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1. Hu YH, Li J: [Clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Jan;40(1):54-7
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  • [Title] [Clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinicopathologic features of clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland.
  • RESULTS: Seven tumors were from palate, one was from base of tongue, one in retromolar region, and one in floor of mouth.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CCC is a distinctive low grade malignant salivary gland neoplasm, arising mainly in the minor salivary glands, and it may originate from intercalated-duct reserve cells.

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  • (PMID = 15774154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-0098
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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2. Lam L, Logan RM, Luke C, Rees GL: Retrospective study of survival and treatment pattern in a cohort of patients with oral and oropharyngeal tongue cancers from 1987 to 2004. Oral Oncol; 2007 Feb;43(2):150-8
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  • [Title] Retrospective study of survival and treatment pattern in a cohort of patients with oral and oropharyngeal tongue cancers from 1987 to 2004.
  • This is a retrospective study of patients with oral and oropharyngeal tongue cancers who presented to the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) from 1987 to 2004.
  • All cases of tongue cancers, including untreated and palliative cases, were identified through the Royal Adelaide Hospital Cancer Registry and were included in statistical analysis.
  • A total of 212 cases of tongue cancer were identified.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type.
  • Almost 30% of recorded cases were oropharyngeal or base of tongue cancers.
  • Nearly half of the patients had advanced stage (III and IV) disease at presentation, which was significantly associated with rural area of residence, base of tongue sub-site and early diagnostic period.
  • Palliative treatment was more likely to be given to patient with oropharyngeal tongue cancers or advance stage disease.
  • Poorer survival was significantly associated with age 45 years or older, oropharyngeal tongue cancers and advanced stage disease.
  • Tongue cancer is an important health issue associated with poor survival.
  • Early detection and diagnosis is important in order to improve survival rate for this malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care / utilization. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16807069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Seikaly H, Rieger J, O'Connell D, Ansari K, Alqahtani K, Harris J: Beavertail modification of the radial forearm free flap in base of tongue reconstruction: technique and functional outcomes. Head Neck; 2009 Feb;31(2):213-9
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  • [Title] Beavertail modification of the radial forearm free flap in base of tongue reconstruction: technique and functional outcomes.
  • This task is especially difficult in cancer of the base of tongue.
  • The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the beavertail modification of the radial forearm-free flap in base of tongue reconstruction.
  • METHODS: Thirty-one consecutive patients treated for base of tongue cancer with primary surgery were followed prospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The beavertail modification of the radial forearm arm flap seems to provide the reconstructive elements that allow patients with large base of tongue extirpations to develop functional swallowing and speech production postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19073000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Kuffner HA, McCook BM, Swaminatha R, Myers EN, Hunt JL: Controversial ectopic thyroid: a case report of thyroid tissue in the axilla and benign total thyroidectomy. Thyroid; 2005 Sep;15(9):1095-7
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  • The differential diagnosis included benign ectopic thyroid versus metastatic well-differentiated follicular-derived thyroid carcinoma.
  • Because of the possibility of carcinoma, the patient underwent a diagnostic total thyroidectomy.
  • The most frequent locations are along the midline from the base of the tongue to the mediastinum.

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  • (PMID = 16187921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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5. El-Mofty SK, Patil S: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma: characterization of a distinct phenotype. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2006 Mar;101(3):339-45
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma: characterization of a distinct phenotype.
  • We have recently shown that HPV-positive tonsillar carcinoma in young patients exhibits nonkeratinizing basaloid morphology and a characteristic immunophenotype.
  • A total of 235 carcinomas were reviewed; 141 of the tonsils and 94 in the base of tongue.
  • Ninety (36%) of the tonsillar and 30 (32%) of the base of tongue carcinomas were nonkeratinizing (NKCa) with basal cell features; the rest were classical keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (KSCC).
  • It is concluded that NKCa of the tonsils and base of tongue is a distinct subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with high prevalence of HPV DNA and a characteristic immunophenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16504868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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6. Sato H, Suzuki Y, Fukasawa M, Yasuda M, Osamura RY: De novo multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema as the presenting symptom. Endocr J; 2006 Aug;53(4):523-9
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  • [Title] De novo multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema as the presenting symptom.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2B is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and neuroma.
  • Early signs of MEN 2B are usually neuroma, gastrointestinal problems, and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • No marfanoid habitus was evident, but thickened lips and tongue neuroma were present.
  • Therefore, the patient was diagnosed as having de novo MEN 2B.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / diagnosis. Pulmonary Edema / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Base Sequence. Humans. Male. Molecular Sequence Data


7. Jiang L, Liu X, Kolokythas A, Yu J, Wang A, Heidbreder CE, Shi F, Zhou X: Downregulation of the Rho GTPase signaling pathway is involved in the microRNA-138-mediated inhibition of cell migration and invasion in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2010 Aug 1;127(3):505-12
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  • [Title] Downregulation of the Rho GTPase signaling pathway is involved in the microRNA-138-mediated inhibition of cell migration and invasion in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor metastasis is the dominant cause of death in cancer patients, including patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC).

