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1. Saetta AA, Aroni K, Stamatelli A, Lazaris AC, Patsouris E: Expression of mismatch repair enzymes, hMLH1 and hMSH2 is not associated with microsatellite instability and P53 protein accumulation in basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol Res; 2005 Sep;297(3):99-107
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  • [Title] Expression of mismatch repair enzymes, hMLH1 and hMSH2 is not associated with microsatellite instability and P53 protein accumulation in basal cell carcinoma.
  • The role of MSI in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has not been clearly delineated yet. p53 gene as a target for ultraviolet radiation-induced mutations may enhance genomic instability in BCC, with loss of its function.
  • Our aim was to investigate the involvement of MSI and expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in parallel with P53 protein accumulation in the pathogenesis of BCC and its possible correlation to the clinicopathological features of the patients.
  • Alterations of the BAT-26 marker were observed in one fibroepithelioma of Pincus, one nodular and one multifocal superficial BCC.
  • A keratotic BCC showed an altered BAT-25 locus.
  • Two samples, a multifocal superficial and a nodular BCC, displayed MSI at two markers (BAT-25 and BAT-26; and BAT-25 and TGF-beta-RII, respectively).
  • Three more cases, a metatypical, a multifocal superficial and a signet ring BCC exhibited frameshift mutations in the TGF-beta-RII.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genomic Instability / genetics. Humans. Male. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Protein Transport. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16012876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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2. de Haas ER, de Vijlder HC, van Reesema WS, van Everdingen JJ, Neumann HA: Quality of clinical practice guidelines in dermatological oncology. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Oct;21(9):1193-8
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  • METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane literature and relevant websites of guidelines development programmes and the national dermatological society to identify evidence-based dermatological guidelines especially in the treatment of to basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 17894704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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3. Applebaum KM, Karagas MR, Hunter DJ, Catalano PJ, Byler SH, Morris S, Nelson HH: Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, arsenic exposure, and non-melanoma skin cancer in New Hampshire. Environ Health Perspect; 2007 Aug;115(8):1231-6
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  • [Title] Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, arsenic exposure, and non-melanoma skin cancer in New Hampshire.
  • UV damage is specifically repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and common genetic variants in NER may increase risk for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC).
  • METHODS: Incident cases of basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC, respectively) were identified through a network of dermatologists and pathology laboratories across New Hampshire.
  • The analysis included 880 cases of BCC, 666 cases of SCC, and 780 controls.
  • RESULTS: There was an increased BCC risk associated with high arsenic exposure among those homozygous variant for XPA [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9-3.7].
  • For XPD, having variation at both loci (312Asn and 751Gln) occurred less frequently among BCC and SCC cases compared with controls (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0) for both case groups.

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  • (PMID = 17687452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-6765
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057494; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA082354; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES007373; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32 ES07155; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES07373; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA57494; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32 ES007155; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082354
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / XPA protein, human; 0 / Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Protein; EC 5.99.- / ERCC2 protein, human; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1940098
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4. Testori A, Tosti G, Martinoli C, Spadola G, Cataldo F, Verrecchia F, Baldini F, Mosconi M, Soteldo J, Tedeschi I, Passoni C, Pari C, Di Pietro A, Ferrucci PF: Electrochemotherapy for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor lesions: a novel therapeutic approach. Dermatol Ther; 2010 Nov-Dec;23(6):651-61
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  • [Title] Electrochemotherapy for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor lesions: a novel therapeutic approach.
  • Electroporation uses pulsed, high-intensity electric fields to temporarily increase cell membrane permeability by creation of pores, through which small molecules, such as chemotherapeutic agents, can diffuse inside cells before they reseal.
  • ECT has already been proven to be effective in diverse tumor histotypes, including melanoma and basal and squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and breast cancer, also in those cases nonresponding to classical chemotherapies or other loco-regional treatment modalities, with a good safety profile.
  • ECT can be proposed as loco-regional therapy for disseminated cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor lesions as alternative treatment modality to conventional therapies or as palliative care, in order to improve patients' quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Electrochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Humans. Skin / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21054709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Petrella LI, Valle HA, Issa PR, Martins CJ, Pereira WC, Machado JC: Study of cutaneous cell carcinomas ex vivo using ultrasound biomicroscopic images. Skin Res Technol; 2010 Nov;16(4):422-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Study of cutaneous cell carcinomas ex vivo using ultrasound biomicroscopic images.
  • In this sense, several studies are being conducted for the measurement of cutaneous tumor sizes and for the evaluation of their response to therapeutic procedures.
  • The present work was conducted to analyze the ability of UBM to identify diverse histological structures associated with cutaneous carcinomas ex vivo regarding the evaluation of the technique as a diagnostic tool that could, eventually, improve the patient's healthcare protocol.
  • METHODS: Ex vivo human tissue samples, corresponding to basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cases, were studied.
  • RESULTS: The histological components present in the tumors were identified by variations in the echogenicity level for several of the studied cases and particular characteristics were observed for the different tumor types.
  • CONCLUSION: The possibility of differentiating the histological components associated with cutaneous carcinomas indicates the potential use of UBM for diagnostic applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ultrasonography. Dermoscopy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 21039907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0846
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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6. Thomas L, Dalle S: [Pathology of the eyelid in elderly patients]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Jun;29(6):672-86
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  • METHODS: Illustrated review centered on diagnosis of the usual aspects and pitfalls of eyelid pathology divided into semiological chapters (tumors, blisters, erythema, etc.).
  • It is mainly centered on skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adnexal carcinomas, and melanoma).
  • A number of rare diseases deserve mention since their presence could lead to the diagnosis of internal or systemic diseases (dermatomyositis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, Erdheim-Chester, etc.).
  • In such conditions, early diagnosis is often based on the observation of isolated periocular symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though topographic dermatology is a somewhat reductive vision of skin diseases, pathology of the eyelids deserves special mention because of its polymorphism as well as its diagnostic and/or therapeutic significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16885900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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7. McGuire JF, Ge NN, Dyson S: Nonmelanoma skin cancer of the head and neck I: histopathology and clinical behavior. Am J Otolaryngol; 2009 Mar-Apr;30(2):121-33
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  • [Title] Nonmelanoma skin cancer of the head and neck I: histopathology and clinical behavior.
  • Non-Melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most commonly encountered malignancy in almost every area of practice, but the cases that present to an Otolaryngology practice will be advanced in nature.
  • The major subtypes of NMSC include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, merkel cell carcinoma, and adnexal malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Organ Transplantation / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19239954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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8. Caccialanza M, Piccinno R, Kolesnikova L, Gnecchi L: Radiotherapy of skin carcinomas of the pinna: a study of 115 lesions in 108 patients. Int J Dermatol; 2005 Jun;44(6):513-7
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy of skin carcinomas of the pinna: a study of 115 lesions in 108 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The possibility of treating skin carcinomas of the pinna with radiotherapy is somewhat under discussion and scarcely known.
  • Therefore the aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dermatologic radiotherapy in a series of patients affected by basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the pinna.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 108 patients affected by 115 carcinomas of the pinna (99 basal cell carcinomas, 16 squamous cell carcinomas) without involvement of the external auditory canal.
  • During follow up a relapse was observed in 12 lesions (all basal cell carcinomas): nine central and three marginal to the irradiation field.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained confirm the possibility of treating epithelial skin neoplasms of the pinna with dermatologic radiotherapy, which can afford high-remission percentages without damaging cartilaginous tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Ear Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ear, External. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Esthetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15941445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Aboutalebi S, Strickland FM: Immune protection, natural products, and skin cancer: is there anything new under the sun? J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Jun;5(6):512-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immune protection, natural products, and skin cancer: is there anything new under the sun?
  • Non-melanoma skin cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are the most common types of human neoplasms, representing one third of all new malignancies diagnosed in the US.
  • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is a major cause of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans.
  • Aside from the mutagenic effects of UV radiation, there are suggestions from clinical studies and evidence in animal models that the immune system plays an important role in preventing skin cancer development and progression, and is suppressed by cutaneous exposure to UV radiation.
  • In this article, we review the research on new and existing agents that are being developed to protect the skin immune response from suppression by UV radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Aloe. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell. Phytotherapy. Skin Neoplasms. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16774102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Polyphenols; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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10. Thosani MK, Marghoob A, Chen CS: Current progress of immunostains in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Dec;34(12):1621-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mohs micrographic surgery is often considered the treatment of choice for a variety of skin malignancies.
  • In recent years, the application of immunostaining techniques has facilitated the successful removal of a number of common and less common cutaneous malignancies, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, extramammary Paget's disease, and even sarcomas.
  • Immunostains highlight the tumor cells and allow the Mohs surgeons to pinpoint and eliminate the residual tumor at the surgical margin.
  • It is especially helpful when a tumor presents with subtle or nonspecific histologic features or when a tumor is masked in a pocket of dense inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 19018832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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11. Basile J, Thiers B, Maize J Sr, Lathers DM: Chemokine receptor expression in non-melanoma skin cancer. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jul;35(7):623-9
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  • [Title] Chemokine receptor expression in non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Prior studies have shown that in metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck upregulation of CXC (alpha) chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 and CC (beta) chemokine receptor (CCR)7 expression is accompanied by downregulation of the chemokine receptor CCR6.
  • However, the expression patterns of CCR6, CCR7 and CXCR4 in non-melanoma skin cancer have yet to be elucidated.
  • METHODS: The expression patterns of CCR6, CCR7 and CXCR4 were determined using an immunohistochemical approach on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded normal, pre-cancerous actinic (solar) keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma tissues.
  • RESULTS: Analysis of chemokine receptor expression showed downregulation of CCR6 and upregulation of CCR7 and CXCR4 in potentially metastatic non-melanoma skin cancer, invasive squamous cell carcinoma, but this pattern did not exist in non-melanoma skin cancer with no metastatic potential, basal cell carcinoma; or actinic keratosis, when compared with normal skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemokine receptor expression may influence the biological behavior of non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratosis / metabolism. Receptors, CCR6 / metabolism. Receptors, CCR7 / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR4 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Staining and Labeling. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18312436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CCR6 protein, human; 0 / CCR7 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CCR6; 0 / Receptors, CCR7; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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12. Chovanec M, Smetana K Jr, Plzák J, Betka J, Plzáková Z, Stork J, Hrdlicková E, Kuwabara I, Dvoránková B, Liu FT, Kaltner H, André S, Gabius HJ: Detection of new diagnostic markers in pathology by focus on growth-regulatory endogenous lectins. The case study of galectin-7 in squamous epithelia. Prague Med Rep; 2005;106(2):209-16
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  • [Title] Detection of new diagnostic markers in pathology by focus on growth-regulatory endogenous lectins. The case study of galectin-7 in squamous epithelia.
  • Lectins represent one of pivotal regulators of the cell proliferation The potential of galectin-7 as a new prognostic marker was studied in normal and transformed squamous epithelia of both ectodermal (epidermis, cornea vs. trichoepithelioma, basal and squamous cell carcinoma) and endodermal (vocal fold epithelium vs. carcinoma) origin.
  • Its expression is significantly reduced in malignant cells, thus galectin-7 might be a differentiation marker of epithelial malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Epithelium / chemistry. Galectins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Division / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16315769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1214-6994
  • [Journal-full-title] Prague medical report
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prague Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectins; 0 / LGALS7 protein, human
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13. Krathen MS, Gottlieb AB, Mease PJ: Pharmacologic immunomodulation and cutaneous malignancy in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis. J Rheumatol; 2010 Nov;37(11):2205-15
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  • OBJECTIVE: It is unclear if skin cancer risk is affected by the use of immunomodulatory medications in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis (PsA).
  • METHODS: The English language literature on PubMed was searched with a combination of phrases, including "malignancy," "skin cancer," "squamous cell carcinoma," "basal cell carcinoma," "melanoma," "psoriasis," "psoriatic arthritis," and "rheumatoid arthritis" in addition to the generic names of a variety of common immunomodulatory drugs.
  • Treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors increases the rates of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in RA and psoriasis.
  • Methotrexate may increase the risk of malignant melanoma in patients with RA and the risk of NMSC in psoriasis.
  • More careful recording of skin cancer development during clinical trials and cohort studies is necessary to further delineate the risks of immunomodulatory therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Psoriatic / therapy. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / therapy. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Psoriasis / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / etiology


