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1. Dabaja B, Salehpour MR, Rosen I, Tung S, Morrison WH, Ang KK, Garden AS: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cancers of the head and neck: comparison of split-field and whole-field techniques. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Nov 15;63(4):1000-5
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  • IMRT is delivered to the primary tumor and upper neck alone, while the lower neck is treated with a matching anterior beam.
  • WF-IMRT has an advantage if uncertainty at the match line is a concern, whereas HB-IMRT, particularly in cases not involving the base of tongue, can achieve much lower doses to the larynx.

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  • (PMID = 15978743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Ming W, Hua Q, Zhan H: [Pharyngocutaneous fistula following total laryngectomy in patients with advanced stage hypopharyngeal or laryngeal carcinomas]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jun;22(12):542-3
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  • CONCLUSION: PCF is often situated in tongue base and post-superior of trachea stoma.
  • Tumor locations and postoperative fever are important predisposition.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Incidence. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18800680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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3. Kutter J, Ozsahin M, Monnier P, Stupp R: Combined modality treatment with full-dose chemotherapy and concomitant boost radiotherapy for advanced head and neck carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Jan;262(1):1-7
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  • The primary tumor involved the hypopharynx (n=7), base of the tongue (n=10), nasopharynx (n=2) or upper esophagus (n=1) or its location was unknown (n=3).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amifostine / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15004704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] M487QF2F4V / Amifostine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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4. Ben-Izhak O, Kablan F, Laster Z, Nagler RM: Oropharyngeal cancer pathogenesis: ubiquitin proteolytic, apoptotic and epidermal growth factor related pathways act in concert--first report. Oral Oncol; 2005 Sep;41(8):851-60
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  • The current study was carried out to examine the clinical characteristics and survival-probability rates of 51 patients treated for oral (tongue) cancer and to correlate it with various tumor markers.
  • The 5-year survival-probability correlated with staging, grading and base of tongue location.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Tongue Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Ubiquitin / metabolism


5. Nakamura T, Kodaira T, Tachibana H, Tomita N, Yokouchi J, Fuwa N: Clinical outcome of oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with platinum-based chemoradiotherapy. Oral Oncol; 2009 Sep;45(9):830-4
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  • Nine patients who had a tumor in the base of the tongue were also treated with arterial infusion chemotherapy.
  • The 5-year local control rate for each subsite was: anterior wall, 90%; lateral wall, 80%; posterior wall, 67%; and superior wall, 64%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19457713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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6. Simon C, Goepfert H, Rosenthal DI, Roberts D, El-Naggar A, Old M, Diaz EM Jr, Myers JN: Presence of malignant tumor cells in persistent neck disease after radiotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is associated with poor survival. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Apr;263(4):313-8
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  • [Title] Presence of malignant tumor cells in persistent neck disease after radiotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is associated with poor survival.
  • It is reported that nearly 50% of the neck dissection specimens contain residual viable tumor cells that may indicate partial radiation failure and as a consequence poor survival.
  • In order to address the significance of this finding, we conducted a nonrandomized retrospective study, including 35 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy followed by either a radical or modified radical (RND/MRND) or a selective neck dissection (SND) for clinically persistent neck disease 6 weeks after completing therapy for stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx (base of the tongue =15, tonsil =12, soft palate =7 and pharyngeal wall =1).
  • All neck dissection specimens were reviewed according to histological criteria indicating viable residual tumor.
  • The presence of malignant tumor cells in residual disease in the neck correlated with poor disease-specific and overall survival (P =0.03 and P =0.01, respectively).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Survival. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16328403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Shoushtari AN, Meeneghan M, Treharne GC, Reibel JF, Levine PA, Moskaluk CA, Jameson MJ, Read PW: Clinical nodal staging of T1-2 tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma stratified by p16 status and implications for ipsilateral neck irradiation. Cancer J; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):284-7
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  • Patients with a history of prior head and neck cancer, synchronous cancers, base of tongue or soft palate invasion, or distant metastases at diagnosis were excluded.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20526108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-336X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK067629
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human
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8. Adelson RT, Ducic Y: Metastatic head and neck carcinoma to a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site. Head Neck; 2005 Apr;27(4):339-43
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  • In the case at our institution, a 63-year-old man was referred to our institution with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the right base of tongue; he also had a 1.5-cm left apical lung nodule.
  • Six months after the original tube placement, he had an ulcerated mass develop at the PEG site; biopsy of the mass revealed squamous cell carcinoma histologically identical to the base of tongue tumor.
  • Direct implantation with a variable-sized initial tumor burden can explain all cases of PEG site metastasis.
  • Smaller initial tumor implants present later than would larger initial tumor burdens, when the patient is more likely to have distant metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Enteral Nutrition. Gastroscopy. Gastrostomy. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Rectus Abdominis / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15712297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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9. Mühlmeier G, Reske SN, Blumstein NM, Völker HU, Maier H: [The importance of PET in searching the primary tumor site in CUP patients -- a case report]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2005 Jul;84(7):516-9
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  • [Title] [The importance of PET in searching the primary tumor site in CUP patients -- a case report].
  • Clinical examination, MRT scans and panendoscopy did not detect the primary tumour site.
  • The positron emission tomography localized an uptake of FDG in the left sided base of the tongue.
  • In the left tongue base an induration was palpable which was resected with security distance.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tongue Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tongue / pathology. Tongue / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16010634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Eun YG, Kim MG, Kwon KH, Shin SY, Cho JS, Kim SW: Short-term effect of multilevel surgery on adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Acta Otolaryngol; 2010 Dec;130(12):1394-8
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  • METHODS: Fifty-one patients with OSA underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty and radiofrequency tongue base reduction.
  • Adiponectin, leptin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured with a LINCOplex Human Immunoassay at baseline and 4 weeks after surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adiponectin / blood. Adult. Aged. Electrosurgery. Female. Humans. Interleukin-6 / blood. Leptin / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Palate, Soft / surgery. Patient Satisfaction. Pharynx / surgery. Polysomnography. Reference Values. Tongue / surgery. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood. Uvula / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20632906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2251
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Leptin; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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11. Attlmayr B, Garrido C, Alderson DJ: Difficulty in establishing a diagnosis in an uncommon presentation of a minor salivary gland tumour. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Difficulty in establishing a diagnosis in an uncommon presentation of a minor salivary gland tumour.
  • We report the case of a man presenting with a large, airway obstructing, minor salivary gland tumour arising from the right tonsillar base.
  • Clinically, the tumour behaved in a malignant way.
  • A firm diagnosis of malignancy could not be made histologically.
  • The differential diagnosis included polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • However, on balance, based on the clinical presentation, a diagnosis of malignancy was favoured and appropriate treatment was considered.
  • While he was waiting for radiotherapy, the tumour went into remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Airway Obstruction / etiology. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cooperative Behavior. Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy. Humans. Interdisciplinary Communication. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Tongue / pathology. Tracheostomy

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  • (PMID = 22798299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029651
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12. Briem B, Magnúsdóttir AB: [Lingual thyroid--case report: a woman with a tumor at the base of the tongue]. Laeknabladid; 2005 Sep;91(9):661-3
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  • [Title] [Lingual thyroid--case report: a woman with a tumor at the base of the tongue].
  • Laryngostroboscopy showed a mass lesion at the base of the tongue.
  • On examination a mass is noted at the base of the tongue and the diagnosis is then confirmed with CT/MRI and thyroid scanning.