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  • (PMID = 20232393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA135992-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03CA135992; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE014847-05S1; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22DE014847; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA139596; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA139596; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA135992; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014847-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA135992-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA135992-01A1; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014847; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014847-05S1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RHOC protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / ROCK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / rho-Associated Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS203801; NLM/ PMC2885137
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8. Aghaghazvini L, Mazaher H, Sharifian H, Aghaghazvini S, Assadi M: Invasive thyroglossal duct cyst papillary carcinoma: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:9308
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  • [Title] Invasive thyroglossal duct cyst papillary carcinoma: a case report.
  • This extended from the base of the tongue,(completely separated from its muscles, to the inferior aspect of the thyroid gland and showed the destruction of the hyoid bone and the thyroid cartilage.
  • The diagnosis of a thyroglossal duct cyst with malignant transformation was maintained.
  • A fine needle aspiration revealed papillary carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20062737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803831
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9. Cianchetti M, Mancuso AA, Amdur RJ, Werning JW, Kirwan J, Morris CG, Mendenhall WM: Diagnostic evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from an unknown head and neck primary site. Laryngoscope; 2009 Dec;119(12):2348-54
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  • [Title] Diagnostic evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes from an unknown head and neck primary site.
  • The most common primary sites were in the tonsillar fossa (59 patients; 44.7%) and the base of tongue (58 patients; 43.9%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Positron-Emission Tomography. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tonsillectomy


10. Tagawa T, Tomita T, Yamaguchi H, Ozawa H, Sakamoto K, Ogawa K, Fujii M: [Clinical study of 28 cases of cervical lymph node metastasis from an unknown primary carcinoma]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2007 Jul;110(7):506-12
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  • [Title] [Clinical study of 28 cases of cervical lymph node metastasis from an unknown primary carcinoma].
  • From 1989 to 2005, 28 patients--20 men and 8 women--with cervical lymph node metastasis from an unknown primary carcinoma were treated and studied retrospectively.
  • In histological diagnosis, open biopsy was conducted in 11 patients and non-open biopsy (FNA or frozen section diagnosis during surgery) in 17.
  • Tonsillectomy for diagnosis was not done.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of cervical lymph node was as follows: squamous cell carcinoma in 21, adenocarcinoma in 3, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 2, and others in 2.
  • Primary tumor sites were as follows: tonsils in 3 and upper gingiva, base of tongue, lung, and nasopharynx in 1 each.
  • We should pay particular attention to the tonsils for detecting primary tumors in patients with cervical metastasis from an unknown primary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17695298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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11. Li XH, Sun JL, Zhang P, Hu J, Zhang CP, Ji T: [Nanomanipulation of sections of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma by atomic force microscopy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Feb 28;86(8):520-5
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  • [Title] [Nanomanipulation of sections of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma by atomic force microscopy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the appropriate nanomanipulation of slides of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma tissue and cultured cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and develop methods to improve the resolution and contrast of AFM images.
  • METHODS: Human tongue squamous carcinoma cells of the line Tca8113 were cultured.
  • Samples of human tongue squamous carcinoma were collected from 15 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: A series of modified techniques of preparing and treating AFM samples, such as adhering the sections onto mica slide, dissolving of epoxy resin by hydrogen dioxide and removal of paraffin by dimethylbenzene, were developed, thus realizing high resolving power AFM imaging, especially for nuclear membrane, and nucleolus, and providing a base of AFM location, dissection, isolation and obtainment at nanometer scale.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Microscopy, Atomic Force / methods. Nanotechnology / methods. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16681879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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12. Grant DG, Salassa JR, Hinni ML, Pearson BW, Perry WC: Carcinoma of the tongue base treated by transoral laser microsurgery, part two: Persistent, recurrent and second primary tumors. Laryngoscope; 2006 Dec;116(12):2156-61
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of the tongue base treated by transoral laser microsurgery, part two: Persistent, recurrent and second primary tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report the oncologic and functional outcomes of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) in the treatment of persistent, recurrent, and second primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base.
  • METHODS: Twenty-five patients with persistent, recurrent, or second primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base were treated with TLM between 1997 and 2005.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transoral laser surgery is a rational and effective treatment in appropriately selected patients with persistent, recurrent, or second primary tongue base cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Laser Therapy. Microsurgery / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17146389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Ekberg T, Nestor M, Engström M, Nordgren H, Wester K, Carlsson J, Anniko M: Expression of EGFR, HER2, HER3, and HER4 in metastatic squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and base of tongue. Int J Oncol; 2005 May;26(5):1177-85
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  • [Title] Expression of EGFR, HER2, HER3, and HER4 in metastatic squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and base of tongue.
  • HER2, HER3, and HER4 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 19 cases of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and base of tongue.