14. Mancuso M, Gallo D, Leonardi S, Pierdomenico M, Pasquali E, De Stefano I, Rebessi S, Tanori M, Scambia G, Di Majo V, Covelli V, Pazzaglia S, Saran A: Modulation of basal and squamous cell carcinoma by endogenous estrogen in mouse models of skin cancer. Carcinogenesis; 2009 Feb;30(2):340-7
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  • [Title] Modulation of basal and squamous cell carcinoma by endogenous estrogen in mouse models of skin cancer.
  • Patched1 heterozygous mice (Ptch1(+/-)) are useful for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) studies, being remarkably susceptible to BCC induction by ultraviolet or ionizing radiation.
  • Analogously, skin carcinogenesis-susceptible (Car-S) mice are elective for studies of papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) induction.
  • We previously reported a striking effect of gender on BCC induction in Ptch1(+/-) mice, with total resistance of females; likewise, Car-S females show increased skin tumor resistance relative to males.
  • Here, we investigated the protective role of endogenous estrogen in skin keratinocyte tumorigenesis.
  • Control (CN) and ovariectomized Ptch1(+/-) or Car-S females were irradiated for BCC induction or topically treated with chemical carcinogens for SCC induction.
  • Susceptibility to BCC or SCC was dramatically increased in ovariectomized Ptch1(+/-) and Car-S females and restored to levels observed in males.
  • Remarkably, progression of initially benign papillomas to malignant SCC occurred only in ovariectomized Car-S females.
  • We explored the mechanisms underlying tumor progression and report overexpression of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, downregulation of ERbeta and upregulation of cyclin D1 in papillomas from ovariectomized Car-S relative to papillomas from CN females.
  • Thus, an imbalanced ERalpha/ERbeta expression may be associated with estrogen-mediated modulation of non-melanoma skin carcinogenesis, with a key role played by cyclin D1.
  • Our findings underscore a highly protective role of endogenous estrogen against skin tumorigenesis by diverse agents in two independent mouse models of skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Estrogens / physiology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Female. Male. Mice. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / metabolism. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Ovariectomy. Papilloma / metabolism. Papilloma / pathology. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Ultraviolet Rays


15. Ch'ng S, Wallis RA, Yuan L, Davis PF, Tan ST: Mast cells and cutaneous malignancies. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):149-59
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  • This paper reviews the role of mast cells in the development and progression of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.
  • Upon irradiation of the skin, trans-urocanic acid in the epidermis isomerizes to cis-urocanic acid, which stimulates neuropeptide release from neural c-fibers.
  • These neuropeptides in turn trigger histamine secretion from mast cells, leading to suppression of the cellular immune system. (2) Angiogenesis: Mast cells are the major source of vascular endothelial growth factor in basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor is one of the most potent angiogenic factors, which also induces leakage of other angiogenic factors across the endothelial cell wall into the matrix.
  • Mast cell proteases reorganize the stroma to facilitate endothelial cell migration.
  • As well, heparin, the dominant mast cell proteoglycan, assists in blood-borne metastasis. (3) Degradation of extracellular matrix: Through its own proteases, and indirectly via interaction with other cells, mast cells participate in degradation of the matrix, which is required for tumor spread. (4) Mitogenesis: Mast cell mediators including fibroblast growth factor-2 and interleukin-8 are mitogenic to melanoma cells.
  • Emerging data, however, also suggest that mast cells might, in fact, have opposing roles in tumor biology, and the microenvironment could polarize mast cells to possess either promoting or inhibitory effects on tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Mast Cells / physiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / blood. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Humans. Melanoma / blood. Melanoma / blood supply. Melanoma / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood

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  • (PMID = 16258517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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16. Eide MJ, Weinstock MA, Dufresne RG Jr, Neelagaru S, Risica P, Burkholder GJ, Upegui D, Phillips KA, Armstrong BK, Robinson-Bostom L: Relationship of treatment delay with surgical defect size from keratinocyte carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin). J Invest Dermatol; 2005 Feb;124(2):308-14
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  • [Title] Relationship of treatment delay with surgical defect size from keratinocyte carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin).
  • Larger keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) lesions are associated with higher morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 15675948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K24 MH063975; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078800; United States / AHRQ HHS / HS / T32 HS000011; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 78800
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS12744; NLM/ PMC1613794
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17. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Selva D, Richards S, Paver R: Basosquamous carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery. Cancer; 2005 Jul 1;104(1):170-5
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  • [Title] Basosquamous carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare tumor defined as a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) differentiating into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • METHODS: The prospective, multicenter case series included all patients in Australia treated with MMS for BSC, who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia between 1993 and 2002.
  • The tumors were diagnosed initially as BCC in 87.4% and as SCC in 12.0% of patients.
  • Of 98 patients who completed a 5-year follow-up period after MMS, 4 (4.1%) had disease recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The low 5-year disease recurrence rate of BSC with MMS emphasized the importance of margin-controlled excision using MMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Arm. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leg. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 15929123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Kang SY, Lee KG, Lee W, Shim JY, Ji SI, Chung KW, Chung YK, Kim NK: Polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XRCC1 associated with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in a Korean population. Cancer Sci; 2007 May;98(5):716-20
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  • [Title] Polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene XRCC1 associated with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in a Korean population.
  • Unrepaired damage can result in apoptosis or may lead to unregulated cell growth and cancer.
  • This hospital-based case-control study examined whether polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene X-ray repair cross-complementing groups 1 (XRCC1) (Arg194Trp[C > T], Arg280His[G > A] and Arg399Gln[G > A]) play a role in susceptibility to skin cancer.
  • We genotyped these polymorphisms for 212 histopathologically confirmed skin cancer cases (n = 114 basal cell carcinoma, n = 98 squamous cell carcinoma) and 207 age- and sex-matched healthy control cases in Korea.
  • We found that individuals with the Arg/Gln and Arg/Gln + Gln/Gln genotypes at XRCC1 Arg399Gln(G > A) had an approximately 2-fold increased risk of basal cell carcinoma compared to individuals with the Arg/Arg genotype (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.812, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-5.98, and AOR = 2.324, 95% CI 1.11-4.86).
  • However, we observed that the 194Trp allele of the Arg194Trp(C > T) polymorphism was inversely associated with squamous cell carcinoma risk (Trp/Trp, AOR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.006-0.63).
  • Our data suggest that the Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms may be differentially associated with skin cancer risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Asian Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Case-Control Studies. Gene Frequency. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / ethnology. Genotype. Haplotypes. Humans. Korea. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio

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  • (PMID = 17355263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1
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19. Wimmer E, Kraehn-Senftleben G, Issing WJ: HER3 expression in cutaneous tumors. Anticancer Res; 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2A):973-9
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  • BACKGROUND: In order to elucidate the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase HER3, the expression characteristics in different tissues of cutaneous malignancies and in normal skin were compared.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study HER3 expression was evaluated by RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry from different tissue specimens of cutaneous tumors like nevi, primary malignant melanomas, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma metastases and normal skin samples and graded into weak, moderate and strong expression.
  • Associations of tumor thickness in these specimens with HER3 expressions were also analyzed.
  • RESULTS: HER3 expression was found in 63% (10/16) of the basal cell carcinomas, in 4/5 of squamous cell carcinomas and in one Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • Within the group of different malignant melanomas, HER3 expression was detected in 35% of the nodular malignant melanomas (6/17) and in 9/19 of the superficial spreading melanomas, including 2 lentigo malignant melanomas.
  • The majority of melanomas with a higher tumor thickness expressed HER3, and 85% of melanoma metastasis were HER3-positive.
  • CONCLUSION: HER3 expression was associated with hyperproliferate tumor stages and suggested that HER3 expression could reflect an increased malignant potential in cutaneous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nevus. Receptor, ErbB-3 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-3 / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18507044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-3
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20. Zhang H, Yan J, Li Y, Zhang P: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the eyelid: a case report and review of the literature. Yan Ke Xue Bao; 2005 Sep;21(3):152-7
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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the eyelid: a case report and review of the literature.
  • PURPOSE: To report the clinical features, therapeutic method, and histopathological findings of a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the lower eyelid and review the literature about the mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from the eye.
  • RESULTS: An 88-year-old man developed a painless, indurated nodule in the left lower eyelid for two years and ulceration of the skin existed for a year.
  • He underwent tumor resection and reconstruction of the eyelid.
  • By histopathology, tumor cells showed an admixture of epidermoid and mucus-secreting cells, which was consistent with mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a common malignant tumor of the salivary glands, but rare in the eye tissues among which conjunctiva and lacrimal gland are most commonly involved.
  • It has a higher degree of malignancy than basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from the eye is rare and has a high degree of malignancy.
  • It should be differentiated from other neoplasms such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 17162853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-4432
  • [Journal-full-title] Yan ke xue bao = Eye science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yan Ke Xue Bao
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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21. Reisinger DM, Shiffer JD, Cognetta AB Jr, Chang Y, Moore PS: Lack of evidence for basal or squamous cell carcinoma infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus in immunocompetent patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):400-3
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  • [Title] Lack of evidence for basal or squamous cell carcinoma infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus in immunocompetent patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) was discovered by digital transcriptome subtraction as a monoclonal infection of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tumors.
  • Polymerase chain reaction-based detection of the virus in other nonmelanoma skin cancers, however, has been inconsistent and controversial.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to directly assay for MCV infection in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tumor cells by immunostaining for viral antigen.
  • METHODS: CM2B4, a monoclonal antibody to exon 2 peptides of MCV T antigen, was used to examine tumors from 20 patients with MCC with and without secondary SCC or BCC tumors.
  • RESULTS: MCV T antigen was readily detected in 15 (75%) of 20 MCC tumors including 11 MCC tumors from patients with secondary SCC or BCC.
  • In contrast to MCC, none of these secondary BCC or SCC was MCV T-antigen positive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCV T antigen is generally not expressed in BCC or SCC tumors from a population favored to have MCV infection, ie, those persons already given the diagnosis of MCV-positive MCC.
  • This suggests that episodic polymerase chain reaction detection of MCV genome in BCC or SCC tumors may represent coincidental rather than causal infection, and that these tumors share other noninfectious risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Immunocompetence. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20584559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA120726; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA136363
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / DNA, Viral
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22. Leibeling D, Laspe P, Emmert S: Nucleotide excision repair and cancer. J Mol Histol; 2006 Sep;37(5-7):225-38
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  • XP patients show severe sun sensitivity, freckling in sun exposed skin, and develop skin cancers already during childhood.
  • Clinical symptoms of TTD patients include sun sensitivity, freckling in sun exposed skin areas, and brittle sulfur-deficient hair.
  • In contrast to XP patients, CS and TTD patients are not skin cancer prone.
  • Studying these syndromes can increase the knowledge of skin cancer development including cutaneous melanoma as well as basal and squamous cell carcinoma in general that may lead to new preventional and therapeutic anticancer strategies in the normal population.

