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1. Snyder RJ: Skin cancers and wounds in the geriatric population: a review. Ostomy Wound Manage; 2009 Apr;55(4):64-76
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Wounds and Injuries.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skin cancers and wounds in the geriatric population: a review.
  • Diagnosis of wound malignancy often remains elusive and is of particular concern in the geriatric population because the average age for presentation of squamous cell cancer is 70 years.
  • Basal and squamous cell carcinoma, as well as Marjolin's ulcer, may look like a chronic or acute wound, can develop in the wound itself, or be found in the scar tissue of these wounds.
  • A complete patient history should include questions about sun exposure and personal and family history of skin cancer.
  • Some wounds exhibit typical clinical signs of cancer - ie, raised borders, crusting - but many do not, making diagnosis more challenging.
  • An accurate diagnosis is crucial to positive treatment outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Wounds and Injuries / complications. Wounds and Injuries / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Age Factors. Aged. Aging. Biopsy / methods. Causality. Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Humans. Medical History Taking. Patient Selection. Skin Care / methods. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 19387098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-5899
  • [Journal-full-title] Ostomy/wound management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ostomy Wound Manage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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2. Pătraşcu V, Stoica LE, Georgescu CV, Pătru E: Histopathological and clinical-progressive profile of skin carcinomas: study on 1688 cases. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2010;51(1):171-80
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

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  • [Title] Histopathological and clinical-progressive profile of skin carcinomas: study on 1688 cases.
  • Skin carcinomas represent 90-95% of skin cancers.
  • With the objective of identifying the histopathological and clinical-progressive profile of skin carcinomas, we undertook a retrospective study over a period of seven years, which included a total of 1688 patients with carcinoma of the skin, hospitalized and treated in Craiova Dermatology Clinic between January 1999 and December 2006.
  • Patient data such as identification data, environment, profession, phototype, location of cancer, history of the disease, clinical diagnosis, histopathological diagnosis and response to treatment were included in clinical charts.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was diagnosed in a total of 1162 patients, representing 68.84% of cases taken to the study.
  • The most common clinical forms were: pearly BCC (37.95%), nodular BCC (29%), and superficial BCC (22.03%).
  • Regarding the histological type, the most frequent forms were: BCC polymorphic (29.95%), BCC solid (24.96%), and keratinized BCC (19.97%).
  • Epidermoid carcinoma (EC) was encountered in a total of 482 patients, representing 28.55% of all cases.
  • Metatypical carcinoma (MC) was found in 44 patients (2.61%).
  • This type of cancer did not presented clinical particular signs, the diagnosis was strictly pathological.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Rural Population / statistics & numerical data. Urban Population / statistics & numerical data. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20191140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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3. Chren MM, Sahay AP, Bertenthal DS, Sen S, Landefeld CS: Quality-of-life outcomes of treatments for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. J Invest Dermatol; 2007 Jun;127(6):1351-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quality-of-life outcomes of treatments for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Quality of life is an important treatment outcome for conditions that are rarely fatal, such as cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (typically called nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC)).
  • The main outcome was tumor-related quality of life 1 to 2 years after therapy, measured with the 16-item version of Skindex, a validated measure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / psychology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Quality of Life. Skin Neoplasms / psychology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Emotions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Health Status Indicators. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mohs Surgery. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17301830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K02 AR 02203-01
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Kimball KJ, Straughn JM, Conner MG, Kirby TO: Recurrent basosquamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):400-2
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vulvar Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent basosquamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
  • BACKGROUND: Basosquamous cell carcinoma (BSC) of the vulva is a rare entity with interesting prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • CONCLUSION: BSC is a rare disorder of the vulva.
  • The metastatic potential of this tumor is not fully understood, but likely is intermediate between squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16624392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Ch'ng S, Wallis RA, Yuan L, Davis PF, Tan ST: Mast cells and cutaneous malignancies. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):149-59
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  • This paper reviews the role of mast cells in the development and progression of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.
  • Upon irradiation of the skin, trans-urocanic acid in the epidermis isomerizes to cis-urocanic acid, which stimulates neuropeptide release from neural c-fibers.
  • These neuropeptides in turn trigger histamine secretion from mast cells, leading to suppression of the cellular immune system. (2) Angiogenesis: Mast cells are the major source of vascular endothelial growth factor in basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor is one of the most potent angiogenic factors, which also induces leakage of other angiogenic factors across the endothelial cell wall into the matrix.
  • Mast cell proteases reorganize the stroma to facilitate endothelial cell migration.
  • As well, heparin, the dominant mast cell proteoglycan, assists in blood-borne metastasis. (3) Degradation of extracellular matrix: Through its own proteases, and indirectly via interaction with other cells, mast cells participate in degradation of the matrix, which is required for tumor spread. (4) Mitogenesis: Mast cell mediators including fibroblast growth factor-2 and interleukin-8 are mitogenic to melanoma cells.
  • Emerging data, however, also suggest that mast cells might, in fact, have opposing roles in tumor biology, and the microenvironment could polarize mast cells to possess either promoting or inhibitory effects on tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Mast Cells / physiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / blood. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Humans. Melanoma / blood. Melanoma / blood supply. Melanoma / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood

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  • (PMID = 16258517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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6. Karagas MR, Waterboer T, Li Z, Nelson HH, Michael KM, Bavinck JN, Perry AE, Spencer SK, Daling J, Green AC, Pawlita M, New Hampshire Skin Cancer Study Group: Genus beta human papillomaviruses and incidence of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of skin: population based case-control study. BMJ; 2010 Jul 08;341:c2986
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genus beta human papillomaviruses and incidence of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of skin: population based case-control study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between genus beta human papillomaviruses and the incidence of non-melanocytic skin cancer in the general population.
  • PARTICIPANTS: 2366 skin cancer cases and controls from the general population aged 25 to 74 years (663 squamous cell carcinoma, 898 basal cell carcinoma, 805 controls), with plasma samples tested for L1 antibodies to 16 genus beta human papillomaviruses by multiplex serology.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios for squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma associated with seropositivity to beta human papillomaviruses.
  • RESULTS: Squamous cell carcinoma, but not basal cell carcinoma, cases had a higher prevalence of each of the individual beta human papillomaviruses assayed compared with controls.
  • The odds ratios for squamous cell carcinoma increased with the number of beta types positive (odds ratio for one type positive 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.74 to 1.33); two to three types positive 1.44 (1.03 to 2.01); four to eight types positive 1.51 (1.03 to 2.20); more than eight types positive 1.71 (1.12 to 2.62); P for trend (categorical)<0.001; P for trend (continuous)=0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a relation between genus beta human papillomavirus infection and the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in the general population, as well as potential enhancement of risk by immunosuppression.

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  • (PMID = 20616098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-1833
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057494; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA57494; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118443; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA118443
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2900549
  • [Investigator] Anderson DR; Averill RW; Aversa AJ; Brady S; Bairstow BA; Baughman RD; Blasik LG; Campbell J; Carroll C; Chapman MS; Clendenning WE; Collison DW; Crespo JL; Danby FW; Del Guidice SM; Dimond RL; Dinulos JG; Draper WS; Finkle JP; Fisher J; Fournier J; Frank WE; Fromer JL; Goldberg NC; Goldminz D; Gordon R; Greenstein DS; Habif TP; Hammer C; Hokanson T; Joselow SA; Lewis G; Lichter MD; Liranzo MO; Margesson L; Mittleman MA; Peraza J; Posnick RB; Pringle WM; Quitadamo M; Reohr PB; Reynolds NC; Ryan A; Sands P; Schwartz ME; Seymour G; Sherman LD; Sisto JA; Spencer SK; Starke JC; Stewart MI; Sullivan S; Thyresson NH; Truhan AP; Tye MJ; Watson J; Waterson KW; Willer R; Zug K
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7. Thomas L, Dalle S: [Pathology of the eyelid in elderly patients]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Jun;29(6):672-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Illustrated review centered on diagnosis of the usual aspects and pitfalls of eyelid pathology divided into semiological chapters (tumors, blisters, erythema, etc.).
  • It is mainly centered on skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adnexal carcinomas, and melanoma).
  • A number of rare diseases deserve mention since their presence could lead to the diagnosis of internal or systemic diseases (dermatomyositis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, Erdheim-Chester, etc.).
  • In such conditions, early diagnosis is often based on the observation of isolated periocular symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though topographic dermatology is a somewhat reductive vision of skin diseases, pathology of the eyelids deserves special mention because of its polymorphism as well as its diagnostic and/or therapeutic significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16885900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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8. Garcia C, Poletti E, Crowson AN: Basosquamous carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Jan;60(1):137-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basosquamous carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Basosquamous carcinoma is considered an aggressive type of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with an increased risk of recurrence and metastases.
  • METHODS: This is a narrative review based on a MEDLINE search of articles in English and a manual search of popular dermatology textbooks to define basosquamous carcinoma, its incidence, clinical behavior, and treatment of choice.
  • RESULTS: There are no specific clinical features to distinguish basosquamous carcinoma from other BCC types and the diagnosis is made only after biopsy.
  • There are several histologic definitions of basosquamous carcinoma ranging from a characteristic combination of BCC and squamous cell carcinoma with or without a transition zone, to any BCC with evidence of keratinization.
  • The authors confine the use of the term to an infiltrative growth BCC with areas of keratinization and/or intercellular bridge formation in the setting of a prototypic proliferative stromal reaction.
  • The term "metatypical basal cell carcinoma" is considered a synonym but its use is discouraged for the reasons outlined.
  • The reported incidence of basosquamous carcinoma ranges from 1.2% to 2.7%.
  • The aggressive biological behavior and clinical course distinguish basosquamous carcinoma from other forms of BCC.
  • CONCLUSION: The terminology surrounding basosquamous carcinoma is confusing and there is a need for more uniform language.
  • Data regarding the incidence, recurrence, and metastasis rates of basosquamous carcinoma are based mostly on retrospective series with a limited number of cases.
  • We conclude that although the incidence of basosquamous carcinoma is unknown, there is a literature precedent suggesting more aggressive biological behavior.
  • We believe that complete surgical excision is the preferred approach, and that basosquamous carcinoma is an ideal candidate lesion for Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19103364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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9. Cunneen TS, Yong JL, Benger R: Lung metastases in a case of metatypical basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid: an illustrative case and literature review to heighten vigilance of its metastatic potential. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2008 Jul;36(5):475-7
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  • [Title] Lung metastases in a case of metatypical basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid: an illustrative case and literature review to heighten vigilance of its metastatic potential.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an extremely common malignancy; however, unlike other skin cancers, they very rarely metastasize.
  • Here we present an unusual case of metatypical BCC of the eyelid which metastasized to the lung nine years after initial surgical treatment.
  • We include a review of the literature regarding metastatic BCC and suggest that metatypical features in primary BCC should prompt careful patient monitoring and consideration of adjuvant treatment at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18925916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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10. Costantino D, Lowe L, Brown DL: Basosquamous carcinoma-an under-recognized, high-risk cutaneous neoplasm: case study and review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2006;59(4):424-8
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  • [Title] Basosquamous carcinoma-an under-recognized, high-risk cutaneous neoplasm: case study and review of the literature.
  • Basosquamous carcinoma of the skin is a relatively rare cutaneous neoplasm that has been shown to have significant metastatic potential.
  • Histopathologists debate whether these lesions arise de novo or differentiate from pre-existing basal cell carcinomas.
  • We present a case in which a longstanding lesion initially diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma was later found to have basosquamous histology and regional metastases.
  • Review of the literature reveals a metastatic rate greater than that of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, and identifies several important characteristics that impact prognosis after surgical resection.
  • For physicians treating carcinomas of the skin, it is important to understand the natural history and proper treatment of this aggressive neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Foot Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16756261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-6815
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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11. Arshad AR, Azman WS, Kreetharan A: Solitary sebaceous nevus of Jadassohn complicated by squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Head Neck; 2008 Apr;30(4):544-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solitary sebaceous nevus of Jadassohn complicated by squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Its association with basal cell carcinoma is well known.
  • METHOD: This is a case report of sebaceous carcinoma complicated by both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The behavior of this tumor is very aggressive, resulting in poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 17972311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Snarskaia ES, Molochkov VA, Frank GA, Zavalishina LA: [Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in basal cell and metatypical cancer of the skin]. Arkh Patol; 2005 May-Jun;67(3):14-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in basal cell and metatypical cancer of the skin].
  • 10 cases of ulcerative-nodular basal cell carcinoma and 10 cases of metatypical carcinoma of the skin were studied immunohistochemically for immunoexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-9) and their endogenic tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2) in combination with PCNA, p53 tumor complexes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / analysis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16075605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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13. Kang SY, Lee SJ, Hong SH, Chung YK, Oh HS, Kim SW, Yim DJ, Kim NK: Polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin. Mol Med Rep; 2010 Sep-Oct;3(5):741-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • Genetic instability resulting from mutations in repair genes, defects in folic acid metabolism or DNA synthesis has been reported to contribute significantly to the development of skin cancer.
  • Thus, the present case-control study was conducted to determine whether an association exists between the MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and/or basal cell carcinoma (BCC) among Korean individuals.
  • The study subjects comprised 95 patients with SCC, 100 patients with BCC and 207 controls with no evidence of malignancy or pre-malignant lesions.
  • Patients with skin cancer and control samples were analyzed for polymorphisms of the MTHFR or TS genes by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
  • The MTHFR 677C>T and MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphisms showed no significance with regard to the development of SCC and BCC.
  • However, within the 6 bp insertion (ins)/deletion (del) polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the TS gene, the BCC group showed statistical significance with a 2.8-fold increased risk of cancer development [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.821] in heterozygous mutations (0 bp/6 bp), 7.5-fold (AOR=7.539) in homozygous mutations (6 bp/6 bp) and 3-fold (AOR=3.079) upon combination of heterozygous mutations and homozygous mutations (0 bp/6 bp + 6 bp/6 bp).
  • We thus conclude that the 6 bp ins/del polymorphism in the 3'-UTR is associated with increased risk of the development of skin cancer among Korean individuals with BCC.