  • In order to further investigate the distribution of HER3, two HER3 expressing cell lines originating from tongue cancer were analysed in vitro, using radiolabelled anti-HER3 antibodies directed to the extracellular domains of the receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-3 / biosynthesis. Tongue Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15809707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-3; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
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14. Hong Y, Yang L, Li C, Xia H, Rhodus NL, Cheng B: Frequent mutation of p16(CDKN2A) exon 1 during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide. Mol Carcinog; 2007 Feb;46(2):85-90
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  • [Title] Frequent mutation of p16(CDKN2A) exon 1 during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide.
  • In this study we explored the mutation types of p16(CDKN2A) exon 1 and the corresponding frequencies in experimental rat tongue carcinogenesis.
  • Two samples of normal, three samples of moderate/severe dysplasia and four samples of invasive squamous cell carcinoma lesions were selected following strict histopathological examination in double-blind manner.
  • These preliminary results suggested that mutation of p16(CDKN2A) exon 1 might be an early molecular event of rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4NQO and G was the mutation hotspot.
  • [MeSH-major] 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide / toxicity. Carcinogens / toxicity. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Exons. Genes, p16. Mutation. Tongue Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. DNA. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17091472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-1987
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 56-57-5 / 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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15. Kutter J, Ozsahin M, Monnier P, Stupp R: Combined modality treatment with full-dose chemotherapy and concomitant boost radiotherapy for advanced head and neck carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Jan;262(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Combined modality treatment with full-dose chemotherapy and concomitant boost radiotherapy for advanced head and neck carcinoma.
  • Twenty-three patients (median age: 54 years, range: 35-70) with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) were included.
  • The primary tumor involved the hypopharynx (n=7), base of the tongue (n=10), nasopharynx (n=2) or upper esophagus (n=1) or its location was unknown (n=3).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amifostine / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15004704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] M487QF2F4V / Amifostine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Barker EV, Cervigne NK, Reis PP, Goswami RS, Xu W, Weinreb I, Irish JC, Kamel-Reid S: microRNA evaluation of unknown primary lesions in the head and neck. Mol Cancer; 2009 Dec 23;8:127
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  • Unknown primary malignancy in the head and neck is not an infrequent diagnosis for patients with metastatic cervical lymph nodes.
  • We used quantitative real-time PCR to identify miRNA expression profiles of squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, base of tongue and post-nasal space, as well as their corresponding metastatic lymph nodes, from 6 patients.

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  • (PMID = 20028561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / STP-53912
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2806863
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17. Kásler M, Fodor J, Oberna F, Major T, Polgár C, Takácsi-Nagy Z: Salvage surgery for locoregional failure after definitive radiotherapy for base of tongue cancer. In Vivo; 2008 Nov-Dec;22(6):803-6
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  • [Title] Salvage surgery for locoregional failure after definitive radiotherapy for base of tongue cancer.
  • In this study, the results of definitive radiotherapy (RT) and salvage surgery treatment of base of tongue cancer were evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Salvage Therapy / methods. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / classification. Survival Analysis. Survivors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19181010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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18. Adelson RT, Ducic Y: Metastatic head and neck carcinoma to a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site. Head Neck; 2005 Apr;27(4):339-43
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  • [Title] Metastatic head and neck carcinoma to a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site.
  • In the case at our institution, a 63-year-old man was referred to our institution with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the right base of tongue; he also had a 1.5-cm left apical lung nodule.
  • Six months after the original tube placement, he had an ulcerated mass develop at the PEG site; biopsy of the mass revealed squamous cell carcinoma histologically identical to the base of tongue tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PEG site metastases are iatrogenic complications of PEG tube placement in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • The use of laparoscopic, open, or the "push" technique of PEG tube placement in patients with head and neck cancer may prevent direct implantation of malignant cells into an enteral access site.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Enteral Nutrition. Gastroscopy. Gastrostomy. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Rectus Abdominis / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15712297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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19. O'Connell DA, Rieger J, Harris JR, Dziegielewski P, Zalmanowitz J, Sytsanko A, Li S, Wolfaardt J, Hart RD, Seikaly H: Swallowing function in patients with base of tongue cancers treated with primary surgery and reconstructed with a modified radial forearm free flap. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Aug;134(8):857-64
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  • [Title] Swallowing function in patients with base of tongue cancers treated with primary surgery and reconstructed with a modified radial forearm free flap.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report swallowing outcomes and biomechanical properties of the base of the tongue (BOT) and the posterior pharyngeal wall (PPW) in patients who undergo surgical reconstruction with the beavertail modification of radial forearm free flap after primary resection of BOT cancer.