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  • (PMID = 16855787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 150
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23. Sedda AF, Rossi G, Cipriani C, Carrozzo AM, Donati P: Dermatological high-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of basal and squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Nov;33(6):745-9
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  • [Title] Dermatological high-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are among the most common cancers in humans.
  • We describe a new treatment for BCC and SCC.
  • METHODS: In total, 53 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis of BCC and of SCC were enrolled for the treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: The results indicated that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for BCC and SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Facial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy


24. Wells MJ, Taylor RS: Mohs micrographic surgery for penoscrotal malignancy. Urol Clin North Am; 2010 Aug;37(3):403-9
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  • Specific penoscrotal neoplasias discussed in this article include invasive and in situ squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, extramammary Paget disease, and granular cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Humans. Male. Paget Disease, Extramammary / surgery. Penile Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20674695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-318X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Chew YK, Noorizan Y, Khir A, Brito-Mutunayagam S, Prepagaran N: The use of paramedian forehead flap reconstruction after wide excision of basal cell carcinoma of the nose. Med J Malaysia; 2008 Oct;63(4):339-40
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  • [Title] The use of paramedian forehead flap reconstruction after wide excision of basal cell carcinoma of the nose.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an indolent, slow-growing malignant skin tumour.
  • The nose is a common site for malignant skin tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma because it is exposed to the sun.
  • Excision of the BCC will leave the nose with a soft tissue defect which requires reconstruction.
  • This report illustrates a case of BCC of nose whereby a wide excision and reconstruction was performed with a paramedian forehead flap.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Rhinoplasty / methods. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 19385500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5283
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Malaysia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Malaysia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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26. Chen T, Bertenthal D, Sahay A, Sen S, Chren MM: Predictors of skin-related quality of life after treatment of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol; 2007 Nov;143(11):1386-92
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  • [Title] Predictors of skin-related quality of life after treatment of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of skin-related quality of life (QOL) after treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC).
  • SETTING: University-affiliated private practice and a Veterans Affairs clinic.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Skin-related QOL, measured with the 16-item version of Skindex-16, a validated measure.
  • RESULTS: Controlling for treatment group, the strongest independent predictor of skin-related QOL after treatment of NMSC was pretreatment skin-related QOL.
  • No tumor or care characteristic (including location of tumor, size of tumor, site of therapy, or training level of treating clinician [attending physician, resident, or nurse practitioner]) was found to predict better skin-related QOL after treatment of NMSC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with better pretreatment skin-related QOL, less comorbidity, and better mental health status had better skin-related QOL after treatment of NMSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Quality of Life. Skin / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2007 Nov;143(11):1429-32 [18025368.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Arch Dermatol. 2008 Feb;144(2):230
  • (PMID = 18025362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K02 AR02203; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K24-AR052667
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Ouyang YH: Skin cancer of the head and neck. Semin Plast Surg; 2010 May;24(2):117-26
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  • [Title] Skin cancer of the head and neck.
  • The majority of skin cancers of the head and neck are nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC).
  • Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most frequent types of NMSC.
  • Malignant melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm of skin, and the ideal adjuvant therapy has not yet been found, although various options for treatment of skin cancer are available to the patient and physician, allowing high cure rate and excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes.
  • Sunscreen protection and early evaluation of suspicious areas remain the first line of defense against skin cancers.

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  • (PMID = 22550432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-2188
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3324239
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Basal cell carcinoma / Mohs' micrographic surgery / melanoma / nonmelanoma skin cancer / squamous cell carcinoma
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28. Babilas P, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM: Photodynamic therapy in dermatology. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):340-8
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  • Currently, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received approval for the treatment of dermato-oncologic conditions like actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease, in-situ squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma in many countries all over the world.
  • Due to the easy accessibility of skin to light activation, incoherent lamps or LED arrays are suitable for PDT.
  • Either cytotoxic effects resulting in tumor destruction or immunomodulatory effects improving inflammatory skin conditions are induced.
  • Treating superficial non-melanoma skin cancer, PDT has been shown to be highly efficient despite the low level of invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Photochemotherapy. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16935788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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29. Vaid M, Katiyar SK: Molecular mechanisms of inhibition of photocarcinogenesis by silymarin, a phytochemical from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.) (Review). Int J Oncol; 2010 May;36(5):1053-60
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  • Changes in life style over the past several decades including much of the time spent outdoors and the use of tanning devices for cosmetic purposes by individuals have led to an increase in the incidence of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin diseases including the risk of skin cancers.
  • Solar UV radiations are considered as the most prevalent environmental carcinogens, and chronic exposure of the skin to UV leads to squamous and basal cell carcinoma and melanoma in human population.
  • Silymarin is one of them and extensively studied for its skin photoprotective capabilities.
  • ), and has been shown to have chemopreventive effects against photocarcinogenesis in mouse tumor models.
  • Topical treatment of silymarin inhibited photocarcinogenesis in mice in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity and growth of the tumors.
  • It is suggested that silymarin may favorably supplement sunscreen protection, and may be useful for skin diseases associated with solar UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and immunomodulatory effects.

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  • (PMID = 20372777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA105368-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA105368; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA105368-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105368-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105368-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105368
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Silymarin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184206; NLM/ PMC2852174
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30. Geist DE, Garcia-Moliner M, Fitzek MM, Cho H, Rogers GS: Perineural invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma: raising awareness and optimizing management. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Dec;34(12):1642-51
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  • [Title] Perineural invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma: raising awareness and optimizing management.
  • BACKGROUND: Perineural invasion (PNI) by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an infrequent but not rare complication of traditionally low-morbidity skin cancers that can lead to catastrophic sequelae; 2.5% to 14% of CSCC and approximately 3% of BCC exhibit PNI.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases of PNI treated with MMS and radiotherapy were reviewed for recurrence, disease-free follow-up, and adverse events.
  • When managing superficial skin tumors with PNI, a multidisciplinary team including a cutaneous surgeon and a radiation oncologist familiar with PNI is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Bell Palsy / etiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Peripheral Nerves

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  • (PMID = 19018830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Nemet AY, Deckel Y, Martin PA, Kourt G, Chilov M, Sharma V, Benger R: Management of periocular basal and squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 485 cases. Am J Ophthalmol; 2006 Aug;142(2):293-7
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  • [Title] Management of periocular basal and squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 485 cases.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the outcome of management of patients with basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in a tertiary referral eye center in Sydney, Australia.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival period free of tumor, incomplete excision, recurrences, type of closure, and complications.
  • Morpheaform type of BCC (chi(2)P < .001), and medial canthus location BCCs (chi(2)P < .05) were associated with a higher incomplete resection rate.
  • Twenty-seven patients (5.6%) had a recurrent tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a tertiary referral center, incomplete primary resection of an eyelid skin cancer is the main risk factor for recurrence.
  • Incomplete resection is significantly associated with medial canthus location and morpheaform type of BCC and with moderately differentiated SCC.
  • MMS is the safer technique after incomplete tumor excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Skin Neoplasms / surgery


32. Varga E, Kiss M, Szabó K, Kemény L: Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in Merkel cell carcinomas. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Oct;161(4):930-2
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  • [Title] Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in Merkel cell carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive tumour for which an increasing incidence has been reported.
  • A new human polyomavirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), was recently isolated from these tumours by applying digital transcriptome subtraction methodology.
  • METHODS: Nine primary or recurrent MCCs from seven patients were examined; 29 other tumours (squamous cell, basal cell and basosquamous carcinomas and malignant melanomas) were examined for comparative purposes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Viral, Tumor / genetics. Capsid Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / virology. Polyomaviridae / genetics. Polyomavirus Infections / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19438857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Capsid Proteins
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33. Hatina J, Ruzicka T: [Relevance of cell culture models in cutaneous tumour biology. Part I: tumour cell lines]. Hautarzt; 2008 Jan;59(1):36-45
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  • [Title] [Relevance of cell culture models in cutaneous tumour biology. Part I: tumour cell lines].
  • [Transliterated title] Stellenwert der Zellkulturmodelle in kutaner Tumorbiologie. Teil I: Zelllinien tumorigen transformierter Zellen.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma, much like all other human solid tumors, result from a multi-step process in which genetic and epigenetic changes accumulate in the affected cells.
  • Cell culture models are a very valuable experimental system.
  • Tumor cell lines display similar functional hierarchy as tumors or tissues in vivo and can, consequently, provide a crucial source of minor cell subsets, like tumor stem cells.
  • Progression series of clonally related cell lines offer the opportunity to follow the process of sequential acquisition of transformation-related traits up to the development of properties with direct clinical equivalents, like tumorigenicity and metastatic competence.
  • While for most studies, human transformed cell lines are the model of choice, there are questions for which animal cell lines are strongly preferred, such as interactions between the tumor and the immune system.
  • To properly interpret the results of all experiments with classical two-dimensional cell culture, a possible danger of artifacts due to grossly unnatural environment must be constantly taken into account.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Line, Tumor / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18058078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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34. Love WE, Bernhard JD, Bordeaux JS: Topical imiquimod or fluorouracil therapy for basal and squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review. Arch Dermatol; 2009 Dec;145(12):1431-8
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  • [Title] Topical imiquimod or fluorouracil therapy for basal and squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review.
  • OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review to determine clearance rates and adverse effects of topical imiquimod or fluorouracil therapy in the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers such as basal (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and to develop recommendations for the use of topical imiquimod or fluorouracil to treat BCC and SCC.
  • STUDY SELECTION: Prospective, retrospective, and case studies in English containing a minimum of 4 subjects and a 6-month follow-up or posttreatment histologic evaluation.
  • DATA EXTRACTION: We calculated the rate of clearance and adverse effects for BCC subtypes and invasive and in situ SCC treated with topical imiquimod or fluorouracil.
  • Imiquimod use produced the following clearance rates: 43% to 100% for superficial BCC, 42% to 100% for nodular BCC, 56% to 63% for infiltrative BCC, 73% to 88% for SCC in situ, and 71% for invasive SCC.
  • Fluorouracil use produced the following clearance rates: 90% for superficial BCC and 27% to 85% for SCC in situ.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evidence supports the use of topical imiquimod as monotherapy for superficial BCC and topical fluorouracil as monotherapy for superficial BCC and SCC in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / pharmacokinetics. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy


35. Ishihara K: [Reasons for the increased incidence of skin cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Oct;33(10):1380-5
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  • [Title] [Reasons for the increased incidence of skin cancer].
  • The cutaneous malignancies with an increasing incidence in Japan are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.
  • According to a nationwide questionnaire survey (responses from 94 centers), basal cell carcinoma has the highest incidence and accounts for nearly 50% of all skin malignancies, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (31%) and malignant melanoma (21%).
  • The number of cases of each tumor has grown annually, and comparison of the percent increases between 1987 and 2001 shows an increase of about 1.5-fold for basal cell carcinoma or 1.7-fold for squamous cell carcinoma or malignant melanoma.
  • Supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the Malignant Skin Tumor Research Group has been investigating the factors behind these increases by detailed statistical analysis of data obtained from 1987 onwards from designated centers (19-22 centers).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17033224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Kaae J, Boyd HA, Hansen AV, Wulf HC, Wohlfahrt J, Melbye M: Photosensitizing medication use and risk of skin cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2010 Nov;19(11):2942-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photosensitizing medication use and risk of skin cancer.
  • Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear.
  • METHODS: Using a cohort of all Danish residents ≥15 years old in 1995 to 2006 (n = 4,761,749) and information from Danish national registers, we examined associations between use of photosensitizing medications and risk of basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous malignant melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Users of only 2 of 19 medications for long-term use (methyldopa and furosemide) had both a ≥20% increased risk of skin cancer (compared with nonusers) and an increase in risk with increasing duration of use; these effects were limited to basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.
  • In contrast, 8 of 10 medications for short-term use were associated with both a ≥20% increased risk of skin cancer and an increase in risk with increasing use for at least one of the four cancers.
  • CONCLUSION: We found little evidence of an increased risk of skin cancer among users of photosensitizing medications for long-term daily use, but could not rule out the possibility that users of some photosensitizing medications for short-term use may have an increased risk of skin cancer.
  • Our study examined the effect of a wide range of photosensitizing medications on skin cancer risk and suggests that future work should focus on photosensitizing medications for short-term use.
  • [MeSH-major] Photosensitivity Disorders / chemically induced. Prescription Drugs / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20861398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Prescription Drugs
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37. Al-Arashi MY, Salomatina E, Yaroslavsky AN: Multimodal confocal microscopy for diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancers. Lasers Surg Med; 2007 Oct;39(9):696-705
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodal confocal microscopy for diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE: The standard diagnostic procedure for skin cancers is invasive biopsy followed by histopathological evaluation.
  • In this study, the suitability of dye-enhanced multimodal confocal microscopy for the detection of nonmelanoma skin cancers was evaluated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the experiments we used fresh tumor material stained using 0.2 mg/ml or 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solutions of methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue (TB), respectively.
  • Reflectance, fluorescence, and fluorescence polarization images of skin specimens stained with MB and TB were excited by 656 nm and 633 nm light, respectively.
  • In total we imaged, analyzed, and compared to histology at least 10 samples of each tumor-type including nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC), infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The morphological features and appearance of skin structures in the fluorescence images correlate well with corresponding histology for all investigated tumor-types.
  • Our results indicate the feasibility of using multimodal confocal microscopy as real-time tool for detecting skin pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Microscopy, Confocal. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Coloring Agents. Diagnosis, Differential. Equipment Design. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Methylene Blue. Staining and Labeling. Tolonium Chloride

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 17960751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-8092
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 15XUH0X66N / Tolonium Chloride; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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38. Ezzedine K, Latreille J, Kesse-Guyot E, Galan P, Hercberg S, Guinot C, Malvy D: Incidence of skin cancers during 5-year follow-up after stopping antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementation. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Dec;46(18):3316-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidence of skin cancers during 5-year follow-up after stopping antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementation.
  • CONTEXT: In the SU.VI.MAX study, antioxidant supplementation for 7.5 years was found to increase skin cancer risk in women but not in men.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential residual or delayed effect of antioxidant supplementation on skin cancer incidence after a 5-year post-intervention follow-up.
  • DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Assessment of skin cancer including melanoma and non-melanoma during the post-intervention follow-up (September 2002-August 2007).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total skin cancer incidence, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Six squamous cell carcinomas were found in women and 15 in men (10 and 25, respectively, for the total period).
  • Finally, 40 basal cell carcinomas appeared in women and 36 in men (98 and 94, respectively, for the total period).
  • No delayed effects, either on melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancers, were observed for either gender.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The risk of skin cancers associated with antioxidant intake declines following interruption of supplementation.
  • This supports a causative role for antioxidants in the evolution of skin cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vitamins / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20605091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00272428
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Vitamins
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39. Benbenisty KM, Andea A, Metcalf J, Cook J: Atypical cellular neurothekeoma treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Apr;32(4):582-7; discussion 587
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  • BACKGROUND: Atypical cellular neurothekeoma is a rare neoplasm generally regarded as a benign tumor with locally aggressive behavior.
  • Recurrence is common with inadequate excision, but metastatic disease has yet to be reported.
  • RESULTS: The neoplasm was extirpated in a three-stage, five section Mohs surgery procedure.
  • CONCLUSION: Mohs micrographic surgery is unsurpassed in its efficacy in treating a wide variety of nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Although most commonly used to address basal and squamous cell carcinoma, it has also been reported as a successful treatment for melanoma and a wide variety of cutaneous malignancies.
  • Debate in the literature is ongoing regarding the true histogenesis of this rare tumor.
  • Because of this tumor's local destructive behavior and propensity to recur with inadequate resection, we recommend Moths micrographic surgery for the treatment of cellular neurothekeomas.

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  • [CommentIn] Dermatol Surg. 2008 Mar;34(3):428 [18248473.001]
  • (PMID = 16681671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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40. Honeycutt KA, Waikel RL, Koster MI, Wang XJ, Roop DR: The effect of c-myc on stem cell fate influences skin tumor phenotype. Mol Carcinog; 2010 Apr;49(4):315-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of c-myc on stem cell fate influences skin tumor phenotype.
  • Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) consist of a variety of tumor types including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, a variety of hair follicle tumors, and sebaceous gland tumors.
  • Our goal in the current study was to determine if alterations in the commitment of multipotent stem cells to different cell fates would influence tumor phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / toxicity. Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Animals. Carcinogens / toxicity. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Lineage / genetics. Crosses, Genetic. Female. Heterozygote. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mice, Transgenic. Multipotent Stem Cells / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Phenotype. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology. Transgenes

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  • (PMID = 20146250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2744
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR47898; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA09197; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105491; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA52607; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA79998
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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41. Watkins J: Dermatology and the community nurse: actinic (solar) keratosis. Br J Community Nurs; 2010 Jan;15(1):6, 8, 10-1
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  • They are then able to check other sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, scalp, back and limbs to discover any other lesions or more serious problems of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or malignant melanoma the would require referral, sometimes urgently, to a dermatologist for full assessment and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / nursing. Skin Neoplasms / nursing. Sunlight / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Community Health Nursing. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Nursing Diagnosis. Protective Clothing. Risk Factors. Sunscreening Agents

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  • (PMID = 20216512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-4753
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of community nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Community Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sunscreening Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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42. Dawe RS: Treatment options for non-melanoma skin cancer. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):453-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment options for non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Non melanoma skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) are becoming more common.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19755949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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43. Ross AH, Kennedy CT, Collins C, Harrad RA: The use of imiquimod in the treatment of periocular tumours. Orbit; 2010 Apr;29(2):83-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Two patients were diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, one patient with actinic keratosis, one with intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen's disease) and one patient had concomitant squamous cell carcinoma and intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In our experience, it is a safe and effective treatment for periocular lesions, including actinic keratosis, intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first published description of the successful use of 5% Imiquimod in treating moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Eyelid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Solutions. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20394545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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44. Wilkins K, Dolev JC, Turner R, LeBoit PE, Berger TG, Maurer TA: Approach to the treatment of cutaneous malignancy in HIV-infected patients. Dermatol Ther; 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):77-86
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  • Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of developing skin cancers.
  • This article will review and discuss management issues for the following malignancies: lymphomas, malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Humans. Lymphoma / complications. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / therapy. Melanoma / complications. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15842615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1396-0296
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 148
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45. Beljaards RC, Kirtschig G, Boorsma DM: Expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) in basal and squamous cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Nov;34(11):1577-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (CD56) in basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18798745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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46. Dotto J, Pelosi G, Rosai J: Expression of p63 in thymomas and normal thymus. Am J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;127(3):415-20
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  • The DeltaN-p63 isoforms of p63, which are believed to behave as oncogenes, are expressed in squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and transitional cell carcinoma.
  • We studied 66 cases of thymoma (1 type A, 8 type AB, 12 type B1, 19 type B2, 12 type B3, and 14 type C/thymic carcinoma) and 10 specimens of normal human thymus arranged in tissue microarrays.
  • All thymomas (including thymic carcinomas) were positive for p63 regardless of type.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thymoma / metabolism. Thymus Gland / chemistry. Thymus Neoplasms / metabolism. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17276940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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47. Szeimies RM, Morton CA, Sidoroff A, Braathen LR: Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer. Acta Derm Venereol; 2005;85(6):483-90
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Photodynamic therapy is a treatment modality that has been shown to be effective mainly for the dermato-oncologic conditions: actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, in situ squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • For actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma, methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy is already approved in Europe, Australia and New Zealand, and is now also approved for actinic keratosis in the US.
  • [MeSH-major] Photochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Humans. Photosensitizing Agents

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  • (PMID = 16396794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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48. Altan-Yaycioglu R, Canan H, Sizmaz S, Bal N, Pelit A, Akova YA: Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: clinicopathologic analysis of 205 cases. Orbit; 2010 Oct;29(5):254-8
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  • Only one patient had the diagnosis of chronic leukemia, others had no preexisting history of systemic disease.
  • Three patients had abnormal pathology: Lymphoproliferative disease in the patient with chronic leukemia, granulomatous inflammation, and basosquamous cell carcinoma.
  • Even though rare, malignant or systemic disease in patients with neither specific history nor clinical or radiological finding might be observed in these cases.
  • Thus, we recommend taking biopsy if any suspicion of abnormality of the lacrimal sac exists.
  • [MeSH-major] Lacrimal Duct Obstruction / diagnosis. Nasolacrimal Duct / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Child. Dacryocystorhinostomy. Female. Humans. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20704489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Payette MJ, Whalen J, Grant-Kels JM: Nutrition and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Clin Dermatol; 2010 Nov-Dec;28(6):650-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nutrition and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer is increasing every year.
  • Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the two major types of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • Among other factors, understanding the potential role of nutrients in the development, progression, and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer is critical.
  • This contribution provides a review of the nutrients that have been more extensively investigated in the literature with regard to nonmelanoma skin cancer, including dietary fats, retinol, carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, selenium, copper, iron, zinc, green tea, and black tea.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Diet. Micronutrients / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21034989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1131
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Micronutrients; 0 / Tea; 11103-57-4 / Vitamin A; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; 36-88-4 / Carotenoids; 789U1901C5 / Copper; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; H6241UJ22B / Selenium; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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50. Stollery N: Basal and squamous cell carcinoma. Practitioner; 2006 Dec;250(1689):46, 48-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Psoriasis / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17283757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-6518
  • [Journal-full-title] The Practitioner
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Practitioner
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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51. Thomson P, Palamaras I, Hill V, Robles W, Stevens H: Patients are happy to be informed of their final non-melanoma skin cancer results by post. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(1):5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patients are happy to be informed of their final non-melanoma skin cancer results by post.
  • During the past year, because of increasing pressure to see more patients, we have started to write to our patients informing them in a letter of their final skin cancer histology results following surgery for non-melanoma skin cancers: basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma only.
  • A questionnaire-based study was carried out to assess whether patients were happy to receive information concerning their non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosis in a carefully worded letter.
  • One-hundred fifty patients were involved with a diagnosis of "completely excised non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)" that had previously received their final diagnosis by post.
  • Eighty-seven percent felt that they had been given the cancer diagnosis in an appropriate manner; 90 percent reported that they had understood the explanation about their skin cancer.
  • In addition, 81 percent stated that they had been sufficiently involved in the discussion about their skin cancer and its treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Communication. Patient Acceptance of Health Care. Patient Satisfaction. Patients / psychology. Postal Service. Skin Neoplasms / psychology. Truth Disclosure

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  • (PMID = 20137747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Bhoumik A, Fichtman B, Derossi C, Breitwieser W, Kluger HM, Davis S, Subtil A, Meltzer P, Krajewski S, Jones N, Ronai Z: Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Feb 5;105(5):1674-9
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  • [Title] Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer.
  • Crossing the conditionally expressed ATF2 mutant with K14-Cre mice (K14.ATF2(f/f)) resulted in selective expression of mutant ATF2 within the basal layer of the epidermis.
  • When subjected to a two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol [7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (DMBA/TPA)], K14.ATF2(f/f) mice showed significant increases in both the incidence and prevalence of papilloma development compared with the WT ATF2 mice.
  • Significantly, a reduction of nuclear ATF2 and increased beta-catenin expression were seen in samples of squamous and basal cell carcinoma, as opposed to normal skin.
  • Our data reveal that loss of ATF2 transcriptional activity serves to promote skin tumor formation, thereby indicating a suppressor activity of ATF2 in skin tumor formation.