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  • (PMID = 21472308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-3004
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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14. Sedda AF, Rossi G, Cipriani C, Carrozzo AM, Donati P: Dermatological high-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of basal and squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Nov;33(6):745-9
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  • [Title] Dermatological high-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are among the most common cancers in humans.
  • We describe a new treatment for BCC and SCC.
  • METHODS: In total, 53 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis of BCC and of SCC were enrolled for the treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: The results indicated that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for BCC and SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Facial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18681873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ointments; 7440-15-5 / Rhenium
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15. Miller KL, Karagas MR, Kraft P, Hunter DJ, Catalano PJ, Byler SH, Nelson HH: XPA, haplotypes, and risk of basal and squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinogenesis; 2006 Aug;27(8):1670-5
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  • [Title] XPA, haplotypes, and risk of basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is instrumental in removing DNA lesions caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the dominant risk factor for keratinocyte carcinoma, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We evaluated whether BCC or SCC risk was influenced by the A23G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), which codes for an essential protein in NER.
  • We also investigated whether haplotypes of XPA, determined by seven haplotype-tagging SNPs, better define susceptibility to keratinocyte carcinoma.
  • Incident cases of BCC and SCC from New Hampshire were identified through dermatologists and pathology laboratories.
  • Cases of BCC (886) and of SCC (682) were compared with controls (796).
  • Using GG as the reference, the A allele was less frequent among cases of BCC (OR(AG) = 0.82, 95% CI (0.66, 1.01); OR(AA)= 0.74, 95% CI (0.53, 1.03); trend test P = 0.03) and SCC (OR(AG) = 0.85, 95% CI (0.67, 1.07); OR(AA) = 0.74, 95% CI (0.52, 1.05); trend test P = 0.05) than controls.
  • Risk from > or =3 severe sunburns was elevated for those with the GG genotype only, and this interaction was nearly significant for BCC (P = 0.07).
  • Using a haplotype analysis identifying seven common XPA haplotypes indicated that the A23G polymorphism alone captured the differences in susceptibility to keratinocyte carcinoma.
  • The common G allele of the A23G polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of BCC and SCC and this polymorphism appeared to be the determining polymorphism in XPA that alters cancer susceptibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Haplotypes / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16513681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA006515; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082354; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA57494; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32 ES007155
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / XPA protein, human; 0 / Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein
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16. Szeimies RM, Karrer S, Bäcker H: [Therapeutic options for epithelial skin tumors. Actinic keratoses, Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma]. Hautarzt; 2005 May;56(5):430-40
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic options for epithelial skin tumors. Actinic keratoses, Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Therapieoptionen bei epithelialen Hauttumoren Aktinische Keratosen, Morbus Bowen, spinozelluläres Karzinom und Basalzellkarzinom.
  • There has been worldwide a significant rise in the incidence of epithelial skin tumors and their precursors in the past years with an increased number of younger patients affected.
  • In the following article different therapeutic approaches for actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are presented and analysed.
  • [MeSH-major] Risk Assessment / methods. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Bowen's Disease / therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cryotherapy / methods. Curettage / methods. Humans. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15815888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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17. Ross AH, Kennedy CT, Collins C, Harrad RA: The use of imiquimod in the treatment of periocular tumours. Orbit; 2010 Apr;29(2):83-7
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  • Two patients were diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, one patient with actinic keratosis, one with intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen's disease) and one patient had concomitant squamous cell carcinoma and intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In our experience, it is a safe and effective treatment for periocular lesions, including actinic keratosis, intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first published description of the successful use of 5% Imiquimod in treating moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Eyelid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Solutions. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20394545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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18. Fine JD, Mellerio JE: Extracutaneous manifestations and complications of inherited epidermolysis bullosa: part II. Other organs. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Sep;61(3):387-402; quiz 403-4
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  • Some epidermolysis bullosa subtypes are at risk for severe injury of the bone marrow, musculoskeletal system, heart, kidney, and teeth, and for the development of squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, or malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Education, Medical, Continuing. Humans. Mouth Diseases / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19700011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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19. Mogensen M, Jemec GB: Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: a review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Oct;33(10):1158-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer/keratinocyte carcinoma: a review of diagnostic accuracy of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnostic tests and technologies.
  • BACKGROUND: Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most prevalent cancer in the light-skinned population.
  • OBJECTIVE: The scope of this review is to present data on the current state-of-the-art diagnostic methods for keratinocyte carcinoma: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ultrasonography. Dermoscopy. Diagnostic Tests, Routine. Humans. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / pathology. Keratosis / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17903149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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20. Lehnerdt G, Manz D, Jahnke K, Schmitz KJ: [Cutaneous basosquamous cell carcinoma]. HNO; 2008 Mar;56(3):306-11
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous basosquamous cell carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Basosquamöses Karzinom der Haut.
  • BACKGROUND: Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare malignancy with specific histopathological features of both basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Therefore, the histological diagnosis is challenging.
  • In the case of the carcinoma on the forehead, a local excision was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The histological diagnosis of BSC is confirmed by the use of EMA and BerEP4 immunohistological staining.
  • Clinically, BSC is a rare, aggressive skin tumor.
  • Despite the histological similarity to basal cell carcinoma, BSC has an imminent risk of metastasizing.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


21. Perrem K, Lynch A, Conneely M, Wahlberg H, Murphy G, Leader M, Kay E: The higher incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in renal transplant recipients is associated with increased telomere lengths. Hum Pathol; 2007 Feb;38(2):351-8
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  • [Title] The higher incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in renal transplant recipients is associated with increased telomere lengths.
  • The incidence and aggressiveness of nonmelanoma skin cancers, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in immunocompromised renal transplant recipients (RTRs) is dramatically higher (up to 100-fold) compared with the normal population.
  • SCC lesions are also predominant in RTRs, in contrast to the normal population where basal cell carcinoma is more common.
  • The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown, but effective treatments for these skin tumors would have a significant impact upon morbidity in this group of patients.
  • The fundamental role of telomeres and telomerase in the development of most human cancers, including melanoma, is well established, but very few reports have assessed their function during the onset of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • To assess whether telomere maintenance plays any role in the increased incidence of SCC in renal transplant patients, we analyzed both the telomere lengths and telomerase expression levels in 44 SCCs and 22 Bowen's disease (BD) samples (carcinoma in situ) from RTRs and nontransplant patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Telomere / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Cell Line. HeLa Cells. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Telomerase / biosynthesis