  • PATIENTS: Patients diagnosed as having primary carcinoma of the BOT were treated with primary surgical resection and reconstruction followed by radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Deglutition Disorders / physiopathology. Glossectomy. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Surgical Flaps. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomechanical Phenomena. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pharynx / physiopathology. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Respiratory Aspiration / physiopathology. Tongue / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18711061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Liu B, Pan Z, Ji W, Wang J: [Study of reserving unilateral arytenoid cartilage to improve voice quality in supracricoid partial laryngectomy with anastomosis of cricoid cartilage, base of tongue and epiglottis]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Nov;19(21):961-3
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  • [Title] [Study of reserving unilateral arytenoid cartilage to improve voice quality in supracricoid partial laryngectomy with anastomosis of cricoid cartilage, base of tongue and epiglottis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the surgical technique of reserving unilateral arytenoid cartilage and the effects on improving voice quality in supracricoid partial laryngectomy with anastomosis of cricoid cartilage,base of tongue and epiglottis.
  • Anastomosis of cricoid cartilage,base of tonge and epiglottis was used to reconstruct laryngeal function.
  • [MeSH-major] Arytenoid Cartilage / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laryngectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16494035.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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21. Papacharalampous GX, Korres S, Tzagaroulakis M, Segas I, Ferekidis E: Paraganglioma of the larynx: a case report. Med Sci Monit; 2007 Dec;13(12):CS145-8
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  • The subglottic area of the larynx was normal as were the base of the tongue and pharynx.
  • The differential diagnosis of laryngeal paraganglioma includes typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 18049441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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22. Donta TS, Smoker WR: Head and neck cancer: carcinoma of unknown primary. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2007 Aug;18(4):281-92
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  • [Title] Head and neck cancer: carcinoma of unknown primary.
  • Carcinoma of unknown primary is uncommon, estimated to represent only 3% to 5% of all head and neck cancers.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 70% to 90% of these lesions, most commonly from sites in the upper aerodigestive tract, including tonsils, base of tongue, nasopharynx, and piriform sinus.
  • Magnetic resonance and CT are both used for evaluation for extracapsular nodal disease, perineural tumor spread, osseous skull base or perivertebral space involvement, and vascular invasion, findings that seriously impact treatment and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17893593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-3459
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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23. Smith JE, Suh JD, Erman A, Nabili V, Chhetri DK, Blackwell KE: Risk factors predicting aspiration after free flap reconstruction of oral cavity and oropharyngeal defects. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;134(11):1205-8
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  • RESULTS: The following risk factors were significant predictors of postoperative aspiration on univariate analysis: prior radiation therapy (P < .001), tongue base resection classification (P = .001), tumor N stage (P < .001), hypoglossal nerve sacrifice (P = .004), and presence of a mandibular osteotomy (P = .01).
  • On multivariate analysis, only a history of radiation therapy (P = .002) and tongue base resection (P = .008) remained statistically significant predictors of aspiration.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with resection of more than half of the tongue base and patients with a history of radiation therapy are at high risk of having early postoperative aspiration after free flap reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Ameloblastoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Respiratory Aspiration / etiology. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19015452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Sundaram K, Schwartz J, Har-El G, Lucente F: Carcinoma of the oropharynx: factors affecting outcome. Laryngoscope; 2005 Sep;115(9):1536-42
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of the oropharynx: factors affecting outcome.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the value of both patient- and tumor-related factors of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in predicting patient outcome, with respect to the three primary subsites of the disease.
  • METHODS: A chart review was conducted of 126 patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx over a 10-year period.
  • 1) base of tongue, 2) tonsil and pillars, and 3) uvula, soft palate, and posterior pharyngeal wall.
  • Base-of-tongue lesions responded significantly worse to treatment than did tonsil and pillar or uvula, soft palate, and posterior pharyngeal wall lesions (P = .014).
  • The disease-free survival for base-of-tongue cancer was significantly worse than for tonsil and pillar or for uvula, soft palate, and posterior pharyngeal wall cancer (P = .010).
  • Among the oropharyngeal subsites, squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue was associated with the worst outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palate, Soft. Sex Factors. Tongue. Tonsillar Neoplasms. Treatment Outcome. Uvula

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  • (PMID = 16148691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Pabiszczak M, Wierzbicka M, Szyfter W: [Localisation and direction of spread in oral and oropharyngeal cancer in the material of Head and Neck Oncological Surgery Department, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2005;59(2):201-7
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  • The examination was conducted on the base of retrospective analysis of ambulatory charts and the hospital files.
  • The primary localization included in the palatine tonsil (82 patients), trunk of the tongue (48 patients) and floor of the mouth (20 patients) were predominated.
  • The spread directions included: floor of the mouth (36) soft palate (35), base of tongue (33), hypopharynx (20) and trunk of tongue (16).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Poland. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16095088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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26. Waltonen JD, Ozer E, Schuller DE, Agrawal A: Tonsillectomy vs. deep tonsil biopsies in detecting occult tonsil tumors. Laryngoscope; 2009 Jan;119(1):102-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare the yield of detecting occult tumors by performing tonsillectomy and deep tonsil biopsies in patients with metastatic carcinoma to the neck in whom a primary tumor was not evident on physical examination, radiography, or panendoscopy.
  • METHODS: Over a 10-year period, the charts of all patients diagnosed with metastatic carcinoma to the neck in whom a primary tumor was not evident on examination, imaging, and panendoscopy were reviewed.