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  • (PMID = 16155337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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13. Ransom ER, Yoon C, Manolidis S: Single stage near total resection of massive pediatric head and neck plexiform neurofibromas. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Jun;70(6):1055-61
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  • METHODS: Retrospective review of four consecutive pediatric patients with massive head and neck plexiform neurofibromas who underwent single stage near total or sub-total tumor resections.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Airway Obstruction / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Deglutition / physiology. Esthetics. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Recovery of Function / physiology. Retrospective Studies. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Speech / physiology. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16406080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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14. Pedruzzi PA, Kowalski LP, Nishimoto IN, Oliveira BV, Tironi F, Ramos GH: Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;134(11):1196-204
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  • RESULTS: Most tumors were located at the tonsil (46.8%) or base of the tongue (28.0%) and were at clinical stage III or IV (92.8%).
  • Treatment response was associated with Zubrod scale score, weight loss, number of comorbidities, symptom-severity and Piccirillo stages, hemoglobin level, tumor site, macroscopic appearance of the tumor, and clinical stage.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / mortality. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / mortality. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19015451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Silva P, Slevin NJ, Sloan P, Valentine H, Cresswell J, Ryder D, Price P, Homer JJ, West CM: Prognostic significance of tumor hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha expression for outcome after radiotherapy in oropharyngeal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Dec 1;72(5):1551-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of tumor hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha expression for outcome after radiotherapy in oropharyngeal cancer.
  • Currently most management decisions are based on clinical parameters with little appreciation of patient differences in underlying tumor biology.
  • We investigated the prognostic significance of clinicopathologic features and tumor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) expression in a homogeneous series of patients who underwent radiotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: An audit identified 133 consecutive patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil or tongue base.
  • Tumor HIF-1alpha expression was examined in 79 patients.
  • 3.04-176.7) than the tongue-base tumor (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.14-7.19) group (p = 0.03, test for interaction).
  • High tumor HIF-1alpha expression was associated with low blood Hb levels (p = 0.03).
  • The work highlights the importance of studying homogeneous groups of patients in HNSCC, and the complex interrelationships between tumor biology and clinicopathologic factors.
  • The establishment of tumor-type specific markers would represent a major advance in this area.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hemoglobins / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Tongue Neoplasms / genetics. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / genetics. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19028277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
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16. Diapera MJ, Lozon CL, Thompson LD: Malacoplakia of the tongue: a case report and clinicopathologic review of 6 cases. Am J Otolaryngol; 2009 Mar-Apr;30(2):101-5
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  • [Title] Malacoplakia of the tongue: a case report and clinicopathologic review of 6 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Extra-urogenital tract malacoplakia is uncommon, with tongue malacoplakia being exceptionally rare.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five case reports of tongue malacoplakia were compiled from the literature (MedLine 1960-2008) and integrated with this case report.
  • The base of the tongue was the most frequent site, although midline tongue and half of the tongue were also affected.
  • These findings support a diagnosis of malacoplakia.
  • The differential diagnosis includes granular cell tumor, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans histiocytosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tongue malacoplakia is rare, often presenting as a mass lesion.
  • Histologic recognition of this abnormal phagocytic disorder will prevent potentially disfiguring surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Malacoplakia / pathology. Tongue Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19239951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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17. Jäckel MC, Heyny-von Haussen R: [Dysphagia and dysarthria due to the long-term growth of a tongue base tumor]. HNO; 2006 May;54(5):382-4
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  • [Title] [Dysphagia and dysarthria due to the long-term growth of a tongue base tumor].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Dysarthria / etiology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cell Division / physiology. Chronic Disease. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Microsurgery. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Surgical Flaps. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tongue / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16477463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-6192
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Kikkawa Y, Shono T, Mizoguchi M, Nagata S, Sasaki T: A case of intracranial hypoglossal neurinoma without hypoglossal nerve palsy: operative view of the preserved rostral trunk. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;50(5):296-9
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  • Hypoglossal neurinomas usually manifest with hemiatrophy and weakness of the tongue.
  • The neurological examination revealed bilateral papilledema and mild truncal ataxia, although weakness and atrophy of the tongue were not observed.
  • Magnetic resonance and computed tomography images demonstrated a large foramen magnum tumor without enlargement of the hypoglossal canal.
  • Total removal of the tumor was performed via a lateral suboccipital craniotomy and C1 partial laminectomy.
  • The tumor arose from the caudal trunk, while the intact rostral trunk entered the hypoglossal canal normally.
  • The tumor only developed intracranially, and since the rostral trunk of the hypoglossal nerve was intact, the patient did not present with hypoglossal nerve palsy preoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Atlas / pathology. Cervical Atlas / radiography. Cervical Atlas / surgery. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / radiography. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Craniotomy. Decompression, Surgical. Female. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve / pathology. Hypoglossal Nerve / physiopathology. Hypoglossal Nerve / surgery. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / etiology. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Laminectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Occipital Bone / pathology. Occipital Bone / radiography. Occipital Bone / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vertigo / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18058647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Jiang L, Liu X, Kolokythas A, Yu J, Wang A, Heidbreder CE, Shi F, Zhou X: Downregulation of the Rho GTPase signaling pathway is involved in the microRNA-138-mediated inhibition of cell migration and invasion in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2010 Aug 1;127(3):505-12
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  • [Title] Downregulation of the Rho GTPase signaling pathway is involved in the microRNA-138-mediated inhibition of cell migration and invasion in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor metastasis is the dominant cause of death in cancer patients, including patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).

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  • (PMID = 20232393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA135992-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03CA135992; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE014847-05S1; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22DE014847; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA139596; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA139596; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA135992; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014847-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA135992-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA135992-01A1; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014847; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014847-05S1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RHOC protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / ROCK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / rho-Associated Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS203801; NLM/ PMC2885137
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20. Esteban F, Bravo JJ, González-Moles MA, Bravo M, Ruiz-Avila I, Gil-Montoya JA: Adhesion molecule CD44 as a prognostic factor in laryngeal cancer. Anticancer Res; 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2A):1115-21
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  • Data were gathered on clinical (primary tumor location, pyriform sinus involvement and tongue base damage) and pathologic (T, N, differentiation, inflammatory response, tumor thickness, surgical margin involvement, and CD44 expression) parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15868954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Aubry K, Shao Z, Monteil J, Paraf F, Bessède JP, Rigaud M: FDG-PET/CT of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a rat model. Mol Imaging Biol; 2009 Mar-Apr;11(2):88-93
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  • RESULTS: All rats had head and neck tumor at various locations at 34 weeks.
  • FDG-PET/CT confirmed the presence of those tumors and detected ones located on the base of tongue for three of them.
  • Tumor extensions were characterized and tumor metabolic volumes were measured.
  • It is useful to follow tumor progression and evaluate therapeutics efficacy.

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  • (PMID = 19034583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Windfuhr JP, Remmert S: Infrahyoid myofascial flap for tongue reconstruction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Nov;263(11):1013-22
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  • [Title] Infrahyoid myofascial flap for tongue reconstruction.
  • For selected cases, reconstruction of the tongue may be required after tumor removal.
  • This study was undertaken to demonstrate a simplified concept of tongue reconstruction with emphasis on infrahyoid myofascial flaps (IMF).
  • The defects of the tongue were classified in 23 patients according to the extent of tumor growth, functional and surgical aspects.
  • The oral tongue (OT; n = 1), base of tongue (BT; n = 12) or both areas (OT and BT; n = 10) were involved, with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) infiltration of adjacent tissues.
  • IMF serves as a reliable tool for minor or major reconstructive procedures of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16868774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Tezal M, Sullivan Nasca M, Stoler DL, Melendy T, Hyland A, Smaldino PJ, Rigual NR, Loree TR: Chronic periodontitis-human papillomavirus synergy in base of tongue cancers. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Apr;135(4):391-6
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  • [Title] Chronic periodontitis-human papillomavirus synergy in base of tongue cancers.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess whether chronic periodontitis history predicts human papillomavirus (HPV) status in patients with base of tongue cancers.
  • PATIENTS: Thirty patients newly diagnosed with base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2005 for whom both tumor samples and periodontal records were available.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: HPV-16 and HPV-18 DNA were identified on paraffin-embedded tumor samples by polymerase chain reaction.
  • After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, race/ethnicity, alcohol use, smoking status, and number of missing teeth, every millimeter of alveolar bone loss was associated with an approximately 4-fold (odds ratio, 3.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-13.36) increased risk of HPV-positive tumor status.
  • Number of missing teeth was not associated with tumor HPV status (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.21).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chronic periodontitis may be a significant factor in the natural history of HPV infection in patients with base of tongue cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Chronic Periodontitis / epidemiology. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Tongue Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19380363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R03CA119262; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / T32-DE07034
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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24. Sato K, Shimizu S, Oka H, Nakahara K, Utsuki S, Fujii K: Usefulness of transcervical approach for surgical treatment of hypoglossal schwannoma with paraspinal extension: case report. Surg Neurol; 2006 Apr;65(4):397-401, discussion 401
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  • The findings were of a tumor lying in the left hypoglossal canal and paraspinal region and were consistent with hypoglossal schwannoma.
  • Subtotal intracapsular removal of the tumor was performed via transcervical approach.
  • CONCLUSION: The transcervical approach and intracapsular removal of the tumor under electrophysiological monitoring provided for successful minimally invasive surgery in this case of hypoglossal schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Vertebrae / anatomy & histology. Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Electric Stimulation. Electromyography. Fasciculation / etiology. Fasciculation / pathology. Fasciculation / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Skull Base / pathology. Skull Base / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / physiopathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Tongue / innervation. Tongue / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16531208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Zeina AR, Nachtigal A, Avshovich N, Rosner I, Rozenbaum M: Hypoglossal nerve palsy secondary to cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical and radiological features. Joint Bone Spine; 2009 Oct;76(5):547-9
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  • Isolated hypoglossal nerve (HN) palsy has been reported in a variety of disorders involving the cervical spine and/or skull base, however, unilateral HN palsy caused by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has rarely been reported.
  • We also present the variety of diagnostic modalities helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Dysarthria / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tongue Diseases / etiology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology


26. Deleyiannis FW, Rogers C, Lee E, Russavage J, Gastman B, Dunklebarger J, Lai S, Ferris R, Myers EN, Johnson J: Reconstruction of the lateral mandibulectomy defect: management based on prognosis and location and volume of soft tissue resection. Laryngoscope; 2006 Nov;116(11):2071-80
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  • METHODS: Patient and tumor variables were extracted from the medical records.
  • RESULTS: Age greater than 70 years (P = .03), moderate or severe comorbidity (P = .01), and tumor involvement of the base of tongue (P = .03) were significantly associated with decreased use of a free flap and with decreased 3-year survival rates.

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  • (PMID = 17075408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Jacob J, George S, Suchit Roy BR, Dildeepa SN: Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia - A case report. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Jul;58(3):285-7
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  • Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a distinctive vascular tumor presenting as isolated or grouped papules or plaques or nodules over skin in head and neck.
  • We, hereby, present a case of ALHE affecting the base of tongue-a rare site of involvement.