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  • (PMID = 18227516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE9328
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099961; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA099961
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Activating Transcription Factor 2; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Notch1 protein, mouse; 0 / Presenilin-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myb; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; 9007-49-2 / DNA; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2234203
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53. Liutkeviciūte-Navickiene J, Mordas A, Simkute S, Bloznelyte-Plesniene L: [Fluorescence diagnostics of skin tumors using 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2009;45(12):937-42
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  • [Title] [Fluorescence diagnostics of skin tumors using 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester].
  • OBJECTIVE: The incidence of malignant skin tumors is rapidly increasing.
  • Early diagnosis, determining the margins of the tumor, is extremely important to achieve good treatment results.
  • We investigated fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX in skin carcinomas.
  • The study aimed to compare the effectiveness of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and methyl-aminolevulinate in determining the exact margins of skin tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fluorescence measurements were performed in 126 patients with malignant, premalignant, and benign skin lesions for detection of the margins of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • 5-Aminolevulinic acid or its methyl ester was applied to the skin lesion for 2-4 h, and the data of evaluated protoporphyrin IX fluorescence were correlated with the data of morphological tissue examination.
  • RESULTS: Malignant tissue shows a specific red fluorescence when illuminated with blue-violet light, whereas no fluorescence was observed in normal skin.
  • A sensitivity of 95.4% and a specificity of 88.6% as well as positive and negative predictive values of 86.1% and 96.3%, respectively, were obtained.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fluorescence diagnostics can be used for complete visualization of malignant skin lesions after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid or methyl aminolevulinate.
  • It has been shown to be highly effective in the diagnostics of malignant superficial skin lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Fluorescence. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Photosensitizing Agents. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Protoporphyrins. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Esters. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20173396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Esters; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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54. Srikanth V, Fryer J, Venn A, Blizzard L, Newman L, Cooley H, Albion T, Jones G: The association between non-melanoma skin cancer and osteoporotic fractures--a population-based record linkage study. Osteoporos Int; 2007 May;18(5):687-92
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  • [Title] The association between non-melanoma skin cancer and osteoporotic fractures--a population-based record linkage study.
  • We studied the association between osteoporotic fractures and prior non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, a biomarker for cumulative sun exposure).
  • We aimed to study the association between non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), a marker of cumulative sun exposure, and osteoporotic fractures in an older cohort.
  • This effect was significant for most fracture subtypes except pelvic and wrist fractures and observed for both NMSC subtypes, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Achieving a balance between adequate lifetime sun exposure and protection against its adverse effects (such as fractures and skin cancer) may require assessment of individual risks.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Bone / etiology. Medical Record Linkage. Osteoporosis / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17211531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-941X
  • [Journal-full-title] Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Osteoporos Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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55. Fekecs T, Kádár Z, Battyáni Z, Kalmár-Nagy K, Szakály P, Horváth OP, Wéber G, Ferencz A: Incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer after human organ transplantation: single-center experience in Hungary. Transplant Proc; 2010 Jul-Aug;42(6):2333-5
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  • [Title] Incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer after human organ transplantation: single-center experience in Hungary.
  • There is increasing evidence that nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most frequently observed tumors in transplant recipients.
  • All patients underwent a full skin examination for NMSC, and completed a standardized questionnaire.
  • Histologic analysis verified 13 basal cell carcinomas and 3 squamous cell carcinomas (ratio, 4:1).
  • These data indicate the relevance of skin cancer surveillance in transplant recipients.
  • Our results correspond to international statistics except for the ratio of basal cell carcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Organ Transplantation / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hungary / epidemiology. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas Transplantation / adverse effects. Skin / pathology. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20692474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Marcet S: Atypical fibroxanthoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Dermatol Ther; 2008 Nov-Dec;21(6):424-7
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an unusual spindle cell tumor occurring on actinically damaged skin of the head and neck.
  • Clinically, it is often confused with basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or even melanoma.
  • Although initially thought to be a diagnosis of exclusion histologically, newer immunostains have helped in the identification of AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local


57. Johansen P, Berg K, Selbo PK, Hofbauer GF: [Photochemical internalisation (PCI): a further development of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of skin cancer]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2010 Nov 17;99(23):1423-8
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  • [Title] [Photochemical internalisation (PCI): a further development of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of skin cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Photochemische Internalisierung (PCI): eine Weiterentwicklung der photodynamischen Therapie zur Behandlung von Hautkrebs.
  • Recently, several new and non-invasive methods have been introduced for the treatment of skin cancers.
  • Topical creams using the immune modulator imiquimod or the COX inhibitor diclofenac (with hyaluronic acid) are now registered for use against neoplasms such as basal or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A refined version of PDT, namely photochemical internalisation, is currently subject to a first clinical trial in patients with osteosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer as well as adenocarcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cytosol / drug effects. Endocytosis. Endosomes / drug effects. Humans. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation


58. Szeimies RM, Karrer S, Bäcker H: [Therapeutic options for epithelial skin tumors. Actinic keratoses, Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma]. Hautarzt; 2005 May;56(5):430-40
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic options for epithelial skin tumors. Actinic keratoses, Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Therapieoptionen bei epithelialen Hauttumoren Aktinische Keratosen, Morbus Bowen, spinozelluläres Karzinom und Basalzellkarzinom.
  • There has been worldwide a significant rise in the incidence of epithelial skin tumors and their precursors in the past years with an increased number of younger patients affected.
  • In the following article different therapeutic approaches for actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are presented and analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Risk Assessment / methods. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Bowen's Disease / therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cryotherapy / methods. Curettage / methods. Humans. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15815888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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59. Moan J, Porojnicu AC, Dahlback A: Ultraviolet radiation and malignant melanoma. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2008;624:104-16
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  • [Title] Ultraviolet radiation and malignant melanoma.
  • Essential features of the epidemiology and photobiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Norway were studied in comparison with data from countries at lower latitudes.
  • This hypothesis was supported both by latitude gradients, by time trends and by changing patterns of tumor density on different body localizations.
  • Comparisons of skin cancer data from Norway and Australia/New Zealand indicate that squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are mainly related to annual solar UVB fluences, while UVA fluences play a larger role for CMM.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18348451.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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60. Abdel-Malek ZA, Kadekaro AL, Swope VB: Stepping up melanocytes to the challenge of UV exposure. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res; 2010 Apr;23(2):171-86
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  • Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is the main etiological factor for skin cancer, including melanoma.
  • Therefore, maintaining genomic stability of melanocytes is crucial for prevention of melanoma, as well as keratinocyte-derived basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The response of melanocytes to UV is mediated mainly by a network of paracrine factors that not only activate melanogenesis, but also DNA repair, anti-oxidant, and survival pathways that are pivotal for maintenance of genomic stability and prevention of malignant transformation or apoptosis.
  • Unraveling these mechanisms might lead to strategies to prevent melanoma, as well as non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Repair / physiology. Genomic Instability. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • [CommentIn] Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011 Apr;24(2):265-7 [21513010.001]
  • (PMID = 20128873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-148X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pigment cell & melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30-ES006096; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA114095; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01ES009110; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01ES017561
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 197
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61. Fabbrocini G, Triassi M, Mauriello MC, Torre G, Annunziata MC, De Vita V, Pastore F, D'Arco V, Monfrecola G: Epidemiology of skin cancer: role of some environmental factors. Cancers (Basel); 2010;2(4):1980-9
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  • [Title] Epidemiology of skin cancer: role of some environmental factors.
  • The incidence rate of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer entities is dramatically increasing worldwide.
  • Exposure to UVB radiation is known to induce basal and squamous cell skin cancer in a dose-dependent way and the depletion of stratospheric ozone has implications for increases in biologically damaging solar UVB radiation reaching the earth's surface.
  • In humans, arsenic is known to cause cancer of the skin, as well as cancer of the lung, bladder, liver, and kidney.
  • SCC and BCC (squamous and basal cell carcinoma) have been reported to be associated with ingestion of arsenic alone or in combination with other risk factors.
  • Higher temperatures accompanying climate change may lead, among many other effects, to increasing incidence of skin cancer.