  • All underwent directed biopsies of the tongue base, hypopharynx, and nasopharynx as well as either deep tonsil biopsies or diagnostic tonsillectomy.
  • In this group, 11 primary tumors were subsequently identified (11.6%): three in the tonsil, six in the tongue base, one in the hypopharynx, and one in the nasopharynx.
  • Eleven primary tumors were identified (40.7%): eight in the tonsils, two in the tongue base, and one in the hypopharynx.
  • The overall yield of finding an occult primary carcinoma in the tonsil was 3.2% for deep tonsil biopsies vs. 29.6% for tonsillectomies (P < .0002).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19117304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Chocolatewala NM, Chaturvedi P: Role of human papilloma virus in the oral carcinogenesis: an Indian perspective. J Cancer Res Ther; 2009 Apr-Jun;5(2):71-7
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  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the Indian subcontinent.
  • Association of HPV is strongest for oropharyngeal cancers, especially cancers of the tonsils, followed by those of the base of tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 19542661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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28. Tezal M, Sullivan Nasca M, Stoler DL, Melendy T, Hyland A, Smaldino PJ, Rigual NR, Loree TR: Chronic periodontitis-human papillomavirus synergy in base of tongue cancers. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Apr;135(4):391-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic periodontitis-human papillomavirus synergy in base of tongue cancers.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess whether chronic periodontitis history predicts human papillomavirus (HPV) status in patients with base of tongue cancers.
  • PATIENTS: Thirty patients newly diagnosed with base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2005 for whom both tumor samples and periodontal records were available.
  • After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, race/ethnicity, alcohol use, smoking status, and number of missing teeth, every millimeter of alveolar bone loss was associated with an approximately 4-fold (odds ratio, 3.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-13.36) increased risk of HPV-positive tumor status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chronic periodontitis may be a significant factor in the natural history of HPV infection in patients with base of tongue cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Chronic Periodontitis / epidemiology. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Tongue Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19380363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R03CA119262; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / T32-DE07034
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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29. Kennedy TL, Riefkohl WL: Lingual thyroid carcinoma with nodal metastasis. Laryngoscope; 2007 Nov;117(11):1969-73
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  • [Title] Lingual thyroid carcinoma with nodal metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVES: To discuss treatment options and surgical management of lingual thyroid carcinoma with cervical metastasis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Lingual thyroid is relatively uncommon, and carcinoma of the lingual thyroid is extremely rare, with only 40 cases reported.
  • We report a new case of a young female who presented with a cervical neck mass found to represent metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Further workup revealed the patient's only thyroid tissue was located at the tongue base and was the site of the primary tumor.
  • Management of lingual thyroid carcinoma and review of the literature is discussed.
  • METHODS: A case report and review of the literature of lingual thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: A young female presented with a left neck mass diagnosed as metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Review of the computed tomography scan of the neck revealed a tongue base mass, absence of an othotopic thyroid gland and bilateral cervical lymphandenopathy.
  • Bilateral selective neck dissections with removal of the tongue base lesion confirmed the diagnosis of lingual thyroid carcinoma with multiple left cervical nodal metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A case of lingual papillary thyroid carcinoma with cervical metastasis is reported.
  • Surgical approaches to the tongue base need to be considered based on the size of the lingual primary tumor and the need to address lymph node metastases gland.
  • This is the first reported case in the literature of lingual papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting with cervical nodal metastasis in a female with absence of an orthotopic thyroid gland.
  • This is also the first report to show that papillary and not follicular cell carcinoma is the predominating histopathology in lingual thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17828053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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30. Peters P, Repanos C, Earnshaw J, Stark P, Burmeister B, McGuire L, Jeavons S, Coman A M WB: Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the tongue base: a case for the case-report and review of the literature. Head Neck Oncol; 2010;2:4
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  • [Title] Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the tongue base: a case for the case-report and review of the literature.
  • A 60 year old lady was referred to the Princess Alexandra Hospital (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia) tertiary Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Unit from a peripheral hospital for investigation and management of a tumour at the base of the tongue.
  • Biopsy of the tumour revealed it to be an epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the base of the tongue.
  • We present a case where such a policy would have denied patient choice and possibly led to detrimental treatment.We review the world literature of tongue base epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tongue / pathology


31. El-Mofty SK: Human papillomavirus (HPV) related carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. Head Neck Pathol; 2007 Dec;1(2):181-5
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  • Epidemiologic, clinical, morphologic and molecular evidence show that high risk HPV, particularly type 16, is a prerequisite for some carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), particularly tonsil and base of tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Palatine Tonsil / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Virus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20614273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Congresses
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807527
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32. Díaz Molina JP, Rodrigo JP, Llorente JL, Alvarez Marcos C, Moreno C, Suárez C: [Oncologic and functional results of surgical treatment for base of tongue carcinomas]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):351-7
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  • [Title] [Oncologic and functional results of surgical treatment for base of tongue carcinomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Resultados oncológicos y funcionales del tratamiento quirúrgico de los carcinomas de base de lengua.
  • INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Squamous cell carcinomas at the base of the tongue are usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and their optimal treatment has not been established.
  • The aim of this study was to describe the functional and oncological outcomes of patients with base of tongue carcinomas treated with surgery.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study on 132 patients with base of tongue carcinoma surgically treated in our hospital between 1990 and 2007 was carried out.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of squamous cell carcinomas of the base of the tongue is poor, especially in advanced stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20684822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1988-3013
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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33. Attlmayr B, Garrido C, Alderson DJ: Difficulty in establishing a diagnosis in an uncommon presentation of a minor salivary gland tumour. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Difficulty in establishing a diagnosis in an uncommon presentation of a minor salivary gland tumour.
  • We report the case of a man presenting with a large, airway obstructing, minor salivary gland tumour arising from the right tonsillar base.
  • Clinically, the tumour behaved in a malignant way.
  • A firm diagnosis of malignancy could not be made histologically.
  • The differential diagnosis included polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • However, on balance, based on the clinical presentation, a diagnosis of malignancy was favoured and appropriate treatment was considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Airway Obstruction / etiology. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cooperative Behavior. Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy. Humans. Interdisciplinary Communication. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Tongue / pathology. Tracheostomy

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  • (PMID = 22798299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029651
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34. O'Regan EM, Toner ME, Finn SP, Fan CY, Ring M, Hagmar B, Timon C, Smyth P, Cahill S, Flavin R, Sheils OM, O'Leary JJ: p16(INK4A) genetic and epigenetic profiles differ in relation to age and site in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Hum Pathol; 2008 Mar;39(3):452-8
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  • Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) typically affects male smokers older than 55 years.
  • All cases showing p16 methylation were from the anterior tongue, and 75% of them were young patients.
  • Interestingly, HPV 16 messenger RNA was detected exclusively in HNSCC from the base of tongue lesions and was only found in males.
  • This differs from the patient profile of HNSCC in the young, which affects the anterior tongue and commonly females, thus, making it highly unlikely that this virus is a primary causative agent of HNSCC in these young adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. Genes, p16. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18261630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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35. Xie J, Dong P, Jin B, Li KY, Wang J, Tu LQ, Zhang J: [Mandibular swing procedure for surgical resection of advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Apr;29(4):302-4
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  • [Title] [Mandibular swing procedure for surgical resection of advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore a better approach to resect the advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: From 1995 to 2005, 17 patients underwent mandibular swing procedure for excision of advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma including: 13 tonsillar cancers, 2 soft palate carcinomas and 2 lingual root cancers.
  • Immediate reconstruction of the surgical defect was done using tongue flap, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, sternohyoid myofascial flap, temporalis myofascial flap and forehead flap, respectively.
  • RESULTS: All patients' advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma were successfully resected as planned through the mandibular swing procedure or its combined procedures without severe complications.
  • CONCLUSION: The mandibular swing procedure and its combined approach is safe and effective in the surgical resection of the advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, which can provide a good exposure for the oropharynx, supraglottic region, hypopharynx, the parapharyngeal space and the base of the skull.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Mandible / surgery. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Tonsillar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Period. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17760261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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36. Lai G, Nemolato S, Lecca S, Parodo G, Medda C, Faa G: The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the minor salivary gland: a case report. Eur J Histochem; 2008 Oct-Dec;52(4):251-4
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the minor salivary gland: a case report.
  • A case of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) of the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity is reported.
  • A 52- year-old woman presented with a growing mass at the base of the tongue.
  • These findings confirmed the diagnosis of HCCC of minor salivary glands of the oral cavity.
  • The clinical presentation, the immunohistochemical pattern and the role of cytokeratins in the differential diagnosis of HCCC are discussed with a review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Keratins / analysis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Middle Aged. Myoepithelioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19109100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Histochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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37. Hartl DM, Dauchy S, Escande C, Bretagne E, Janot F, Kolb F: Quality of life after free-flap tongue reconstruction. J Laryngol Otol; 2009 May;123(5):550-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quality of life after free-flap tongue reconstruction.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse correlations between quality of life measures, aspiration and extent of surgical resection in patients who have undergone free-flap tongue reconstruction.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine consecutive patients (seven men and two women; average age 51 years) who had been diagnosed with T4a carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base and treated by glossectomy, free-flap reconstruction, and either radiation therapy or chemoradiation responded to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Head and Neck-35 questionnaire, the performance status scale questionnaire and the hospital anxiety-depression scale questionnaire, an average of 43 months after treatment (range 18-83 months).
  • RESULTS: Scores for the swallowing and aspiration domains of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Head and Neck-35 questionnaire were significantly correlated with the extent of tongue base resection (Spearman's correlation, p = 0.037 and 0.042, respectively).
  • Despite a strong correlation between the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Head and Neck-35 questionnaire results and the performance status scale global scores (correlation coefficient = 0.89, p = 0.048), the performance status scale domain scores were not correlated with the extent of tongue resection.