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  • (PMID = 23120317.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3450411
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28. Iyer NG, Kim L, Nixon IJ, Palmer F, Kraus D, Shaha AR, Shah JP, Patel SG, Ganly I: Factors predicting outcome in malignant minor salivary gland tumors of the oropharynx. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Dec;136(12):1240-7
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  • RESULTS: the most common histologic types were mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 26 patients (39%), adenoid cystic carcinoma in 16 (24%), adenocarcinoma in 16 (24%), and malignant mixed tumor in 7 (10%).
  • The tumors were located in the base of the tongue in 41 patients (61%), soft palate in 20 (30%), and tonsil in 6 (9%).
  • Tumor recurred in 20 patients (34%); 12 of these patients had locoregional failure and 15 developed distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Salivary Glands, Minor. Survival Rate / trends. Time Factors. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21173374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Eloy PH, Nollevaux MC, Watelet JB, Van Damme JP, Collet ST, Bertrand B: Endonasal endoscopic resection of an ethmoidal solitary fibrous tumor. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Sep;263(9):833-7
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  • [Title] Endonasal endoscopic resection of an ethmoidal solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle cell tumor that typically arises at the level of the pleura in adults.
  • In the head and neck region, SFT has been documented in the external auditory canal, larynx, thyroid, sublingual gland, tongue, parapharyngeal space and the infratemporal fossa.

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  • (PMID = 16763824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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30. Kumai Y, Ogata N, Yumoto E: Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma in the base of the tongue: a case report. Am J Otolaryngol; 2006 Jan-Feb;27(1):58-60
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  • [Title] Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma in the base of the tongue: a case report.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report a rare case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) of a minor salivary gland originating in the base of the tongue, which is a highly unusual location.
  • Endoscopic examination revealed a tumorous lesion 40 x 20 mm in the base of the tongue on the left side.
  • The final diagnosis based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings was EMC.
  • Because neither histological evidence of residual tumor in the surgical margin nor neck metastases were found, radiotherapy was not performed.
  • CONCLUSION: We believe this report is the first description of EMC originating in the base of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Oral Surgical Procedures / methods. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome


31. Borggreven PA, Verdonck-de Leeuw I, Rinkel RN, Langendijk JA, Roos JC, David EF, de Bree R, Leemans CR: Swallowing after major surgery of the oral cavity or oropharynx: a prospective and longitudinal assessment of patients treated by microvascular soft tissue reconstruction. Head Neck; 2007 Jul;29(7):638-47
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  • Patient, tumor, and treatment factors were assessed.
  • Comorbid condition, larger tumors (T3-T4 vs T2), and resections of the base of tongue and soft palate combined (vs defects of other dynamic structures) were associated with most profound swallowing problems (p < .05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Comorbidity. Female. Fluoroscopy. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Palate, Soft / surgery. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tongue / surgery. Video Recording


32. Sanchez Morillo J, Solaz Roldan C, Aznar MR, Mompó Romero L, Barber Ballester G, Santamaría Vázquez J: [Use of a rigid laryngoscope and a flexible nasal fiberoptic scope to assess the difficult airway: description of 3 cases]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim; 2010 Feb;57(2):91-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Utilización del laringoscopio rígido y el nasofibroscopio flexible en la valoración de la vía aérea difícil: descripción de 3 casos.
  • In the first case, the epiglottis was absent, as it had been removed with a surrounding tumor; in the second and third cases, an epiglottic deformity and hypertrophy of the base of the tongue were found.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / diagnosis. Fiber Optic Technology / instrumentation. Laryngoscopes. Otolaryngology / instrumentation. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Epiglottis / pathology. Epiglottis / surgery. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy. Intubation, Intratracheal. Male. Middle Aged. Overweight / complications. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Pyriform Sinus / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Tongue / pathology. Tongue / surgery. Vitrectomy

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  • (PMID = 20337000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9356
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de anestesiología y reanimación
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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33. Siebert FA, Born T, Häring S, Seefeld F, Kovács G: A dosimetric analysis of interstitial intensity modulated implants for pelvic recurrences, base of tongue and orbita tumors with specific references to the ICRU-58. Radiother Oncol; 2006 Jun;79(3):298-303
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  • [Title] A dosimetric analysis of interstitial intensity modulated implants for pelvic recurrences, base of tongue and orbita tumors with specific references to the ICRU-58.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The evaluation included 76 patient plans: (a) 31 pelvic recurrences, (b) 30 base of tongue tumors, and (c) 15 orbita tumors were analysed retrospectively and the mean central doses (MCD) and relative reference doses were evaluated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of the reference dose yields to higher dose inhomogeneities and affects the positive local tumor control.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Brachytherapy / standards. Colorectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Orbital Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16730084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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34. Wakisaka N, Murono S, Minato H, Furukawa M, Yoshizaki T: A case report: Epstein-Barr virus-associated undifferentiated carcinoma of the tongue base. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Dec;33(4):487-91
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  • [Title] A case report: Epstein-Barr virus-associated undifferentiated carcinoma of the tongue base.
  • Here, we report on a case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the tongue base.
  • A 71-year-old male, who had been treated with irradiation for primary unknown right neck metastatic EBV-positive undifferentiated carcinoma 9 years previously, was referred to our clinic with masses at the tongue base and right neck.
  • The lesion at the tongue base was revealed to be an EBV-positive undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • He was treated with resection of tongue base tumor and bilateral-neck dissection, and the defect at the tongue base was reconstructed with a free rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.
  • Re-irradiation was added post-operatively because of a positive surgical margin at the tongue base.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / virology. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Tongue Neoplasms / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16934421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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35. Mukhija V, Gupta S, Jacobson AS, Eloy JA, Genden EM: Selective neck dissection following adjuvant therapy for advanced head and neck cancer. Head Neck; 2009 Feb;31(2):183-8
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  • The primary sites included base of tongue (n = 15), hypopharynx (n = 12), tonsil (n = 16), larynx (n = 11), and unknown primary (n = 4).
  • Pathologically, 22.4% (13/58) of the patients had viable tumor cells identified in the neck dissection specimen.
  • Of patients who died from distant disease, 11% had pathological evidence of residual tumor cells identified in the neck dissection specimen.
  • Of patients who died from local or regional disease, 50% had pathological evidence of residual tumor cells identified in the neck dissection specimen.


36. Fournier HD, Hue AS, Laccourreye L: [Extensive lower clivus chordomas. Removal using the unilateral transmandibular approach]. Neurochirurgie; 2008 Apr;54(2):63-71
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clival chordomas are rare skull-base tumors with local malignant behavior.
  • If the tumor remains extradural for a while, it finally progresses through the dura backwards to reach and displace the brain stem and upper cervical cord.
  • Tracheostomy is needed because of a transient tongue oedema.
  • RESULTS: The unilateral transmandibular approach enabled to anatomical and physiological nasal preservation, large operative field facilitating dural closure and tumor removal, with acceptable cosmetic results and sequellae considering the natural course and prognosis of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Chordoma / surgery. Mandible / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18359050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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37. Bekelman JE, Wolden S, Lee N: Head-and-neck target delineation among radiation oncology residents after a teaching intervention: a prospective, blinded pilot study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Feb 1;73(2):416-23
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  • At the baseline evaluation, the participants contoured three clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) (70 Gy, 59.4 Gy, and 54 Gy) on six contrast-enhanced axial computed tomography images of a de-identified patient with Stage T2N2bM0 squamous cell carcinoma of the right base of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Competence. Curriculum. Diagnostic Errors. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Inservice Training / methods. Male. Pilot Projects. Program Evaluation. Prospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18538494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Guclu E, Tokmak A, Oghan F, Ozturk O, Egeli E: Hemimacroglossia caused by isolated plexiform neurofibroma: a case report. Laryngoscope; 2006 Jan;116(1):151-3
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  • OBJECTIVES: The present case is a diffuse isolated plexiform neurofibroma of the tongue that was not associated with neurofibromatosis that we treated with intraoral surgery.
  • METHODS: We present a 5-year-old girl with isolated plexiform neurofibroma of the tongue with infiltration of the tongue base and review treatment approaches for this very rare tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Isolated plexiform neurofibroma of the tongue is very rare.
  • It causes a massive macroglossia that is progressive with advance of years and disturbs the patient's speech, occlusion, and tongue movements.
  • Involvement of the tongue may be associated with infiltration into the deep structures of the neck by the tumor, thereby presenting considerable operative difficulties.
  • [MeSH-major] Macroglossia / etiology. Macroglossia / pathology. Neurofibroma, Plexiform / diagnosis. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16481830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Laccourreye O, Seccia V, Ménard M, Garcia D, Vacher C, Holsinger FC: Extended lateral pharyngotomy for selected squamous cell carcinomas of the lateral tongue base. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2009 Jun;118(6):428-34
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  • [Title] Extended lateral pharyngotomy for selected squamous cell carcinomas of the lateral tongue base.
  • OBJECTIVES: In a retrospective review of an inception cohort of 26 patients with an isolated, previously untreated, moderately to well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral tongue base, consecutively managed with an extended lateral pharyngotomy approach at a single tertiary referral care center, the authors review the key surgical points, highlight the potential technical pitfalls, and document the complications and long-term functional and oncological outcomes in terms of survival and local control.
  • The main causes of death were metachronous second primary tumor, intercurrent disease, and distant metastasis, resulting in 84.6%, 64%, and 46.9% 1-, 3-, and 5-year Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival estimates, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Such results suggest that extended lateral pharyngotomy should be integrated among the various conservative treatment options available to patients with selected carcinomas of the lateral tongue base.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neck Dissection / methods. Pharynx / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19663374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Hu YH, Li J: [Clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Jan;40(1):54-7
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  • RESULTS: Seven tumors were from palate, one was from base of tongue, one in retromolar region, and one in floor of mouth.
  • Microscopically, the tumors were predominantly composed of trabeculae, cords, nests, solid sheets of clear cells and a few eosinophilic cells, and the two kinds of tumor cells were surrounded by hyalinized stroma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CCC is a distinctive low grade malignant salivary gland neoplasm, arising mainly in the minor salivary glands, and it may originate from intercalated-duct reserve cells.

