 Jul-Aug;59(4):408-13
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  • [Title] Regulation of serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity in the chick pineal gland by UV-A and white light: role of MK-801- and SCH 23390-sensitive retinal signals.
  • The rhythmic melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland is one of the most extensively studied circadian rhythms in vertebrates.
  • Light at night acutely suppresses pineal melatonin content and activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT; the key and penultimate enzyme in the hormone biosynthetic pathway).
  • Although the avian pineal gland is a directly photosensitive organ, it has recently been demonstrated that light perceived by the eyes only regulates its activity.
  • The present study shows that ocular exposure of chicks to UV-A radiation or white light during the second half of the subjective night markedly decreased AANAT activity in the pineal gland, and produced a significant phase advance of the circadian rhythm of the enzyme activity.
  • Our results demonstrate that retinal illumination with UV-A radiation and white light provide powerful signals that shift phase of the circadian oscillator generating melatonin rhythm in the chick pineal gland.
  • It is suggested that control of pineal melatonin synthesis by retinally perceived UV-A and white light might involve input from different photoreceptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase / metabolism. Light. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Retina / physiology. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 17901569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1734-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacological reports : PR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzazepines; 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D1; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 0 / Tryptamines; 422ZU9N5TV / tryptamine; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate; 72-89-9 / Acetyl Coenzyme A; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase
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88. Rothman J, Greenberg RE, Jaffe WI: Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis 9 years after a germ cell tumor of the pineal gland: case report and review of the literature. Can J Urol; 2008 Jun;15(3):4122-4
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  • [Title] Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis 9 years after a germ cell tumor of the pineal gland: case report and review of the literature.
  • We report the fourth case of a primary germ cell tumor occurring after the treatment of a primary CNS germ cell tumor in a 27 year-old male with embryonal cell carcinoma of the testicle 9 years after the treatment of a germ cell tumor of the pineal gland.
  • This represents the first case of a non-seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testicle after a CNS germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Embryonal. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Pineal Gland. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18570724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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89. Csernus VJ: The avian pineal gland. Chronobiol Int; 2006;23(1-2):329-39
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  • [Title] The avian pineal gland.
  • The pineal gland plays a key role in the control of the daily and seasonal rhythms in most vertebrate species.
  • In mammals, rhythmic melatonin (MT) release from the pineal gland is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus via the sympathetic nervous system.
  • In most non-mammalian species, including birds, the pineal gland contains a self-sustained circadian oscillator and several input channels to synchronize the clock, including direct light sensitivity.
  • Avian pineal glands maintain rhythmic activity for days under in vitro conditions.
  • Several physical (light, temperature, and magnetic field) and biochemical (Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), norepinephrine, PACAP, etc.) input channels, influencing release of melatonin are also functional in vitro, rendering the explanted avian pineal an excellent model to study the circadian biological clock.
  • Using a perifusion system, we here report that the phase of the circadian melatonin rhythm of the explanted chicken pineal gland can be entrained easily to photoperiods whose length approximates 24 h, even if the light period is extremely short, i.e., 3L:21D.
  • When explanted chicken pineal fragments were exposed to various drugs targeting specific components of intracellular signal transduction cascades, only those affecting the cAMP-protein kinase-A system modified the MT release temporarily without phase-shifting the rhythm in MT release.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16687306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Chronobiology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chronobiol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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90. Rosiak J, Zawilska JB: Near-ultraviolet light perceived by the retina generates the signal suppressing melatonin synthesis in the chick pineal gland-an involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors. Neurosci Lett; 2005 May 13;379(3):214-7
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  • [Title] Near-ultraviolet light perceived by the retina generates the signal suppressing melatonin synthesis in the chick pineal gland-an involvement of NMDA glutamate receptors.
  • Exposure of dark-adapted chicks to near ultraviolet (UV-A) light significantly decreased melatonin (MEL) content and the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT; the penultimate and key regulatory enzyme in MEL production) in the pineal glands.