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  • (PMID = 24281212.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancers (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3840456
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62. Mogensen M, Jemec GB: Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: a review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Oct;33(10):1158-74
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: a review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies.
  • BACKGROUND: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in the light-skinned population.
  • OBJECTIVE: The scope of this review is to present data on the current state-of-the-art diagnostic methods for keratinocyte carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ultrasonography. Dermoscopy. Diagnostic Tests, Routine. Humans. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / pathology. Keratosis / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17903149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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63. Mancuso M, Gallo D, Saran A: Re: Modulation of basal and squamous cell carcinoma by endogenous estrogen in mouse models of skin cancer. Carcinogenesis; 2009 Apr;30(4):721
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  • [Title] Re: Modulation of basal and squamous cell carcinoma by endogenous estrogen in mouse models of skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Estrogens / pharmacology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Carcinogenesis. 2009 Apr;30(4):720 [19168587.001]
  • (PMID = 19168582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2180
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
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64. Bouwes Bavinck JN, Euvrard S, Naldi L, Nindl I, Proby CM, Neale R, Abeni D, Tessari GP, Feltkamp MC, Claudy A, Stockfleth E, Harwood CA, EPI-HPV-UV-CA group: Keratotic skin lesions and other risk factors are associated with skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients: a case-control study in The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Italy. J Invest Dermatol; 2007 Jul;127(7):1647-56
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  • [Title] Keratotic skin lesions and other risk factors are associated with skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients: a case-control study in The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Italy.
  • This study examines the association of keratotic skin lesions with the development of skin cancer in 915 solid organ-transplant recipients in five European countries.
  • In a hospital-based case-control study, cases with squamous- and basal-cell carcinoma were compared with controls without skin cancer.
  • Questionnaires, scrutiny of medical charts, and skin examination were delivered according to a standardized protocol.
  • Keratotic skin lesions and viral warts were counted on different body sites.
  • Keratotic skin lesions were strongly associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma, with adjusted odds ratios of 4.1 (2.4;7.0) and 12.1 (6.1;24) for 1-49 and 50 and more keratotic skin lesions compared with no lesions, respectively.
  • Keratotic skin lesions were also associated with basal-cell carcinoma with adjusted odds ratios of 2.9 (1.7;4.9) and 4.0 (1.7;9.2) for 1-49 and 50 and more lesions, respectively.
  • Lighter skin types and painful sunburns were also significantly associated with an increased risk of squamous- and basal-cell carcinoma.
  • Keratotic skin lesions are strongly associated with skin cancer and are, thus, an important clinical criterion for identifying those organ-transplant recipients at an increased risk of skin cancers who should be offered more intensive skin surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Keratosis / epidemiology. Keratosis / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Europe / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Life Style. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Risk Factors. Sex Characteristics. Skin Pigmentation. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17380113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6695
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2478722; NLM/ UKMS1916
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65. Wagoner J, Keehn C, Morgan MB: CD-10 immunostaining differentiates superficial basal cell carcinoma from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Dec;29(6):555-8
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  • [Title] CD-10 immunostaining differentiates superficial basal cell carcinoma from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are common entities in clinical practice.
  • We sought to determine if the CD10 immunostain could have diagnostic utility in distinguishing between early superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • CD10 was negative in the tumor cells in 13 out of 13 superficially invasive SCCs and SCC in situ.
  • These findings support the utility of CD10 as a marker for early BCC, especially when SCC cannot be excluded clinically or by conventional stains.
  • Furthermore, these results implicate CD10 in the pathogenesis of BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Neprilysin / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18032951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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66. Leiter U, Garbe C: [Skin cancer in organ transplant patients. Epidemiology and management]. Hautarzt; 2010 Mar;61(3):207-13
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  • [Title] [Skin cancer in organ transplant patients. Epidemiology and management].
  • Skin cancer is the most common cancer, representing 40-50% of post transplant malignancies.
  • In the first 10 years post transplantation, some 15%-40% of patients develop skin cancer, primarily squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, but also melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma and virally-induced Kaposi sarcoma.
  • The management of skin cancer includes secondary prophylaxis and address attention to areas of widespread actinic damage, usually with topical agents.
  • In high risk skin cancer or metastatic disease a substantial reduction in immunosuppression to switching to mTOR inhibitors appears to substantially improve the prognosis.
  • The management of the individual tumor types is discussed; in general it follows the current guidelines.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Organ Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 20145902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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67. Kummoona R: Periorbital and orbital malignancies: methods of management and reconstruction in Iraq. J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Nov;18(6):1370-5
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  • Tumor types were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, retinoblastoma, fibrosarcoma, and ectopic mixed tumor in two, one, two, one, one, and one patients, respectively, in addition to eight patients with jaw lymphoma involving the orbit, out of 24 patients reported by us.
  • Surgery consisted of complete excision of orbital content (exenteration) with or without partial orbitectomy in four patients and wide excision of the tumor in four patients.
  • Reconstruction of the defect was accomplished using various local skin flaps and temporalis muscle flap was used for augmenting the orbit in the four exenterated patients.
  • There is no single best method for reconstruction of the periorbital and orbital defects left after tumor resection, and different flaps applied for reconstruction had given satisfactory results related to the type and complexity of the deformity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Infant. Iraq. Lymphoma / chemistry. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17993883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Rodríguez-Domínguez FJ, Hernández-Gil J, Segarra Fenoll JD, Hernández-Gil A: [Facial mutilant basosquamous carcinoma]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2007;34(6):549-55
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  • [Title] [Facial mutilant basosquamous carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma basoescamoso mutilante en región facial.
  • Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare epithelial malignant neoplasm with clinical and biological features of both basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This neoplasm has been characterized for years as a variant of basal cell carcinoma, although now it is widely accepted as a clinical entity.
  • The most important features of basosquamous carcinoma are its great local aggressiveness, high frequency of recurrences and its metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Face. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18293774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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69. Tichý M, Ditrichová D, Brychtová S, Tichá V, Urbánek J: Double skin tumors with an atypical clinical picture. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2007 Jun;16(2):63-6
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  • [Title] Double skin tumors with an atypical clinical picture.
  • The authors present a rare case of double skin tumors: acral lentiginous melanoma and metatypical carcinoma.
  • The skin biopsies showed advanced acral lentiginous melanoma on the sole and metatypical carcinoma of the lower leg.
  • Soon after the diagnosis was made, the melanoma generalized.
  • The article discusses the differential diagnosis of both leg ulcerations, correct diagnostic procedures, and characteristic features of both tumors that are important questions for general practitioners, dermatologists, and surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Leg Ulcer / etiology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Foot Ulcer / etiology. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17992460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1318-4458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica, et Adriatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovenia
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70. Kolm I, Hofbauer G, Braun RP: [Early diagnosis of skin cancer]. Ther Umsch; 2010 Sep;67(9):439-46
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  • [Title] [Early diagnosis of skin cancer].
  • The skin is the most affected organ by cancer.
  • The incidence rates of skin cancer are steadily increasing, both for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers (squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma).
  • Over 90 % of the death cases from skin cancers attribute to melanoma.
  • In the last years a number of new non invasive techniques for the early diagnosis of melanoma have been developed which are superior to the naked eye examination.
  • In this overview article we present some non-invasive diagnostic techniques like total body photography, digital dermoscopy and confocal microscopy which in addition to dermoscopy assist the dermatologist in differentiating nevi from early melanomas.Non-melanoma skin cancer can be prevented by accurate sun protection.
  • Early squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas can be treated either invasively or non-invasively with excellent prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / prevention & control. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Dermoscopy. Early Diagnosis. Humans. Microscopy, Confocal. Photography. Risk Factors. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20806172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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71. Dixon A, Rosengren H, Connelly T, Dixon J: Education in skin cancer management--assessing knowledge and safety. Aust Fam Physician; 2009 Jul;38(7):557-60
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  • [Title] Education in skin cancer management--assessing knowledge and safety.
  • BACKGROUND: General practitioners manage the majority of skin cancers in Australia.
  • There are a range of training opportunities for, and certifications in, skin cancer management.
  • METHOD: Between 15 June and 25 June 2008, an online examination was placed on the Australasian College of Skin Cancer Medicine website.
  • Thirty questions were asked pertaining to the management of a hypothetical case study including melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Two days of training may not make doctors sufficiently safe in skin cancer management; it appeared to improved knowledge, but not to a point where unsafe practice was eliminated.
  • [MeSH-major] Family Practice / education. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19575076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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72. Hoang MP, Dresser KA, Kapur P, High WA, Mahalingam M: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical reappraisal. Mod Pathol; 2008 Feb;21(2):178-85
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical reappraisal.
  • Even though immunohistochemical comparisons of microcystic adnexal carcinoma vs infiltrative basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma exist, they are mostly restricted to the use of a single stain.
  • In addition, a comparison with squamous cell carcinoma has not been reported previously.
  • In this study, we compare the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 15, CK7, CK20, CK903, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD10, CD15 and BerEP4 in 13 microcystic adnexal carcinoma, eight desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, 10 infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and eight squamous cell carcinoma of which five exhibited ductal differentiation.
  • We found that the majority of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (92%) and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (100%) cases expressed CK15 while the infiltrative basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cases were all negative.
  • Forty percent of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma expressed CK7; while only two microcystic adnexal carcinoma cases (15%) and one squamous cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation (12%) expressed CK7 in the remaining three tumor categories.
  • While the neoplastic cells were negative, luminal staining of ductal structures was noted for CK7, CD15 and CEA in some of the microcystic adnexal carcinoma, desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and squamous cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation cases.
  • Sixty percent of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, 31% of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, and 25% of squamous cell carcinoma express CD10.
  • BerEP4 expression was noted in 38% of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, 57% of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, 100% of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and 38% of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In conclusion, we found CK15 to be a useful marker in distinguishing microcystic adnexal carcinoma from infiltrative basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation.
  • Our experience indicates that microcystic adnexal carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma have a similar immunohistochemical profile that is, CK15+ and BerEP4+/-; thus, additional studies are needed to separate these two entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / chemistry. Head and Neck Neoplasms / chemistry. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratin-15 / analysis. Male. Middle Aged


73. Skroza N, Panetta C, Schwartz RA, Balzani A, Rota C, Buccheri EM, Alfano C, Innocenzi D: Giant meta-typical carcinoma: an unusual tumor. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2006;14(1):46-51
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  • [Title] Giant meta-typical carcinoma: an unusual tumor.
  • Meta-typical carcinoma (MTC) or basosquamous carcinoma is a remarkable malignancy with features of both basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • It is typically located on the back and face, often with clinical features of basal cell carcinoma but tending to be more aggressive with enhanced prospects of lymph node or distant metastases.
  • Our report describes a huge neglected MTC of the back of ten-year duration, a giant ulcero-vegetative tumor measuring 20 x 25 cm.
  • Histologic examination of specimens from the margins and periphery revealed aspects of both basal and squamous cell carcinoma, while the ulcerated center showed sclerotic tissue without tumor.
  • This may have been related to an intense inflammatory host response with elimination of neoplastic tissue and consequent local sclerosis evident in the central tumor-free portion.
  • This central tumor regression is to our knowledge a unique finding in MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16603102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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74. Hönigsmann H, Diepgen TL: [UV-induced skin cancers]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2005 Sep;3 Suppl 2:S26-31
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  • [Title] [UV-induced skin cancers].
  • In this review the epidemiology and pathogenetic aspects of UV-induced malignant skin tumours (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma) are discussed with regard to current literature.
  • Whereas present knowledge, in particular, gained from experimental data, permits substantial conclusions about the development of squamous cell carcinoma, the situation for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma does not appear to be unequivocally clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Melanoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Child. DNA Damage. DNA Repair. Humans. Risk Factors. Skin / pathology. Sunburn / complications

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  • (PMID = 16117740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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75. Lehnerdt G, Manz D, Jahnke K, Schmitz KJ: [Cutaneous basosquamous cell carcinoma]. HNO; 2008 Mar;56(3):306-11
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous basosquamous cell carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Basosquamöses Karzinom der Haut.
  • BACKGROUND: Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare malignancy with specific histopathological features of both basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Therefore, the histological diagnosis is challenging.
  • In the case of the carcinoma on the forehead, a local excision was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The histological diagnosis of BSC is confirmed by the use of EMA and BerEP4 immunohistological staining.
  • Clinically, BSC is a rare, aggressive skin tumor.
  • Despite the histological similarity to basal cell carcinoma, BSC has an imminent risk of metastasizing.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