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  • (PMID = 15774154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-0098
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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41. Zhao Y, Liu YH, Mei JY, Lu DH, Wu J, Ma YX, Yang KL: [Swallowing and laryngeal function preserving in surgical treatment of the head and neck tumors involving the tongue root]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Jul;45(7):582-6
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  • [Title] [Swallowing and laryngeal function preserving in surgical treatment of the head and neck tumors involving the tongue root].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the surgical technique which could preserve the swallowing and laryngeal function effectively in the malignant head and neck tumors involving the tongue root.
  • METHODS: From January 2003 to December 2008, 31 cases of malignant head and neck tumors involving the tongue base had been treated in this hospital were retrospectively analyzed.
  • There were 27 males and 4 females in which 9 cases of primary malignant tumor were from the base of tongue; 3 cases were from the tonsil, 11 cases were from supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma and 8 cases were from hypopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • Preserved the lingual artery of the reserved side and the normal tissue of the root of tongue according to the clinical anatomy of lingual artery during the operation.
  • RESULTS: In this group, residual tongue necrosis did not occurred.
  • Two with root of tongue cancer and 1 with tonsil cancer had postoperative infection and healed in 2 weeks.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the surgical treatments of the malignant head and neck tumors involving the base of tongue, the excisions and reconstructions of the primary tumor and the involved tongue base according to the clinical anatomy of lingual artery and the protection mechanisms of laryngeal function during the operation was one of the most effective technique to preserve the swallowing and laryngeal function.
  • [MeSH-major] Glossectomy / methods. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21055059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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42. Schwartz DL, Hutcheson K, Barringer D, Tucker SL, Kies M, Holsinger FC, Ang KK, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Garden AS, Dong L, Lewin JS: Candidate dosimetric predictors of long-term swallowing dysfunction after oropharyngeal intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Dec 1;78(5):1356-65
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  • Twenty-one (68%) cases were base of tongue and 10 (32%) were tonsil.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20646872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA132281; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132281
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS575664; NLM/ PMC4034521
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43. Chao KS, Bhide S, Chen H, Asper J, Bush S, Franklin G, Kavadi V, Liengswangwong V, Gordon W, Raben A, Strasser J, Koprowski C, Frank S, Chronowski G, Ahamad A, Malyapa R, Zhang L, Dong L: Reduce in variation and improve efficiency of target volume delineation by a computer-assisted system using a deformable image registration approach. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Aug 1;68(5):1512-21
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a deformable image registration method for mapping contours from a template case to a patient case with a similar tumor manifestation but different body configuration.
  • Eight radiation oncologists with varying levels of clinical experience in HN IMRT performed target delineation on two HN cases, one with base-of-tongue (BOT) cancer and another with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), by first contouring from scratch and then by modifying the contours deformed by the CAT system.
  • [MeSH-major] Medical Oncology / standards. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Efficiency. Humans. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 17674982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Lazarus CL, Gaziano J, Stachowiak L, Newman L, MacCracken E, Santa D, Mittal B: Swallowing disorders in the first year after radiation and chemoradiation. Head Neck; 2008 Feb;30(2):148-58
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  • RESULTS: At baseline, patients had some swallow disorders, probably related to presence of their tumor.
  • At 3 months posttreatment, frequency of reduced tongue base retraction, slow or delayed laryngeal vestibule closure, and reduced laryngeal elevation increased from baseline.

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  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE011921-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA40007; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA040007-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA040007-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50DE/CA11921; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA040007; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P50 DE011921-05S2
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45. Liu L, Tang XH, Scognamiglio T, Gudas LJ: Oral carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide in lecithin:retinol acyltransferase gene knockout mice. J Nutr Biochem; 2010 Oct;21(10):975-82
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  • We observed higher levels of secreted frizzled-related protein (Sfrp) 2, an inhibitor of WNT signaling, in tongue tumors in LRAT(-/-) versus Wt.
  • Cox-2, Cyclin D1, p21, Trop2 and RARβ2 were not differentially expressed in Wt versus LRAT(-/-) tongue tumors.
  • Wt and LRAT(-/-) mice fed a retinol-sufficient diet showed the same oral tumor incidence after 4-NQO treatment.
  • In contrast, tongue tumors developed in 60% of Wt mice and in 100% of LRAT(-/-) mice fed a retinol-deficient diet during 4-NQO treatment (P=.22); moreover, the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was 21.0 ± 2.4% in LRAT(-/-) normal tongue epithelium as compared to 9.9 ± 0.8% in Wt normal tongue epithelium (P<.001).
  • Thus, partial retinol deficiency during carcinogen treatment (achieved in LRAT(-/-)) resulted in more proliferating cells in tongue epithelia from LRAT(-/-) mice and, ultimately, a greater probability of carcinogenesis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19954945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4847
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr. Biochem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE010389; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE10389
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / DNA Primers; 11103-57-4 / Vitamin A; 56-57-5 / 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide; EC 2.3.- / Acyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.- / lecithin-retinol acyltransferase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149851; NLM/ PMC2941705
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46. Miller FR, Karnad AB, Eng T, Hussey DH, Stan McGuff H, Otto RA: Management of the unknown primary carcinoma: long-term follow-up on a negative PET scan and negative panendoscopy. Head Neck; 2008 Jan;30(1):28-34
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  • In an attempt to identify the occult primary tumor the evaluation of this patient population has included a complete head and neck examination, flexible fiberoptic endoscopy, and imaging with CT/MRI.
  • METHODS: A cohort of 31 patients with fine-needle aspiration biopsy-confirmed squamous cell carcinoma were prospectively entered into a diagnostic protocol to identify the occult primary tumor.
  • If the initial diagnostic evaluation failed to identify a primary tumor, the patients then underwent whole body PET imaging followed by staging endoscopy with biopsy of the at-risk occult tumor sites.
  • The outcome measures included the accuracy of the PET to predict the presence of occult tumor at staging endoscopy and the accuracy of the negative PET and negative panendoscopy in predicting the subsequent development of a primary tumor in the upper aerodigestive tract during follow-up.
  • Five occult primary tumors (2 base of tongue and 3 palatine tonsil) were detected during panendoscopy despite a negative PET.
  • Seventeen patients (N1, n = 7; N2a, n = 4; N2b, n = 2; N3, n = 4) had no primary tumor detected and were treated as an unknown primary carcinoma with primary neck dissection +/- radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy.
  • In addition, only 1 patient (5.8%) developed a primary tumor of the upper aerodigestive tract with a mean follow-up of 31.1 months (range, 21-60 months).
  • CONCLUSION: A negative PET study in patients with an occult primary head and neck carcinoma does not preclude the need for panendoscopy with biopsy to detect the occult primary tumor.
  • The risk of subsequent primary tumor appears to be low in the patients with a negative PET and a negative panendoscopy (<6%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Endoscopy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17657782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Camp AA, Fundakowski C, Petruzzelli GJ, Emami B: Functional and oncologic results following transoral laser microsurgical excision of base of tongue carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Jul;141(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Functional and oncologic results following transoral laser microsurgical excision of base of tongue carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine survival and functional results in patients who underwent transoral laser excision of base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with transoral laser excision and followed for at least 24 months were included.
  • RESULTS: Of the 71 patients treated, one (1.4%), nine (12.7%), seven (9.9%), and 54 (76.1%) were stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively, at diagnosis.
  • Given the low number of deaths, no significance was detectable between survival and gender, overall stage, tumor size, nodal status, or adjuvant therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Transoral laser excision offers an acceptable treatment approach in terms of survival and quality of life for patients with base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Laser Therapy / methods. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19559960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Alkan S, Coskun BU, Ugur S, Başak T, Dadas B: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Mar;33(1):71-4
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  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare tumor with distinct morphological and biological features that differentiate it from the common form of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the head and neck region.
  • It is mostly seen in the supraglottic larynx, hypopharynx and a base of the tongue.

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  • (PMID = 16188414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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49. Soderberg C, Perez DS, Ukpo OC, Liang X, O'Reilly AG, Moore EJ, Kademani D, Smith DI: Differential loss of expression of common fragile site genes between oral tongue and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Cytogenet Genome Res; 2008;121(3-4):201-10
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  • [Title] Differential loss of expression of common fragile site genes between oral tongue and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The expression of these genes is frequently abrogated in a number of different cancers and several of them have already been shown to function as tumor suppressor genes, both in vitro and in vivo.
  • The first were oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and the second were base of tongue/tonsillar (oropharyngeal) SCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Chromosome Fragile Sites. Gene Expression Profiling. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / genetics. Tongue Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18758160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-859X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytogenetic and genome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytogenet. Genome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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50. Strek P, Hydzik-Sobocińtska K, Składzień J, Modrzejewski M, Zagólski O, Blaschke J, Najdzionek D, Kurzyński M, Muszyński P, Gawlik J, Dutsch-Wicherek M: [Self-assessment of the effect of dysphagia on the quality of life in patients after partial laryngectomy for cancer initially located in the supraglottic area]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Sep;19(111):362-4
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  • The subjective evaluation by the patient of dysphagia is directly related to the size of the tumor and the extent of the partial laryngectomy treatment.
  • Patients, whose tumor was located in supraglottic-glottic area, had subtotal laryngectomy m. Miodoński.
  • Reconstruction of the base of a tongue by a graft of angiopedunculated submandibular gland diminished the difficulties in swallowing.