  • Significant reduction in MEL level and AA-NAT activity was also found in pineals of animals whose heads were covered with black opaque tape, an observation suggesting that in the chicken UV-A light perceived by the eyes alone is capable of affecting MEL synthesis in the pineal gland.
  • Although SCH 23390 (a selective D1-dopamine receptor antagonist), injected directly into both eyes at a dose of 10 nmol/eye, prevented the decline in pineal AA-NAT activity produced by retinal illumination with white light, the drug did not modify the UV-A light-evoked decrease in the enzyme activity.
  • MK-801 (a selective antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors; 1 nmol/eye) abolished the suppressive action of UV-A light on pineal AA-NAT activity, but it was inactive in the case of white light.
  • Intraocularly injected sulpiride and CNQX (selective antagonists of D2-dopamine and AMPA/kainite glutamate receptors, respectively) had no effect on the actions of both UV-A and white light (acting on the eyes only) on pineal AA-NAT activity.
  • It is concluded that in the chick retinally perceived UV-A light generates a signal which suppresses MEL production in the pineal gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / biosynthesis. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / physiology. Retina / radiation effects. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 15843066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzazepines; 0 / Dopamine Antagonists; 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 6LR8C1B66Q / Dizocilpine Maleate; 6OTE87SCCW / 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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91. Chowdhury I, Sengupta A, Maitra SK: Melatonin: fifty years of scientific journey from the discovery in bovine pineal gland to delineation of functions in human. Indian J Biochem Biophys; 2008 Oct;45(5):289-304
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  • [Title] Melatonin: fifty years of scientific journey from the discovery in bovine pineal gland to delineation of functions in human.
  • Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was first purified and characterized from the bovine pineal gland extract by Aron Lerner and co-workers in 1958.
  • Since then, a plethora of information has piled up on its biosynthesis, metabolism, time-bound periodicity, physiological and patho-physiological functions, as well as its interactions with other endocrine or neuro-endocrine organs and tissues in the body.
  • Consistent efforts have uncovered the mystery of this indoleamine, and demonstrated its role in regulation of a large as well as diverse body functions in different groups of animals in general, and in humans in particular.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin. Pineal Gland / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19069840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1208
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J. Biochem. Biophys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 164
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92. Itoh MT, Hosaka T, Takahashi N, Ishizuka B: Expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the rat pineal gland. J Pineal Res; 2006 Aug;41(1):35-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the rat pineal gland.
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH) influences the secretion of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) from the pineal gland.
  • The present study examined the possible presence of LH/chorionic gonadotropin (CG) receptor in the pineal gland of adult female rats.
  • Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that LH/CG receptor mRNA is expressed in the pineal gland.
  • Western blotting showed that the pineal gland, like the ovary, contains an 80 kDa receptor protein.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that LH/CG receptor, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (a regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis) and serotonin (a melatonin precursor) are localized primarily to the same cells of the pineal gland.
  • We further found that the levels of pineal LH/CG receptor protein in normal cycling female rats change significantly during the estrous cycle, being lowest at early metestrus.
  • These results demonstrate that LH/CG receptor is expressed in the pineal gland, primarily in melatonin-synthesizing cells, namely pinealocytes.
  • Furthermore, it is suggested that LH influences pineal melatonin secretion through binding to this receptor.
  • In addition, LH/CG receptor levels in the pineal gland are regulated during the estrous cycle under normal physiological conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / metabolism. Receptors, LH / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16842539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LH
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93. Nowicki M, Wojtkiewicz J, Lewczuk B, Kosacka J, Majewski M, Przybylska-Gornowicz B: Peptidergic and nitrergic innervation of the pineal gland in the domestic pig: an immunohistochemical study. Anat Histol Embryol; 2007 Aug;36(4):311-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peptidergic and nitrergic innervation of the pineal gland in the domestic pig: an immunohistochemical study.