76. McKnight CA, Wise AG, Maes RK, Howe C, Rector A, Van Ranst M, Kiupel M: Papillomavirus-associated basosquamous carcinoma in an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). J Zoo Wildl Med; 2006 Jun;37(2):193-6
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  • [Title] Papillomavirus-associated basosquamous carcinoma in an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).
  • Six additional variably sized, raised, smooth to cauliflower-like skin masses were observed randomly distributed throughout the left wing membranes.
  • Four masses were removed and diagnosed microscopically as basosquamous carcinomas and papillomas.
  • Additional masses, removed 6 mo and 1 yr later, showed bony invasion and squamous differentiation.
  • Polymerase chain reaction done on DNA extracts from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue amplified a 450 base-pair segment analogous to the L1 region of human papillomavirus types 96 and 5.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of papillomavirus-associated carcinoma in a chiropteran species.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / veterinary. Chiroptera / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17312801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-7260
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Tarallo M, Cigna E, Frati R, Delfino S, Innocenzi D, Fama U, Corbianco A, Scuderi N: Metatypical basal cell carcinoma: a clinical review. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2008;27:65
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  • [Title] Metatypical basal cell carcinoma: a clinical review.
  • BACKGROUND: Metatypical cell carcinoma can be considered as a new entity of skin cancer, being an intermediate typology between basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The behaviour of the metatypical cell carcinoma lies between these two varieties of skin cancer.
  • It is difficult to perform a differential diagnosis based on morphological and clinical features - therefore it is only possible by accurate histology.
  • METHODS: The authors have retrospectively analysed clinical records of 240 patients who were affected by metatypical skin cancer and who were treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In this manuscript, the authors have emphasised the importance of conducting a differential diagnosis, and the importance of the specific treatment for metatypical skin cancer, even though more clinical studies and long-term follow-ups are required before establishing specific guidelines.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18992138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 55
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2585560
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78. Schouten HW, Knippels MC, Franken RJ: [Maggots in the wound, debridement, disinfection and wound healing]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2009;153:A624
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  • [Transliterated title] Vliegenmaden in de wond: débridement, desinfectie en wondgenezing.
  • An 87-year-old man had a longstanding untreated large basosquamous carcinoma on his right ear.
  • A striking finding was that the smell of the wound had disappeared and that the wound was much cleaner, with a reddish aspect and less necrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / complications. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / parasitology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Ear Neoplasms / complications. Ear Neoplasms / parasitology. Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Larva. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19900320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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79. Akyol M, Ozçelik S: Non-acne dermatologic indications for systemic isotretinoin. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2005;6(3):175-84
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  • Diseases such as psoriasis, pityriasis rubra pilaris, condylomata acuminata, skin cancers, rosacea, hidradenitis suppurativa, granuloma annulare, lupus erythematosus and lichen planus have been shown to respond to the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities of the drug.
  • Isotretinoin also helps prevent skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A combination of systemic isotretinoin and interferon-alpha-2a may provide a more potent effect than isotretinoin alone in the prevention and treatment of skin cancers.Systemic isotretinoin may be considered as an alternative drug in some dermatologic diseases unresponsive to conventional treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Isotretinoin / therapeutic use. Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Granuloma Annulare / drug therapy. Hidradenitis Suppurativa / drug therapy. Humans. Keratolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Lichen Planus / drug therapy. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris / drug therapy. Psoriasis / drug therapy. Rosacea / drug therapy. Sebaceous Glands / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15943494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Keratolytic Agents; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
  • [Number-of-references] 133
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80. Ishihara K, Saida T, Otsuka F, Yamazaki N, Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society: Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):33-41
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  • [Title] Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update.
  • BACKGROUND: In the previous report of the Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society, we tabulated data on patients with malignant melanoma who had been registered at major medical institutions (22 institutions on average) in Japan over 5-year periods from 1987 to 1991 (group A) and from 1992 to 1996 (group B).
  • In the present study, patients registered from 1997 to 2001 (group C) were investigated and the data were compared with findings obtained by the subsequent follow-up of groups A and B.
  • Because the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) TNM and stage classifications for malignant melanoma were changed substantially in 2002, analyses in the present investigation were performed according to the new classifications.
  • In addition, the numbers of patients with various kinds of skin malignancies, including not only malignant melanoma but also basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, mycosis fungoides, actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, and Paget's disease, registered at approximately 100 medical institutions in Japan from 1987 to 2001, were also investigated and data were tabulated.
  • RESULTS: The nationwide survey of Japanese patients with malignant skin tumors from 1987 to 2001 showed that the most prevalent skin tumor was basal cell carcinoma, which increased year by year, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, and then by malignant melanoma.
  • The following results were obtained from the data for melanoma patients registered at major institutions from 1987 to 2001. (1) The overall 10-year survival rates for melanoma patients in each chronological group were ranked as: group C > B > A, although only the difference between groups C and A was statistically significant. (2) The male-to-female ratio ranged from 1: 0.97 to 1: 1.14, and the survival rate of female patients was higher than that of male patients (the 140-month survival rate was 70.6% in females and 60% in males). (3) Assessment of the age distribution showed that the number of patients increased rapidly from ages 40-49 years and reached a peak at around 60 years in all three groups. (4) The sole of the foot was the most common site of melanoma in both males and females, while melanomas on the lower limbs were also prevalent in females. (5) Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most common type in all three groups, accounting for nearly 50% of the patients in each group.
  • The prognosis of NM was the worst, while that of SSM was the most favorable. (6) The proportion of stage I patients was larger in group C than in groups A and B, but no significant difference among the groups was observed in the proportions of stage II, III, and IV patients.
  • For patients in stage IV, the survival rate in group C was slightly lower than that in group A or B. (7) In group C, the overall survival rates for substages III A, B, and C were ranked as III A > III B > III C. (8) The overall survival rates for stage IV M1a, M1b, and M1c were ranked as M1a > M1b > M1c.
  • CONCLUSION: In Japan, the number of patients with malignant skin tumors has increased year by year.
  • The prognosis of patients with advanced malignant melanoma remains extremely poor, but that of patients in stage III has shown an improvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18307017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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81. Malejczyk M, Józwiak J, Jablonska S, Pfister H, Majewski S, Malejczyk J: Circulating soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis as compared to patients with cutaneous tumours in the general population. Oncol Rep; 2005 Jan;13(1):151-5
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  • Soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors type I and II (sTNF-RI and II) were evaluated in sera from patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis and patients with cutaneous warts, actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinomas or basal cell carcinomas by specific enzyme-linked immunobiological assays.
  • The levels of sTNF-RI were significantly increased in patients with multiple actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis / diagnosis. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / blood. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15583817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II
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82. Sengupta SR, Das NK, Datta PK: Pathogenesis, clinical features and pathology of chronic arsenicosis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2008 Nov-Dec;74(6):559-70
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  • Arsenicosis is a multisystem disorder, with virtually no system spared from its vicious claw; though its predominant manifestations are linked to cutaneous involvement.
  • Cutaneous effects take the form of pigmentary changes, hyperkeratosis, and skin cancers (Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell epithelioma).
  • Peripheral vascular disease (blackfoot disease), hypertension, ischemic heart disease, noncirrhotic portal hypertension, hepatomegaly, peripheral neuropathy, respiratory and renal involvement, bad obstetrical outcome, hematological disturbances, and diabetes mellitus are among the other clinical features linked to arsenic toxicity.
  • Understandably the detoxification/bio-inactivation process is not a complete defense against the vicious metalloid, and it can cause chromosomal aberration, impairment of DNA repair process, alteration in the activity of tumor suppressor gene, etc., leading to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.
  • Increased expression of cytokeratins, keratin-16 (marker for hyperproliferation) and keratin-8 and -18 (marker for less differentiated epithelial cells), can be related to the histopathological findings of hyperkeratosis and dysplastic cells in the arsenicosis skin lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenic Poisoning / epidemiology. Arsenic Poisoning / pathology. Skin Diseases / epidemiology. Skin Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arsenic / adverse effects. Chronic Disease. Environmental Exposure / adverse effects. Humans. Water Pollutants / adverse effects. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 19171978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Water Pollutants; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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83. Rollison DE, Pawlita M, Giuliano AR, Iannacone MR, Sondak VK, Messina JL, Cruse CW, Fenske NA, Glass LF, Kienstra M, Michael KM, Waterboer T, Gheit T, Tommasino M: Measures of cutaneous human papillomavirus infection in normal tissues as biomarkers of HPV in corresponding nonmelanoma skin cancers. Int J Cancer; 2008 Nov 15;123(10):2337-42
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  • [Title] Measures of cutaneous human papillomavirus infection in normal tissues as biomarkers of HPV in corresponding nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) may be associated with the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), as suggested by reports of HPV DNA in NMSC tumors.
  • NMSC tumor tissue was obtained from 20 patients with pathology-confirmed basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, in addition to several normal tissues, including eyebrow hairs, normal skin swabs obtained using multiple techniques, normal skin punch and shave biopsies, and serum for antibody measurement.
  • Using HPV DNA in tumor tissues as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each measure of HPV infection in normal tissues. beta-Papillomavirus DNA was observed in tumor tissues in 60% of patients.
  • The normal skin punch biopsy demonstrated optimal sensitivity (75%) and specificity (75%).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Skin Diseases, Viral / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Betapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18729188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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84. Heneghan MK, Hazan C, Halpern AC, Oliveria SA: Skin cancer coverage in a national newspaper: a teachable moment. J Cancer Educ; 2007;22(2):99-104
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  • [Title] Skin cancer coverage in a national newspaper: a teachable moment.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the number of published articles related to skin cancer in The New York Times newspaper from 1980-2004;.
  • (2) assess the content of the articles related to skin cancer, and (3) examine the trends in media coverage of skin cancer over time.
  • METHODS: We performed a content analysis on articles related to skin cancer appearing in The New York Times during January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2004, using the ProQuest online content repository database and key words skin cancer.
  • We conducted an advanced focus search of all "skin cancer" articles using key words "melanoma," "squamous cell carcinoma," "basal cell carcinoma," "sunscreen," "tanning," "sunbathing," and "tanning salon".
  • RESULTS: We identified 874 published articles relating to skin cancer.
  • Coverage of other major subjects included sunscreen (11%), tanning (9%), basal cell carcinoma (7%), squamous cell carcinoma (3%), sunbathing (2%), and tanning salon (2%).
  • The remaining 37% of articles contained some mention of skin cancer, but skin cancer was not the main topic nor were any of the focus terms.
  • Over the 25-year period we examined, there was a slight upward trend in the number of skin-cancer-related articles, although we observed year-to-year variation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Understanding how the print media portrays skin cancer issues provides valuable feedback for federal agencies and cancer organizations and may ultimately help promote skin cancer prevention and education.
  • [MeSH-major] Bibliometrics. Health Education. Journalism, Medical. Newspapers as Topic. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17605623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-8195
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer education : the official journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Educ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07 CA94002
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Kim GK, Del Rosso JQ, Bellew S: Skin cancer in asians: part 1: nonmelanoma skin cancer. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2009 Aug;2(8):39-42
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  • [Title] Skin cancer in asians: part 1: nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • Since the 1960s, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma among the Caucasian population have increased 3 to 8 percent annually.
  • Although Asians display relative protection from basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, incidence rates of these nonmelanoma skin cancers have been increasing over the past three decades.
  • With changing demographics and a steady rise in the minority population in the United States, there is an increased need for further studies of cutaneous malignancies within Asian and other ethnic populations.
  • This article reviews nonmelanoma skin cancers in the Asian population with an insight into contributing factors, such as skin type, occupation, cultural practices, and genetic components.

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  • (PMID = 20729955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2923966
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86. Kimball KJ, Straughn JM, Conner MG, Kirby TO: Recurrent basosquamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):400-2
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  • [Title] Recurrent basosquamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
  • BACKGROUND: Basosquamous cell carcinoma (BSC) of the vulva is a rare entity with interesting prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • CONCLUSION: BSC is a rare disorder of the vulva.
  • The metastatic potential of this tumor is not fully understood, but likely is intermediate between squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16624392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Snarskaia ES, Molochkov VA, Frank GA, Zavalishina LA: [Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in basal cell and metatypical cancer of the skin]. Arkh Patol; 2005 May-Jun;67(3):14-6
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  • [Title] [Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in basal cell and metatypical cancer of the skin].
  • 10 cases of ulcerative-nodular basal cell carcinoma and 10 cases of metatypical carcinoma of the skin were studied immunohistochemically for immunoexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-9) and their endogenic tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) in combination with PCNA, p53 tumor complexes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / analysis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16075605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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88. Hernández-Martín A, Arias-Palomo D, Barahona E, Hidalgo C, Muñoz C, García-Higuera I: [Analysis of surgical treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancer performed by dermatologists in a public hospital: clinical-pathological correlation, use of hospital resources, and waiting list time from diagnosis]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Dec;98(10):694-701
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  • [Title] [Analysis of surgical treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancer performed by dermatologists in a public hospital: clinical-pathological correlation, use of hospital resources, and waiting list time from diagnosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Análisis del tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer cutáneo no melanoma cuando es realizado por dermatólogos en un hospital público: correlación anatomoclínica, empleo de recursos hospitalarios y tiempo de espera desde el diagnóstico.
  • BACKGROUND: Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans.
  • No studies have been published addressing differences in the management of surgical treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancer according to the specialties involved.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the preoperative diagnostic accuracy and the use of health care resources when surgical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer is done by dermatologists belonging to the Spanish national health service.
  • METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out over a period of 36 months using data corresponding to all patients diagnosed with nonmelanoma skin cancer and treated surgically in the Dermatology Department of Complejo Hospitalario de Burgos, Spain.
  • Data were analyzed for clinical-pathological correlation, complexity of the intervention, use of health care resources, and time elapsed between clinical diagnosis and surgery.
  • RESULTS: The study included 448 patients and 521 skin lesions suspected to be nonmelanoma skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma).
  • Diagnosis was exclusively clinical in 487 tumors and a clinical-pathological correlation of 84.39% was observed.
  • In 349 patients (77.90%) the procedure was performed on an outpatient basis, 73 (16.29%) required a short stay in the surgical day care unit, and 26 (5.80%) required hospital admission.
  • The mean (SD) delay from clinical diagnosis to surgery was 68.44 (42.22) days, with a median delay of 60 days.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dermatology specialists are highly qualified to diagnose malignant skin tumors and accurately identify those patients requiring surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2008 Mar;99(2):170
  • (PMID = 18035027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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89. Abdulla FR, Kerns MJ, Mutasim DF: Amelanotic lentigo maligna: a report of three cases and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 May;62(5):857-60
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  • BACKGROUND: Amelanotic lentigo maligna is not clinically suspected and is often mistaken for a basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or dermatitis.
  • CONCLUSION: A high degree of clinical and histologic suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of this clinically nondescript neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Forearm. Humans. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19766347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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90. Bailey JS, Goldwasser MS: Surgical management of facial skin cancer. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am; 2005 May;17(2):205-33, vi
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  • [Title] Surgical management of facial skin cancer.
  • Surgical excision is the gold standard for management of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Surgical management of nonmelanotic facial skin cancer requires preoperative planning and an in-depth understanding of reconstructive techniques, including primary closure, skin grafting, and local tissue flaps.
  • The decision regarding the method of treatment of nonmelanotic skin cancer is highly individualized and depends on patient age, cancer size, histologic subtype, and site.
  • In this article we discuss the principles and techniques of surgical excision and reconstruction of site-specific facial skin cancers.