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  • (PMID = 16358871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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51. Raghunandhan S, Murali S, Nagasundaram J, Sudha Maheswari S, Kameswaran M: Alveolar soft part sarcoma of tongue base - A rare presentation of a rare tumor. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Dec;59(4):393-5
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  • [Title] Alveolar soft part sarcoma of tongue base - A rare presentation of a rare tumor.
  • We report a case of alveolar soft part sarcoma involving the tongue base in an adolescent female.
  • She underwent laser assisted excision of the tongue base tumour followed by post-operative radiotherapy.
  • The clinical presentation, histopathological picture, immunohistochemical & cytogenetic studies, radio-imaging, management protocols and prognosis of this tumor have been discussed.

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  • [Cites] Skeletal Radiol. 1995 May;24(4):267-70 [7644939.001]
  • (PMID = 23120485.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452256
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / Lingual Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma (ASPS)
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52. Suzuki H, Katoh A, Udaka T, Shiomori T, Fujimura T, Fujimura K, Kitamura T: Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma arising from the base of the tongue. Acta Otolaryngol; 2006 Jun;126(6):653-6
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma arising from the base of the tongue.
  • Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a low-grade indolent and rare salivary gland tumor originally described by Milchgrub et al. in 1994.
  • We herein report a case of this tumor of the base of the tongue.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 40x30-mm well-defined ovoid tumor arising from the base of the tongue.
  • She underwent tracheostomy followed by a resection of the tumor via the transmandibular approach combined with a right-sided supra-omohyoid neck dissection.
  • Because the tumor invasion of the surrounding tissue was limited, the surgical defect at the base of the tongue was relatively small, and no reconstructive procedure needed to be performed.
  • The tumor was histopathologically diagnosed as hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the minor salivary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Hyalin. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Glands, Minor. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laryngoscopy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neck Dissection. Stromal Cells / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tongue / pathology. Tongue / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16720452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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53. Greve J, Bas M, Schipper J, Hoffmann TK: [Primary cutane manifestation of a precursor-B-lymphoblastic lymphoma in the external ear]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2008 Oct;87(10):728-30
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  • Within the head and neck region they might occur in the tonsils, tongue base or the sinuses, the larynx and the pharynx.
  • This infection led to the development of a massive ear tumor.
  • Histologic examination resulted in the final diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, External. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18633860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. Alharbi FA, Lenarz T, Stoever T: A case of unilateral hypoglossus nerve palsy associated with chordoma in the region of clivus. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2009 Dec;266(12):2001-3
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  • A computed tomography (CT) scan of the skull base showed bone destruction at the anterior part of the foramen magnum and CT scan of the neck reveals asymmetrical area at the base of the tongue.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass at the skull base in the region of the clivus with bone destruction in the middle and right side of the clivus.
  • The tumor was biopsied through transnasal biopsy from the region of the clivus using a navigation system and microscopical surgical technique.
  • A carbon ion radiotherapy is an effective treatment for chordomas of the skull base with minimal side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondroma / complications. Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases / etiology. Skull Base Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Neurosurgery. 1995 May;36(5):887-96; discussion 896-7 [7791978.001]
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  • (PMID = 19590882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-4726
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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55. Ma S, Han Y, Wang W, Zhang M, Wang W, Zhou L: [Application of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in repair of defect caused by resection of tonsillar cancer]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 May;24(5):556-8
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  • Recurrent tonsil cancer invaded tongue base, soft palate, posterior wall of pharyngeal, parapharyngeal space, and palate.
  • Tumor size was from 4 cm x 2 cm to 8 cm x 5 cm.

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  • (PMID = 20540259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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56. Pabiszczak M, Wierzbicka M, Szyfter W: [Localisation and direction of spread in oral and oropharyngeal cancer in the material of Head and Neck Oncological Surgery Department, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2005;59(2):201-7
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  • The directions of tumor spread are determined by the anatomy of the affected organ.
  • The vessel, nerve anatomy and presence of structures, that may potentially constitute a barrier for spread out of the tumor are of crucial importance.
  • The examination was conducted on the base of retrospective analysis of ambulatory charts and the hospital files.
  • The primary localization included in the palatine tonsil (82 patients), trunk of the tongue (48 patients) and floor of the mouth (20 patients) were predominated.
  • The spread directions included: floor of the mouth (36) soft palate (35), base of tongue (33), hypopharynx (20) and trunk of tongue (16).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Poland. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16095088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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57. Hillyer S, Vicens JC, Levinson H, Bhayani R, Mesea L, Chaudhry R, Fayans E, Fogler R: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the tongue in a 17-month-old. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Oct;88(10):E4-9
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  • [Title] Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the tongue in a 17-month-old.
  • Alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare and often fatal tumor.
  • In children, ASPS rarely occurs in the oral cavity, and to the best of our knowledge, only 12 cases of ASPS of the tongue occurring during the first decade of life have been previously reported in the literature.
  • Our patient was a 17-month-old girl whose tumor was located at the base of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part / diagnosis. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Radionuclide Imaging. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tongue / pathology. Tongue / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19826991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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58. Knipe TA, Chandra RK, Bugg MF: Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: a rare variant with predilection for the head and neck. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jan;115(1):48-50
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  • METHODS: The authors have reported the case of a 66-year-old woman with a 35-year history of heavy cigarette smoking and daily alcohol consumption and a 2-month history of progressive dysphagia and dysarthria secondary to an enlarging tongue mass.
  • Direct laryngoscopy revealed a bulky, exophytic mass involving the base of tongue.
  • The diagnosis of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma was based on microscopic appearance and patterns of gene expression, including the expression of desmin and myogenin.
  • With the inclusion of the oropharyngeal tumor in the present report, three of the five confirmed cases have occurred in the head and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Sclerosis

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  • (PMID = 15630365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Lim YC, Koo BS, Lee JS, Lim JY, Choi EC: Distributions of cervical lymph node metastases in oropharyngeal carcinoma: therapeutic implications for the N0 neck. Laryngoscope; 2006 Jul;116(7):1148-52
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  • All patients had curative surgery as their initial treatment for the primary tumor and neck.
  • The incidence rate of level IV metastasis in patients with ipsilateral nodal metastasis was significantly higher in base of tongue cancer (86% [6 of 7]) compared with tonsillar cancer (34% [20 of 59]) (P=.013).
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that elective N0 neck treatment in patients with oropharyngeal SCC, especially base of tongue cancer, should include neck levels II, III, and IV instead of levels I, II, and III.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16826050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Zhang B, Li DZ, Tang PZ: [Free perforator flaps in head and neck reconstruction]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Sep;22(5):347-50
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  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of perforator flap reconstructions for head and neck tumor ablation defects since December of 2003 to May of 2005.
  • Recipient sites were subdivide into oral tongue (n=3), buccal mucosa (n=3), pharyngeal wall (n=3), base of tongue (n=2), skull base (n=1), scalp (n=1) and midface (n=1).

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  • (PMID = 17144449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zheng xing wai ke za zhi = Zhonghua zhengxing waike zazhi = Chinese journal of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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61. Vlajinac HD, Marinkovic JM, Sipetic SB, Andrejic DM, Adanja BJ, Stosic-Divjak SL: Case-control study of oropharyngeal cancer. Cancer Detect Prev; 2006;30(2):152-7
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  • BACKGROUND: In order to test some hypotheses of risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer (neoplasm of base of tongue, palate and tonsils) matched case-control study was conducted in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, during the period 1998-2000.

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  • (PMID = 16647226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-090X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer detection and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Detect. Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental; 0 / Dust
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62. Deleyiannis FW, Lee E, Gastman B, Nguyen D, Russavage J, Manders EK, Ferris RL, Myers EN, Johnson J: Prognosis as a determinant of free flap utilization for reconstruction of the lateral mandibular defect. Head Neck; 2006 Dec;28(12):1061-8
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  • RESULTS: Age >or=70 years (p = .03), moderate or severe comorbidity (p = .02), and involvement of the base of tongue by tumor (p = .04) were significantly associated with decreased utilization of a free flap (n = 36).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mandible / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Surgical Flaps