22. Skaria AM: Recurrence of basosquamous carcinoma after Mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatology; 2010;221(4):352-5
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  • [Title] Recurrence of basosquamous carcinoma after Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: The recurrence rate of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) after Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is well documented.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated 1,000 cases of epidermal tumors in a private center of MMS including BCC, squamous cell carcinoma and basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) treated by MMS from 1998 to 2007 in a retrospective study.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20924160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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23. Bradford C, Wack A, Trembley S, Southard T, Bronson E: Two cases of neoplasia of basal cell origin affecting the axillary region in anseriform species. J Avian Med Surg; 2009 Sep;23(3):214-21
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  • [Title] Two cases of neoplasia of basal cell origin affecting the axillary region in anseriform species.
  • Neoplasms of the skin are occasionally seen in domestic birds but are uncommon in nondomestic birds.
  • Skin biopsies were taken, and bilateral feather folliculomas were diagnosed on histopathologic examination.
  • This mass was diagnosed as a basosquamous carcinoma.
  • Basosquamous carcinoma may have a similar gross appearance.
  • This appears to be the first report of feather folliculoma and basosquamous carcinoma in Anseriforme species.
  • Feather folliculomas and other neoplasms, such as basosquamous carcinoma, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in ulcerative or proliferative skin lesions in birds.
  • [MeSH-major] Bird Diseases / pathology. Ducks. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19999766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1082-6742
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of avian medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Avian Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Son KD, Kim TJ, Lee YS, Park GS, Han KT, Lim JS, Kang CS: Comparative analysis of immunohistochemical markers with invasiveness and histologic differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin. J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jun 1;97(7):615-20
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of immunohistochemical markers with invasiveness and histologic differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluates several tumor-related markers to examine the expression pattern of markers according to the invasiveness and histopathologic differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Ninety-four cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 108 cases of basal cell carcinoma using tissue array in order to determine correlations between the expression of Ki-67, p53, EGFR, CD44v6, MMP-1 and MMP-3, invasiveness and histologic differentiation.
  • RESULTS: The depth of invasion showed a correlation with CD44v6 expression of tumor cell in both squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma (P = 0.009, P = 0.036, respectively) and with the MMP-1 expression of stromal cell in squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.010).
  • The differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma was correlated with Ki-67 index.
  • The loss of palisading arrangement in basal cell carcinoma was correlated with the MMP-1 expression of stromal cells (P = 0.045).
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD44v6 and MMP-1, expressed in tumor cells and stromal cells respectively, are significant markers associated with the invasiveness of tumors in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin and that it will be helpful to evaluate the invasiveness by measuring the expression of these markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD44 / biosynthesis. Female. Genes, erbB-1. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / biosynthesis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18404670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.4.24.17 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 3; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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25. Bäckvall H, Asplund A, Gustafsson A, Sivertsson A, Lundeberg J, Ponten F: Genetic tumor archeology: microdissection and genetic heterogeneity in squamous and basal cell carcinoma. Mutat Res; 2005 Apr 1;571(1-2):65-79
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  • [Title] Genetic tumor archeology: microdissection and genetic heterogeneity in squamous and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Skin cancer provides an advantageous model for studying the development of cancer.
  • Detectable lesions occur early during tumor progression, facilitating molecular analysis of the cell populations from both preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions.
  • Alterations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are very common in non-melanoma skin cancer, and dysregulation of p53 pathways appear to be an early event in the tumor development.
  • A high frequency of epidermal p53 clones has been detected in chronically sun-exposed skin.
  • The abundance of clones containing p53 mutated keratinocytes adjacent to basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) suggests a role in human skin carcinogenesis.
  • Microdissection-based studies have also shown that different parts of individual BCC tumors can share a common p53 mutation yet differ with respect to additional alterations within the p53 gene, consistent with subclonal development within tumors.
  • Here, we present examples of using well-defined cell populations, including single cells, from complex tissue in combination with molecular tools to reveal features involved in skin carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Genetic Heterogeneity. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15748639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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26. Sharquie KE, Al-Meshhadani SA, Al-Nuaimy AA: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the eyes in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Saudi Med J; 2007 May;28(5):787-90
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  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the eyes in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis.
  • They developed frequent multiple basal and squamous cell carcinoma, all of them had periorbital squamous cell carcinoma that invaded the orbit and ended with enucleation of their eyes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis / complications. Orbital Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Eye Enucleation. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17457453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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27. Kunte C, Konz B: [Current recommendations in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin]. Hautarzt; 2007 May;58(5):419-26
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  • [Title] [Current recommendations in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin].
  • [Transliterated title] Aktuelle Therapieempfehlungen für das Basalzellkarzinom und Plattenepithelkarzinom der Haut.
  • The incidence of the most common tumors of the skin, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, has risen rapidly in recent years.
  • They must be able to develop therapeutic strategies adapted to the tumor and the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / radiotherapy. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin / pathology. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 17443305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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28. Bugatti L, Filosa G: Dermatoscopic features of cutaneous atypical fibroxanthoma: three cases. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;34(8):e898-900
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  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon, low-grade, malignant, spindle-cell tumour of fibrohistiocytic histogenesis, which can mimic other malignant skin tumours, such as basal and squamous cell carcinoma (CC), melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).
  • AFX may be added to the list of slightly pigmented, reddish, malignant cutaneous tumours, such as SCC, MCC, amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma and eccrine porocarcinoma, which display prominent and chaotic dermatoscopic neoangiogenetic features in more advanced stages of proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20055861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Benbenisty KM, Andea A, Metcalf J, Cook J: Atypical cellular neurothekeoma treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Apr;32(4):582-7; discussion 587
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  • BACKGROUND: Atypical cellular neurothekeoma is a rare neoplasm generally regarded as a benign tumor with locally aggressive behavior.
  • Recurrence is common with inadequate excision, but metastatic disease has yet to be reported.
  • RESULTS: The neoplasm was extirpated in a three-stage, five section Mohs surgery procedure.
  • CONCLUSION: Mohs micrographic surgery is unsurpassed in its efficacy in treating a wide variety of nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Although most commonly used to address basal and squamous cell carcinoma, it has also been reported as a successful treatment for melanoma and a wide variety of cutaneous malignancies.
  • Debate in the literature is ongoing regarding the true histogenesis of this rare tumor.
  • Because of this tumor's local destructive behavior and propensity to recur with inadequate resection, we recommend Moths micrographic surgery for the treatment of cellular neurothekeomas.

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  • [CommentIn] Dermatol Surg. 2008 Mar;34(3):428 [18248473.001]
  • (PMID = 16681671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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30. Testori A, Tosti G, Martinoli C, Spadola G, Cataldo F, Verrecchia F, Baldini F, Mosconi M, Soteldo J, Tedeschi I, Passoni C, Pari C, Di Pietro A, Ferrucci PF: Electrochemotherapy for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor lesions: a novel therapeutic approach. Dermatol Ther; 2010 Nov-Dec;23(6):651-61
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  • [Title] Electrochemotherapy for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor lesions: a novel therapeutic approach.
  • Electroporation uses pulsed, high-intensity electric fields to temporarily increase cell membrane permeability by creation of pores, through which small molecules, such as chemotherapeutic agents, can diffuse inside cells before they reseal.
  • ECT has already been proven to be effective in diverse tumor histotypes, including melanoma and basal and squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and breast cancer, also in those cases nonresponding to classical chemotherapies or other loco-regional treatment modalities, with a good safety profile.
  • ECT can be proposed as loco-regional therapy for disseminated cutaneous and subcutaneous tumor lesions as alternative treatment modality to conventional therapies or as palliative care, in order to improve patients' quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Electrochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Humans. Skin / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21054709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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31. Qureshi AA, Laden F, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ: Geographic variation and risk of skin cancer in US women. Differences between melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Arch Intern Med; 2008 Mar 10;168(5):501-7
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  • [Title] Geographic variation and risk of skin cancer in US women. Differences between melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Occurrences of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been associated with varying geography.
  • Our goal was to evaluate differences in risk of these skin cancers according to residence at varying UV indices at 3 time points.
  • The outcome measure was diagnosis of melanoma, SCC, or BCC.
  • RESULTS: During the 18-year study, 420 cases of melanoma, 863 cases of SCC, and 8215 cases of BCC occurred.
  • Although elevated, the age-adjusted risk of BCC at 30 years of age associated with residence in these states was substantially less.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SCC is independently affected by residence in locations with medium and high UV indices; the gradient of risk is weaker for BCC; and the risk of melanoma does not change significantly across this gradient.


32. Love WE, Bernhard JD, Bordeaux JS: Topical imiquimod or fluorouracil therapy for basal and squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review. Arch Dermatol; 2009 Dec;145(12):1431-8
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  • [Title] Topical imiquimod or fluorouracil therapy for basal and squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review.
  • OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review to determine clearance rates and adverse effects of topical imiquimod or fluorouracil therapy in the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers such as basal (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and to develop recommendations for the use of topical imiquimod or fluorouracil to treat BCC and SCC.
  • STUDY SELECTION: Prospective, retrospective, and case studies in English containing a minimum of 4 subjects and a 6-month follow-up or posttreatment histologic evaluation.
  • DATA EXTRACTION: We calculated the rate of clearance and adverse effects for BCC subtypes and invasive and in situ SCC treated with topical imiquimod or fluorouracil.
  • Imiquimod use produced the following clearance rates: 43% to 100% for superficial BCC, 42% to 100% for nodular BCC, 56% to 63% for infiltrative BCC, 73% to 88% for SCC in situ, and 71% for invasive SCC.
  • Fluorouracil use produced the following clearance rates: 90% for superficial BCC and 27% to 85% for SCC in situ.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evidence supports the use of topical imiquimod as monotherapy for superficial BCC and topical fluorouracil as monotherapy for superficial BCC and SCC in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / pharmacokinetics. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20026854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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33. Han A, Penrose C, Goldsmith A, Marmur ES: Case-based considerations in the treatment of actinic keratoses: utilizing combination or sequential therapy with 5-fluorouracil cream and destructive treatments. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Jul;9(7):864-9
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  • Actinic keratoses are premalignant lesions that increase in frequency with each decade of life and have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Non-melanoma skin cancers, such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, also represent sun-related conditions that require early and aggressive treatment.
  • The following case-based review represents typical situations where multiple treatments were combined to manage actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma in patients over an extended treatment period.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cryotherapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20677546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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34. Watkins J: Dermatology and the community nurse: actinic (solar) keratosis. Br J Community Nurs; 2010 Jan;15(1):6, 8, 10-1
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  • They are then able to check other sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, scalp, back and limbs to discover any other lesions or more serious problems of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or malignant melanoma the would require referral, sometimes urgently, to a dermatologist for full assessment and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / nursing. Skin Neoplasms / nursing. Sunlight / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Community Health Nursing. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Nursing Diagnosis. Protective Clothing. Risk Factors. Sunscreening Agents

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  • (PMID = 20216512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-4753
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of community nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Community Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sunscreening Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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35. Honeycutt KA, Waikel RL, Koster MI, Wang XJ, Roop DR: The effect of c-myc on stem cell fate influences skin tumor phenotype. Mol Carcinog; 2010 Apr;49(4):315-9
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  • [Title] The effect of c-myc on stem cell fate influences skin tumor phenotype.
  • Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) consist of a variety of tumor types including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, a variety of hair follicle tumors, and sebaceous gland tumors.
  • Our goal in the current study was to determine if alterations in the commitment of multipotent stem cells to different cell fates would influence tumor phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / toxicity. Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Animals. Carcinogens / toxicity. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Lineage / genetics. Crosses, Genetic. Female. Heterozygote. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Mice, Inbred Strains. Mice, Transgenic. Multipotent Stem Cells / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Phenotype. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology. Transgenes

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  • (PMID = 20146250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2744
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR47898; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA09197; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105491; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA52607; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA79998
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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36. Stranahan D, Cherpelis BS, Glass LF, Ladd S, Fenske NA: Immunohistochemical stains in Mohs surgery: a review. Dermatol Surg; 2009 Jul;35(7):1023-34
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  • BACKGROUND: During Mohs surgery, there are instances in which residual tumor cells may be difficult to detect, thereby increasing the risk of incomplete excision and tumor recurrence.
  • RESULTS: Various immunostains have proved useful in detecting tumor cells in various malignancies, including melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, extramammary Paget's disease, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, granular cell tumor, and trichilemmal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we review immunohistochemical stains that have been employed in Mohs micrographic surgery and evaluate their utility in enhancing detection of residual tumors with respect to tumor type, particularly in situations in which detection of residual tumor may be difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19397647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Coloring Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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37. Perrem K, Lynch A, Al Nooh F, Leader M, Elaine Kay: The different telomere lengths in basal and squamous cell carcinomas also differ between the nontransplant and renal transplant population. Hum Pathol; 2008 Jul;39(7):1034-41
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  • [Title] The different telomere lengths in basal and squamous cell carcinomas also differ between the nontransplant and renal transplant population.
  • Renal transplant recipients incur markedly higher rates of nonmelanoma skin cancer, including both basal and squamous cell carcinoma, by unknown mechanisms that are thought to be activated by long-term immunosuppression.
  • These tumors typically arise in sun-exposed areas of the skin and are biologically more aggressive in renal transplant recipients compared with nontransplant patients.
  • Interestingly also, the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma is generally 2- to 3-fold higher than that of basal cell carcinoma in renal transplant recipients, which is a reversal of the trend in the nontransplant population.
  • We have shown in a previous report that the increased incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients is characterized by increased telomere lengths when compared with the same tumors in the nontransplant population.
  • In our current study, we performed a similar analysis of a cohort of 35 basal cell carcinoma samples from both the renal transplant and nontransplant patient groups.
  • We find that, in contrast to the situation in squamous cell carcinoma, the telomeres of the basal cell carcinomas in renal transplant recipients are in fact shorter than their counterparts in the nontransplant population, but also that these lengths are considerably longer in both cases than their squamous cell counterparts.
  • This is the first report to comprehensively show that the telomere lengths significantly differ between basal and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • These data also suggest that future treatment strategies for nonmelanoma skin cancers that are based upon telomerase inhibition, including those arising in transplant patients, may require different approaches for these two different skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Kidney Transplantation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Telomere / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18482746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Maroldi R, Farina D, Borghesi A, Marconi A, Gatti E: Perineural tumor spread. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2008 May;18(2):413-29, xi
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  • [Title] Perineural tumor spread.
  • Perineural spread (PNS) refers to the extent of tumor cells or other nonneoplastic lesions along the tissues of the nerve sheath, its overall incidence ranges from 2.5% to 5%.
  • PNS is more frequently associated with carcinoma arising from minor or major salivary glands (more often adenoid cystic carcinoma), mucosal or cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma.
  • Therefore, radiologists must be aware of the relevant cranial nerve anatomy and thoroughly scrutinize not only the nerves close to the primary tumor site but also the whole neural pathways that can be accessed by PNS.
  • Equally critical is knowledge of the radiologic appearance of perineural tumor extension and the best imaging strategies to detect PNS.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18466839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimaging clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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39. Hatina J, Ruzicka T: [Relevance of cell culture models in cutaneous tumour biology. Part I: tumour cell lines]. Hautarzt; 2008 Jan;59(1):36-45
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  • [Title] [Relevance of cell culture models in cutaneous tumour biology. Part I: tumour cell lines].
  • [Transliterated title] Stellenwert der Zellkulturmodelle in kutaner Tumorbiologie. Teil I: Zelllinien tumorigen transformierter Zellen.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma, much like all other human solid tumors, result from a multi-step process in which genetic and epigenetic changes accumulate in the affected cells.
  • Cell culture models are a very valuable experimental system.
  • Tumor cell lines display similar functional hierarchy as tumors or tissues in vivo and can, consequently, provide a crucial source of minor cell subsets, like tumor stem cells.
  • Progression series of clonally related cell lines offer the opportunity to follow the process of sequential acquisition of transformation-related traits up to the development of properties with direct clinical equivalents, like tumorigenicity and metastatic competence.
  • While for most studies, human transformed cell lines are the model of choice, there are questions for which animal cell lines are strongly preferred, such as interactions between the tumor and the immune system.
  • To properly interpret the results of all experiments with classical two-dimensional cell culture, a possible danger of artifacts due to grossly unnatural environment must be constantly taken into account.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Line, Tumor / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18058078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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40. Yenidunya MO, Demirseren ME, Ceran C: Bilobed flap reconstruction in infraorbital skin defects. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Jan;119(1):145-50
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  • [Title] Bilobed flap reconstruction in infraorbital skin defects.
  • Improper closure of skin defects involving this region may lead to deformity in the lower lid and to ectropion.
  • This report presents the authors' experience with 15 patients who had infraorbital skin defects reconstructed with the bilobed flap from the zygomatic and lateral cheek regions.
  • Pathologic diagnoses included basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and hemangioma.

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  • (PMID = 17255668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Wilkins K, Dolev JC, Turner R, LeBoit PE, Berger TG, Maurer TA: Approach to the treatment of cutaneous malignancy in HIV-infected patients. Dermatol Ther; 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):77-86
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  • Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of developing skin cancers.
  • This article will review and discuss management issues for the following malignancies: lymphomas, malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Humans. Lymphoma / complications. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / therapy. Melanoma / complications. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15842615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1396-0296
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 148
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42. Ostler DA, Prieto VG, Reed JA, Deavers MT, Lazar AJ, Ivan D: Adipophilin expression in sebaceous tumors and other cutaneous lesions with clear cell histology: an immunohistochemical study of 117 cases. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):567-73
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  • [Title] Adipophilin expression in sebaceous tumors and other cutaneous lesions with clear cell histology: an immunohistochemical study of 117 cases.
  • This study examines adipophilin expression in various sebaceous lesions and other cutaneous tumors with a clear cell histology that may mimic sebaceous differentiation.
  • A total of 117 cutaneous clear cell lesions including 16 sebaceous adenomas, 25 sebaceous carcinomas, 8 basal cell carcinomas, 12 squamous cell carcinomas, 6 xanthomas, 10 xanthelasmas, 10 xanthogranulomas, 4 balloon cell nevi, 5 trichilemmomas, 8 clear cell hidradenomas, and 13 metastatic renal cell carcinomas were examined using immunohistochemistry for the expression of adipophilin.
  • Adipophilin was expressed in 16 of 16 (100%) sebaceous adenomas, 23 of 25 (92%) sebaceous carcinomas, 10 of 10 (100%) xanthelasmas, 9 of 10 (90%) xanthogranulomas, 6 of 6 (100%) xanthomas, and 9 of 13 (62.5%) metastatic renal cell carcinomas.
  • Adipophilin expression was not seen in any of the other lesions with clear cell histology, basal cell carcinomas, or squamous cell carcinomas, including cases that had focal clear cell differentiation.
  • Adipophilin can be valuable in an immunohistochemical panel when evaluating cutaneous lesions with clear cell histology as it identifies intracytoplasmic lipid vesicles in sebaceous and xanthomatous lesions.
  • In periocular lesions, it is effective in helping to exclude basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma when sebaceous carcinoma is under consideration.
  • Adipophilin expression is not as useful for the differential diagnosis that includes metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a rare but important, diagnostic differential.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Peptides / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Membrane Proteins. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20118912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / perilipin 2
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43. Abdulla FR, Kerns MJ, Mutasim DF: Amelanotic lentigo maligna: a report of three cases and review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 May;62(5):857-60
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  • BACKGROUND: Amelanotic lentigo maligna is not clinically suspected and is often mistaken for a basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or dermatitis.
  • CONCLUSION: A high degree of clinical and histologic suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of this clinically nondescript neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Forearm. Humans. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19766347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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44. Hoang MP, Dresser KA, Kapur P, High WA, Mahalingam M: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical reappraisal. Mod Pathol; 2008 Feb;21(2):178-85
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical reappraisal.
  • Even though immunohistochemical comparisons of microcystic adnexal carcinoma vs infiltrative basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma exist, they are mostly restricted to the use of a single stain.
  • In addition, a comparison with squamous cell carcinoma has not been reported previously.
  • In this study, we compare the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 15, CK7, CK20, CK903, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD10, CD15 and BerEP4 in 13 microcystic adnexal carcinoma, eight desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, 10 infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and eight squamous cell carcinoma of which five exhibited ductal differentiation.
  • We found that the majority of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (92%) and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (100%) cases expressed CK15 while the infiltrative basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cases were all negative.
  • Forty percent of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma expressed CK7; while only two microcystic adnexal carcinoma cases (15%) and one squamous cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation (12%) expressed CK7 in the remaining three tumor categories.
  • While the neoplastic cells were negative, luminal staining of ductal structures was noted for CK7, CD15 and CEA in some of the microcystic adnexal carcinoma, desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and squamous cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation cases.
  • Sixty percent of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, 31% of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, and 25% of squamous cell carcinoma express CD10.
  • BerEP4 expression was noted in 38% of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, 57% of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, 100% of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and 38% of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In conclusion, we found CK15 to be a useful marker in distinguishing microcystic adnexal carcinoma from infiltrative basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation.
  • Our experience indicates that microcystic adnexal carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma have a similar immunohistochemical profile that is, CK15+ and BerEP4+/-; thus, additional studies are needed to separate these two entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / chemistry. Head and Neck Neoplasms / chemistry. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratin-15 / analysis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18065959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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45. Dotto J, Pelosi G, Rosai J: Expression of p63 in thymomas and normal thymus. Am J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;127(3):415-20
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  • The DeltaN-p63 isoforms of p63, which are believed to behave as oncogenes, are expressed in squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and transitional cell carcinoma.
  • We studied 66 cases of thymoma (1 type A, 8 type AB, 12 type B1, 19 type B2, 12 type B3, and 14 type C/thymic carcinoma) and 10 specimens of normal human thymus arranged in tissue microarrays.
  • All thymomas (including thymic carcinomas) were positive for p63 regardless of type.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thymoma / metabolism. Thymus Gland / chemistry. Thymus Neoplasms / metabolism. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17276940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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46. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Selva D, Richards S, Paver R: Basosquamous carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery. Cancer; 2005 Jul 1;104(1):170-5
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  • [Title] Basosquamous carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare tumor defined as a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) differentiating into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • METHODS: The prospective, multicenter case series included all patients in Australia treated with MMS for BSC, who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia between 1993 and 2002.
  • The tumors were diagnosed initially as BCC in 87.4% and as SCC in 12.0% of patients.
  • Of 98 patients who completed a 5-year follow-up period after MMS, 4 (4.1%) had disease recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The low 5-year disease recurrence rate of BSC with MMS emphasized the importance of margin-controlled excision using MMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Arm. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leg. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 15929123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Selva D, Lun K, Richards S, Paver R: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Feb;52(2):295-300
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is reported to have a high rate of recurrence with standard wide local excision.
  • METHODS: This prospective, multi-center case series included all patients in Australia treated with MMS for MAC, who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation between 1993 and 2002.
  • In 31.8% of cases it was a recurrent tumor.
  • In 32.5% of cases the tumor was initially misdiagnosed as basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Australia / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Child. Databases, Factual. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15692477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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48. Harrison SC, Bergfeld WF: Ultraviolet light and skin cancer in athletes. Sports Health; 2009 Jul;1(4):335-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultraviolet light and skin cancer in athletes.
  • The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide.
  • Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer.
  • Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin.

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  • (PMID = 23015891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-7381
  • [Journal-full-title] Sports health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sports Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3445124
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; athletes / melanoma / skin cancer / ultraviolet light
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49. Gremmel T, Wild S, Schuller W, Kürten V, Dietz K, Krutmann J, Berneburg M: Six genes associated with the clinical phenotypes of individuals with deficient and proficient DNA repair. Transl Oncogenomics; 2008 Feb 10;3:1-13

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disorder characterised by hypo-/hyperpigmentation, increased sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV)-radiation and an up to 2000-fold increased skin cancer risk.
  • This defect accounts for their mutator phenotype but does not predict their increased skin cancer risk.
  • Therefore, we carried out array analysis to measure the expression of more than 1000 genes after UVB-irradiation in XP cells from three complementation groups with different clinical severity (XP-A, XP-D, XP-F) as well as from patients with normal DNA repair but increased skin cancer risk (≥2 basal or squamous cell carcinoma at age <40yrs).
  • Genes identified in XP cells could be confirmed in cells from patients with no known DNA repair defects but increased skin cancer risk.

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  • (PMID = 21566739.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Translational oncogenomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transl Oncogenomics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3022359
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; DNA repair / array analysis / basal cell carcinoma / skin cancer risk / squamous cell carcinoma / xeroderma pigmentosum
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50. Lim P, Paver R, Peñas PF: Mohs micrographic surgery at the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia, 10 years later (1997 vs 2007). J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Nov;63(5):832-5
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  • [Title] Mohs micrographic surgery at the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia, 10 years later (1997 vs 2007).
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate changes over time in the type of patients and skin cancers that are treated using MMS, and the repairs used to close the defects.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on patients treated with MMS at the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia, Westmead, in 1997 against those treated in 2007.
  • Patient demographics (age, sex), pathology of tumor, anatomic site of the tumor, preoperative tumor size, postoperative defect size, and repair method were analyzed.
  • The 2007 cohort was a little older (62 vs 64 years), but there were no differences in sex, anatomic site, rate of basal/squamous cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma histologic subtypes, or preoperative tumor size.
  • However, there were fewer superficial basal cell carcinomas, and the postoperative defect size was smaller in 2007 (P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Although tumor size and the percentage of tumors in each anatomic site did not change over 10 years, the size of the defect created after MMS has become smaller.
  • This reduction in defect size may explain why more defects are now repaired by side-to-side closure and flap repairs whereas fewer defects are repaired by skin grafting.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Mohs Surgery / statistics & numerical data. Mohs Surgery / utilization. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Australia / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Skin Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Skin Transplantation / utilization. Surgical Flaps / statistics & numerical data. Surgical Flaps / utilization

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20950738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Chew YK, Noorizan Y, Khir A, Brito-Mutunayagam S, Prepagaran N: The use of paramedian forehead flap reconstruction after wide excision of basal cell carcinoma of the nose. Med J Malaysia; 2008 Oct;63(4):339-40
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  • [Title] The use of paramedian forehead flap reconstruction after wide excision of basal cell carcinoma of the nose.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an indolent, slow-growing malignant skin tumour.
  • The nose is a common site for malignant skin tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma because it is exposed to the sun.
  • Excision of the BCC will leave the nose with a soft tissue defect which requires reconstruction.
  • This report illustrates a case of BCC of nose whereby a wide excision and reconstruction was performed with a paramedian forehead flap.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Rhinoplasty / methods. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 19385500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5283
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Malaysia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Malaysia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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52. Park K, Lee JH: Bcl-XL protein is markedly decreased in UVB-irradiated basal cell carcinoma cell lines through proteasome-mediated degradation. Oncol Rep; 2009 Mar;21(3):689-92
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  • [Title] Bcl-XL protein is markedly decreased in UVB-irradiated basal cell carcinoma cell lines through proteasome-mediated degradation.
  • There is considerable evidence that the excessive ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) from sunlight is implicated in skin damage, ultimately inducing the death of keratinocytes.
  • If the apoptotic pathway does not work properly, the damaged cells have a chance to transform into a carcinoma, such as basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • To develop a strategy of inducing apoptosis of skin cancer cells, the current study was performed to investigate the apoptotic pathway, especially focused on Bcl2 family proteins, in curcumin or UVB-treated basal cell carcinoma cell lines.
  • Our data demonstrated that the expression of Bcl-XL protein was decreased by proteasome-mediated degradation prior to change of mRNA level in UVB-induced apoptotic basal cell carcinoma cell lines, thereby these results will offer fundamental information to develop a strategy of inducing apoptosis of skin cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / radiation effects. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / radiation effects. bcl-X Protein / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / radiation effects. Curcumin / pharmacology. DNA Fragmentation. Gene Expression / radiation effects. Humans. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Ultraviolet Rays. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / radiation effects. bcl-Associated Death Protein / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 19212627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / bcl-Associated Death Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
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53. Kummoona R: Periorbital and orbital malignancies: methods of management and reconstruction in Iraq. J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Nov;18(6):1370-5
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  • Tumor types were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, retinoblastoma, fibrosarcoma, and ectopic mixed tumor in two, one, two, one, one, and one patients, respectively, in addition to eight patients with jaw lymphoma involving the orbit, out of 24 patients reported by us.
  • Surgery consisted of complete excision of orbital content (exenteration) with or without partial orbitectomy in four patients and wide excision of the tumor in four patients.
  • Reconstruction of the defect was accomplished using various local skin flaps and temporalis muscle flap was used for augmenting the orbit in the four exenterated patients.
  • There is no single best method for reconstruction of the periorbital and orbital defects left after tumor resection, and different flaps applied for reconstruction had given satisfactory results related to the type and complexity of the deformity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Infant. Iraq. Lymphoma / chemistry. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17993883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Steele CL, Shea CR, Petronic-Rosic V: Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis within infundibular cysts. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Apr;34(4):360-2

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  • EH has been observed as an incidental finding in tissue adjacent to and within lesions such as nevi, scars, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and seborrheic keratoses.
  • We present two cases of EH within infundibular type follicular cysts, a rare finding only once otherwise reported in 1978.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17381810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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55. Babilas P, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM: Photodynamic therapy in dermatology. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):340-8
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  • Currently, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received approval for the treatment of dermato-oncologic conditions like actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease, in-situ squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma in many countries all over the world.
  • Due to the easy accessibility of skin to light activation, incoherent lamps or LED arrays are suitable for PDT.
  • Either cytotoxic effects resulting in tumor destruction or immunomodulatory effects improving inflammatory skin conditions are induced.
  • Treating superficial non-melanoma skin cancer, PDT has been shown to be highly efficient despite the low level of invasiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Photochemotherapy. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16935788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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56. Pons M, Quintanilla M: Molecular biology of malignant melanoma and other cutaneous tumors. Clin Transl Oncol; 2006 Jul;8(7):466-74
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  • [Title] Molecular biology of malignant melanoma and other cutaneous tumors.
  • Skin cancer is the most common cancer worldwide.
  • In this review, we summarize the most important genetic changes contributing to the development of malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the main tumor entities arising in the skin.
  • While our understanding of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes involved in the development and progression of skin tumors is still fragmentary, recent advances have shown alterations affecting conserved signalling pathways that control cellular proliferation and viability.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Melanoma / pathology. Oncogenes. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16870533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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57. Szeimies RM, Morton CA, Sidoroff A, Braathen LR: Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer. Acta Derm Venereol; 2005;85(6):483-90
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Photodynamic therapy is a treatment modality that has been shown to be effective mainly for the dermato-oncologic conditions: actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, in situ squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • For actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma, methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy is already approved in Europe, Australia and New Zealand, and is now also approved for actinic keratosis in the US.
  • [MeSH-major] Photochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Humans. Photosensitizing Agents

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  • (PMID = 16396794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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58. Galloway TJ, Morris CG, Mancuso AA, Amdur RJ, Mendenhall WM: Impact of radiographic findings on prognosis for skin carcinoma with clinical perineural invasion. Cancer; 2005 Mar 15;103(6):1254-7
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  • [Title] Impact of radiographic findings on prognosis for skin carcinoma with clinical perineural invasion.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to correlate pretreatment computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies with outcomes for patients with squamous or basal cell carcinoma of the skin and clinical perineural invasion.
  • Patients were stratified as follows: imaging negative, 10 patients; minimal or moderate peripheral disease, 14 patients; and central and/or macroscopic disease, 21 patients.
  • RESULTS: The 5-year local control rates were as follows: imaging negative, 76%; minimal or moderate peripheral disease, 57%; and central and/or macroscopic disease, 25%.
  • The 5-year absolute and cause-specific survival rates were as follows: imaging negative, 90% and 100%, respectively; minimal or moderate peripheral disease, 50% and 56%, respectively; and central and/or macroscopic disease, 58% and 61%, respectively.
  • Patients who had imaging-positive minimal or moderate peripheral disease had a better local control rate but a similar survival rate compared with patients who had central and/or macroscopic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15693020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Downs N, Parisi A: Measurements of the anatomical distribution of erythemal ultraviolet: a study comparing exposure distribution to the site incidence of solar keratoses, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Photochem Photobiol Sci; 2009 Aug;8(8):1195-201
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  • [Title] Measurements of the anatomical distribution of erythemal ultraviolet: a study comparing exposure distribution to the site incidence of solar keratoses, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The UV exposures were compared with existing data detailing the anatomical distribution of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and solar keratoses (SK).
  • Surface UV exposures to unprotected skin surfaces have been presented for each of the face, neck, arm, hand and leg assessing a total of 1453 body sites (2491 measurements).
  • Further analysis with existing facial BCC and SK density data did not however show a direct relationship with the measured UV exposures highlighting the importance of other factors influencing the causation and localisation of facial NMSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Keratosis / epidemiology. Skin / pathology. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 19639123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-905X
  • [Journal-full-title] Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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60. Applebaum KM, Karagas MR, Hunter DJ, Catalano PJ, Byler SH, Morris S, Nelson HH: Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, arsenic exposure, and non-melanoma skin cancer in New Hampshire. Environ Health Perspect; 2007 Aug;115(8):1231-6
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  • [Title] Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, arsenic exposure, and non-melanoma skin cancer in New Hampshire.
  • UV damage is specifically repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and common genetic variants in NER may increase risk for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC).
  • METHODS: Incident cases of basal and squamous cell carcinoma (BCC and SCC, respectively) were identified through a network of dermatologists and pathology laboratories across New Hampshire.
  • The analysis included 880 cases of BCC, 666 cases of SCC, and 780 controls.
  • RESULTS: There was an increased BCC risk associated with high arsenic exposure among those homozygous variant for XPA [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9-3.7].
  • For XPD, having variation at both loci (312Asn and 751Gln) occurred less frequently among BCC and SCC cases compared with controls (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0) for both case groups.

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  • (PMID = 17687452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-6765
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057494; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA082354; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES007373; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32 ES07155; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES07373; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA57494; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32 ES007155; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082354
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / XPA protein, human; 0 / Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein; EC 3.6.4.12 / Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Protein; EC 5.99.- / ERCC2 protein, human; N712M78A8G / Arsenic
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1940098
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61. Weinstock MA: Controversies in the public health approach to keratinocyte carcinomas. Br J Dermatol; 2006 May;154 Suppl 1:3-4
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  • [Title] Controversies in the public health approach to keratinocyte carcinomas.
  • Keratinocyte carcinomas are very common cancers in fair-skinned populations throughout the world.
  • The term 'keratinocyte carcinoma' includes basal and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, but not other cancers that may be included under the more ambiguous term 'nonmelanoma skin cancer'.
  • Mortality from keratinocyte carcinoma reveals distinct patterns suggestive of an important role of human papilloma virus infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16712708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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62. Tarallo M, Cigna E, Frati R, Delfino S, Innocenzi D, Fama U, Corbianco A, Scuderi N: Metatypical basal cell carcinoma: a clinical review. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2008;27:65
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  • [Title] Metatypical basal cell carcinoma: a clinical review.
  • BACKGROUND: Metatypical cell carcinoma can be considered as a new entity of skin cancer, being an intermediate typology between basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The behaviour of the metatypical cell carcinoma lies between these two varieties of skin cancer.
  • It is difficult to perform a differential diagnosis based on morphological and clinical features - therefore it is only possible by accurate histology.
  • METHODS: The authors have retrospectively analysed clinical records of 240 patients who were affected by metatypical skin cancer and who were treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In this manuscript, the authors have emphasised the importance of conducting a differential diagnosis, and the importance of the specific treatment for metatypical skin cancer, even though more clinical studies and long-term follow-ups are required before establishing specific guidelines.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18992138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 55
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2585560
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63. Norval M, Cullen AP, de Gruijl FR, Longstreth J, Takizawa Y, Lucas RM, Noonan FP, van der Leun JC: The effects on human health from stratospheric ozone depletion and its interactions with climate change. Photochem Photobiol Sci; 2007 Mar;6(3):232-51
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  • Solar UVR has many harmful and some beneficial effects on individuals and, in this review, information mainly published since the previous report in 2003 (F. R. de Gruijl, J.
  • Takizawa and J. C. van der Leun, Photochem. Photobiol.
  • The skin is also exposed directly to solar UVR, and the development of skin cancer is the main adverse health outcome of excessive UVR exposure.
  • Skin cancer is the most common form of malignancy amongst fair-skinned people, and its incidence has increased markedly in recent decades.
  • Several of the genetic factors affecting susceptibility to the development of squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma have been identified.
  • Exposure to solar UVR down-regulates immune responses, in the skin and systemically, by a combination of mechanisms including the generation of particularly potent subsets of T regulatory cells.
  • Such immunosuppression is known to be a crucial factor in the generation of skin cancers.
  • Various strategies that can be adopted by the individual to protect against excessive exposure of the eye or the skin to sunlight are suggested.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Eye / metabolism. Eye / radiation effects. Humans. Skin / metabolism. Skin / radiation effects. Vitamin D / metabolism


64. Mitsuhashi T, Itoh T, Shimizu Y, Ban S, Ogawa F, Hirose T, Shimizu M: Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: dual differentiations to rare basosquamous and spindle cell variants. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Mar;33(3):246-52
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: dual differentiations to rare basosquamous and spindle cell variants.
  • Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is defined as a tumor containing the areas of both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with a transition zone linking the two.
  • Spindle cell squamous carcinoma (SCSC) may have a variable component of conventional SCC and spindle cells.
  • Grossly, the lesion measured 8.5 x 6.0 x 1.8 cm and consisted of a gray-white and focally black tumor.
  • Microscopically, a non-ulcerated upper part of the tumor consisted of large polygonal squamoid cells with occasional keratinization (SCC), trabecular growth of basaloid cells with peripheral palisading (BCC), and an area in which both the components were intermingled.
  • The rest of the tumor was a myxoid area with elongated fusiform spindle cells, which appeared to arise from conventional SCC.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells in the SCSC (both conventional and spindle cell) area co-expressed CAM5.2, and vimentin.
  • Ber-EP4 was positive in the BCC area with the transition zone of SCC and BCC showing diminished staining.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of SCC of the skin that has dual differentiations to BSC and SCSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 16466514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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65. Padgett JK: Cutaneous lesions: benign and malignant. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am; 2005 May;13(2):195-202, v
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  • [Title] Cutaneous lesions: benign and malignant.
  • This article reviews the clinical characteristics, histology, biologic behavior, and recommended treatment for several benign and malignant lesions that may arise on the head and neck.
  • Basal and squamous cell carcinoma, lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and Merkel cell carcinoma are malignant lesions for which surgical excision is the recommended treatment.
  • Local flap reconstruction may be used to address the surgical defects resulting from excision of these benign and malignant conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / surgery. Humans. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / diagnosis. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / surgery. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / surgery. Risk Factors. Scalp. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15817400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-7406
  • [Journal-full-title] Facial plastic surgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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66. Schouten HW, Knippels MC, Franken RJ: [Maggots in the wound, debridement, disinfection and wound healing]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2009;153:A624

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  • [Transliterated title] Vliegenmaden in de wond: débridement, desinfectie en wondgenezing.
  • An 87-year-old man had a longstanding untreated large basosquamous carcinoma on his right ear.
  • A striking finding was that the smell of the wound had disappeared and that the wound was much cleaner, with a reddish aspect and less necrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / complications. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / parasitology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Ear Neoplasms / complications. Ear Neoplasms / parasitology. Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Larva. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19900320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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67. Ducic Y, Marra DE, Kennard C: Initial Mohs surgery followed by planned surgical resection of massive cutaneous carcinomas of the head and neck. Laryngoscope; 2009 Apr;119(4):774-7
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  • [Title] Initial Mohs surgery followed by planned surgical resection of massive cutaneous carcinomas of the head and neck.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review our experience with Mohs excision of massive cutaneous carcinomas for peripheral margin control, followed by planned definitive resection of the deeply invasive component of the carcinoma.
  • METHODS: All cases of massive (at least 10 cm in dimension) cutaneous carcinomas treated by the technique outlined by Yadranko Ducic from 1998-2006.
  • RESULTS: A total of 28 cases (7 squamous cell carcinomas, 14 basal cell carcinomas, 7 basosquamous carcinomas) were treated in this manner.
  • Average maximal tumor dimension was 12.7 cm with a range of 10-21 cm.
  • There were a total of 7 local recurrences (5 squamous cell carcinoma and 2 basal cell carcinoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The technique appears to be an excellent means of treatment of massive, neglected, and deeply invasive cutaneous carcinomas of the face and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19205010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Stelkovics E, Korom I, Marczinovits I, Molnar J, Rasky K, Raso E, Ficsor L, Molnar B, Kopper L, Krenacs T: Collagen XVII/BP180 protein expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin detected with novel monoclonal antibodies in archived tissues using tissue microarrays and digital microscopy. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 Oct;16(5):433-41
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  • [Title] Collagen XVII/BP180 protein expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin detected with novel monoclonal antibodies in archived tissues using tissue microarrays and digital microscopy.
  • Collagen XVII/BP180, a hemidesmosomal adhesion protein, is lost during normal keratinocyte maturation; however, it may be reexpressed upon malignant transformation.
  • In this work, highly sensitive monoclonal antibodies 6D1 and 9G2 were produced, characterized, and used for the detection of collagen XVII in a tissue microarray series of archived samples of nonmelanocytic epithelial neoplasias, including 5 verruca vulgaris, 14 seborrheic keratosis, 38 actinic keratosis, 38 basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 15 basosquamous carcinoma, 58 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and 9 normal skin.
  • Digital microscopy and a new tissue microarray software linking image and patient data allowed easy and validated evaluation and quality archiving of stained samples.
  • In normal skin and benign epidermal lesions, collagen XVII protein was restricted to basal keratinocytes.
  • However, possibly as a sign of undifferentiated/transformed state, it was widely expressed in SCC showing elevated levels around invasive tumor fronts with some staining in tumor adjacent stroma, endothelium, and histiocytes.
  • Squamous component of basosquamous carcinoma showed moderate reaction, whereas islets of BCC were mainly negative reflecting the diverse genotype and phenotype, and pathogenesis of SCC and BCC.
  • These results suggest that collagen XVII neoexpression may be associated with early atypia/malignant transformation of keratinocytes.
  • Further investigations are under way to analyze the potential of these antibodies for tracing progression and metastatic potential of skin tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18633319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Non-Fibrillar Collagens; 0 / collagen type XVII
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69. Abdel-Malek ZA, Kadekaro AL, Swope VB: Stepping up melanocytes to the challenge of UV exposure. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res; 2010 Apr;23(2):171-86
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is the main etiological factor for skin cancer, including melanoma.
  • Therefore, maintaining genomic stability of melanocytes is crucial for prevention of melanoma, as well as keratinocyte-derived basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The response of melanocytes to UV is mediated mainly by a network of paracrine factors that not only activate melanogenesis, but also DNA repair, anti-oxidant, and survival pathways that are pivotal for maintenance of genomic stability and prevention of malignant transformation or apoptosis.
  • Unraveling these mechanisms might lead to strategies to prevent melanoma, as well as non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Repair / physiology. Genomic Instability. Melanocytes / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • [CommentIn] Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011 Apr;24(2):265-7 [21513010.001]
  • (PMID = 20128873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-148X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pigment cell & melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30-ES006096; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA114095; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01ES009110; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01ES017561
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 197
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70. Decara JM, Aguilera J, Abdala R, Sánchez P, Figueroa FL, Herrera E: Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin. Exp Dermatol; 2008 Oct;17(10):806-12
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  • [Title] Screening of urocanic acid isomers in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma tumors compared with tumor periphery and healthy skin.
  • This immunomodulation has been recognized as an important factor related to skin cancer development.
  • This is the first time that UCA isomers have been measured in epidermis of skin biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with the tumor periphery and biopsies of healthy photoexposed and non-photoexposed skin as controls.
  • Analysis of UCA in healthy skin showed significant increase in total UCA content in non-photoexposed body sites compared with highly exposed skins.
  • No differences were found in total UCA concentration between the tumor samples and healthy photoexposed skin.
  • Higher levels of cUCA were detected in SCC biopsies (44% of total UCA) compared with samples of BCC and that of healthy photoexposed skin (30%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Epidermis / radiation effects. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Ultraviolet Rays. Urocanic Acid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18312386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] G8D26XJJ3B / Urocanic Acid
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71. Nemet AY, Deckel Y, Martin PA, Kourt G, Chilov M, Sharma V, Benger R: Management of periocular basal and squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 485 cases. Am J Ophthalmol; 2006 Aug;142(2):293-7
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  • [Title] Management of periocular basal and squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 485 cases.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the outcome of management of patients with basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in a tertiary referral eye center in Sydney, Australia.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival period free of tumor, incomplete excision, recurrences, type of closure, and complications.
  • Morpheaform type of BCC (chi(2)P < .001), and medial canthus location BCCs (chi(2)P < .05) were associated with a higher incomplete resection rate.
  • Twenty-seven patients (5.6%) had a recurrent tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a tertiary referral center, incomplete primary resection of an eyelid skin cancer is the main risk factor for recurrence.
  • Incomplete resection is significantly associated with medial canthus location and morpheaform type of BCC and with moderately differentiated SCC.
  • MMS is the safer technique after incomplete tumor excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16876511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Wells MJ, Taylor RS: Mohs micrographic surgery for penoscrotal malignancy. Urol Clin North Am; 2010 Aug;37(3):403-9

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  • Specific penoscrotal neoplasias discussed in this article include invasive and in situ squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, extramammary Paget disease, and granular cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Humans. Male. Paget Disease, Extramammary / surgery. Penile Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20674695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-318X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Perkins W: Who should have Mohs micrographic surgery? Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Aug;18(4):283-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the indications for Mohs micrographic surgery in skin cancer particularly with relationship to tumours of the head and neck and any recent developments which may influence those indications in the near future.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: There is increasing evidence to support the use of Mohs micrographic surgery in the treatment of recurrent and primary basal cell carcinoma and in squamous cell carcinoma, particularly when there is evidence of perineural invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Decision Making. Dermatofibrosarcoma / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Humans. Melanoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20613530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-6998
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Vaid M, Katiyar SK: Molecular mechanisms of inhibition of photocarcinogenesis by silymarin, a phytochemical from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.) (Review). Int J Oncol; 2010 May;36(5):1053-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Changes in life style over the past several decades including much of the time spent outdoors and the use of tanning devices for cosmetic purposes by individuals have led to an increase in the incidence of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin diseases including the risk of skin cancers.
  • Solar UV radiations are considered as the most prevalent environmental carcinogens, and chronic exposure of the skin to UV leads to squamous and basal cell carcinoma and melanoma in human population.
  • Silymarin is one of them and extensively studied for its skin photoprotective capabilities.
  • ), and has been shown to have chemopreventive effects against photocarcinogenesis in mouse tumor models.
  • Topical treatment of silymarin inhibited photocarcinogenesis in mice in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity and growth of the tumors.
  • It is suggested that silymarin may favorably supplement sunscreen protection, and may be useful for skin diseases associated with solar UV radiation-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and immunomodulatory effects.

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  • (PMID = 20372777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA105368-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA105368; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA105368-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105368-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105368-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105368
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Silymarin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184206; NLM/ PMC2852174
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75. Liutkeviciūte-Navickiene J, Mordas A, Simkute S, Bloznelyte-Plesniene L: [Fluorescence diagnostics of skin tumors using 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2009;45(12):937-42
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  • [Title] [Fluorescence diagnostics of skin tumors using 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester].
  • OBJECTIVE: The incidence of malignant skin tumors is rapidly increasing.
  • Early diagnosis, determining the margins of the tumor, is extremely important to achieve good treatment results.
  • We investigated fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX in skin carcinomas.
  • The study aimed to compare the effectiveness of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid and methyl-aminolevulinate in determining the exact margins of skin tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fluorescence measurements were performed in 126 patients with malignant, premalignant, and benign skin lesions for detection of the margins of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • 5-Aminolevulinic acid or its methyl ester was applied to the skin lesion for 2-4 h, and the data of evaluated protoporphyrin IX fluorescence were correlated with the data of morphological tissue examination.
  • RESULTS: Malignant tissue shows a specific red fluorescence when illuminated with blue-violet light, whereas no fluorescence was observed in normal skin.
  • A sensitivity of 95.4% and a specificity of 88.6% as well as positive and negative predictive values of 86.1% and 96.3%, respectively, were obtained.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fluorescence diagnostics can be used for complete visualization of malignant skin lesions after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid or methyl aminolevulinate.
  • It has been shown to be highly effective in the diagnostics of malignant superficial skin lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Fluorescence. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Photosensitizing Agents. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Protoporphyrins. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Esters. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20173396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Esters; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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76. Ullah T, Gurwood AS, Myers MD: Ocular metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Optometry; 2009 Oct;80(10):572-8
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  • [Title] Ocular metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • Patients at greatest risk often have disseminated metastases in the setting of advanced disease.
  • Because the prognosis for orbital metastatic disease is poor, emphasis must be placed on early detection and prevention.
  • Although cutaneous malignancies include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma, the majority of cases that result in metastasis, ocular morbidity, and mortality are from sebaceous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.
  • Her systemic medical history was significant for the diagnosis of a cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic lesions involving structures of the left orbit ultimately causing reduced visual ability.
  • Although orbital metastasis is considered a terminal finding in these cases, timely diagnosis enables, while limited, the best options for management.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19801341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1527
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optometry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Braga JC, Scope A, Klaz I, Mecca P, González S, Rabinovitz H, Marghoob AA: The significance of reflectance confocal microscopy in the assessment of solitary pink skin lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Aug;61(2):230-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The significance of reflectance confocal microscopy in the assessment of solitary pink skin lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: Solitary pink lesions often manifest nondescript clinical and dermatoscopic primary morphologic features.
  • The differential diagnosis for pink lesions tends, therefore, to be broad, ranging from inflammatory processes to malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to demonstrate the use of RCM as an adjunct to the bedside diagnosis of pink lesions.
  • METHODS: We describe a series of patients with clinically and dermatoscopically equivocal pink lesions for which RCM examination allowed for a rapid and accurate diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Lesions included basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, amelanotic melanoma, and inflamed seborrheic keratosis.
  • In the cases presented RCM allowed for a rapid and accurate noninvasive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Dermoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity


78. Akyol M, Ozçelik S: Non-acne dermatologic indications for systemic isotretinoin. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2005;6(3):175-84
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  • Diseases such as psoriasis, pityriasis rubra pilaris, condylomata acuminata, skin cancers, rosacea, hidradenitis suppurativa, granuloma annulare, lupus erythematosus and lichen planus have been shown to respond to the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities of the drug.
  • Isotretinoin also helps prevent skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A combination of systemic isotretinoin and interferon-alpha-2a may provide a more potent effect than isotretinoin alone in the prevention and treatment of skin cancers.Systemic isotretinoin may be considered as an alternative drug in some dermatologic diseases unresponsive to conventional treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Isotretinoin / therapeutic use. Skin Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Granuloma Annulare / drug therapy. Hidradenitis Suppurativa / drug therapy. Humans. Keratolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Lichen Planus / drug therapy. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris / drug therapy. Psoriasis / drug therapy. Rosacea / drug therapy. Sebaceous Glands / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15943494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Keratolytic Agents; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
  • [Number-of-references] 133
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79. Rodríguez-Domínguez FJ, Hernández-Gil J, Segarra Fenoll JD, Hernández-Gil A: [Facial mutilant basosquamous carcinoma]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2007;34(6):549-55
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  • [Title] [Facial mutilant basosquamous carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma basoescamoso mutilante en región facial.
  • Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare epithelial malignant neoplasm with clinical and biological features of both basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This neoplasm has been characterized for years as a variant of basal cell carcinoma, although now it is widely accepted as a clinical entity.
  • The most important features of basosquamous carcinoma are its great local aggressiveness, high frequency of recurrences and its metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Face. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18293774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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80. Tichý M, Ditrichová D, Brychtová S, Tichá V, Urbánek J: Double skin tumors with an atypical clinical picture. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2007 Jun;16(2):63-6
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  • [Title] Double skin tumors with an atypical clinical picture.
  • The authors present a rare case of double skin tumors: acral lentiginous melanoma and metatypical carcinoma.
  • The skin biopsies showed advanced acral lentiginous melanoma on the sole and metatypical carcinoma of the lower leg.
  • Soon after the diagnosis was made, the melanoma generalized.
  • The article discusses the differential diagnosis of both leg ulcerations, correct diagnostic procedures, and characteristic features of both tumors that are important questions for general practitioners, dermatologists, and surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Leg Ulcer / etiology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Foot Ulcer / etiology. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17992460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1318-4458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica, et Adriatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovenia
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81. Dhouib H, Mnejja M, Ayadi L, Hammami B, Boudawara T, Ghorbel A: [Cutaneous basosquamous carcinoma]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2009 Mar;126(1):25-8
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous basosquamous carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome basocellulaire métatypique.
  • INTRODUCTION: Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare entity that essentially affects the head and neck region in male patients.
  • The authors present the clinical signs and progression as well as the therapeutic consequences of this disease through two observations.
  • CASE REPORT 1: A 41-year-old man presented with basosquamous carcinoma of the right temporoparietal region treated initially with surgery alone.
  • Five years later, he was operated on for a local and lymph node recurrence followed by radiation therapy, stabilizing the disease for 4 years; subsequently a second recurrence with metastasis to the chest area occurred.
  • The patient died 10 years after the onset of his disease of diffuse pneumopathy with severe septicemia.
  • CASE REPORT 2: A 71-year-old man presented retroauricular basosquamous carcinoma at first treated with wide resection, but the surgical limits were invaded.
  • DISCUSSION: Basosquamous carcinoma is characterized by its severe aggression and its tendency to recur.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 19261262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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82. Skroza N, Panetta C, Schwartz RA, Balzani A, Rota C, Buccheri EM, Alfano C, Innocenzi D: Giant meta-typical carcinoma: an unusual tumor. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2006;14(1):46-51
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  • [Title] Giant meta-typical carcinoma: an unusual tumor.
  • Meta-typical carcinoma (MTC) or basosquamous carcinoma is a remarkable malignancy with features of both basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • It is typically located on the back and face, often with clinical features of basal cell carcinoma but tending to be more aggressive with enhanced prospects of lymph node or distant metastases.
  • Our report describes a huge neglected MTC of the back of ten-year duration, a giant ulcero-vegetative tumor measuring 20 x 25 cm.
  • Histologic examination of specimens from the margins and periphery revealed aspects of both basal and squamous cell carcinoma, while the ulcerated center showed sclerotic tissue without tumor.
  • This may have been related to an intense inflammatory host response with elimination of neoplastic tissue and consequent local sclerosis evident in the central tumor-free portion.
  • This central tumor regression is to our knowledge a unique finding in MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16603102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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83. Fantini F, Gualdi G, Cimitan A, Giannetti A: Metastatic basal cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation: report of a case with response of cutaneous metastases to electrochemotherapy. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Sep;144(9):1186-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic basal cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation: report of a case with response of cutaneous metastases to electrochemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic basal cell carcinoma is a rare disease with poor prognosis.
  • Electrochemotherapy is a recently described therapy that relies on the permeation of cancer cell membranes by electrical pulses to enhance cytotoxic drug penetration.
  • It has been successfully used in the treatment of primary and metastatic skin cancers.
  • We report a case of metastatic basal cell carcinoma in which electrochemotherapy was effective in inducing local regression of skin metastases.
  • OBSERVATIONS: A 75-year-old man presented with a pigmented, deeply infiltrating nodule in the right axilla manifesting as basal cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation at histopathologic examination.
  • Three successive sessions of electrochemotherapy with bleomycin sulfate were then performed on isolated skin metastases.
  • Conclusion Electrochemotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated adjunct to the therapeutic options in metastatic basal cell carcinoma, characterized by an advantageous risk-benefit ratio and minimal downtime.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Electrochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18794464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
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84. Terziqi H, Tarpila E: Reconstruction of large defect of lower lip and commissure using Karapandzic flap: case report. Niger J Med; 2009 Apr-Jun;18(2):222-3
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  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) is a photosensitive skin disease with a high risk for developing skin malignancy.
  • We present an 18-years-old boy with XP and recurrent basal and squamous cell carcinoma of lower lip.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Lip Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Surgical Flaps. Xeroderma Pigmentosum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19630336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1115-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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85. Chen T, Bertenthal D, Sahay A, Sen S, Chren MM: Predictors of skin-related quality of life after treatment of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol; 2007 Nov;143(11):1386-92
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  • [Title] Predictors of skin-related quality of life after treatment of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of skin-related quality of life (QOL) after treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC).
  • SETTING: University-affiliated private practice and a Veterans Affairs clinic.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Skin-related QOL, measured with the 16-item version of Skindex-16, a validated measure.
  • RESULTS: Controlling for treatment group, the strongest independent predictor of skin-related QOL after treatment of NMSC was pretreatment skin-related QOL.
  • No tumor or care characteristic (including location of tumor, size of tumor, site of therapy, or training level of treating clinician [attending physician, resident, or nurse practitioner]) was found to predict better skin-related QOL after treatment of NMSC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with better pretreatment skin-related QOL, less comorbidity, and better mental health status had better skin-related QOL after treatment of NMSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Quality of Life. Skin / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2007 Nov;143(11):1429-32 [18025368.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Arch Dermatol. 2008 Feb;144(2):230
  • (PMID = 18025362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K02 AR02203; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K24-AR052667
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Askari SK, Schram SE, Wenner RA, Bowers S, Liu A, Bangerter AK, Warshaw EM: Evaluation of prospectively collected presenting signs/symptoms of biopsy-proven melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and seborrheic keratosis in an elderly male population. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 May;56(5):739-47
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  • [Title] Evaluation of prospectively collected presenting signs/symptoms of biopsy-proven melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and seborrheic keratosis in an elderly male population.
  • BACKGROUND: Presenting signs/symptoms of skin cancer may aid in earlier detection and diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare prospectively collected, presenting signs/symptoms of malignant melanoma (MM), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and seborrheic keratosis (SK).
  • METHODS: This analysis was part of a larger study on teledermatology involving 3039 skin neoplasms in 2152 patients at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center.
  • At presentation, participants were asked about signs/symptoms of specific skin lesions.
  • In all, 912 biopsy-proven MM (39), BCC (411), SCC (238), and SK (224) were included in this analysis.
  • RESULTS: "No symptoms" was reported more often with MM (82%) as compared with BCC (relative risk [RR] 2.26, confidence interval [CI] 1.86, 2.75), SCC (RR 3.31, CI 2.54, 4.32), or SK (RR 2.0, CI 1.61, 2.48; all P < .0001).
  • Tenderness was more commonly reported with SCC (40%) as compared with MM (RR 15.9, CI 2.28, 110.69), SK (RR 3.0, CI 2.11, 4.39), or BCC (RR 2.6, CI 1.97, 3.38; all P < .0001).
  • Bleeding was more commonly reported with BCC (37%) as compared with SK (RR 2.3, CI 1.67, 3.20), SCC (RR 1.6, CI 1.22, 2.05), or MM (RR 29.8, CI 1.89, 469.65; all P <or= .007).
  • CONCLUSION: This study describes common signs/symptoms of BCC, SCC, and SK.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Keratosis, Seborrheic / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis


87. Agero AL, Busam KJ, Benvenuto-Andrade C, Scope A, Gill M, Marghoob AA, González S, Halpern AC: Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Apr;54(4):638-43
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  • [Title] Reflectance confocal microscopy of pigmented basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a high-resolution imaging tool for in vivo noninvasive evaluation of skin lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the relevant RCM features for pigmented basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • METHODS: Pigmented skin lesions with a differential diagnosis of pigmented BCC were imaged using dermoscopy and RCM, followed by excision for histologic analysis.
  • RESULTS: RCM demonstrated aggregations of tightly packed cells with palisading, forming cordlike structures and nodules with irregular borders and variable brightness; these represented nests of pigmented basaloid tumor cells on histopathology, and blue-gray ovoid areas on dermoscopy.
  • These tumor nests were associated with bright dendritic structures, identified histologically as either melanocytes or Langerhans cells, together with numerous bright oval to stellate-shaped structures with indistinct borders representing melanophages, and with highly refractile granules of melanin.
  • LIMITATIONS: The pigmented BCCs imaged in this study were predominantly nodular; a different set or additional criteria may be necessary for detection of infiltrative and metatypical BCCs.
  • CONCLUSION: RCM may permit in vivo diagnosis of pigmented BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16546585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Eide MJ, Weinstock MA, Dufresne RG Jr, Neelagaru S, Risica P, Burkholder GJ, Upegui D, Phillips KA, Armstrong BK, Robinson-Bostom L: Relationship of treatment delay with surgical defect size from keratinocyte carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin). J Invest Dermatol; 2005 Feb;124(2):308-14
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  • [Title] Relationship of treatment delay with surgical defect size from keratinocyte carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin).
  • Larger keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) lesions are associated with higher morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 15675948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K24 MH063975; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078800; United States / AHRQ HHS / HS / T32 HS000011; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 78800
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS12744; NLM/ PMC1613794
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89. Geist DE, Garcia-Moliner M, Fitzek MM, Cho H, Rogers GS: Perineural invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma: raising awareness and optimizing management. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Dec;34(12):1642-51
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  • [Title] Perineural invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma: raising awareness and optimizing management.
  • BACKGROUND: Perineural invasion (PNI) by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an infrequent but not rare complication of traditionally low-morbidity skin cancers that can lead to catastrophic sequelae; 2.5% to 14% of CSCC and approximately 3% of BCC exhibit PNI.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases of PNI treated with MMS and radiotherapy were reviewed for recurrence, disease-free follow-up, and adverse events.
  • When managing superficial skin tumors with PNI, a multidisciplinary team including a cutaneous surgeon and a radiation oncologist familiar with PNI is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Bell Palsy / etiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Peripheral Nerves

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  • (PMID = 19018830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Marcet S: Atypical fibroxanthoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Dermatol Ther; 2008 Nov-Dec;21(6):424-7
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an unusual spindle cell tumor occurring on actinically damaged skin of the head and neck.
  • Clinically, it is often confused with basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or even melanoma.
  • Although initially thought to be a diagnosis of exclusion histologically, newer immunostains have helped in the identification of AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local


91. Panizzon RG: [Dermatologic radiotherapy]. Hautarzt; 2007 Aug;58(8):701-10, quiz 711
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  • Another important parameter is the half-value depth which should correspond to the depth of the tumor below the skin surface.
  • In this way the skin is not over-exposed to radiation treatment.
  • Indications for radiotherapy of malignant skin tumors include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, severe actinic keratoses, lentigo maligna, lentigo maligna melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and Kaposi sarcoma, as well as T- and B-cell lymphomas.
  • Most patients with malignant skin tumors require life-long monitoring after radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Precancerous Conditions / radiotherapy. Skin Diseases / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Eczema / radiotherapy. Humans. Keloid / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / radiotherapy. Palliative Care. Psoriasis / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17639284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Adenis JP, Sabatier A, Robert PY: [Tumors of the eyelids in the elderly]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Jun;29(6):687-93

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  • The clinical aspect of tumors of the eyelids is polymorphous; however, the most frequent are benign tumors such as papillomas, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, meibomian gland carcinoma, and melanomas.
  • An important step in the management of the malignant types is to try to establish clear margins through histopathologic techniques: the Mohs technique, the rapid fixation technique, and the frozen section method are the most frequent technical tools used today.
  • For the most malignant tumors such as malignant melanoma and Merkel cell tumor, lymph sentinel biopsy is a recent, valuable tool, but its benefit needs to be confirmed in large series.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16885901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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93. Friedrich RE, Giese M, Li L, Schenk Y, Schmelzle R: Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up control in 124 patients with basal cell carcinoma of the maxillofacial region treated from 1992 to 1997. Anticancer Res; 2005 May-Jun;25(3A):1693-7
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  • [Title] Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up control in 124 patients with basal cell carcinoma of the maxillofacial region treated from 1992 to 1997.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and the outcome of patients treated for the most common malignant tumor of the facial skin, basal cell carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The files of patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) treated over a period of 6 years were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-four patients were treated for 216 basal cell carcinomas (solitary: 67%, multiple: 33%).
  • The tumors were predominantly located in the skin covering the middle third of the face.
  • Histopathological subtyping revealed solid (83%), sclerodermiform (10%), metatypical (4%) and multicentric (3%) tumors.
  • Relative to the small number of sclerodermiform BCC, this subtype was the most frequent tumor that developed local recurrences.
  • CONCLUSION: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor, slowly growing and often showing wide extension to macroscopically non-affected sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Face / pathology. Jaw / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16033084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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94. Altan-Yaycioglu R, Canan H, Sizmaz S, Bal N, Pelit A, Akova YA: Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: clinicopathologic analysis of 205 cases. Orbit; 2010 Oct;29(5):254-8

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  • Only one patient had the diagnosis of chronic leukemia, others had no preexisting history of systemic disease.
  • Three patients had abnormal pathology: Lymphoproliferative disease in the patient with chronic leukemia, granulomatous inflammation, and basosquamous cell carcinoma.
  • Even though rare, malignant or systemic disease in patients with neither specific history nor clinical or radiological finding might be observed in these cases.
  • Thus, we recommend taking biopsy if any suspicion of abnormality of the lacrimal sac exists.
  • [MeSH-major] Lacrimal Duct Obstruction / diagnosis. Nasolacrimal Duct / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Child. Dacryocystorhinostomy. Female. Humans. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20704489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. Rizvi SA, Amitava AK, Mehdi G, Sharma R, Alam MS: Orbital amelanotic melanoma in xeroderma pigmentosum: a rare association. Indian J Ophthalmol; 2008 Sep-Oct;56(5):421-3
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  • Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of DNA repair in which the body's normal ability to repair damage caused by ultraviolet light is deficient.
  • Ocular neoplasms occurring in XP in order of frequency are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma.
  • Malignant melanomas occur at an early age in patients with XP.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / complications. Orbit. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Xeroderma Pigmentosum / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 18711275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4738
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2636150
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96. Gurses I, Doganay S, Mizrak B: Expression of glucose transporter protein-1 (Glut-1) in ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Cornea; 2007 Aug;26(7):826-30
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  • [Title] Expression of glucose transporter protein-1 (Glut-1) in ocular surface squamous neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: To examine the expression of glucose transporter protein-1 (GLUT-1) in ocular surface squamous neoplasia and to study its relationship with degree of neoplasia and cell proliferation index (Ki-67 labeling index).
  • METHODS: Twelve cases diagnosed as ocular surface squamous neoplasia (4 invasive and 8 intraepithelial tumors) at Inonu University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, were included in this study.
  • There were 3 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 basosquamous cell carcinoma, and 8 conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasms.
  • GLUT-1 immunostaining was observed in all layers of the neoplastic epithelium of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Intense staining for GLUT-1 was determined in the upper two thirds of the severe dysplastic squamous epithelium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Marked GLUT-1 and Ki-67 immunoreactive cells throughout the neoplastic epithelium of ocular surface squamous neoplasia were observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Conjunctival Neoplasms / metabolism. Corneal Diseases / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17667617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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97. Massari LP, Kastelan M, Gruber F: Epidermal malignant tumors: pathogenesis, influence of UV light and apoptosis. Coll Antropol; 2007 Jan;31 Suppl 1:83-5
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  • [Title] Epidermal malignant tumors: pathogenesis, influence of UV light and apoptosis.
  • Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, collectively termed non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignant tumors in humans.
  • Basal cell carcinoma grows slowly and metastatic spread is very rare.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by infiltrative, destructive growth and metastasis.
  • Long-term exposure of skin to UV light has a great impact on development of these epidermal malignancies.
  • The major role in development of skin cancer is given to proapoptotic p53 molecule or tumor suppressor gene which mutation due to UV exposure leads to resistance of DNA-damaged cell to apoptosis.
  • Other proapoptotic molecules such as Fas ligand (FasL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) are strongly expressed in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma that could be explained by the ability of tumor to escape the attack of immune system.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17469758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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98. Leibeling D, Laspe P, Emmert S: Nucleotide excision repair and cancer. J Mol Histol; 2006 Sep;37(5-7):225-38
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hair Problems.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • XP patients show severe sun sensitivity, freckling in sun exposed skin, and develop skin cancers already during childhood.
  • Clinical symptoms of TTD patients include sun sensitivity, freckling in sun exposed skin areas, and brittle sulfur-deficient hair.
  • In contrast to XP patients, CS and TTD patients are not skin cancer prone.
  • Studying these syndromes can increase the knowledge of skin cancer development including cutaneous melanoma as well as basal and squamous cell carcinoma in general that may lead to new preventional and therapeutic anticancer strategies in the normal population.

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  • (PMID = 16855787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 150
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99. Papadopoulos O, Konofaos P, Chrisostomidis C, Georgiou P, Frangoulis M, Champsas G, Betsi E, Zapantis-Fragos M: Orbitopalpebral repair after 835 excisions of malignant tumours. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg; 2005;39(6):353-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Orbitopalpebral repair after 835 excisions of malignant tumours.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant tumour of the eyelids, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), mixed carcinomas or basosquamous cell carcinomas (BSC), and cutaneous melanomas (CM), also invade the eyelids and periocular zones.
  • The purpose of this study was to document various, simple or complex reconstructive procedures that may be used after excision of malignant tumours of the eyelids and to assess the outcome of surgical treatment.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery.
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  • (PMID = 16298808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-4311
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of plastic and reconstructive surgery and hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Puizina-Ivić N, Sapunar D, Marasović D, Mirić L: An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:61-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis.
  • The Bcl-2 protein has been shown to suppress cell death and protects cell against apoptosis induced by different death-inducing signals.
  • In this study the authors have analyzed imunohistochemically the expression of Bcl-2 protein in the histopathological variants of the most common malignant tumors of the skin--basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell tumor (SCC), as well as in the precancerous lesion actinic keratosis (AK) and in benign tumor seborrheic keratosis (SK).
  • Bcl-2 expression in solid, adenoid and cystic variants of BCC exhibited immunoreactivity of tumor stroma with more intense staining among peripheral palisading cells.
  • Among SCC in all samples, tumor tissue lack to express Bcl-2 positivity.
  • In cases of hypertrophic and atrophic variants of AK, Bcl-2 expression was confined to basal cell layer, as well as in one case of hypertrophic variant in suprabasal cells.
  • In three histological variants of SK expresseion of Bcl-2 protein was in areas of basaloid proliferation, while in areas of squamous differentiation was negative.
  • In clonal variant immunostaining was positive among cells in characteristic "nests" Distribution of Bcl-2 protein expression in solid, adenoid and cystic variant of BCC showed that peripheral proliferating cells are protected against apoptosis what permits tumor growth.
  • In morpheaform variant reduced amount of Bcl-2 expression indicated that this variant of BCC has increased cell proliferation, and in practice shows tendency for recurrence and difficulties to eradicate.
  • Bcl-2 expression supports the observation that tumor cells are derived from basal keratinocytes.
  • In SCC, lack of Bcl-2 expression indicates that origin of tumor cells is from more differentiated suprabasal keratinocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Keratosis, Seborrheic / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism






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