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  • (PMID = 18088778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3699
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Gass JK, Chan SK, Rytina E, Greenberg DC, Burrows NP: Multiple primary malignancies in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 May;24(5):601-3
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  • [Title] Multiple primary malignancies in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare malignant cutaneous tumour, the incidence of which is increasing.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report the rate and nature of multiple malignancies in patients with MCC treated over a 10 year period in Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, United Kingdom, as well as the temporal relationship of these additional malignancies to the diagnosis of MCC.
  • RESULTS: The 27 patients had an approximately equal sex incidence with a median age at diagnosis of 79 years.
  • Seventy percent (n=19) of patients had a second primary malignant tumour; and 7 of these patients had two or more tumours in addition to the MCC.
  • Eighteen patients had additional cutaneous malignancies: melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, and 8 patients presented non-cutaneous malignancy including colorectal, haematological and breast tumours.
  • Of the 28 additional tumours in our patients, half were diagnosed prior to presentation of MCC, 32% within 6 months of diagnosis, and 18% between 6 months and 3 years after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our figures reflect a higher incidence of multiple malignancies in those with Merkel cell tumour than has previously been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19900177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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92. Rector A, Mostmans S, Van Doorslaer K, McKnight CA, Maes RK, Wise AG, Kiupel M, Van Ranst M: Genetic characterization of the first chiropteran papillomavirus, isolated from a basosquamous carcinoma in an Egyptian fruit bat: the Rousettus aegyptiacus papillomavirus type 1. Vet Microbiol; 2006 Oct 31;117(2-4):267-75
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  • [Title] Genetic characterization of the first chiropteran papillomavirus, isolated from a basosquamous carcinoma in an Egyptian fruit bat: the Rousettus aegyptiacus papillomavirus type 1.
  • The complete genomic DNA of a novel papillomavirus (PV) was isolated from a basosquamous carcinoma on the wing of an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / veterinary. Chiroptera / virology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16854536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-1135
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Transposable Elements; 0 / DNA, Viral
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93. Agero AL, Busam KJ, Benvenuto-Andrade C, Scope A, Gill M, Marghoob AA, González S, Halpern AC: Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Apr;54(4):638-43
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  • [Title] Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a high-resolution imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive evaluation of skin lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the relevant RCM features for pigmented basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • METHODS: Pigmented skin lesions with a differential diagnosis of pigmented BCC were imaged using dermoscopy and RCM, followed by excision for histologic analysis.
  • RESULTS: RCM demonstrated aggregations of tightly packed cells with palisading, forming cordlike structures and nodules with irregular borders and variable brightness; these represented nests of pigmented basaloid tumor cells on histopathology, and blue-gray ovoid areas on dermoscopy.
  • These tumor nests were associated with bright dendritic structures, identified histologically as either melanocytes or Langerhans cells, together with numerous bright oval to stellate-shaped structures with indistinct borders representing melanophages, and with highly refractile granules of melanin.
  • LIMITATIONS: The pigmented BCCs imaged in this study were predominantly nodular; a different set or additional criteria may be necessary for detection of infiltrative and metatypical BCCs.
  • CONCLUSION: RCM may permit in vivo diagnosis of pigmented BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16546585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Ostler DA, Prieto VG, Reed JA, Deavers MT, Lazar AJ, Ivan D: Adipophilin expression in sebaceous tumors and other cutaneous lesions with clear cell histology: an immunohistochemical study of 117 cases. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):567-73
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  • [Title] Adipophilin expression in sebaceous tumors and other cutaneous lesions with clear cell histology: an immunohistochemical study of 117 cases.
  • This study examines adipophilin expression in various sebaceous lesions and other cutaneous tumors with a clear cell histology that may mimic sebaceous differentiation.
  • A total of 117 cutaneous clear cell lesions including 16 sebaceous adenomas, 25 sebaceous carcinomas, 8 basal cell carcinomas, 12 squamous cell carcinomas, 6 xanthomas, 10 xanthelasmas, 10 xanthogranulomas, 4 balloon cell nevi, 5 trichilemmomas, 8 clear cell hidradenomas, and 13 metastatic renal cell carcinomas were examined using immunohistochemistry for the expression of adipophilin.
  • Adipophilin was expressed in 16 of 16 (100%) sebaceous adenomas, 23 of 25 (92%) sebaceous carcinomas, 10 of 10 (100%) xanthelasmas, 9 of 10 (90%) xanthogranulomas, 6 of 6 (100%) xanthomas, and 9 of 13 (62.5%) metastatic renal cell carcinomas.
  • Adipophilin expression was not seen in any of the other lesions with clear cell histology, basal cell carcinomas, or squamous cell carcinomas, including cases that had focal clear cell differentiation.
  • Adipophilin can be valuable in an immunohistochemical panel when evaluating cutaneous lesions with clear cell histology as it identifies intracytoplasmic lipid vesicles in sebaceous and xanthomatous lesions.
  • In periocular lesions, it is effective in helping to exclude basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma when sebaceous carcinoma is under consideration.
  • Adipophilin expression is not as useful for the differential diagnosis that includes metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a rare but important, diagnostic differential.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Peptides / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Membrane Proteins. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20118912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / perilipin 2
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95. Panda S: Nonmelanoma skin cancer in India: current scenario. Indian J Dermatol; 2010 Oct;55(4):373-8
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  • [Title] Nonmelanoma skin cancer in India: current scenario.
  • Incidence of skin cancers has been increasing since the last few decades worldwide.
  • Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the commonest variety of cutaneous malignancy.
  • Conventional wisdom has it that the incidence of all varieties of skin cancers is lower among Indians due to the protective effects of melanin.
  • Reports of quite a few atypical cases lead us to hypothesize that factors other than ultraviolet radiation may be important in the occurrences of these cancers, particularly in the skin types prevalent in India.
  • The descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of squamous and basal cell carcinoma in India, including their variants, are discussed here along with hypotheses on their etiopathogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 21430894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3051301
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Squamous cell carcinoma / basal cell carcinoma / nonmelanoma skin cancer
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96. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Selva D, Lun K, Richards S, Paver R: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Feb;52(2):295-300
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is reported to have a high rate of recurrence with standard wide local excision.
  • METHODS: This prospective, multi-center case series included all patients in Australia treated with MMS for MAC, who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation between 1993 and 2002.
  • In 31.8% of cases it was a recurrent tumor.
  • In 32.5% of cases the tumor was initially misdiagnosed as basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Australia / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Child. Databases, Factual. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


97. Son KD, Kim TJ, Lee YS, Park GS, Han KT, Lim JS, Kang CS: Comparative analysis of immunohistochemical markers with invasiveness and histologic differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin. J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jun 1;97(7):615-20
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of immunohistochemical markers with invasiveness and histologic differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluates several tumor-related markers to examine the expression pattern of markers according to the invasiveness and histopathologic differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Ninety-four cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 108 cases of basal cell carcinoma using tissue array in order to determine correlations between the expression of Ki-67, p53, EGFR, CD44v6, MMP-1 and MMP-3, invasiveness and histologic differentiation.
  • RESULTS: The depth of invasion showed a correlation with CD44v6 expression of tumor cell in both squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma (P = 0.009, P = 0.036, respectively) and with the MMP-1 expression of stromal cell in squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.010).
  • The differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma was correlated with Ki-67 index.
  • The loss of palisading arrangement in basal cell carcinoma was correlated with the MMP-1 expression of stromal cells (P = 0.045).
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD44v6 and MMP-1, expressed in tumor cells and stromal cells respectively, are significant markers associated with the invasiveness of tumors in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin and that it will be helpful to evaluate the invasiveness by measuring the expression of these markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD44 / biosynthesis. Female. Genes, erbB-1. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / biosynthesis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis


98. Stoebner PE, Le Gallic L, Berthe ML, Boulle N, Lallemant B, Marque M, Gaspard C, Delfour C, Lavabre-Bertrand T, Martinez J, Meunier L: Decreased expression of thymidine phosphorylase/platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor in basal cell carcinomas. Exp Dermatol; 2008 Nov;17(11):908-15
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  • [Title] Decreased expression of thymidine phosphorylase/platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor in basal cell carcinomas.
  • Thymidine phosphorylase (TP)/platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor is associated with tumor angiogenesis.
  • We evaluated the TP mRNA and protein expression in basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and in various skin tumors including numerous BCC histological simulants.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on 99 paraffin sections of formalin-fixed skin tumors using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against TP.
  • TP mRNA levels were measured by real time RT-PCR in whole BCCs (wBCC) and laser capture microdissected (LCM) BCC tumor cells.
  • TP immunostaining was negative in all BCC variants and in most of the benign trichogeneic tumors studied.
  • By contrast, TP was constantly immunodetected in actinic keratosis (AK), squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), syringomatous carcinomas (SC), basosquamous carcinomas (BSC) and melanomas.
  • TP mRNA levels were low and statistically not different in wBCC and normal skin but were strongly downregulated in LCM-BCC as compared with LCM-normal epidermis.
  • We concluded that (i) anti-TP mAb is an useful marker to differentiate BCC from AK, SCC, BSC and SC but not from trichoblastic tumors, (ii) the lack of TP protein expression in BCC tumoral cells is linked to transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, (iii) the low TP mRNA levels in whole BCC may be related to the low intra-tumoral microvessel density, the slow growth and the very low metastatic potential of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thymidine Phosphorylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / genetics. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratosis, Actinic / genetics. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18341568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase
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99. Massari LP, Kastelan M, Gruber F: Epidermal malignant tumors: pathogenesis, influence of UV light and apoptosis. Coll Antropol; 2007 Jan;31 Suppl 1:83-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermal malignant tumors: pathogenesis, influence of UV light and apoptosis.
  • Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, collectively termed non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignant tumors in humans.
  • Basal cell carcinoma grows slowly and metastatic spread is very rare.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by infiltrative, destructive growth and metastasis.
  • Long-term exposure of skin to UV light has a great impact on development of these epidermal malignancies.
  • The major role in development of skin cancer is given to proapoptotic p53 molecule or tumor suppressor gene which mutation due to UV exposure leads to resistance of DNA-damaged cell to apoptosis.
  • Other proapoptotic molecules such as Fas ligand (FasL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) are strongly expressed in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma that could be explained by the ability of tumor to escape the attack of immune system.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects