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1. Hansen JP, Drake AL, Walling HW: Bowen's Disease: a four-year retrospective review of epidemiology and treatment at a university center. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Jul;34(7):878-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bowen's Disease: a four-year retrospective review of epidemiology and treatment at a university center.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ (Bowen's disease;.
  • BD) is a common intraepidermal malignancy.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the demographics, distribution, treatment, and recurrence risk of BD in a university population.
  • METHODS: A retrospective survey of histologically confirmed BD diagnosed between January 1999 and January 2003.
  • RESULTS: A total of 299 patients (193 men, 106 women) with 406 cases of BD were identified.
  • Men were significantly more likely to have SCC in situ on the scalp, ear, and anterior trunk, while the cheek, nose, and lower legs were significantly more common sites among women (p<.05).
  • Histologic recurrence was seen in 15 of 406 cases (4%), one of which recurred as invasive SCC.
  • LIMITATIONS: Our experience at a single institution in the midwestern United States may not be reflective of a wider population.
  • CONCLUSION: The most common locations for BD were in areas with high sun exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / epidemiology. Bowen's Disease / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18363722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Georgieva S, Iordanov V, Sergieva S: Nature of cervical cancer and other HPV - associated cancers. J BUON; 2009 Jul-Sep;14(3):391-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in younger women under the age of 50 are also associated with HPV.
  • Bowens disease and Buschke-Lowenstein tumors are associated with particular low- and high-risk HPV types.
  • HPV-DNA is detected in 40-70% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and in only 1% in normal epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / virology. Breast Neoplasms / virology. Colorectal Neoplasms / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / virology. Epithelial Cells / virology. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19810128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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3. Thissen MR, Kuijpers DI, Neumann HA: [The wider application of photodynamic therapy in dermatology]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Jan 29;149(5):232-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Ruimere toepassing van fotodynamische therapie in de dermatologie.
  • Photodynamic treatment is increasingly employed in the detection and treatment of malignant and non-malignant skin disease.
  • --Indications for photodynamic therapy so far are actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and superficially growing basal cell carcinomas, and probably verrucae and acne vulgaris.
  • [MeSH-major] Photochemotherapy / methods. Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Dermatology / methods. Humans. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15719833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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4. Graham BD, Jetmore AB, Foote JE, Arnold LK: Topical 5-fluorouracil in the management of extensive anal Bowen's disease: a preferred approach. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Mar;48(3):444-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical 5-fluorouracil in the management of extensive anal Bowen's disease: a preferred approach.
  • PURPOSE: An alternative approach to anal Bowen's disease was investigated.
  • METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken for anal Bowen's disease in 11 patients over a six-year period.
  • For one-half circumferential disease or greater, patients underwent topical 5 percent 5-fluorouacil therapy for 16 weeks.
  • Three patients (3 female) underwent surgical excision for localized disease.
  • All but one patient, who was HIV positive, were free of Bowen's disease one year after completion of therapy.
  • One patient underwent total excision of a residual microinvasive squamous carcinoma after circumferential Bowen's disease had resolved.
  • CONCLUSION: Topical 5 percent 5-fluorouacil therapy is a safe and effective method to treat anal Bowen's disease.
  • Wide local excision is appropriate for smaller, isolated areas of disease.
  • Anal Bowen's disease was not associated with colonic or other neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15747068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Usmani N, Stables GI, Telfer NR, Stringer MR: Subungual Bowen's disease treated by topical aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Nov;53(5 Suppl 1):S273-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subungual Bowen's disease treated by topical aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy.
  • A diagnostic biopsy specimen confirmed the clinical suggestion of subungual Bowen's disease (carcinoma in situ).
  • Thirty months after treatment there remained no clinical evidence of recurrence of the condition with preservation of a normal nail unit.
  • Although the successful treatment of cutaneous Bowen's disease with photodynamic therapy is well documented, this is the first report of the successful treatment of subungual Bowen's disease using topical aminolevulunic acid-photodynamic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Nail Diseases / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy


6. Clinical Corner: an observation of Bowen's disease in wound care. Br J Nurs; 2006 Jan 12-15;15(1):21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical Corner: an observation of Bowen's disease in wound care.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Leg Ulcer / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


7. Poluri RM, Higgins SP: Successful treatment of penile Bowen's disease with 5% imiquimod cream. Int J STD AIDS; 2005 Sep;16(9):649
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of penile Bowen's disease with 5% imiquimod cream.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Penile Diseases / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome


8. Mertz KD, Pfaltz M, Junt T, Schmid M, Fernandez Figueras MT, Pfaltz K, Barghorn A, Kempf W: Merkel cell polyomavirus is present in common warts and carcinoma in situ of the skin. Hum Pathol; 2010 Oct;41(10):1369-79
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  • [Title] Merkel cell polyomavirus is present in common warts and carcinoma in situ of the skin.
  • We sought to determine the prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in benign epithelial skin neoplasms and nonmelanoma skin cancer of immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients and long-term dialysis patients.
  • Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 2 (10%) of 20 patients, in carcinomas in situ (Bowen's disease).
  • In one of our patients with Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive carcinoma in situ, 9 (39.1%) of 23 skin lesions at various anatomical locations tested positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus sequences by PCR, including all of his common warts (4/4), half of his carcinoma in situ lesions (3/6), and 2 of his 3 seborrheic keratoses.
  • In a second cohort of immunosuppressed renal transplant recipients, Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA was found in 1 (6.3%) of 16 common warts and in 2 (9.5%) of 21 carcinomas in situ.
  • In immunocompetent individuals, Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA was found in 2 (6.7%) of 30 common warts and in 2 (8.3%) of 24 carcinomas in situ.
  • DNA of other human polyomaviruses was not detected in any of the investigated skin neoplasms.
  • We conclude that common warts and carcinomas in situ can be positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus in immunosuppressed as well as immunocompetent individuals.
  • Remarkably, some of the Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive common warts did not contain human papillomavirus.
  • Furthermore, Merkel cell polyomavirus can be found in various skin neoplasms of the same individual.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Merkel Cells / virology. Polyomavirus / isolation & purification. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Warts / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunocompetence. Immunocompromised Host. Kidney Transplantation. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Renal Dialysis. Skin / pathology. Skin / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20655089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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9. Hama N, Ohtsuka T, Yamazaki S: Detection of mucosal human papilloma virus DNA in bowenoid papulosis, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. J Dermatol; 2006 May;33(5):331-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of mucosal human papilloma virus DNA in bowenoid papulosis, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) is known to be an etiologic agent for benign warts of the skin.
  • Recently, HPV have been detected in malignant skin and mucosal diseases suggesting that HPV infection can induce malignant skin tumors.
  • In the present study, we examined the presence of mucosal HPV DNA in normal tissue, Bowen's disease (BD), Bowenoid papulosis (BP) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin.
  • We detected the HPV DNA with polymerase chain reactions, and identified the type by DNA sequencing.
  • In the results, we detected HPV DNA in none of the 17 normal controls, two of the three BP (66.7%), one of the 21 BD (4.8%), and six of the 26 SCC of the skin samples (23.0%).
  • The occurrence rates of HPV in BP and SCC were significantly elevated compared to that of normal controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively).
  • In addition, the occurrence rate of HPV in BP was significantly elevated compared to that of BD (P < 0.05).
  • The case of BD with positive HPV DNA showed HPV 31.
  • Of the six cases of SCC with positive HPV DNA, one case showed HPV 16, another case HPV 34, and the other four cases HPV 31.
  • These results showed that mucosal HPV, including HPV 31 and 16, could be detected in SSC of the skin.
  • Mucosal HPV, not only the epidermodysplasia verruciformis type, appear to induce malignant skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Skin Neoplasms / virology


10. Yu HS, Liao WT, Chai CY: Arsenic carcinogenesis in the skin. J Biomed Sci; 2006 Sep;13(5):657-66
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  • [Title] Arsenic carcinogenesis in the skin.
  • Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic (As) from drinking water has been documented to induce cancers in lung, urinary bladder, kidney, liver and skin in a dose-response relationship.
  • Oxidative stress, chromosomal abnormality and altered growth factors are possible modes of action in arsenic carcinogenesis.
  • Arsenic tends to accumulate in the skin.
  • Skin hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratosis have long been known to be the hallmark signs of chronic As exposure.
  • There are significant associations between these dermatological lesions and risk of skin cancer.
  • The most common arsenic-induced skin cancers are Bowen's disease (carcinoma in situ), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Arsenic-induced Bowen's disease (As-BD) is able to transform into invasive BCC and SCC.
  • Individuals with As-BD are considered for more aggressive cancer screening in the lung and urinary bladder.
  • As-BD provides an excellent model for studying the early stages of chemical carcinogenesis in human beings.
  • Arsenic exposure is associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest and DNA aneuploidy in both cultured keratinocytes and As-BD lesions.
  • The characteristic clinical figures of arsenic-induced skin cancer are: (i) occurrence on sun-protected areas of the body;.
  • Both As and UVB are able to induce skin cancer.
  • UVB irradiation inhibited mutant p53 and ki-67 expression, as well as increased in the number of apoptotic cells in As-BD lesions which resulted in an inhibitory effect on proliferation.
  • As-UVB interaction provides a reasonable explanation for the rare occurrences of arsenical cancer in the sun-exposed skin.
  • The multiple and recurrent skin lesions are associated with cellular immune dysfunction in chronic arsenism.
  • There was a decrease in the number of Langerhans cells in As-BD lesion which results in an impaired immune function on the lesional sites.
  • Since CD4+ cells are the target cell affected by As, the interaction between CD4+ cells and epidermal keratinocytes under As affection might be closely linked to the pathogenesis of multiple occurrence of arsenic-induced skin cancer.
  • In this review, we provide and discuss the pathomechanisms of arsenic skin cancer and the relationship to its characteristic figures.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenic / toxicity. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / etiology. DNA Damage. DNA Repair / drug effects. Humans. Reactive Oxygen Species / toxicity. Transcription Factors / drug effects. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 16807664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-7770
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biomed. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Transcription Factors; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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11. Fai D, Arpaia N, Romano I, Vestita M, Cassano N, Vena GA: Methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancers: a retrospective analysis of response in 462 patients. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Jun;144(3):281-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancers: a retrospective analysis of response in 462 patients.
  • AIM: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is widely used for the management of actinic keratoses (AK) and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs).
  • The authors report the results of a retrospective chart review showing the cumulative four-year experience with MAL-PDT in a hospital outpatient setting.
  • RESULTS: Present case series included a total of 462 patients: 210 patients with AK, 228 subjects with 348 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), 213 of nodular type (nBCC) and 135 of superficial type (sBCC), 17 patients with Bowen's disease and seven with squamous cell carcinoma.
  • As concerns BCCs, regardless of the clinical type, a complete response was observed in 71% of lesions at three months, with a rate of recurrence at 12 months of 15%.
  • Our results, even if obtained in very few cases, indicate that Bowen's disease is very responsive to MAL-PDT, unlike microinvasive or invasive SCC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our experience confirms that MAL-PDT is a valid approach to patients with AK, BCC and Bowen's disease, with an acceptable tolerability profile and a very low risk of complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Drug Evaluation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19528909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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12. Sharma R, Iyer M: Bowen's disease of the nipple in a young man with AIDS: a case report. Clin Breast Cancer; 2009 Feb;9(1):53-5
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  • [Title] Bowen's disease of the nipple in a young man with AIDS: a case report.
  • Bowen's disease, or squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCIS) of the skin, is a malignant neoplasm restricted to the epidermis, without evidence of dermal invasion.
  • It usually develops in sun-exposed area of skin, but other sites can also be affected.
  • Bowen's disease of the nipple is extremely rare and has thus far been reported only in women.
  • We present the case of Bowen's disease of the nipple in an HIV-positive male patient who presented with a scaly lesion on nipple for one year.
  • There was no evidence of invasive carcinoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the worldwide literature of Bowen's disease of the nipple in a young immunocompromised male patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / etiology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. Nipples / pathology


13. Kim KH, Park EJ, Seo YJ, Cho HS, Kim CW, Kim KJ, Park HR: Immunohistochemical study of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 expression in skin tumors. J Dermatol; 2006 May;33(5):319-25
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 expression in skin tumors.
  • Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been demonstrated in various cancers, including experimentally promoted tumors, gastrointestinal cancers, breast tumors and skin tumors.
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of COX-2 and p53 in several skin tumors and their correlation.
  • An immunohistochemical method was used to investigate the expression of COX-2 and p53 proteins on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), basal cell carcinomas (BCC), Bowen's disease (BD), actinic keratosis (AK) and porokeratosis.
  • The expression of COX-2 increased in 50% (5/10) of SCC, 80% (8/10) of BCC, 40% (4/10) of BD, 50% (5/10) of AK, and 20% (2/10) of porokeratosis cases.
  • The expression of p53 increased in 90% (9/10) of SCC, 70% (7/10) of BCC, 70% (7/10) of BD, 50% (5/10) of AK, and 40% (4/10) of porokeratosis cases.
  • COX-2 positivity rates of the p53-positive skin tumors were 56%, 100%, 57%, 80% and 25% in SCC, BCC, BD, AK and porokeratosis, respectively.
  • However, the correlation between p53 and COX-2 expression in skin tumors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
  • Our results indicate that skin COX-2 and p53 may play roles in skin tumors, but that there is no apparent correlation between the two markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratosis / metabolism. Porokeratosis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16700663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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14. Yoon TY, Kim HJ, Kim JW, Kim MK, Lee JY: Bowen's disease concealed by purpura. J Dermatol; 2007 Jan;34(1):65-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bowen's disease concealed by purpura.
  • Bowen's disease (BD) is a squamous cell carcinoma in situ characterized by a well-demarcated scaly erythematous thin plaque with an irregular outline.
  • Clinically, BD is frequently misdiagnosed as superficial basal cell carcinoma, patches of dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen planus, actinic keratosis, benign lichenoid keratosis, irritated seborrheic keratosis, viral warts, amelanotic melanoma or melanoma.
  • However, angiosarcoma has not usually been mentioned in the differential diagnosis of BD before.
  • Herein, we describe two cases of BD presenting as purpura on the scalp of the elderly with an initial clinical suspicion of angiosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / complications. Purpura / complications. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17204105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Walsh SN, Hurt MA, Santa Cruz DJ: Psoriasiform keratosis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Apr;29(2):137-40
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  • There was, however, no known clinical diagnosis of psoriasis in any patient, neither at initial presentation nor on follow-up examination.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 66.8 years.
  • The most common diagnoses, clinically, were seborrheic keratosis, followed by basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, actinic (solar) keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma, among others.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Psoriasis / pathology. Skin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lichenoid Eruptions / pathology. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neutrophils / pathology. Prospective Studies. Terminology as Topic. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17414434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Wenzel J, Uerlich M, Haller O, Bieber T, Tueting T: Enhanced type I interferon signaling and recruitment of chemokine receptor CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes into the skin following treatment with the TLR7-agonist imiquimod. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Apr;32(4):257-62
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  • [Title] Enhanced type I interferon signaling and recruitment of chemokine receptor CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes into the skin following treatment with the TLR7-agonist imiquimod.
  • INTRODUCTION: Imiquimod (Aldara) is an immune response modifier approved for the topical treatment of external genital and perianal warts which can mediate regression of several cutaneous malignancies [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease, actinic keratosis, and metastasis of malignant melanoma].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present study we analyzed the expression of MxA, a protein specifically induced by type I IFNs during topical imiquimod treatment in several patients suffering from different cutaneous malignancies (BCC, cutaneous metastasis of melanoma, and breast cancer), and characterized the inflammatory infiltrate, along with the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR3, by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Treatment with the TLR7-agonist imiquimod induced a significant lesional lymphocytic inflammation, associated with strong expression of MxA, indicating the induction of type I IFN signaling.
  • DISCUSSION: Our in vivo results suggest an important role for TLR7-induced production of type I IFN, which links innate and adaptive immunity and promotes specific Th1-biased cellular immune response capable of eliminating cutaneous malignancies.
  • MxA appears to be a valuable parameter to demonstrate IFN-type I expression in imiquimod therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Interferon Type I / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Membrane Glycoproteins / agonists. Receptors, Cell Surface / agonists. Receptors, Chemokine / immunology. Skin / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / drug effects. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / immunology. Female. Humans. Melanoma / immunology. Melanoma / secondary. Receptors, CXCR3. Signal Transduction. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Toll-Like Receptor 7. Toll-Like Receptors

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  • (PMID = 15769273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / CXCR3 protein, human; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, CXCR3; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / TLR7 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 7; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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17. Aguilar M, de Troya M, Martin L, Benítez N, González M: A cost analysis of photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate and imiquimod compared with conventional surgery for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease of the lower extremities. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Dec;24(12):1431-6
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  • [Title] A cost analysis of photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate and imiquimod compared with conventional surgery for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease of the lower extremities.
  • BACKGROUND: Superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) and Bowen's disease (BD) are usually slow-growing, low-grade malignancies that mainly affect older persons.
  • SETTING: We collected data on 67 patients with 86 tumours (32 sBCC, 54 BD).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / economics. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
  • (PMID = 20456549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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18. Blume JE, Oseroff AR: Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for skin cancers. Dermatol Clin; 2007 Jan;25(1):5-14
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  • [Title] Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for skin cancers.
  • Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an effective and noninvasive therapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and Bowen's disease.
  • It is not an effective therapy for aggressive subtypes of BCC or for invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Finally, ALA-PDT may be a useful way to prevent new skin cancers in certain high-risk patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17126737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0733-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA55791
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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19. Sakiz D, Turkmenoglu TT, Kabukcuoglu F: The expression of p63 and p53 in keratoacanthoma and intraepidermal and invasive neoplasms of the skin. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(9):589-94
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  • [Title] The expression of p63 and p53 in keratoacanthoma and intraepidermal and invasive neoplasms of the skin.
  • p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor gene, and its mutation is a common event in intraepidermal and invasive neoplasms of the skin. p63 is a homologue of the tumor suppressor gene p53, which is expressed in human basal squamous epithelium, and despite its homology to p53, it is considered to act as an oncogene.
  • We evaluated p63 and p53 expression in usual skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), keratoacanthoma (KA), and intraepidermal neoplasms, including Bowen's disease (BD), actinic keratosis (AK), malignant melanoma in situ (MM in situ), and Paget's disease (PD) to clarify the putative role of p63 and p53 in the development and differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • Seventeen SCC, 23 BCC, 16 KA, 26 AK, 22 BD, 7 MM in situ, and 6 PD were included in this study.
  • We determined decreasing p63 staining in BD, AK, BCC, SCC, and KA, respectively.
  • The mean p53 staining was highest in BD, followed by AK, SCC, PD, KA, BCC, and normal skin.
  • Based on our findings, analysis of p63 expression may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of BD and AK versus MM in situ and PD, particularly in small biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratoacanthoma / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Membrane Proteins. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


20. Bleeker MC, Heideman DA, Snijders PJ, Horenblas S, Dillner J, Meijer CJ: Penile cancer: epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention. World J Urol; 2009 Apr;27(2):141-50
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  • OBJECTIVES: Penile cancer is a disease with a high morbidity and mortality.
  • Insight into its precursor lesions, pathogenesis and risk factors offers options to prevent this potentially mutilating disease.
  • RESULTS: Careful monitoring of men with lichen sclerosis, genital Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat and bowenoid papulosis seems useful, thereby offering early recognition of penile cancer and, subsequently, conservative therapeutic options.

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  • (PMID = 18607597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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21. Covadonga Martínez-González M, del Pozo J, Paradela S, Fernández-Jorge B, Fernández-Torres R, Fonseca E: Bowen's disease treated by carbon dioxide laser. A series of 44 patients. J Dermatolog Treat; 2008;19(5):293-9
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  • [Title] Bowen's disease treated by carbon dioxide laser. A series of 44 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Bowen's disease is a common form of intraepidermal (in situ) squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and mucous membrane.
  • Treatment with destruction of the epidermis by any method is necessary to prevent invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of Bowen's disease and try to identify which factors could have any influence on results.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that the CO2 laser in superpulsed mode is an effective, efficient, safe, functional and good cosmetics treatment for Bowen's disease and it provides the same recurrence rate as other more aggressive or more expensive modalities of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / surgery. Laser Therapy. Lasers, Gas / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19160536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6634
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Angerer-Shpilenya M, Gaisa NT, Jakse G: [Excision of carcinoma in situ of the glans penis with reconstructive plastic surgery]. Urologe A; 2010 Mar;49(3):392-5
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  • [Title] [Excision of carcinoma in situ of the glans penis with reconstructive plastic surgery].
  • [Transliterated title] Exzision des Carcinoma in situ der Glans penis mit plastischer Rekonstruktion.
  • BACKGROUND: Bowen's disease and erythroplasia of Queyrat are intraepidermal neoplasias (carcinoma in situ) and are considered as preinvasive types of penile squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A close follow-up with timely treatment of recurrences allows suitable tumour control without worsening the prognosis and is the most important requirement for an organ-preserving treatment of Bowen's disease.

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  • (PMID = 19943030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Yaghoobi R, Feily A, Behrooz B, Yaghoobi E, Mokhtarzadeh S: Palpebral involvement as a presenting and sole manifestation of discoid lupus erythematosus. ScientificWorldJournal; 2010;10:2130-1
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  • Physical examination was notable for edematous, erythematous plaques of the lower eyelids with madarosis in the absence of preceding skin scarring.
  • Biopsy specimen was obtained and diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) was made.
  • DLE is a chronic, cutaneous disease that is clinically characterized by a malar rash, acute erythema, and discoid lesions.
  • Localized DLE occurs when the head and neck only are affected, while widespread DLE occurs when other areas are affected, regardless of whether disease of the head and neck is seen.
  • A number of skin diseases may be confused with DLE, such as psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, rosacea, lupus vulgaris, sarcoidosis, Bowen's disease, polymorphous light eruption, lichen planopilaris, dermatomyositis, granuloma annulare, and granuloma faciale.
  • Palpebral lesions may rarely be the presenting or sole manifestation of the disease and lower eyelid involvement is seen in 6% of patients with chronic, cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
  • DLE should therefore be considered as a differential diagnosis in chronic blepharitis or madarosis that persists despite usual medical management and eyelid hygiene.
  • The skin lesions resolved with minimal scarring.
  • [MeSH-major] Blepharitis / etiology. Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid / complications. Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21057726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Cicale L, Dalle S, Thomas L: [Pigmented Bowen's disease]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Apr;135(4):334-6
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  • [Title] [Pigmented Bowen's disease].
  • [Transliterated title] Lésion pigmentée - maladie de Bowen.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18420088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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25. Micali G, Lacarrubba F, Dinotta F, Massimino D, Nasca MR: Treating skin cancer with topical cream. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2010 Jun;11(9):1515-27
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  • [Title] Treating skin cancer with topical cream.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Topical pharmacotherapy is an approach to consider in selected skin cancers.
  • This paper reviews and discusses the use of topical pharmacotherapy in the treatment of skin cancer.
  • AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: This paper examines the existing literature and updates current knowledge of topical pharmacotherapy for skin cancer using fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac and retinoids.
  • WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: There is a gap between current and best practice in that the use of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of skin cancer is only partially known.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Topical pharmacotherapy represents an option for treatment of actinic keratoses and selected basal cell carcinomas.
  • Moreover, preliminary reports indicate imiquimod to be effective for skin or mucosal cancers such as Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat and lentigo maligna.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20408746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Retinoids; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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26. Hussain SK, Sundquist J, Hemminki K: The effect of having an affected parent or sibling on invasive and in situ skin cancer risk in Sweden. J Invest Dermatol; 2009 Sep;129(9):2142-7
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  • [Title] The effect of having an affected parent or sibling on invasive and in situ skin cancer risk in Sweden.
  • Studies suggest that skin cancer aggregates within families; however, the risk of skin cancer associated with having an affected sibling or parent by subtype, tumor site, and age at diagnosis has not been established.
  • Risk of invasive squamous cell skin cancer for individuals with an affected sibling or parent was increased between two- and three-fold compared with that in the general population.
  • For in situ skin tumors, increased SIRs of 1.95-4.30 for squamous cell, Bowen's disease, and actinic keratosis were observed for individuals with affected siblings or parents, and SIRs were generally higher for tumors at sun-exposed versus covered sites.
  • Finally, SIRs for in situ and invasive squamous cell skin cancer increased by increasing number of parental tumors (P< or =0.01).
  • In conclusion, having an affected sibling or parent was associated with an increased risk of skin cancer of varied subtypes compared with that in the general population, and for some subtypes, these familial risks were increased for tumors at sun-exposed sites or by an increasing number of parental tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Parents. Siblings. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bowen's Disease / etiology. Bowen's Disease / genetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sweden

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  • (PMID = 19242514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA 87949
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Chung AP, Rosenfeld DB: Intraoperative high-resolution anoscopy: a minimally invasive approach in the treatment of patients with Bowen's disease and results in a private practice setting. Am Surg; 2007 Dec;73(12):1279-83
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  • [Title] Intraoperative high-resolution anoscopy: a minimally invasive approach in the treatment of patients with Bowen's disease and results in a private practice setting.
  • From January 2002 through November 2005, 76 patients with AIN III diagnosed by anal Pap smear, colposcopy, or biopsy underwent HRA for diagnosis and treatment.
  • Recurrence/persistence of disease was recorded and compared with patient characteristics.
  • Three (75%) HIV-negative patients had no recurrence/persistence; one of four (25%) had recurrence; and 11 of 17 (65%) HIV-positive patients had persistence of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Bowen's Disease / surgery. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18186390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Prior SL, Griffiths AP, Lewis PD: A study of mitochondrial DNA D-loop mutations and p53 status in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Nov;161(5):1067-71
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  • [Title] A study of mitochondrial DNA D-loop mutations and p53 status in nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement-loop (D-loop) mutations have previously demonstrated potential as smoking-induced biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Additionally, they have been observed in SCC and basal cell carcinoma of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC).
  • However, they have not been examined in the SCC precursor lesions, Bowen disease or actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Mutation. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Skin Diseases / genetics. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Smoking

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  • (PMID = 19624548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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29. Miyakura T, Yamamoto T, Tsuboi R: Case of Bowen's disease occurring in an old Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination site. J Dermatol; 2007 Jun;34(6):416-7
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  • [Title] Case of Bowen's disease occurring in an old Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination site.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / adverse effects. Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Arm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17535414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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30. Liu H, Takeuchi S, Moroi Y, Lin N, Urabe K, Kokuba H, Imafuku S, Dainichi T, Uchi H, Furue M, Tu Y: Expression of minichromosome maintenance 5 protein in proliferative and malignant skin diseases. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Nov;46(11):1171-6
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  • [Title] Expression of minichromosome maintenance 5 protein in proliferative and malignant skin diseases.
  • Many studies have demonstrated that MCM proteins may be better indicators of a wide variety of proliferative or cancer cells in malignant tissues.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize the pattern and frequency of MCM5 expression in proliferative and malignant skin diseases in comparison with those of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).
  • METHODS: Twelve normal skin specimens, 12 specimens of psoriasis, 21 specimens of bowenoid papulosis (BP), 16 specimens of Bowen's disease (BD), 38 specimens of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 11 specimens of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for MCM5 and PCNA.
  • Results MCM5 protein was expressed in the lower layers of epidermis in psoriasis, while MCM5 protein were present throughout the tumor cells in BP, BD, and moderately/poorly differentiated SCC.
  • MCM5 protein was preferentially expressed in the periphery of well-differentiated SCC or bigger nests of BCC, although some small nests of BCC seemingly showed diffuse staining patterns.
  • The percentages of MCM5-positive cells were 15.7% in normal skin, 21.8% in psoriasis, 75.9% in BP, 83.8% in BD, 63.5% in well-differentiated SCC, 77.5% in moderately differentiated SCC, 79.8% in poorly differentiated SCC, and 21.2% in BCC in average.
  • Well-differentiated SCC showed a significantly lower percentage of positive cells than did moderately differentiated SCC or poorly differentiated SCC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate pattern and frequency of MCM5 expression in various skin diseases and suggest that MCM5 may be a useful marker to detect cell proliferation in skin tissue sections.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Epidermis / chemistry. Epidermis / ultrastructure. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Psoriasis / metabolism. Skin / chemistry. Skin / ultrastructure


31. de Haas ER, Sterenborg HJ, Neumann HA, Robinson DJ: Response of Bowen disease to ALA-PDT using a single and a 2-fold illumination scheme. Arch Dermatol; 2007 Feb;143(2):264-5
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  • [Title] Response of Bowen disease to ALA-PDT using a single and a 2-fold illumination scheme.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17310011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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32. Gupta S, Nutan, Dogra S, Kanwar AJ: Bowen Disease over photoprotected site in an Indian male. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(10):16
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  • [Title] Bowen Disease over photoprotected site in an Indian male.
  • Bowen Disease is squamous cell carcinoma in situ in which the basement membrane is intact on histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19951634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Conklin A, Hassan I, Chua HK, Wietfeldt ED, Larson DR, Thomsen KA, Nivatvongs S: Long-term functional and quality of life outcomes of patients after repair of large perianal skin defects for Paget's and Bowen's disease. J Gastrointest Surg; 2009 May;13(5):951-5
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  • [Title] Long-term functional and quality of life outcomes of patients after repair of large perianal skin defects for Paget's and Bowen's disease.
  • METHODS: Between 1992 and 2004, at two institutions, 18 patients underwent repair of a perianal defect for Paget's disease (n = 8) or Bowen's disease (n = 10) and were alive with intestinal continuity at last follow-up.
  • Subcutaneous skin flaps (11) and split-thickness skin grafts (three) were used to repair the perianal defects, which were circumferential in 11 patients (79%).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Bowen's Disease / surgery. Fecal Incontinence / epidemiology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / surgery. Quality of Life. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19224296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Chen K, Craig JC, Shumack S: Oral retinoids for the prevention of skin cancers in solid organ transplant recipients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Mar;152(3):518-23
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  • [Title] Oral retinoids for the prevention of skin cancers in solid organ transplant recipients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
  • BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of skin cancers after solid organ transplantation is well recognized.
  • Skin cancers developing in transplant recipients are more aggressive in behaviour.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to summarize the available medical literature from randomized controlled trials on the use of oral retinoids as a preventive agent for skin cancers in the solid organ transplant population.
  • One cross-over trial involving 23 subjects treated with acitretin 25 mg daily for 12 months reported 46 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) developing in six subjects during acitretin treatment vs. 65 SCCs developing in 15 subjects during the drug-free period.
  • Another trial involving 44 subjects treated with acitretin 30 mg daily or placebo for 6 months reported two of 19 subjects developing two SCCs in the treatment group vs. nine of 19 subjects developing 18 new skin cancers (15 SCCs, one Bowen's disease, two basal cell carcinomas) in the placebo group.
  • One dose comparison trial involving 26 renal transplant recipients treated with acitretin did not find a significant difference in numbers of skin cancers developing at the doses examined.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The available data from a small number of randomized controlled trials suggest that acitretin may have a role in the management of solid organ transplant recipients with skin cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Organ Transplantation / adverse effects. Retinoids / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 15787821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retinoids; LCH760E9T7 / Acitretin
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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35. Gormley RH, Kovarik CL: Dermatologic manifestations of HPV in HIV-infected individuals. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2009 Aug;6(3):130-8
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  • Dermatologic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV patients manifests as both anogenital and nongenital skin disease.
  • Anogenital HPV-related disease includes benign condyloma acuminata, the most common cutaneous manifestation of genital HPV infection; intermediate malignancy or premalignant conditions including giant condyloma acuminata (also called Buschke-Loewenstein tumor), anal intraepithelial neoplasia, penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and vaginal or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia; and frankly malignant disease including Bowen's disease and invasive anal, penile, or vulvar carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous HPV-related disease in nongenital skin is also increased in HIV-positive patients, in the form of benign common warts, epidermodysplasia verruciformis-like skin lesions, and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • This review and update addresses the above listed dermatologic manifestations of HPV disease in HIV-infected individuals, with an emphasis on new findings and published data from 2006 to 2008.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / physiopathology. Skin / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Humans. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19589298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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36. Morton CA: Methyl aminolevulinate: actinic keratoses and Bowen's disease. Dermatol Clin; 2007 Jan;25(1):81-7
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  • [Title] Methyl aminolevulinate: actinic keratoses and Bowen's disease.
  • Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the methyl ester of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (MAL) is an effective therapy for actinic keratoses and Bowen's disease.
  • The response rate of Bowen's disease to MAL-PDT is also at least equivalent to cryotherapy and 5-fluorouracil, again with superior cosmesis.
  • Patients with large or multiple lesions of Bowen's disease or those in whom standard therapy, including surgery, is relatively contraindicated may particularly benefit from PDT.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17126745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0733-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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37. Morton CA, McKenna KE, Rhodes LE, British Association of Dermatologists Therapy Guidelines and Audit Subcommittee and the British Photodermatology Group: Guidelines for topical photodynamic therapy: update. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Dec;159(6):1245-66
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  • Multicentre randomized controlled studies now demonstrate high efficacy of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease (BD) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and efficacy in thin nodular BCC, while confirming the superiority of cosmetic outcome over standard therapies.
  • Long-term follow-up studies are also now available, indicating that PDT has recurrence rates equivalent to other standard therapies in BD and superficial BCC, but with lower sustained efficacy than surgery in nodular BCC.
  • In contrast, current evidence does not support the use of topical PDT for squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PDT can reduce the number of new lesions developing in patients at high risk of skin cancer and may have a role as a preventive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Skin Diseases / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18945319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 229
  • [Investigator] Bell HK; Eedy DJ; Mitchell DM; Bull RH; Tidman MJ; Fuller LC; Yesudian PD; Joseph D; Wagle S; Morton CA; Brown SB; Collins S; Ibbotson SH; Jenkinson H; Kurwa H; Langmack K; McKenna KE; Moseley H; Pearse A; Stringer M; Taylor D; Wong G; Rhodes LE
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38. van Egmond S, Hoedemaker C, Sinclair R: Successful treatment of perianal Bowen's disease with imiquimod. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Mar;46(3):318-9
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of perianal Bowen's disease with imiquimod.
  • Although perianal Bowen's disease (BD) is a relatively uncommon malignancy, it is being detected with increasing frequency.
  • The effectiveness of different treatment modalities, ranging from aggressive wide local excision with skin grafting to the application of a topical immune response modifier, remains uncertain.
  • To our knowledge only two cases of perianal BD, successfully treated with imiquimod, have been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17343595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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39. Calzavara-Pinton PG, Venturini M, Sala R: Photodynamic therapy: update 2006. Part 2: Clinical results. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Apr;21(4):439-51
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  • In several randomized, controlled studies, the application of a standard preparation containing methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL; Metvix, Galderma, F), followed by red light irradiation proved effective and well tolerated in the treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma, and has now been approved for clinical use in European countries.
  • Randomized and controlled studies have shown that MAL as well as ALA are also effective in the treatment of Bowen's disease.
  • In addition, a large and growing number of open studies or case reports have evaluated its use in the treatment of a broad range of other neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases.
  • A growing number of laboratory and clinical findings suggest that several new synthetic sensitizers, besides ALA and MAL, may be helpful in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers, melanoma metastasis, and selected inflammatory and infective skin diseases.
  • These compounds are deliverable intravenously, have short half-lives both in the blood and skin, and are highly efficient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Drug Approval. Humans. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17373968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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40. Doffoel-Hantz V, Sparsa A, Marin B, Durox H, Bonnetblanc JM, Bédane C: [The value of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of Bowen's disease]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Dec;135(12):822-7
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  • [Title] [The value of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of Bowen's disease].
  • [Transliterated title] Intérêt de la photothérapie dynamique topique dans la prise en charge de la maladie de Bowen.
  • BACKGROUND: While the standard treatments for Bowen's disease (BD) (surgery, cryotherapy and antimitotic agents) are efficient, they are associated with extensive scarring.
  • In this paper we confirm that photodynamic therapy using topical aminolevulinic acid provides effective treatment for this disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients with a total of 38 cases of BD were included in this retrospective single-centre study between 2001 and 2006.
  • The study criteria consisted of patient age and gender, site and area of lesions, number of patients with multiple patches of BD and/or large lesions, tolerance of the treatment, clinical response and quality of wound healing at 3, 6 and 12 months.
  • RESULTS: Seven men and 15 women of median age: 76 years (interquartile range: [69-82]) with 38 cases of Bowen's diseases were treated with photodynamic therapy.
  • Eight patients were presenting multiple patches of BD (> or = three lesions), and large lesions were noted in 11 cases.
  • DISCUSSION: This open retrospective study confirmed the good efficacy of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of BD in terms of both clinical remission and cosmetic results.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19084691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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41. Kvlividze O, Gogiashvili L, Burkadze G: The characteristics of human papillomavirus expression and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease of the skin. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jul;(136):108-12
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  • [Title] The characteristics of human papillomavirus expression and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease of the skin.
  • The aim of our study was to elucidate the characteristics of HPV expression and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease of the skin.
  • We examined immunocompetent patients with premalignant lesions of the skin such as actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease.
  • Actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease failed to show the specific clinical features, therefore, they can not be diagnosed based on clinical signs only and morphological examination seems to be mandatory.
  • The immunohistochemical study has showed that in both actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease HPV was positive in 60%, and 40% were HPV-negative suggesting the similar incidence of HPV infection in these premalignant lesions.
  • Our results suggest that HPV(+)/p53(+) types of actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are characterized by higher proliferation activity in comparison to HPV(-)/p53(+) types, and expression of Bcl-2 is associated with HPV-negativity, therefore, these premalignant lesions of the skin require immunohistochemical examination with evaluation of expressions of human papillomavirus, proliferation marker PCNA and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.
  • The differential diagnosis of actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease should be based on the following immunohistochemical criteria: incidences of positivity for p53, Bcl-2 and PCNA are similar, but expression intensity and anatomical localization are different: their expressions are higher in Bowen's disease, positive cells are found primarily in upper epidermis in actinic keratosis, while whole epithelium is involved in Bowen's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Viral / immunology. Bowen's Disease / virology. Human papillomavirus 6 / immunology. Photosensitivity Disorders / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology


42. Piepenbring M, Cáceres Mendez OA, Espino Espinoza AA, Kirschner R, Schöfer H: Chromoblastomycosis caused by Chaetomium funicola: a case report from Western Panama. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Nov;157(5):1025-9
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  • Little is known about opportunistic fungi causing skin lesions in tropical countries such as Panama.
  • We report an 83-year-old man from Chiriquí, Western Panama, with crusted skin lesions covering tumorous masses resembling Bowen's disease of the skin on the dorsum of his right hand.
  • Fungal cultures were obtained on different nutrient media from disinfected superficial skin scrapings and fragments taken from a deep skin biopsy.
  • Deep skin biopsy showed the presence of globose, dark fungal cells in the upper and lower dermis, sometimes in abscesses or giant cells, indicating chromoblastomycosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chaetomium / isolation & purification. Chromoblastomycosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17634084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole
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43. Blum A, Hartmann KW, Rütten A: [Brownish coloration of the left nipple in a 60-year-old woman]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):64-8
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  • Pigmented Paget disease of the nipple is a rare disease.
  • We report on a 60-year-old woman in whom this diagnosis was made based on clinical findings, dermoscopy, histology and immunohistology.
  • Dermoscopy can enhance the clinical diagnosis.
  • On histology, rare melanocytic tumors must be differentiated from pigmented Paget disease and pigmented Bowen disease.
  • Pagetoid intraepithelial cells of a melanocytic tumor are positive for S100, HMB45 or melan A, but not for cytokeratins.
  • Intraepithelial tumor cells of Paget disease are positive for cytokeratin 7.
  • The clear cells in Bowen diseases are usually not positive for cytokeratin 7 and are also negative for all melanocytic markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythema / diagnosis. Erythema / etiology. Nipples / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / complications. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19967329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Morton CA: Topical photodynamic therapy for Bowen's disease. Australas J Dermatol; 2005 Feb;46 Suppl 3:S11; discussion S23-5
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  • [Title] Topical photodynamic therapy for Bowen's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15859302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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45. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Richards S, Paver R, Selva D: Scalp tumors treated with Mohs micrographic surgery: clinical features and surgical outcome. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Nov;32(11):1369-74
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  • METHODS: This prospective, multicenter study included all patients with scalp tumors who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia.
  • The most common tumors were basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 57.9%; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 35.8%; Bowen's disease (BD), 4.1%; and atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), 1.6%.
  • The recurrence rate for 70 BCC patients who completed the 5-year follow-up was 5.7%, and for 31 SCC cases it was 3.2%.
  • No cases of recurrence were noted in the patients with BD and AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Australia / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mohs Surgery. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


46. Troicki F, Pappas A, Noone R, Denittis A: Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:67
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States.
  • However, this disease often recurs or persists, requiring additional surgery for these patients.
  • In this case report, we discuss the efficacy of radiation therapy as a modality to treat post-excisional recurrent Bowen's disease, which may prevent sphincter compromise, leading to improved quality of life.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ.
  • A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal.
  • Two years after radiation therapy, our patient showed no signs of recurrent disease and had good sphincter control.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the main treatment modality for treating persistent/recurrent Bowen's disease is surgery, an alternative approach using external beam radiation for CIS may be enough to provide a cure for some patients with recurrent disease.

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  • [Cites] CA Cancer J Clin. 2008 Mar-Apr;58(2):71-96 [18287387.001]
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  • (PMID = 20181236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841077
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47. Meibodi NT, Ghoyunlu VM, Javidi Z, Nahidi Y: Clinicopathologic evaluation of mammary Paget's disease. Indian J Dermatol; 2008 Jan;53(1):21-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathologic evaluation of mammary Paget's disease.
  • Due to their nonspecific and variable clinical view, they have differential diagnosis with eczema, melanoma, Bowen's disease, etc.
  • To the best of our knowledge, no such study has been performed in Iran regarding the prevalence, clinical aspects, underlying disease and pathological characteristics of these two diseases.
  • In this study, we have evaluated the clinical and histopathological aspects of this disorder.
  • RESULTS: Among 98925 specimens, there were 29 cases of Paget's disease.
  • The exclusive underlying pathological diagnosis was ductal carcinoma (55%).
  • DISCUSSION: In most cases, the clinical view of mammary Paget's disease was helpful.
  • Majority of the accompanying pathology was ductal carcinoma.
  • We had no cases of extramammary Paget's disease in our study.

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  • (PMID = 19967013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2784580
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Extramammary / Paget's disease / intraepidermal neoplasia / mammary
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48. Cassarino DS, Derienzo DP, Barr RJ: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive clinicopathologic classification--part two. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Apr;33(4):261-79
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  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive clinicopathologic classification--part two.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) includes many subtypes with widely varying clinical behaviors, ranging from indolent to aggressive tumors with significant metastatic potential.
  • However, the tendency for pathologists and clinicians alike is to refer to all squamoid neoplasms as generic SCC.
  • Therefore, we have proposed the following based upon the malignant potential of SCC variants, separating them into categories of low (< or = 2% metastatic rate), intermediate (3-10%), high (greater than 10%), and indeterminate behavior.
  • Low-risk SCCs include SCC arising in actinic keratosis, HPV-associated SCC, tricholemmal carcinoma, and spindle cell SCC (unassociated with radiation).
  • Intermediate-risk SCCs include adenoid (acantholytic) SCC, intraepidermal epithelioma with invasion, and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin.
  • High-risk subtypes include de novo SCC, SCC arising in association with predisposing factors (radiation, burn scars, and immunosuppression), invasive Bowen's disease, adenosquamous carcinoma, and malignant proliferating pilar tumors.
  • The indeterminate category includes signet ring cell SCC, follicular SCC, papillary SCC, SCC arising in adnexal cysts, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, and clear-cell SCC.
  • Subclassification of SCC into these risk-based categories, along with enumeration of other factors including tumor size, differentiation, depth of invasion, and perineural invasion will provide prognostically relevant information and facilitate the most optimal treatment for patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermatology / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplastic Processes. Pathology, Surgical / methods. Risk Factors


49. Cassarino DS, Derienzo DP, Barr RJ: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive clinicopathologic classification. Part one. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Mar;33(3):191-206
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive clinicopathologic classification. Part one.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) includes many subtypes with widely varying clinical behaviors, ranging from indolent to aggressive tumors with significant metastatic potential.
  • However, the tendency for pathologists and clinicians alike is to refer to all squamoid neoplasms as generic SCC.
  • Therefore, we have proposed the following based upon the malignant potential of SCC variants, separating them into categories of low (< or = 2% metastatic rate), intermediate (3-10%), high (greater than 10%), and indeterminate behavior.
  • Low-risk SCCs include SCC arising in actinic keratosis, HPV-associated SCC, tricholemmal carcinoma, and spindle cell SCC (unassociated with radiation).
  • Intermediate-risk SCCs include adenoid (acantholytic) SCC, intraepidermal epithelioma with invasion, and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin.
  • High-risk subtypes include de novo SCC, SCC arising in association with predisposing factors (radiation, burn scars, and immunosuppression), invasive Bowen's disease, adenosquamous carcinoma, and malignant proliferating pilar tumors.
  • The indeterminate category includes signet ring cell SCC, follicular SCC, papillary SCC, SCC arising in adnexal cysts, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, and clear-cell SCC.
  • Subclassification of SCC into these risk-based categories, along with enumeration of other factors including tumor size, differentiation, depth of invasion, and perineural invasion will provide prognostically relevant information and facilitate the most optimal treatment for patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermatology / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplastic Processes. Pathology, Surgical / methods. Risk Factors


50. Perrin C, Baran R, Balaguer T, Chignon-Sicard B, Cannata GE, Petrella T, Michiels JF: Onychomatricoma: new clinical and histological features. A review of 19 tumors. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Feb;32(1):1-8
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  • The characteristic histologic appearance of OM is sometimes difficult to grasp because of 3 main factors: the anatomic particularities of the nail apparatus, the often fragmented aspect of the tissue specimen, and the choice of the section planes, which strongly modified the morphologic appearances observed.
  • This reconstitution gives us a better understanding of the apparent diversity of the morphologic aspects observed in linking them to the anatomic site of the tumor.
  • We individualize 3 misleading clinical variants: tumor with a verrucous surface that is located in the lateral nail fold, as a band pattern suggesting wart or Bowen disease; a total dystrophy of the nail unit mimicking a squamous cell carcinoma; and pseudofibrokeratoma type.
  • OM is a benign tumor with a broader morphologic spectrum than previously thought.
  • When the nail plate is not available, the immunohistochemistry can aid diagnosis by highlighting the peculiar immunophenotyping of OM, which expresses CD34 but not CD99, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, actin, and desmin.
  • [MeSH-major] Nail Diseases / pathology. Nails, Malformed / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroma / diagnosis. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Anatomic. Warts / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20098079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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51. Palungwachira P, Palungwachira P, Ogawa H: Treatment of multiple lesions of Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma with topical imiquimod. J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;32(12):1005-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of multiple lesions of Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma with topical imiquimod.
  • We observed complete clinical and histopathologic remission of papules, plaques and nodules in two patients with multiple lesions of Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Our findings indicate that topical imiquimod is a potentially promising therapeutic approach for the local treatment of early forms of cutaneous neoplasia, such as Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma because it is a non-invasive therapy with a good cosmetic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy


52. Carless MA, Griffiths LR: Cytogenetics of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2008;624:227-40
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  • [Title] Cytogenetics of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • Cytogenetic analysis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers has revealed recurrent aberrations, the frequency of which is reflective of malignant potential.
  • Highly aberrant karyotypes are seen in melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, solar keratosis and Merkel cell carcinoma with more stable karyotypes seen in basal cell carcinoma, keratoacanthoma, Bowen's disease, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and cutaneous lymphomas.
  • Some aberrations were common amongst a number of skin cancer types including rearrangements and numerical abnormalities of chromosome 1, -3p, +3q, partial or entire trisomy 6, trisomy 7, +8q, -9p, +9q, partial or entire loss of chromosome 10, -17p, +17q and partial or entire gain of chromosome 20.
  • This review provides a comprehensive summary of the pertinent cytogenetic aberrations associated with a variety of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Cytogenetics. Melanoma / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18348460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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53. Lee DY, Yang JM: Development of an in vitro Bowen's disease model using a three-dimensional culture system. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jan;36(1):82-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Development of an in vitro Bowen's disease model using a three-dimensional culture system.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Cell Culture Techniques / methods. Keratinocytes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19125739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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54. Hayami J, Okamoto H, Sugihara A, Horio T: Immunosuppressive effects of photodynamic therapy by topical aminolevulinic acid. J Dermatol; 2007 May;34(5):320-7
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  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for inflammatory skin disorders as well as superficial skin cancers such as solar keratosis and Bowen's disease.
  • This suggests that LC moved from PDT-treated skin, resulting in the decrement of epidermal LC and migration to lymph nodes.
  • CHS response to DNFB applied on the PDT-treated skin with 20% ALA and 40 J/cm(2) visible light was significantly suppressed (local immunosuppression).
  • When mice were treated with 80 J/cm(2) of PDT, CHS response to the antigen applied on untreated distant skin was also significantly suppressed (systemic immunosuppression).
  • The locally or systemically immunosuppressed mice by PDT were attempted to sensitize again with DNFB on non-treated skin, but elicitation responses were significantly suppressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Dermatitis, Contact / prevention & control. Immune Tolerance / drug effects. Langerhans Cells / drug effects. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Animals. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL

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  • (PMID = 17408441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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55. Nakajima H, Teraishi M, Tarutani M, Sano S: High prevalence of coinfection with mucosal high-risk type HPV (HR-HPV) and cutaneous HR-HPV in Bowen's disease in the fingers. J Dermatol Sci; 2010 Oct;60(1):50-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High prevalence of coinfection with mucosal high-risk type HPV (HR-HPV) and cutaneous HR-HPV in Bowen's disease in the fingers.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / epidemiology. Bowen's Disease / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Fingers / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 20727718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-569X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dermatological science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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56. Kendler M, Maschke J, Simon J, Wetzig T: Interdigital squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's disease): treatment with microscopically controlled surgery. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Jun;22(6):763-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interdigital squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's disease): treatment with microscopically controlled surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Microscopy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18482038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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57. Kim YJ, Kim JW, Koh BK: Successful treatment of vulvar Bowen's disease with topical imiquimod 5% cream. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Feb;45(2):151-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of vulvar Bowen's disease with topical imiquimod 5% cream.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16445508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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58. Patel GK, Goodwin R, Chawla M, Laidler P, Price PE, Finlay AY, Motley RJ: Imiquimod 5% cream monotherapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's disease): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Jun;54(6):1025-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod 5% cream monotherapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's disease): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
  • BACKGROUND: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of imiquimod 5% cream treatment for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ.
  • METHODS: In all, 31 patients with biopsy-proven cutaneous SCC in situ were randomly assigned to placebo (vehicle) (n = 16) or imiquimod 5% cream (n = 15) daily for 16 weeks.
  • Patients were assessed at week 28 for the primary end point, resolution of cutaneous SCC in situ.
  • Intention-to-treat analysis revealed 11 of the 15 patients (73%) in the imiquimod group achieved resolution of cutaneous SCC in situ, with no relapse during the 9-month follow-up period; none in the placebo group achieved resolution (P < .001).
  • LIMITATIONS: Topical imiquimod 5% cream has proven to be an effective treatment for cutaneous SCC in situ.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this controlled trial, patients with cutaneous SCC in situ receiving topical imiquimod 5% cream as monotherapy experienced a high degree of clinical benefit compared with placebo.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy


59. Mensing CH, Schleusner VH, Sander CA, Mensing H: Circumscribed palmar or plantar hypokeratosis: two cases of a recently described entity of unknown origin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):247-9
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  • [Title] Circumscribed palmar or plantar hypokeratosis: two cases of a recently described entity of unknown origin.
  • It seems to be underdiagnosed or clinically it is often misdiagnosed as Bowen's disease or porokeratosis.
  • Obviously the number of case reports of circumscribed palmar or plantar hypokeratosis has increased since the first publication by Perez et al.The histopathological hallmarks of this condition are a stair-like configuration with an abrupt thinning of the stratum corneum from uninvolved to involved skin with a central hypokeratotic area.
  • In one case there were additional histopathological features including the loss of granular cell layer in the center of the lesion and an overlying compact thin parakeratotic layer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Porokeratosis / pathology. Psoriasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Lee JY, Lin MH: Pigmented malignant hidroacanthoma simplex mimicking irritated seborrheic keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Oct;33(10):705-8
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  • Histopathologic examination of the excised tumor revealed intraepidermal proliferation of atypical polygonal poroid cells forming large, sharply demarcated nests with colonization of dendritic melanocytes.
  • In addition, there were focal changes of a benign pigmented HS and syringofibroadenoma.
  • PMHS should be differentiated from irritated seborrheic keratosis, melanoacanthoma, Bowen's disease and malignant melanoma both clinically and pathologically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17026524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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61. Fantini F, Greco A, Cesinaro AM, Surrenti T, Peris K, Vaschieri C, Marconi A, Giannetti A, Pincelli C: Pathologic changes after photodynamic therapy for Basal cell carcinoma and Bowen disease: a histologic and immunohistochemical investigation. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Feb;144(2):186-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic changes after photodynamic therapy for Basal cell carcinoma and Bowen disease: a histologic and immunohistochemical investigation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vivo reactions and the mechanisms of cell death after photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cutaneous carcinomas.
  • Photodynamic therapy is a new treatment modality for nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • DESIGN: Skin biopsy specimens were obtained sequentially after PDT for basal cell carcinoma and in situ squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen disease).
  • We used electron microscopy to evaluate cell damage at the ultrastructural level.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evidence of the mechanisms of tumor cell damage after PDT, detection of histologic and/or immunohistochemical signs of apoptosis, and time course of the tumor destruction and inflammatory reaction.
  • In basal cell carcinoma, nodule damage progressed from scant apoptotic cells seen at the dermal-epithelial junction to massive destruction seen after 1 and 2 days.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study defines the time course and characteristics of the skin tumor response to PDT.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18283175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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62. Schmitz MW, Goldberg LJ, Adler AJ: An extensive case of Bowen's disease in an HIV-positive male. AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2007 Feb;21(2):78-80
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  • [Title] An extensive case of Bowen's disease in an HIV-positive male.
  • Bowen's disease is a form of squamous cell carcinoma in situ often associated with human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • HPV has been hypothesized to cause in situ carcinoma via multiple mechanisms including cell immortalization and cell cycle disruption.
  • We describe a case of HPV-associated Bowen's disease in a 44-year-old African American male with sexually acquired HIV (CD4 < 20) who presented with an extensive skin lesion encompassing his penis, scrotum, and left inguinal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / complications. Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 17328656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2914
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS patient care and STDs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Patient Care STDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Sieroń A, Kawczyk-Krupka A, Adamek M, Cebula W, Zieleźnik W, Niepsuj K, Niepsuj G, Pietrusa A, Szyguła M, Biniszkiewicz T, Mazur S, Małyszek J, Romańczyk A, Ledwoń A, Frankiewicz A, Zybura A, Koczy E, Birkner B: Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in dermatology: "How we do it". Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2006 Jun;3(2):132-3
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  • [Title] Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in dermatology: "How we do it".
  • In dermatology PDT has been proven to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas (BCC), Bowen's disease, superficial squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).

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  • (PMID = 25049105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-1000
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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64. Park HR, Min SK, Min K, Jun SY, Seo J, Kim KH, Choi J: Differential expression of ezrin in epithelial skin tumors: cytoplasmic ezrin immunoreactivity in squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Dermatol; 2010 Jan;49(1):48-52
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  • [Title] Differential expression of ezrin in epithelial skin tumors: cytoplasmic ezrin immunoreactivity in squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The purpose of the study was to assess the expression pattern of ezrin in normal skin and various epithelial neoplasms.
  • METHODS: We used immunohistochemical techniques to examine the expression of ezrin in paraffin-embedded tissues of squamous cell carcinoma (n = 23), basal cell carcinoma (n = 10), Bowen's disease (n = 10), actinic keratosis (n = 10), keratoacanthoma (n = 9), seborrheic keratosis (n = 5), psoriasis vulgaris (n = 5), and normal control skin (n = 5).
  • RESULTS: In Bowen's disease, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, and seborrheic keratosis, ezrin was dominantly expressed in the cell membrane except for the cornified layer.
  • In squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens, the percentage of ezrin-positive cells was increased compared with Bowen's disease, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, and seborrheic keratosis.
  • Especially in SCC samples, ezrin expression was markedly expressed in the cytoplasm.
  • In addition, there was a correlation between the pattern of ezrin expression and tumor differentiation in SCC.
  • Basal cell carcinoma showed intense and diffuse staining especially in the solid growth pattern.
  • We suggest that the cytoplasmic localization of ezrin may be useful in the diagnosis of skin SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratoacanthoma / metabolism. Keratoacanthoma / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Keratosis, Seborrheic / metabolism. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Psoriasis / metabolism. Psoriasis / pathology


65. Serra-Guillen C, Hueso L, Nagore E, Vila M, Llombart B, Requena Caballero C, Botella-Estrada R, Sanmartin O, Alfaro-Rubio A, Guillen C: Comparative study between cold air analgesia and supraorbital and supratrochlear nerve block for the management of pain during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses of the frontotemporal zone. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Aug;161(2):353-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and basal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19438468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Zalaudek I, Di Stefani A, Argenziano G: The specific dermoscopic criteria of Bowen's disease. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Mar;20(3):361-2
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  • [Title] The specific dermoscopic criteria of Bowen's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 May;21(5):700-1 [17447998.001]
  • [CommentOn] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004 Sep;18(5):572-4 [15324396.001]
  • (PMID = 16503917.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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67. Masuda T, Hara H, Shimojima H, Suzuki H, Tanaka K: Spontaneous complete regression of multiple Bowen's disease in the web-spaces of the feet. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Jun;45(6):783-5
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  • [Title] Spontaneous complete regression of multiple Bowen's disease in the web-spaces of the feet.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16796655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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68. Chen SJ, Nakahara T, Takahara M, Kido M, Dugu L, Uchi H, Takeuchi S, Tu YT, Moroi Y, Furue M: Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway in epidermal tumours and its correlation with cyclin-dependent kinase 2. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Feb;160(2):442-5
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  • BACKGROUND: The enzyme mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates many different cellular signals to control cell growth and proliferation, protein synthesis and breakdown, and other processes.
  • To date, there has been no report on the expression of protein kinase B (AKT)/mTOR cell signalling in epidermal tumours.
  • METHODS: Immunohistological staining was performed with phosphorylated (p-) AKT, p-mTOR, p-4E-binding protein 1 (p-4EBP1), p-ribosomal protein S6 (p-S6), p-p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p-p70S6K1) and CDK2 in 15 cases each of seborrhoeic keratosis, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma and Bowen's disease (BD), and 25 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Fifteen normal skin (NS) samples served as control.
  • CDK2 immunostaining was positive in all cases of SCC and BD, and in 67% of benign tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Sirolimus / pharmacology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism


69. Takahashi H, Nakajima S, Sakata I, Ishida-Yamamoto A, Iizuka H: Photodynamic therapy using a novel photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na): comparative effect with 5-aminolevulinic acid on squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC15, ultraviolet B-induced skin tumor, and phorbol ester-induced hyperproliferative skin. Arch Dermatol Res; 2005 Apr;296(10):496-502
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy using a novel photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na): comparative effect with 5-aminolevulinic acid on squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC15, ultraviolet B-induced skin tumor, and phorbol ester-induced hyperproliferative skin.
  • Recently, we developed a new PDT photosensitizer, ATX-S10(Na), and have shown that ATX-S10(Na) PDT is effective for the treatment of various human skin diseases, such as squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma, and psoriasis.
  • In the present study, we compared the effects of ATX-S10(Na) PDT and ALA PDT on hyperproliferative skin induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), on the squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC15, in vitro, and on UVB-induced skin tumors in vivo.
  • ATX-S10(Na) PDT more effectively eliminated UVB-induced AK and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than ALA PDT.
  • Our results indicate that ATX-S10(Na) PDT might be more effective than ALA PDT for the treatment of various skin diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Porphyrins / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Mice. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / drug therapy. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 15759135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATX S10Na(II); 0 / Porphyrins; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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70. Cameron A, Rosendahl C, Tschandl P, Riedl E, Kittler H: Dermatoscopy of pigmented Bowen's disease. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Apr;62(4):597-604
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  • [Title] Dermatoscopy of pigmented Bowen's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Pigmented Bowen's disease is not well characterized.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical and dermatoscopic appearance of pigmented Bowen's disease.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 52 consecutive cases of pigmented Bowen's disease.
  • RESULTS: Of 951 histopathologically verified cases of Bowen's disease that underwent biopsy during the study period, 52 (5.5%) were pigmented.
  • Dermatoscopically pigmented Bowen's disease is typified by a pattern of dots and/or structureless zones.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pigmented Bowen's disease has a characteristic dermatoscopic pattern.
  • Linear arrangement of brown and/or gray dots and/or coiled vessels is a specific clue to pigmented Bowen's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Dermoscopy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20079953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Choudhary S, Nouri K, Elsaie ML: Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: a review. Lasers Med Sci; 2009 Nov;24(6):971-80
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  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for the prevention and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Until recently, clinically approved indications have been restricted to actinic keratoses, nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma, and, since 2006, Bowen disease.
  • PDT is also used for the treatment of non-malignant conditions such as acne vulgaris and leishmaniasis, as well as for treating premature skin aging due to sun exposure.
  • Either cytotoxic effects resulting in tumor destruction or immunomodulatory effects improving inflammatory skin conditions are induced.
  • Treating superficial non-melanoma skin cancer, PDT has been shown to be highly efficient, despite the low level of invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Photochemotherapy / methods. Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Laser Therapy / methods. Lasers, Dye / therapeutic use. Lasers, Semiconductor / therapeutic use. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19653060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-604X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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72. Chen YJ, Wu CY, Chang CC, Ma CJ, Li MC, Chen CM: Nuclear Krüppel-like factor 4 expression is associated with human skin squamous cell carcinoma progression and metastasis. Cancer Biol Ther; 2008 May;7(5):777-82
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  • [Title] Nuclear Krüppel-like factor 4 expression is associated with human skin squamous cell carcinoma progression and metastasis.
  • Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcription factor regulating cell growth and differentiation.
  • To understand the significance KLF4 on clinicopathologic implications in human squamous cell carcinoma skin (SCC) progression, thirty six formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of cutaneous SCC and 28 samples of Bowen's disease were stained with anti-KLF4 antibodies.
  • Nuclear KLF4 staining was seen in differentiated epithelium including suprabasal keratinocyte of non-lesional skin.
  • Strong nuclear KLF4 staining was observed in tumor parts of both SCC and Bowen's disease, when compared with their non-tumor parts (p = 0.001).
  • Increased expression of KLF4 protein and mRNA were found in squamous cell carcinoma cell line studies and fresh skin tissue respectively, using western blotting and semi-quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • SCC with moderately and poorly differentiated tumors tend to have maturation independent (MI) staining pattern (p = 0.0004), compared to maturation dependent (MD) staining in well-differentiated tumors.
  • We propose that KLF4 expression is associated with human skin SCC progression and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2008 May;7(5):783-5 [18424916.001]
  • (PMID = 18376139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GKLF protein; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
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73. Mitsuishi T, Ohara K, Suzuki T, Mochizuki T, Kaneko T, Kawana S: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis with keratoacanthoma, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma: isolation of high-risk types of HPV 5 and unknown type of human papillomavirus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Sep;22(9):1126-7
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  • [Title] Epidermodysplasia verruciformis with keratoacanthoma, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma: isolation of high-risk types of HPV 5 and unknown type of human papillomavirus.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis / complications. Keratoacanthoma / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification


74. Raspagliesi F, Fontanelli R, Rossi G, Ditto A, Solima E, Hanozet F, Kusamura S: Photodynamic therapy using a methyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in recurrent Paget's disease of the vulva: a pilot study. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Nov;103(2):581-6
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy using a methyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in recurrent Paget's disease of the vulva: a pilot study.
  • OBJECTIVE: In the past, treating vulvar Paget's disease through surgery has resulted in a high recurrence rate of the disease.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5 ALA) is an effective treatment for some conditions such as Bowen's disease, subsets of basal cell carcinomas and vulvar carcinoma.
  • This paper outlines a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using MAL-PDT in the treatment of recurrent vulvar Paget's disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MAL-PDT is a feasible treatment and seems to offer a reliable strategy in the control of vulvar Paget's disease and of its symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16793128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / delta-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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75. McKenna DJ, Morris S, Kurwa H: Treatment-resistant giant unilateral Bowen's disease of the scalp responding to radiotherapy. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Jan;34(1):85-6
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  • [Title] Treatment-resistant giant unilateral Bowen's disease of the scalp responding to radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19076799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Wang XL, Wang HW, Guo MX, Xu SZ: Treatment of skin cancer and pre-cancer using topical ALA-PDT--a single hospital experience. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2008 Jun;5(2):127-33
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  • [Title] Treatment of skin cancer and pre-cancer using topical ALA-PDT--a single hospital experience.
  • Our hospital (Shanghai Skin Diseases & STD Hospital) started to study 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in 1996.
  • So far, we have treated 76 cases of skin cancer and pre-cancer using topical ALA-PDT.
  • They included squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease (BD), mammary and extramammary Paget disease, actinic keratosis (AK) and erythroplasia of Queyrat.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Precancerous Conditions. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19356643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4439-84-3 / 2-amino-5-hydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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77. Moseley H, Allen JW, Ibbotson S, Lesar A, McNeill A, Camacho-Lopez MA, Samuel ID, Sibbett W, Ferguson J: Ambulatory photodynamic therapy: a new concept in delivering photodynamic therapy. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Apr;154(4):747-50
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  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be effective in treating Bowen's disease, superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis.
  • A pilot study was carried out in five patients with histologically proven Bowen's disease who were referred for PDT with 5-aminolaevulinic acid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There are many potential benefits of ambulatory PDT, including the possibility of a much higher patient throughput, and allowing effective treatment at home.
  • [MeSH-major] Ambulatory Care / methods. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy


78. Szeimies RM, Karrer S, Bäcker H: [Therapeutic options for epithelial skin tumors. Actinic keratoses, Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma]. Hautarzt; 2005 May;56(5):430-40
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic options for epithelial skin tumors. Actinic keratoses, Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Therapieoptionen bei epithelialen Hauttumoren Aktinische Keratosen, Morbus Bowen, spinozelluläres Karzinom und Basalzellkarzinom.
  • There has been worldwide a significant rise in the incidence of epithelial skin tumors and their precursors in the past years with an increased number of younger patients affected.
  • In the following article different therapeutic approaches for actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are presented and analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Risk Assessment / methods. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Bowen's Disease / therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cryotherapy / methods. Curettage / methods. Humans. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15815888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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79. Kim SJ, Park HJ, Lee JY, Cho BK: A Case of Amelanotic Subungual Melanoma. Ann Dermatol; 2008 Mar;20(1):26-8
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  • We herein report on a case of amelanotic subungual melanoma extended to the adjacent skin in a 36-year-old Korean woman.
  • This case is interesting in that clinically, it needed differentiation from Bowen's disease, lichen planus, sarcoidosis, etc. and very early invading features of the melanoma were observed on the histopathologic section.

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  • (PMID = 27303154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1013-9087
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4904044
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Amelanotic subungual melanoma
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80. Vereecken P, Da Costa CM, Steels E, De Lathouwer O, Heenen M, De Mey A: Fluorescence diagnosis of face-located basal cell carcinomas: a new dermatological procedure which may help the surgeon. Acta Chir Belg; 2007 Mar-Apr;107(2):205-7
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  • [Title] Fluorescence diagnosis of face-located basal cell carcinomas: a new dermatological procedure which may help the surgeon.
  • Cutaneous Fluorescence Diagnosis (FD) is a new promising dermatological procedure which is based on the combination of a local application of a photosensitizer such as 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or its methyl ester (MAL) and the use of a light source (red light) adapted to the absorption spectrum of these molecules.
  • The targeted photosensitization of skin cancers, particularily superficial and extensive lesions including superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease, by ALA or MAL induced porphyrins leads to a selective red fluorescence which can be demonstrated by Wood's lamp.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Fluorescence. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17515272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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81. Boyd S, Virolainen S, Pärssinen J, Skoog T, van Hogerlinden M, Latonen L, Kyllönen L, Toftgard R, Saarialho-Kere U: MMP-10 (Stromelysin-2) and MMP-21 in human and murine squamous cell cancer. Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;18(12):1044-52
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  • [Title] MMP-10 (Stromelysin-2) and MMP-21 in human and murine squamous cell cancer.
  • The squamous cell cancers (SCC) of renal transplant recipients are more aggressive and metastasize earlier than those of the non-immunocompromised population.
  • Our aim was to compare the expression of MMPs-10, -12 and -21 in SCCs from immunosuppressed (IS) and control patients and the contribution of MMPs-10 and -21 to SCC development in the FVB/N-Tg(KRT5-Nfkbia)3Rto mouse line.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of 25 matched pairs of SCCs, nine of Bowen's disease and timed back skin biopsies of mice with selective inhibition of Rel/NF-kappaB signalling were performed.
  • Tumor cell-derived MMP-10, -12 and -21 expression did not differ between the groups but stromal fibroblasts of the control SCCs tended to express MMP-21 more abundantly.
  • MMP-10 expression was observed already in Bowen's disease while MMP-21 was absent.
  • Our results suggest that MMP-10 may be important in the initial stages of SCC progression and induced in the stroma relating to the general host-response reaction to skin cancer.
  • MMP-21 does not associate with invasion of SCC but may be involved in keratinocyte differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Matrix Metalloproteinase 10 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted / metabolism. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Bowen's Disease / etiology. Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Cyclosporine / adverse effects. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Endothelium / metabolism. Female. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Fibroblasts / pathology. Humans. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Lymphocytes / pathology. Macrophages / metabolism. Macrophages / pathology. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 12 / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Middle Aged. Neutrophils / metabolism. Neutrophils / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19601983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.4.24.- / MMP21 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.- / MMP21 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted; EC 3.4.24.22 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 10; EC 3.4.24.65 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 12
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82. Donnelly RF, McCarron PA, Woolfson AD: Drug delivery of aminolevulinic acid from topical formulations intended for photodynamic therapy. Photochem Photobiol; 2005 Jul-Aug;81(4):750-67
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  • Topical photodynamic therapy is used for a variety of malignant and pre-malignant skin disorders, including Bowen's Disease and Superficial Basal Cell Carcinoma.
  • Cell destruction occurs when PpIX is activated by an intense light source of appropriate wavelength.

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  • (PMID = 15790300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-8655
  • [Journal-full-title] Photochemistry and photobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photochem. Photobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 215
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83. Kamiya H, Kitajima Y, Ban M: Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma: the pluripotential nature of Bowen's disease cells. J Dermatol; 2006 Dec;33(12):858-64
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  • [Title] Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma: the pluripotential nature of Bowen's disease cells.
  • Bowen's disease rarely exhibits multiple combinations of premalignant and/or malignant skin lesions.
  • Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma was originally described by Kao, but is not well recognized by clinicians due to its rarity and lack of specific clinical features of this condition.
  • Herein, we describe three unusual cases of Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma.
  • The plaque lesions possessed clinical features typical of Bowen's disease.
  • In cases 1 and 3, we confirmed the adnexal tumor within tumors of Bowen's disease, the diagnosis of which is eccrine porocarcinoma.
  • The tumor in case 2 was characteristic to trichilemmal carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells of Bowen's disease and the adnexal carcinoma differed in antigenicities.
  • The present cases support a notion that Bowen's disease maintains a pluripotential nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrospiroma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17169090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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84. Suzaki R, Kobayashi K, Ishizaki S, Fujibayashi M, Tanaka M: Dermoscopic Features of CD8-Positive Solitary Pagetoid Reticulosis on the Left Leg. Dermatol Res Pract; 2010;2010
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  • Solitary pagetoid reticulosis, also known as Woringer-Kolopp disease, is a rare subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • Because the clinical features of pagetoid reticulosis are indistinctive, pagetoid reticulosis may progress for years before accurate diagnosis.
  • We reported a 57-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a 1-year history of a solitary erythematous plaque on the left leg.
  • Dermoscopic features simulated Bowen's disease showing dotted and glomerular vessels, whitish scaly areas, and a broad negative network.

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  • [Cites] Mod Pathol. 2000 May;13(5):502-10 [10824921.001]
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  • (PMID = 20706637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-6113
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Res Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913809
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85. Hu SC, Chiu HH, Chen GS, Ke CL, Cheng ST: Dermoscopy as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for pigmented Bowen's disease on acral region. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Sep;34(9):1248-53; discussion 1253
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermoscopy as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for pigmented Bowen's disease on acral region.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Dermoscopy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fingers. Humans. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18554290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Herat A, Shirato K, Damian DL, Finlayson R, Whitfeld M: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 May;47(2):120-3
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  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual.
  • A 54-year-old HIV-positive homosexual man presented with erythematous and pigmented plaques on background erythema in the perianal region, histologically consistent with Bowen's disease.
  • Perianal Bowen's disease represents high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, which is considered a precursor lesion of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • He progressed to develop a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus three and a half years after the Bowen's disease was diagnosed.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma was treated with combined chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


87. Sheth HG, Jain R, Joshi N: Bowen disease of the conjunctiva treated by Mohs resection. Br J Hosp Med (Lond); 2007 Oct;68(10):560
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  • [Title] Bowen disease of the conjunctiva treated by Mohs resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / surgery. Conjunctival Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17974308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-8460
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of hospital medicine (London, England : 2005)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Hosp Med (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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88. Gutiérrez-Mendoza D, Narro-Llorente R, Karam-Orantes M, Fonte-Avalos V, Martínez-Luna E, Toussaint-Caire S, Domíguez-Cherit J: Dermoscopy Clues in Pigmented Bowen's Disease. Dermatol Res Pract; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy Clues in Pigmented Bowen's Disease.
  • Pigmented tumors have similar clinical features that overlap and hamper diagnosis.
  • Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy of doubtful melanocytic lesions and has been used as a noninvasive tool in the detection of pigmented lesions (PLs) like melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD).
  • The dermoscopic diagnosis of pBD is based on the absence of criteria for a melanocytic lesion in the presence of glomerular vessels, regular brown globules and keratosis.
  • Although pBD is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of PLs, especially melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 20886019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-6113
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Res Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2945663
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89. Bogner PN, Su LD, Fullen DR: Cluster designation 5 staining of normal and non-lymphoid neoplastic skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):50-4
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  • [Title] Cluster designation 5 staining of normal and non-lymphoid neoplastic skin.
  • RESULTS: Within normal skin, CD5 labeled lymphocytes, apocrine glands, deep dermal eccrine glands, and smooth muscle (weak).
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma demonstrated focal staining of deeper ductal structures (71%, n=7), whereas desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma showed only rare positive cells.
  • All cases of mammary (n=7) and extramammary (n=8) Paget's disease labeled diffusely for CD5.
  • Pagetoid Bowen's disease (n=6), intraepidermal sebaceous carcinoma (n=3), nor melanoma in situ (n=6) showed any CD5 staining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical staining for CD5 is extremely useful in the differential diagnosis of pagetoid epidermal lesions and will mark mammary and extramammary Paget's disease, but not pagetoid Bowen's disease, melanoma in situ, or sebaceous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD5 / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Staining and Labeling
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Count. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15660655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD5
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90. Panelos J, Tarantini F, Paglierani M, Di Serio C, Maio V, Pellerito S, Pimpinelli N, Santucci M, Massi D: Photoexposition discriminates Notch 1 expression in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 Mar;21(3):316-25
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  • [Title] Photoexposition discriminates Notch 1 expression in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In skin cancer, Notch 1 expression is downregulated, thus supporting the hypothesis of an oncosuppressive role in cutaneous carcinomas.
  • However, as members of the Notch family undergo downregulation upon exposure to UV irradiation, we wondered whether Notch 1 expression in skin carcinomas may be governed by additional factors, including UV exposure.
  • We investigated the expression of Notch 1 and its ligands, Jagged 1, Jagged 2 and Delta-like 1, by immunohistochemistry in a series of premalignant and invasive cutaneous carcinomas, including 4 solar keratoses, 5 Bowen's disease, 5 squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed skin, 6 squamous cell carcinomas on sun-protected genital skin and 14 basal cell carcinomas of different histotypes (nodular, superficial type, sclerodermiform/infiltrating and baso-squamous).
  • Expression of Notch 1 was decreased in solar keratoses and invasive squamous cell carcinomas localized on sun-exposed skin.
  • In contrast, marked Notch 1 staining was observed in extragenital Bowen's disease as well as in genital (penile) human papilloma virus-related in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinomas.
  • A diffuse Notch 1 staining was detected in nodular and superficial basal cell carcinomas while sclerodermiform/infiltrating and baso-squamous basal cell carcinomas showed a low to absent Notch 1 expression.
  • Present findings show divergent expression of Notch 1 in skin cancer, depending on anatomical site and tumor histotype.
  • Thus, whereas in UV-related squamous cell photocarcinogenesis Notch 1 downregulation could mirror a tumor suppressor function of the receptor, in sun-protected squamous cell carcinomas Notch 1 was upregulated.
  • Furthermore, Notch 1 expression was minimal in basal cell carcinoma subtypes correlated with risk of recurrence (sclerodermiform/infiltrating and baso-squamous) in comparison with nodular and superficial types.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / radiation effects. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Receptor, Notch1 / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation / radiation effects. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Ultraviolet Rays. Up-Regulation / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 18192969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NOTCH1 protein, human; 0 / Receptor, Notch1
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91. Clayton TH, Tait J, Whitehurst C, Yates VM: Photodynamic therapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):39-41
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCCs) and Bowen's disease.
  • Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinomas characteristically affect older patients who may also have associated difficulties with mobility.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16436340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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92. Cohen PR, Schulze KE, Rady PL, Tyring SK, He Q, Martinelli PT, Nelson BR: Coincidental consort clear cell cutaneous carcinoma: facial squamous cell carcinoma in situ containing human papillomavirus and cancer cells with clear cytoplasm in an octogenarian couple. South Med J; 2007 May;100(5):525-30
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  • [Title] Coincidental consort clear cell cutaneous carcinoma: facial squamous cell carcinoma in situ containing human papillomavirus and cancer cells with clear cytoplasm in an octogenarian couple.
  • Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma in situ, also referred to as pagetoid or clear cell Bowen disease, is a rare pathologic variant of this neoplasm.
  • An octogenarian husband and wife concurrently developed new facial skin lesions which demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma in situ consisting of cancer cells with clear cytoplasm.
  • Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) typing detected HPV Type 5 and HPV Type 21 in the tumors of the husband and wife, respectively.
  • HPV is a potential etiologic factor in the oncogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and HPV DNA has been demonstrated in extragenital squamous cell carcinoma in situ.
  • The detection of DNA from different HPV types in the tumors of our patients suggests that the concurrent occurrence of their skin cancers may have been coincidental.
  • However, the presence of HPV DNA in their tumors introduces the possibility of a viral-associated oncogenesis for clear cell squamous cell carcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Facial Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Skin Neoplasms / virology


93. Ishihara K, Saida T, Otsuka F, Yamazaki N, Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society: Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):33-41
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  • [Title] Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update.
  • BACKGROUND: In the previous report of the Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society, we tabulated data on patients with malignant melanoma who had been registered at major medical institutions (22 institutions on average) in Japan over 5-year periods from 1987 to 1991 (group A) and from 1992 to 1996 (group B).
  • In addition, the numbers of patients with various kinds of skin malignancies, including not only malignant melanoma but also basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, mycosis fungoides, actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, and Paget's disease, registered at approximately 100 medical institutions in Japan from 1987 to 2001, were also investigated and data were tabulated.
  • RESULTS: The nationwide survey of Japanese patients with malignant skin tumors from 1987 to 2001 showed that the most prevalent skin tumor was basal cell carcinoma, which increased year by year, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, and then by malignant melanoma.
  • The following results were obtained from the data for melanoma patients registered at major institutions from 1987 to 2001. (1) The overall 10-year survival rates for melanoma patients in each chronological group were ranked as: group C > B > A, although only the difference between groups C and A was statistically significant. (2) The male-to-female ratio ranged from 1: 0.97 to 1: 1.14, and the survival rate of female patients was higher than that of male patients (the 140-month survival rate was 70.6% in females and 60% in males). (3) Assessment of the age distribution showed that the number of patients increased rapidly from ages 40-49 years and reached a peak at around 60 years in all three groups. (4) The sole of the foot was the most common site of melanoma in both males and females, while melanomas on the lower limbs were also prevalent in females. (5) Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most common type in all three groups, accounting for nearly 50% of the patients in each group.
  • CONCLUSION: In Japan, the number of patients with malignant skin tumors has increased year by year.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18307017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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94. Shimizu A, Tamura A, Abe M, Motegi S, Nagai Y, Ishikawa O, Nakatani Y, Yamamoto Y, Uezato H, Hoshino H: Detection of human papillomavirus type 56 in Bowen's disease involving the nail matrix. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Jun;158(6):1273-9
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  • [Title] Detection of human papillomavirus type 56 in Bowen's disease involving the nail matrix.
  • BACKGROUND: As Bowen's disease of the nail apparatus is quite rare, there have been only a few reports on the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in this condition.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to clarify the association of HPV with this disease involving the nail apparatus.
  • METHODS: Five patients with Bowen's disease of the nail apparatus were investigated clinically, virologically and histologically.
  • Total DNAs extracted from excised skin lesions were analysed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of HPV DNA and the amplified products were subjected to DNA sequence analyses.
  • RESULTS: In three of five patients, HPV was detected by PCR amplification, and subsequent sequence analyses of the PCR products showed the sequences of HPV type 56.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HPV 56 may be involved in the carcinogenesis of Bowen's disease affecting the nail matrix with longitudinal pigmentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Nail Diseases / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18410409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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96. Lukas VanderSpek LA, Pond GR, Wells W, Tsang RW: Radiation therapy for Bowen's disease of the skin. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):505-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation therapy for Bowen's disease of the skin.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the clinical outcome in the radiation therapy (RT) of squamous carcinoma in situ of the skin (Bowen's disease).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective review was performed on 44 patients with Bowen's disease treated at Princess Margaret Hospital from April 1985 to November 2000.
  • RT was the primary treatment for 32 patients, whereas 12 received RT for residual disease after local ablative therapy.
  • There was no standard fractionation regimen: some physicians prescribed high doses, as for invasive skin cancer, whereas others prescribed lower doses because of the noninvasive nature of the disease, a sensitive anatomic location (e.g., extremity), or large treatment area.
  • Local control was defined as the lack of persistent or recurrent disease at the treated site for the follow-up period.
  • One recurrence was Bowen's disease (local); the others were squamous cell carcinoma (one local, one marginal).
  • Four patients experienced a new squamous lesion at a distant cutaneous site.
  • All but 3 patients were disease-free at last follow-up, 1 of whom died with distant, but not local disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment option for Bowen's disease of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16168842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Martin AA, Hudgins EM, McMullan FH: All Bowen's disease is squamous cell carcinoma in situ, but all squamous cell carcinoma in situ is not Bowen's disease. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Nov;37(11):1186-7
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  • [Title] All Bowen's disease is squamous cell carcinoma in situ, but all squamous cell carcinoma in situ is not Bowen's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


98. Puizina-Ivić N, Zorc H, Vanjaka-Rogosić L, Mirić L, Persin A: Fractionated illumination improves the outcome in the treatment of precancerous lesions with photodynamic therapy. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:67-73
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  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • The aim of this study was comparison of efficacy between fractioned versus single dose illumination in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD).
  • Fifty-one patients (36 AK and 15 BD) were treated with PDT They were randomly arranged in two treatment groups.
  • Group one included 26 patients (20 AK and 6 BD) that, after five hours of incubation with 20% 5-ALA, were treated with a single illumination of 100 Jcm(-2) at fluence rate of 30 mWcm(-2).
  • Group two included 25 patients (16 AK and 9 BD) that, after 16 hours of incubation with 20% 5-ALA, were treated with two light fractions (50 plus 50 Jcm(-2)) at same fluence rate with dark interval of two hours between fractions.
  • Twenty-four weeks later, a treated area was incubated for four hours again with 5-ALA in order to detect occult areas of abnormal skin with possible remaining tumor tissue.
  • Residual tumor was found in 15 (75%) AK and in 4 (66.6%) BD.
  • In this group histology revealed remaining tumor tissue in only 2 (12.5%) AK and 2 (22.2%) BD.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19138010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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99. Attili SK, Lesar A, McNeill A, Camacho-Lopez M, Moseley H, Ibbotson S, Samuel ID, Ferguson J: An open pilot study of ambulatory photodynamic therapy using a wearable low-irradiance organic light-emitting diode light source in the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Jul;161(1):170-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An open pilot study of ambulatory photodynamic therapy using a wearable low-irradiance organic light-emitting diode light source in the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a popular treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancer with clearance rates of between 70% and 100%.
  • OBJECTIVES: To present an open pilot study of a low-irradiance, potentially disposable, lightweight, organic light-emitting diode (OLED), which is an area-emitting light source (2 cm diameter), suitable for ambulatory PDT.
  • METHODS: Twelve patients with Bowen's disease (eight) and superficial basal cell carcinoma (four) < 2 cm in diameter were recruited into the study following histological confirmation of the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Lasers, Semiconductor / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19302071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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100. Elamin I, Zecević RD, Vojvodić D, Medenica L, Pavlović MD: Cytokine concentrations in basal cell carcinomas of different histological types and localization. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2008 Jun;17(2):55-9
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  • [Title] Cytokine concentrations in basal cell carcinomas of different histological types and localization.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant skin tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: We were interested in comparing cytokine levels in BCC and cutaneous squamous cell tumors with BCC of different localization and histological subtypes.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Explants from freshly excised BCC from 18 patients, and cutaneous squamous cell tumors (solar keratoses and Bowen's disease) from 9 patients were cultivated for 24 h.
  • RESULTS: Tissue explants of BCC contained significantly higher concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 compared to those of squamous cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Cytokines / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Female. Humans. Interleukin-4 / analysis. Interleukin-5 / analysis. Male. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18709290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1318-4458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica, et Adriatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovenia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-5; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4
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