  • The presence and co-localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide N-terminal histidine C-terminal isoleucine (PHI), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), somatostatin (SOM), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were studied in neuronal structures of the pig pineal gland.
  • Based on the co-existence patterns of neuropeptides, five populations of nerve fibres supplying the pig pineal were distinguished:.
  • NOS was found in some intrapineal PHI- and VIP-positive fibres.
  • PHI-, VIP- and NOS-positive nerve fibres were more numerous in the peripheral than in the central part of the pineal.
  • PACAP-positive fibres were equally distributed within the gland.
  • The density of SOM-positive fibres was higher in the ventro-proximal than in the dorso-distal part of the pineal.
  • SOM was also detected in some neuronal-like cells or specialized pinealocytes situated in the central region of the gland.
  • Two populations of fibres containing SP were found: CGRP-positive, present in the distal and central parts of the pineal as well as CGRP-negative, localized in the proximal compartment of the gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / innervation. Swine / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 17617110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2096
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomia, histologia, embryologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Histol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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94. Ivanov SV: [Age-dependent morphology of human pineal gland: supravital study]. Adv Gerontol; 2007;20(2):60-5
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  • [Title] [Age-dependent morphology of human pineal gland: supravital study].
  • On the base of analysis of 5784 events of diagnostic magnetic-resonance tomography studies of the head of patients in radio diagnosis departments the database is formed.
  • Maximum linear sizes of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri in sagittal, axial and coronar projection were measured in all events; volumes of the organs were calculated on the formula of a ball.
  • It is defined that the volume of pineal gland increases from birth till 17-21 year age, gradually falls till the second mature age and is getting stable in old age.
  • The normative factors of the volume of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri for 8 age groups are determined.
  • "Brain sand" and false cysts in pineal gland can be observed in all age groups.
  • The petrification degree of pineal gland, as of computer tomography, varies from 30 to 277 ed. HV.
  • For the factor of pineal gland volume and factor of cysts frequency in pineal gland a puberty "collapse" is typical, mainly in men.

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  • (PMID = 18306690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1561-9125
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in gerontology = Uspekhi gerontologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Gerontol
  • [Language] RUS
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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95. Anisimov VN: [Pineal gland, biorhythms and aging of an organism]. Usp Fiziol Nauk; 2008 Oct-Dec;39(4):40-65
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  • [Title] [Pineal gland, biorhythms and aging of an organism].
  • The current data on the role of pineal gland in the regulation of biorhythms of an organism are critically reviewed.
  • The changes of structure and functional status of the pineal gland and of the hypothalamic suprachyasmatic nucleus during normal aging and at age-associated pathology are presented as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / physiology. Melatonin / metabolism. Periodicity. Pineal Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. CLOCK Proteins. Humans. Light. Neoplasms / etiology. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / anatomy & histology. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus / pathology. Trans-Activators / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19241804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1798
  • [Journal-full-title] Uspekhi fiziologicheskikh nauk
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Usp Fiziol Nauk
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK protein, human; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 195
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96. Bosnjak J, Budisić M, Azman D, Strineka M, Crnjaković M, Demarin V: Pineal gland cysts--an overview. Acta Clin Croat; 2009 Sep;48(3):355-8
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  • [Title] Pineal gland cysts--an overview.
  • Pineal cysts occur in all ages, predominantly in adults in the fourth decade of life.
  • In series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, the prevalence of pineal cysts ranged between 1.3% and 4.3% of patients examined for various neurologic reasons and up to 10.8% of asymptomatic healthy volunteers.
  • The diagnosis of pineal cyst is usually established by MRI with defined radiological criteria to distinguish benign pineal cyst from tumors of this area.
  • A recent study demonstrated the findings obtained by transcranial sonography to correspond to those obtained by MRI in the detection of both pineal gland cyst and pineal gland itself, and could be used in the future mainly as follow up examination.
  • Pineal cysts usually have no clinical implications and remain asymptomatic for years.
  • Tissue sample of the pineal lesion can be obtained by open surgery, stereotaxy and neuroendoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Central Nervous System Cysts. Pineal Gland

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  • (PMID = 20055263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9466
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Croatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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97. Budisic M, Bosnjak J, Lovrencic-Huzjan A, Mikula I, Bedek D, Demarin V: Pineal gland cyst evaluated by transcranial sonography. Eur J Neurol; 2008 Mar;15(3):229-33
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  • [Title] Pineal gland cyst evaluated by transcranial sonography.
  • Transcranial sonography (TCS) has never been used in the evaluation of morphology of pineal gland.
  • The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of TCS to distinguish normal from cystic pineal gland and to correlate its size with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the first examination and during follow-up.
  • All 14 pineal gland cysts (PGC) seen on MRI were detected by both observers using TCS.
  • No statistically significant difference has been found between: PGC size measured by first and second observer by TCS (P = 0.425), PGC size measured by TCS and MRI (first observer, P = 0.353; second observer, P = 0.425), size of the pineal gland measured by TCS and MRI in control group (first observer, P = 0.497; second observer, P = 0.370) or interobserver variability in control group (P = 0.373).
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / ultrasonography. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pineal Gland / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Brain Diseases / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18290845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-1331
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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98. Huang Z, Liu T, Chattoraj A, Ahmed S, Wang MM, Deng J, Sun X, Borjigin J: Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland. J Pineal Res; 2008 Nov;45(4):506-14
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  • [Title] Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland.
  • Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals.
  • The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night.
  • Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night.
  • In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night;.
  • (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night.
  • Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability.
  • These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night.

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  • (PMID = 18705647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-079X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02 NS054724-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS057583-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS057583-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS057583; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02 NS054724; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS054724-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 1.14.16.4 / Tryptophan Hydroxylase; EC 1.14.16.4 / tph1 protein, rat; EC 2.3.1.87 / Aanat protein, rat; EC 2.3.1.87 / Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS101126; NLM/ PMC2669754
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99. Nagy AD, Csernus VJ: The role of PACAP in the control of circadian expression of clock genes in the chicken pineal gland. Peptides; 2007 Sep;28(9):1767-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of PACAP in the control of circadian expression of clock genes in the chicken pineal gland.
  • Several features of the molecular circadian oscillator of the chicken pineal gland show homology with those in the mammalian SCN.
  • Studies have shown the effects of PACAP on the mammalian SCN, but its effects on the expression of clock genes in the avian pineal gland have not yet been demonstrated.
  • Clock and Cry1 expression was analyzed in pineal glands of chicken embryos after exposure to PACAP-38 in vitro.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that the molecular clock machinery in the chicken pineal gland is also sensitive to PACAP.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide / pharmacology. Trans-Activators / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17716782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-9781
  • [Journal-full-title] Peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Peptides
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cryptochromes; 0 / Flavoproteins; 0 / Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.3.1.48 / CLOCK Proteins
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100. Suh KT, Lee SS, Kim SJ, Kim YK, Lee JS: Pineal gland metabolism in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br; 2007 Jan;89(1):66-71
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pineal gland metabolism in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
  • However, to date there have been no studies of pineal gland glucose metabolism in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis that might support this hypothesis.
  • We examined the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxyl-melatonin as well as the glucose metabolism of the pineal gland in 14 patients with an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and compared them with those of 13 gender-matched healthy controls using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography.
  • There was no significant difference in the level of urinary 6-sulfatoxyl-melatonin or pineal gland metabolism between the study and the control group.
  • [MeSH-major] Pineal Gland / metabolism. Scoliosis / metabolism

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Idiopathic adolescent scoliosis.
  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Scoliosis.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Scoliosis.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GLUCOSE .
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  • (PMID = 17259419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-620X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Br
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 2208-40-4 / 6-sulfatoxymelatonin; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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