63. Hancock SB, Krempl GA, Canfield V, Bogardus C, Kojouri K, Kaneaster SK, Medina JE: Treatment of base of tongue cancer with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatinum induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy. Laryngoscope; 2008 Aug;118(8):1357-61
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  • [Title] Treatment of base of tongue cancer with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatinum induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the efficacy of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatinum induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of stage III and IV base of tongue cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of patients with base of tongue cancer enrolled in a single-institution prospective phase II trial, evaluating an organ-preservation approach in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer.
  • If the primary tumor exhibited a complete or partial response, patients were treated with radiation and weekly taxol and carboplatin for 7 weeks.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment regimen studied is remarkably effective in stage III and IV base of tongue cancer with 100% of patients completing the protocol alive to date.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18528311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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64. Fidan V, Sütbeyaz Y: Lingual cystic lymphangioma in an elderly patient. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2008 Jul-Aug;18(4):260-2
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  • A 67-year-old man presented with a multilobulated, soft lesion at the tip of the tongue, causing articulation problem.
  • Oral examination showed a multilobular mass with a large base, 15 x 15 x 10 mm in size.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed a multilocular cystic tumor.
  • After surgery, tongue movement and sensation were normal.
  • Histopathologic diagnosis was cystic lymphangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangioma, Cystic / diagnosis. Tongue / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19052498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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65. Kennedy TL, Riefkohl WL: Lingual thyroid carcinoma with nodal metastasis. Laryngoscope; 2007 Nov;117(11):1969-73
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  • Further workup revealed the patient's only thyroid tissue was located at the tongue base and was the site of the primary tumor.
  • Review of the computed tomography scan of the neck revealed a tongue base mass, absence of an othotopic thyroid gland and bilateral cervical lymphandenopathy.
  • Bilateral selective neck dissections with removal of the tongue base lesion confirmed the diagnosis of lingual thyroid carcinoma with multiple left cervical nodal metastases.
  • Surgical approaches to the tongue base need to be considered based on the size of the lingual primary tumor and the need to address lymph node metastases gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17828053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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66. Pino Rivero V, Pantoja Hernández CG, González Palomino A, Pardo Romero G, Trinidad Ramos G, Blasco Huelva A: [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of tongue. Report of a case and literature review]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2006;33(5):449-54
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  • [Title] [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of tongue. Report of a case and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma adenoide quístico de lengua. A propósito de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • We report the clinical case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma on the base of the tongue, a rare malignant tumor of slow-growing but aggressive with a propepnsity for perineural invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Laryngectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Tongue / pathology. Tongue / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17091857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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67. Seshadri M, Merzianu M, Tang H, Rigual NR, Sullivan M, Loree TR, Popat SR, Repasky EA, Hylander BL: Establishment and characterization of patient tumor-derived head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts. Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Dec;8(23):2275-83
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  • [Title] Establishment and characterization of patient tumor-derived head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts.
  • The overall purpose of this study was to establish human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) xenografts in mice by transplantation of surgical tumor tissue and to characterize the growth, histologic and vascular properties of these xenografts.
  • Histologic features of primary HNSCC specimens, initial and established xenografts were compared for tumors established from three different head and neck subsites, namely, oral cavity, larynx and base of tongue (one tumor per site).
  • Growth rates of xenografts were compared along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of tumor vascularity and correlative CD31-immunostaining.
  • Initial and established xenografts from all three sites demonstrated a squamous phenotype similar to the original patient tumor histology.
  • Established xenografts of oral cavity and larynx exhibited increased keratinization (H&E) compared to initial xenografts and the primary tumor.
  • No differences in tumor growth rates were observed between established xenografts from the different subsites.
  • Xenografts established from SCC of the larynx exhibited increased microvessel density and lumen area (CD31 staining) along with enhanced permeability to the MR contrast agent compared to oral cavity and base of tongue tumors.
  • Our results show that the combination of non-invasive imaging along with histologic evaluation of patient tumor xenografts offers a valuable platform for preclinical investigations in head and neck cancer.
  • However, it is important to recognize the influence of tumor-host interactions on the histologic phenotype of transplanted tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19829072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016056; None / None / / P30 CA016056-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016056-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA16056
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS212969; NLM/ PMC2906774
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68. Lüers JC, Isfort P, Bovenschulte H, Beutner D: [Unilateral tongue atrophy and articulation difficulties]. HNO; 2010 Jan;58(1):68-71
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  • [Title] [Unilateral tongue atrophy and articulation difficulties].
  • She reported that her tongue felt "heavy and inert".
  • Clinically, right-sided atrophy of the tongue and deflection of the tongue to the right were observed.
  • On CT, a bone-destroying process was seen in the area of the right lateral skull base, which reached as far as the internal carotid artery.
  • MRI demonstrated atrophy of the right tongue musculature with fatty degeneration, as well as an oval, smoothly edged lesion which showed marked contrast-medium uptake with a "salt and pepper" configuration in the region of the right jugular foramen.
  • The diagnosis was hypoglossal paresis due to ipsilateral jugular paraganglioma (Fisch classification C1).
  • Following embolization of the feeding vessels of the paraganglioma, the tumor was completely resected, including the hypoglossal nerve which ran through the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Paraganglioma / complications. Paraganglioma / surgery. Speech Disorders / etiology. Speech Disorders / prevention & control. Tongue Diseases / etiology. Tongue Diseases / prevention & control. Vascular Neoplasms / complications. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Atrophy / diagnosis. Atrophy / etiology. Atrophy / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19727629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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69. Elakkumanan LB, Chhabra A, Bose S, Sharma K: Granular cell myoblastoma of tongue: a rare cause of unanticipated difficult intubation. Middle East J Anaesthesiol; 2010 Feb;20(4):573-6
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  • [Title] Granular cell myoblastoma of tongue: a rare cause of unanticipated difficult intubation.
  • We report a case of granular cell myoblastoma of the tongue, as a cause of an unanticipated impossible intubation.
  • There was a mass arising from the base of the tongue because of which no recognizable epiglottis or glottic structure could be identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Intubation, Intratracheal / methods. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20394257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0544-0440
  • [Journal-full-title] Middle East journal of anaesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Middle East J Anaesthesiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lebanon
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70. Hirunpat S, Jongsatitpaiboon J, Angunsri N, Chowchuvech V: When should MRI be recommended for the accurate clinical staging of base of tongue carcinoma? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2007 Apr-Jun;8(2):310-4
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  • [Title] When should MRI be recommended for the accurate clinical staging of base of tongue carcinoma?
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: According to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) cancer staging criteria (6th edition), cross-sectional imaging for base of tongue carcinoma is recommended when the deep tissue extent of a primary tumor is in question.
  • The aim of this study was to establish which group of patients MRI might most benefit from accurate clinical staging of base of tongue carcinomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical stagings of 33 patients with pathologically proven squamous cell carcinomas of the base of tongue were performed by two otorhinolaryngologic surgeons.
  • RESULTS: The tumor stages were changed in 13 of 33 patients (39.4%, 95% CI: 23.9-57.87%) and the overall stage groupings were changed in 10 (30.3 %, 95%CI: 15.6-48.7%) after performing MRI.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI should be recommended in base of tongue carcinoma whenever clinical examination suggests overall stage groupings II, III or tumor stage T3.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17696753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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71. Urba SG, Moon J, Giri PG, Adelstein DJ, Hanna E, Yoo GH, Leblanc M, Ensley JF, Schuller DE: Organ preservation for advanced resectable cancer of the base of tongue and hypopharynx: a Southwest Oncology Group Trial. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jan 1;23(1):88-95
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  • [Title] Organ preservation for advanced resectable cancer of the base of tongue and hypopharynx: a Southwest Oncology Group Trial.
  • PURPOSE: The Southwest Oncology Group designed a phase II trial for patients with base of tongue or hypopharyngeal cancer to evaluate the complete histologic response rate at the primary site after induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy for responders.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine eligible patients were enrolled; 37 had base of tongue cancer, and 22 had hypopharynx cancer.
  • Seventy-five percent of patients did not require surgery at the primary tumor site.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with base of tongue or hypopharyngeal cancer treated with this regimen of induction chemotherapy followed by definitive chemoradiotherapy have a good rate of organ preservation without compromise of survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15625363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03096; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37981; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58416; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58686; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA74647
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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72. Pederson AW, Haraf DJ, Witt ME, Stenson KM, Vokes EE, Blair EA, Salama JK: Chemoradiotherapy for locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. Head Neck; 2010 Nov;32(11):1519-27
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  • [Title] Chemoradiotherapy for locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue.
  • BACKGROUND: Our aim was to report the outcomes of base of tongue cancers treated with chemoradiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Between 1990 and 2004, 127 patients with stage III or IV base of tongue cancer were treated with chemoradiotherapy on protocol.
  • The median dose to gross tumor was 72.5 Gy (range, 40-75.5 Gy).
  • CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy results in promising locoregional control for base of tongue cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / mortality. Tongue Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20187015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 7673326042 / irinotecan; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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73. Been MJ, Watkins J, Manz RM, Gentry LR, Leverson GE, Harari PM, Hartig GK: Tumor volume as a prognostic factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with primary radiotherapy. Laryngoscope; 2008 Aug;118(8):1377-82
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  • [Title] Tumor volume as a prognostic factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with primary radiotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Tumor volume has been demonstrated to play a prognostic role in many head and neck cancers.
  • The purpose of this study was to conduct an institutional review analyzing the correlation between tumor volume and locoregional control of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer treated with primary radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Seventy-nine patients from 1991 to 2005 with primary T1 to T4 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (base of tongue, n = 31; soft palate, n = 1; tonsils, n = 47) were treated with primary radiotherapy.
  • Tumor volumes were measured from pretreatment computerized tomography scans by two observers.
  • Three-dimensional tumor volumes were calculated using a computer digitizer for each computed tomography slice showing the primary lesion.
  • Survival analysis, using the methods of Kaplan and Meier, was performed to assess whether tumor volume, Tumor, Node, Metastasis classification, tumor stage, or location were associated with locoregional failure.
  • RESULTS: Tumor volume did not significantly correlate with locoregional failure (observer 1, P = .6244; observer 2, P = .5612).
  • Nodal status, tumor stage, and location did not significantly correlate with locoregional failure rate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor volume does not appear to play a significant role in predicting locoregional recurrence for patients with primary squamous cell cancer of the oropharynx treated with primary radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18418275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Bell D, Zhao YJ, Rao PH, Weber RS, El-Naggar AK: Translocation t(6;14) as the sole chromosomal abnormality in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of tongue. Head Neck Pathol; 2007 Dec;1(2):165-8
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  • [Title] Translocation t(6;14) as the sole chromosomal abnormality in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of tongue.
  • We present an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of tongue in a 48-year-old male with a restricted chromosomal alteration by cytogenetic and spectral karyotypic analysis (SKY).
  • This finding supports a critical role for this event in the development of this tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20614269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807514
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenoid cystic carcinoma / Comparative genomic hybridizations / Cytogenetic / Spectral karyotyping / Translocations
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75. Miller FR, Hussey D, Beeram M, Eng T, McGuff HS, Otto RA: Positron emission tomography in the management of unknown primary head and neck carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Jul;131(7):626-9
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  • PATIENTS: Twenty-six patients with an open excisional biopsy or a fine-needle aspiration biopsy finding that confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the cervical lymph nodes and no visible primary tumor (as determined by results of a comprehensive physical examination and computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging) underwent PET.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of PET to detect an occult primary tumor.
  • Four occult primary tumors (2 at the base of the tongue and 2 in the tonsil) were detected during routine panendoscopy with negative PET findings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Positron emission tomography can be a valuable tool to identify a subset of patients with an occult primary tumor in the head and neck region.
  • Early identification of the primary tumor may allow for more accurate tumor staging and targeted radiotherapy to minimize adverse effects and complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tongue Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16027287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Gupta M, Chaudhary N: Pleomorphic adenoma of the base tongue. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Dec;59(4):396-8
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic adenoma of the base tongue.
  • Pleomorphic adenoma is the benign tumor of salivary glands.
  • This tumor is more common in major salivary glands.
  • A rare case of pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary glands of base tongue is reported here.

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  • (PMID = 23120486.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452247
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Salivary gland neoplasms / Tongue
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77. Ukpo OC, Pritchett CV, Lewis JE, Weaver AL, Smith DI, Moore EJ: Human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas: primary tumor burden and survival in surgical patients. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2009 May;118(5):368-73
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas: primary tumor burden and survival in surgical patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the primary tumor burden in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is lower in tumors positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) or in tumors with a smoking- or alcohol-related cause.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients at our institution who had squamous cell carcinoma of the palatine tonsils, base of tongue, soft palate, or pharynx from 1995 through 2006.
  • Primary tumor size was not significantly different between HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors (median, 2.5 versus 2.0 cm; p = 0.43).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary tumor burden was not associated with HPV status.
  • [MeSH-major] Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Smoking / epidemiology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / surgery. Tonsillar Neoplasms / virology. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 19548387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. El-Mofty SK: Human papillomavirus (HPV) related carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. Head Neck Pathol; 2007 Dec;1(2):181-5
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  • Epidemiologic, clinical, morphologic and molecular evidence show that high risk HPV, particularly type 16, is a prerequisite for some carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), particularly tonsil and base of tongue.
  • They usually present as a small or occult primary tumor with advanced neck disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Palatine Tonsil / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Virus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / immunology. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Viral Vaccines

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  • (PMID = 20614273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Congresses
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807527
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79. Attner P, Du J, Näsman A, Hammarstedt L, Ramqvist T, Lindholm J, Marklund L, Dalianis T, Munck-Wikland E: The role of human papillomavirus in the increased incidence of base of tongue cancer. Int J Cancer; 2010 Jun 15;126(12):2879-84
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  • [Title] The role of human papillomavirus in the increased incidence of base of tongue cancer.
  • Following our previous research on tonsillar cancer, we assessed the increase in the incidence of base of tongue cancer and the prevalence of HPV in this disease.
  • Between 1998 and 2007, 109 patients were diagnosed for base of tongue cancer in Stockholm county.
  • Ninety-five paraffin-embedded diagnostic tumor biopsies from patients were obtained and tested for HPV, both by general HPV PCR and HPV-16/HPV-33 type-specific PCR.
  • An overall increase in the incidence of base of tongue cancer from 0.15/100,000 person-years during 1970-1974 to 0.47/100,000 person-years during 2005-2007 was found in Sweden.
  • The prevalence of HPV in base of tongue cancer in Stockholm county increased from 58% during 1998-2001 to 84% during 2004-2007 (p < 0.05).
  • The incidence of base of tongue cancer, as well as the proportion of HPV-positive tumors, has increased in Sweden during the study period, suggesting that HPV may contribute to this increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Tongue Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19856308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16
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80. Sugi M, Yanishi M, Shimada O, Kawakita S, Murota T, Shikata N: [Neuroendocrine differentiation and metastasized to brain stem, intraorbit and base of tongue in prostate cancer during hormonal treatment: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 May;54(5):373-6
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine differentiation and metastasized to brain stem, intraorbit and base of tongue in prostate cancer during hormonal treatment: a case report].
  • Prostatic neuroendocrine (NE) carcinoma is a rare disease and the NE differentiation in prostate cancer is characterized by poor prognosis, rapidly progressing tumor and an androgen-independent state, for which there is currently no successful therapy.
  • Herein, we report a case of NE differentiatiated prostatic cancer, which metastasized to the base of tongue, intraorbit and brain stem.
  • This is the first Japanese report of prostate cancer metastasis to the brain stem and base of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


81. Jia SS, Xiang C, Liu WS, He HJ: [Supraglottic horizontal partial laryngectomies in 163 cases]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;41(10):763-6
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  • The surgical techniques were improved: The hyoid was removed conventionally; The outer perichondrium of thyroid cartilage was turned into the laryngeal cavity and sutured with the mucosa of laryngeal ventricle and the base of tongue was sutured to the reserved thyroid cartilage.

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  • (PMID = 17190425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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82. Pintos J, Black MJ, Sadeghi N, Ghadirian P, Zeitouni AG, Viscidi RP, Herrero R, Coutlée F, Franco EL: Human papillomavirus infection and oral cancer: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Oral Oncol; 2008 Mar;44(3):242-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Among tonsil-related cancers (palatine tonsil and base of tongue) viral DNA was detected in 43% of cases (nine out of 21).
  • [MeSH-major] Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 17467327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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83. Walid MS: Lymphoma of the base of the tongue: an incidental finding on the preoperative workup for a spine surgery. J Clin Med Res; 2009 Aug;1(3):184-5
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  • [Title] Lymphoma of the base of the tongue: an incidental finding on the preoperative workup for a spine surgery.
  • Lymphoma of the tongue is very rare and accounts for 1% of all malignant tumors of the oral cavity.
  • During the preoperative workup for cervical spine surgery a tumor at the base of the tongue was discovered which was confirmed by pathology to be a lymphoma.
  • KEYWORDS: Lymphoma; Tongue; Spine surgery; Preoperative workup.

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  • (PMID = 22493655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-3003
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical medicine research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3318884
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84. Smith JE, Suh JD, Erman A, Nabili V, Chhetri DK, Blackwell KE: Risk factors predicting aspiration after free flap reconstruction of oral cavity and oropharyngeal defects. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;134(11):1205-8
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  • Aspiration risk factors analyzed included age; sex; tumor T and N stage; comorbidity level (American Society of Anesthesiologists classification); preoperative swallowing function; history of tobacco use; surgical approach used for tumor resection; defect classification; type of free flap; history of radiation therapy, surgery, and/or chemotherapy; and surgical defect classification.
  • RESULTS: The following risk factors were significant predictors of postoperative aspiration on univariate analysis: prior radiation therapy (P < .001), tongue base resection classification (P = .001), tumor N stage (P < .001), hypoglossal nerve sacrifice (P = .004), and presence of a mandibular osteotomy (P = .01).
  • On multivariate analysis, only a history of radiation therapy (P = .002) and tongue base resection (P = .008) remained statistically significant predictors of aspiration.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with resection of more than half of the tongue base and patients with a history of radiation therapy are at high risk of having early postoperative aspiration after free flap reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19015452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Firat Y, Aygenç E, Firat AK, Oto A, Selçuk A, Firat MM, Ozdem C: Computed tomography virtual laryngoscopy: comparison between radiological and otolaryngological evaluations for laryngeal carcinoma. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2006;16(3):97-104
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  • RESULTS: Lesions localized in the base of the tongue, pyriform sinus, aryepiglottic folds, and arytenoids were well visualized by both RTV and CTVL.
  • CONCLUSION: Virtual laryngoscopy is a noninvasive and reliable technique that provides visualization of endolaryngeal surfaces and tumor extension.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16763426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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86. Rohde S, Turowski B, Berkefeld J, Kovács AF: [Clinical and histopathological results after local chemoembolization of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma--comparison with intraarterial chemoperfusion]. Rofo; 2006 Oct;178(10):979-86
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  • The decision for iaCE or iaCP was made individually for each patient based on tumor localization and expected vascular supply.
  • Four weeks after local chemotherapy, the treatment response was evaluated according (1) to WHO criteria and (2) to histopathological TNM-grading after tumor resection.
  • A stable disease was found in 24 % and 48 %, respectively, and tumor progression was found in 3 % for both modalities.
  • Local side effects were significantly more frequent after iaCE than after iaCP (p < 0.001), especially in obese patients with extended carcinoma of the oral floor or the tongue base.
  • CONCLUSION: Compared to iaCP, clinical and histopathological remission rates are significantly higher after iaCE, especially in early stages of local tumor growth.
  • However, in view of the higher risk of regional complications, indication for iaCE should be considered cautiously and its application should be limited to small tumors of the oral floor and the oral tongue.

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  • [ErratumIn] Rofo. 2006 Dec;178(12):1266. Kovács, A [corrected to Kovács, A F]
  • (PMID = 17021977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9029
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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87. Teguh DN, Levendag PC, Noever I, Voet P, van der Est H, van Rooij P, Dumans AG, de Boer MF, van der Huls MP, Sterk W, Schmitz PI: Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy for reducing radiotherapy side effects: early results of a randomized trial in oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Nov 1;75(3):711-6
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  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2006, 19 patients with tumor originating from the tonsillar fossa and/or soft palate (15), base of tongue (1), and nasopharynx (3) were randomized to receive HBOT or not.

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  • [CommentIn] Diving Hyperb Med. 2016 Jun;46(2):124 [27390806.001]
  • (PMID = 19386439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Donta TS, Smoker WR: Head and neck cancer: carcinoma of unknown primary. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2007 Aug;18(4):281-92
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  • Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 70% to 90% of these lesions, most commonly from sites in the upper aerodigestive tract, including tonsils, base of tongue, nasopharynx, and piriform sinus.
  • The location of a metastatic lymph node may give an indication of the primary tumor site, and knowledge of lymph node drainage patterns is important for anyone evaluating these patients.
  • Magnetic resonance and CT are both used for evaluation for extracapsular nodal disease, perineural tumor spread, osseous skull base or perivertebral space involvement, and vascular invasion, findings that seriously impact treatment and prognosis.
  • Positron emission tomography/CT also plays a significant role in detecting primary tumor sites and identifying distant metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17893593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-3459
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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89. Serdar A, Basak D, Sercan G, Ali V: Solitary amyloid tumor of the tongue base. Int J Otolaryngol; 2009;2009:515068
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  • [Title] Solitary amyloid tumor of the tongue base.
  • The purpose of this article is to present a rare case of localized, solitary amyloid tumor of tongue base and emphasize some of the characteristic features of challenging clinical and histopathologic diagnosis.
  • In this paper, we focused on the clinical and pathological specifications of this rare tumor, so any unnecessary examinations or measures may be spared.
  • Negative staining of amyloid material with AAC and osseous metaplasia noted in the histopathologic examination may not be thought as definite criteria for localized amyloidosis, but a supporter of localized, solitary amyloid tumor diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] Oral Oncol. 2006 Apr;42(4):421-9 [16488655.001]
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  • (PMID = 20107570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-921X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2809435
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90. Suzuki H, Matsuura K, Hiraki N, Kadokawa Y, Hashida K, Udaka T, Nagatani G: Digastric muscle sew-up procedure for the repair of the floor of the mouth following pull-through operation for oral cancers. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2008 Oct;117(10):745-8
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  • METHODS: Eleven patients with advanced oral cancers (of the tongue in 8 cases and of the floor of the mouth in 3 cases) were retrospectively analyzed.
  • One-third glossectomy and hemiglossectomy were performed in 4 patients each; the other 3 patients underwent tumor resection on the floor of the mouth.
  • After neck dissection and tumor resection via the pull-through approach, the floor of the mouth was repaired simply by sewing the digastric muscle to the mandibular base.
  • The surfaces of the transected musculature of the tongue and the floor of the mouth were left uncovered and exposed to the oral cavity.

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  • (PMID = 18998502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Liu W, Gnepp DR, de Vries E, Bibawy H, Solomon M, Gloster ES: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in a background of sialadenoma papilliferum: a case report. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Mar;3(1):59-62
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  • Sialadenoma papilliferum is a rare tumor, primarily of minor salivary gland origin, first described by Abrams and Finck (Cancer 24:1057-63, 1969).
  • The tumor is considered benign although rare recurrent cases have been reported.
  • We report a high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in a background of sialadenoma papilliferum, at the base of the tongue, an unusual location for minor salivary gland neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20596992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807533
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mucoepidermoid carcinoma / Salivary gland / Sialadenoma papilliferum
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92. Szudek J, Taylor SM: Systematic review of the platysma myocutaneous flap for head and neck reconstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Jul;133(7):655-61
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  • Logistic regression models were used to quantify the associations between preoperative factors (age, sex, T stage, prior radiation therapy, and recipient site) and complications (skin loss or necrosis, fistula, dehiscence, hematoma, and infection) at different recipient sites (floor of mouth, alveolar ridge, pharyngeal wall, buccal mucosa, tongue or tongue base, and tonsil).
  • Postoperative complications were not associated with age or sex but were associated with recipient site and tumor stage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative complications were not associated with age, sex, or preoperative radiation therapy, but they were associated with recipient site and tumor stage.

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  • (PMID = 17638777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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93. Konsulov SS: Carcinoma of the tongue base. Folia Med (Plovdiv); 2005;47(3-4):24-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of the tongue base.
  • AIM: This study reports the results of surgical treatment of patients with carcinoma of the base of tongue-supraglottic complex.
  • The base of the tongue, the epiglottic valleculae, preepiglottic space and supraglottic part of the larynx develop from one central region.
  • The proper term to refer to these structures is tongue base-supraglottic complex.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the tongue base present usually in advanced stage of the disease.
  • All patients underwent supraglottic laryngectomy through suprahyoid pharyngectomy and extended resection of the tongue base that allowed sufficient visualization of the tumor.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with carcinoma of the tongue base-supraglottic complex were treated in the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases of the Medical University Plovdiv between 2001 and 2004.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The supraglottic laryngectomy with suprahyoid pharyngectomy provides good exposure of the tumor in the area of the tongue base-supraglottic complex allowing thorough resection of the tumor and avoiding the functional and cosmetic defects characteristic of the combined method (mandibulotomy).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16761390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0204-8043
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Med (Plovdiv)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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94. Jiang L, Liu X, Chen Z, Jin Y, Heidbreder CE, Kolokythas A, Wang A, Dai Y, Zhou X: MicroRNA-7 targets IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells. Biochem J; 2010 Nov 15;432(1):199-205
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  • [Title] MicroRNA-7 targets IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells.
  • miR-7 (microRNA-7) has been characterized as a tumour suppressor in several human cancers.
  • However, the mechanism(s) by which miR-7 suppresses tumorigenesis in TSCC (tongue squamous cell carcinoma) is unknown.

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  • (PMID = 20819078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-8728
  • [Journal-full-title] The Biochemical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA135992-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03CA135992; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA139596-03; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22DE014847; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA139596; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA139596; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA135992; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014847-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA139596-03; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014847
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / MIRN7 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS302690; NLM/ PMC3130335
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95. Naik VR, Wan Faiziah WA, Musa MY: Choristoma of the base of the tongue. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jan-Mar;52(1):86-7
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  • [Title] Choristoma of the base of the tongue.
  • Choristoma is a benign tumor where new bone formation occurs.
  • These choristomas can rarely occur in soft tissues especially in the head, eye, tongue, or extremities.
  • Only 61 cases of choristomas of the tongue have been reported in literature.
  • Here we report a case of choristoma in the base of the tongue in a 25-year-old Malay female.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / pathology. Tongue / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):373 [20551565.001]
  • (PMID = 19136792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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96. Kusafuka K, Asano R, Kamijo T, Iida Y, Onitsuka T, Kameya T, Nakajima T: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue base: case report of an unusual location with immunohistochemical analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Mar;38(3):296-9
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue base: case report of an unusual location with immunohistochemical analysis.
  • A case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the tongue base is described.
  • It was characterized by solid tumor nests with central necrosis and rosette formation resembling basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical examination revealed that this tumor had neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • It was diagnosed as LCNEC of the tongue base.
  • Basal cells in the normal squamous epithelium around the tumor indicated positivity for neural cell adhesion molecule and N-cadherin.
  • These cells were considered neuroendocrine-related cells in the lingual squamous epithelium, which are related to the tumorigenesis of mucosal LCNEC in the tongue base.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19167190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm
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97. Enoz M, Suoglu Y, Ilhan R: Lingual schwannoma. J Cancer Res Ther; 2006 Apr-Jun;2(2):76-8
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  • Schwannomas or neurilemmomas are benign, slow growing, usually solitary and encapsulated tumor, originating from Schwann cells of the nerve sheath.
  • Intraoral schwannoma accounts for 1% of head and neck region and are commonly seen at the base region of tongue.
  • Most of the few such reports in the literature, have described schwannomas that occurred in the tongue.
  • In this article, we report a rare case of lingual schwannoma involving the anterior of tongue, in a young individual, in whom the lesion was completely excised via an intra oral approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurilemmoma / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17998681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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98. Tixier H, Fraisse J, Bruchon Y, Cuisenier J: [Metastatic tumor implantation from a primary cancer of the base of the tongue at the site of placement of a central venous portacath]. J Chir (Paris); 2009 Oct;146(5):503-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Metastatic tumor implantation from a primary cancer of the base of the tongue at the site of placement of a central venous portacath].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase d'une tumeur de la base de langue sur un système d'accès veineux central totalement implantable.
  • We report a case of metastatic implantation at a port site from a primary cancer of the base of the tongue.
  • Insertion of portacaths must be performed using full sterile precautions to avoid spread of tumor cells; in no case should the port site incisions be in contact with the surgical field in which the tumor resection was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Catheterization, Central Venous / adverse effects. Infusion Pumps, Implantable / adverse effects. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms. Tongue Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19833338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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99. El Kohen A, Essakalli L, Kzadri M, Sefiani S, Seffar Andaloussi Z: [Pleomorphic adenoma of the tongue base]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2007 Jun;108(3):215-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pleomorphic adenoma of the tongue base].
  • [Transliterated title] Adénome pléomorphe de la base de langue.
  • INTRODUCTION: Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common lesion of minor salivary glands but is exceptional in the tongue base.
  • REPORT CASE: We report the case of a 70-year-old woman with pleomorphic adenoma of the tongue base.
  • Physical examination and computed tomography revealed a cystic tumour located in the right side of tongue base.
  • The tumor was removed by transoral resection.
  • DISCUSSION: We will discuss the diagnostic and therapeutically modalities of pleomorphic adenoma of the tongue base with a review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17459439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1768
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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100. Henstrom DK, Moore EJ, Olsen KD, Kasperbauer JL, McGree ME: Transoral resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Dec;135(12):1231-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transoral resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the oncologic and functional outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue who underwent transoral tumor resection and neck dissection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy.
  • PATIENTS: All patients undergoing transoral resection of squamous cell carcinoma on the base of the tongue as part of their primary treatment from January 1, 1996, through January 31, 2005.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transoral resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue with postoperative adjuvant therapy provided excellent local and regional control and minimized morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Enteral Nutrition. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20026821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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