  • Clinically apparent aspiration was not correlated with the extent of tongue resection, nor were the anxiety or depression scores.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that the volume of tongue base resection is a major factor in swallowing- and aspiration-related quality of life following tongue resection and free-flap reconstruction.
  • Free-flap reconstruction does not seem to palliate the effect of the loss of functional tongue base volume, as regards swallowing-related quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Tongue / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18796181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Zou H, Zhang WF, Han QB, Zhao YF: Salvage reconstruction of extensive recurrent oral cancer defects with the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Oct;65(10):1935-9
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent salvage surgical treatment.
  • The reconstruction of the base of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the oropharynx emerged as a significant risk factor for flap necrosis on binary logistic regression analysis (P < .05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 17884518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Vidiri A, Ruscito P, Pichi B, Pellini R, Covello R, Sperduti I, Di Giovanni S, Spriano G, Crecco M: Oral cavity and base of the tongue tumors. Correlation between clinical, MRI and pathological staging of primary tumor. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Dec;26(4):575-82
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  • [Title] Oral cavity and base of the tongue tumors. Correlation between clinical, MRI and pathological staging of primary tumor.
  • The diagnosis of oral cavity and oropharyngeal tumors can be obtained through clinical examination and biopsy.
  • The aim of this study was to define the accuracy of clinical and MRI T staging of oral cavity and base of the tongue tumors and correlate the results with pathological data.
  • Fifty-nine patients affected by squamous cell carcinoma and 1 case of adenoido-cystic carcinoma were examined by means of a superconductive MR unit, using SE T1, and fat-suppressed T2 weighted sequences before contrast medium infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Mouth / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18365555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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40. Cano ER, Lai SY, Caylakli F, Johnson JT, Ferris RL, Carrau RL, Snyderman CH, Gooding WE, Simenthal AA Jr, Myers EN: Management of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue with chemoradiation and brachytherapy. Head Neck; 2009 Nov;31(11):1431-8
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  • [Title] Management of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue with chemoradiation and brachytherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of base of tongue (BOT) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has traditionally been associated with poor prognosis and significant morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Tongue Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009.
  • (PMID = 19405086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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41. Fuwa N, Kodaira T, Furutani K, Tachibana H, Nakamura T: A new method of selective intra-arterial infusion therapy via the superficial temporal artery for head and neck cancer. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2008 Jun;105(6):783-9
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  • Primary tumor sites included the tongue in 73 patients, base of the tongue in 6 patients, floor of mouth in 4 patients, buccal mucosa in 4 patients, and other sites in 5 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: This selective intra-arterial method will be an important modality for advanced tongue cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Radiography, Interventional / methods. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18206406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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42. Ma S, Han Y, Wang W, Zhang M, Wang W, Zhou L: [Application of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in repair of defect caused by resection of tonsillar cancer]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 May;24(5):556-8
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  • METHODS: The data were retrospectively summarized from 10 patients with recurrent tonsillar cancer after radical radiotherapy from January 1998 to December 2005, including 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 2 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma, and 1 case of adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • Recurrent tonsil cancer invaded tongue base, soft palate, posterior wall of pharyngeal, parapharyngeal space, and palate.
  • After carcinoma were completely resected and defects were reconstructed by pectoralis major myocutaneous flap of 7 cm x 5 cm-12 cm x 9 cm.
  • Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap is an ideal material in repair of defect caused by resection of recurrent tonsillar carcinoma after radiotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 20540259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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43. Anker CJ, Wang B, Tobler M, Chapek J, Shrieve DC, Hitchcock YJ, Salter BJ: Evaluation of fluence-smoothing feature for three IMRT planning systems. J Appl Clin Med Phys; 2010 Apr 16;11(2):3035
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  • We evaluated four cases treated with IMRT in our clinic: sinonasal carcinoma (SNC), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), base of tongue carcinoma (BOT), and prostate carcinoma (PST).

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  • (PMID = 20592692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-9914
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied clinical medical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Clin Med Phys
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Lim YC, Koo BS, Lee JS, Lim JY, Choi EC: Distributions of cervical lymph node metastases in oropharyngeal carcinoma: therapeutic implications for the N0 neck. Laryngoscope; 2006 Jul;116(7):1148-52
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  • [Title] Distributions of cervical lymph node metastases in oropharyngeal carcinoma: therapeutic implications for the N0 neck.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the patterns and distributions of lymph node metastases in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and improve the rationale for elective treatment of N0 neck.
  • The incidence rate of level IV metastasis in patients with ipsilateral nodal metastasis was significantly higher in base of tongue cancer (86% [6 of 7]) compared with tonsillar cancer (34% [20 of 59]) (P=.013).
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that elective N0 neck treatment in patients with oropharyngeal SCC, especially base of tongue cancer, should include neck levels II, III, and IV instead of levels I, II, and III.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16826050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Cakli H, Altin F, Ak I, Gürbüz MK, Ozüdoğru E: [Detection of primary carcinoma by positron emission tomography in an unknown primary tumor with cervical metastasis: a case report]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2005;14(1-2):39-43
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  • [Title] [Detection of primary carcinoma by positron emission tomography in an unknown primary tumor with cervical metastasis: a case report].
  • He had previously undergone a neck biopsy, the result of which had been reported as metastatic carcinoma.
  • Investigation with positron emission tomography with 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose suggested the base of the tongue as the primary site, which was then confirmed by an endoscopic biopsy from the tongue.
  • It should be borne in mind that positron emission tomography may be helpful in the diagnosis of unknown primary tumors with cervical metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radiography. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / surgery. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 16227723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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46. Hancock SB, Krempl GA, Canfield V, Bogardus C, Kojouri K, Kaneaster SK, Medina JE: Treatment of base of tongue cancer with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatinum induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy. Laryngoscope; 2008 Aug;118(8):1357-61
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  • [Title] Treatment of base of tongue cancer with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatinum induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the efficacy of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatinum induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of stage III and IV base of tongue cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Subgroup analysis of patients with base of tongue cancer enrolled in a single-institution prospective phase II trial, evaluating an organ-preservation approach in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment regimen studied is remarkably effective in stage III and IV base of tongue cancer with 100% of patients completing the protocol alive to date.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18528311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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47. Leong SC, Pinder E, Sasae R, Mortimore S: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the tongue. Singapore Med J; 2007 Oct;48(10):e272-4
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  • [Title] Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the tongue.
  • We report a 27-year-old Congolese man with mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the tongue base, which presented as spontaneous intraoral bleeding.
  • Optimal treatment of tongue base MEC is unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17909664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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48. Diaz R, Blakey MD, Murphy PB, Cryar AK, Cmelak AJ: Thyroid storm after intensity-modulated radiation therapy: a case report and discussion. Oncologist; 2009 Mar;14(3):233-9
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  • A 43-year-old man with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue was treated with induction chemotherapy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
  • Diagnosis of the patient's hyperthyroidism and probable thyroid storm was difficult to recognize because of the significant overlap between the signs and symptoms of severe thyrotoxicosis and the expected toxicities of his cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Thyroid Crisis / etiology. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19286762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones
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49. Andrews E, Seaman WT, Webster-Cyriaque J: Oropharyngeal carcinoma in non-smokers and non-drinkers: a role for HPV. Oral Oncol; 2009 Jun;45(6):486-91
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  • [Title] Oropharyngeal carcinoma in non-smokers and non-drinkers: a role for HPV.
  • Incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) increased 3% annually from 1973 to 2001.
  • High-risk HPV-DNA was readily detected in the tonsils and base of tongue (oropharynx) of 14/18 cases and 6/22 controls by both consensus and real-time PCR.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 19027350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 1 U01 AI068636-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. Konsulov SS: Carcinoma of the tongue base. Folia Med (Plovdiv); 2005;47(3-4):24-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of the tongue base.
  • AIM: This study reports the results of surgical treatment of patients with carcinoma of the base of tongue-supraglottic complex.
  • The base of the tongue, the epiglottic valleculae, preepiglottic space and supraglottic part of the larynx develop from one central region.
  • The proper term to refer to these structures is tongue base-supraglottic complex.
  • Carcinoma of this complex is a challenge for the surgeons working in the field of head and neck surgery.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the tongue base present usually in advanced stage of the disease.
  • All patients underwent supraglottic laryngectomy through suprahyoid pharyngectomy and extended resection of the tongue base that allowed sufficient visualization of the tumor.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with carcinoma of the tongue base-supraglottic complex were treated in the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases of the Medical University Plovdiv between 2001 and 2004.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The supraglottic laryngectomy with suprahyoid pharyngectomy provides good exposure of the tumor in the area of the tongue base-supraglottic complex allowing thorough resection of the tumor and avoiding the functional and cosmetic defects characteristic of the combined method (mandibulotomy).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16761390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0204-8043
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Med (Plovdiv)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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51. Silva P, Slevin NJ, Sloan P, Valentine H, Cresswell J, Ryder D, Price P, Homer JJ, West CM: Prognostic significance of tumor hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha expression for outcome after radiotherapy in oropharyngeal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Dec 1;72(5):1551-9
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  • PURPOSE: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a heterogeneous group of patients in terms of subsite, treatment, and biology.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: An audit identified 133 consecutive patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil or tongue base.
  • 3.04-176.7) than the tongue-base tumor (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.14-7.19) group (p = 0.03, test for interaction).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hemoglobins / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Tongue Neoplasms / genetics. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / genetics. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19028277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
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52. Esposito E, Cassiano B, Cinquegrani F: Salivary glands: report of a rare case of myoepithelial carcinoma involving tongue base treated by CO2 Laser. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2009 Jun;29(3):156-9
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  • [Title] Salivary glands: report of a rare case of myoepithelial carcinoma involving tongue base treated by CO2 Laser.
  • Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignant tumour of the salivary glands.
  • Herewith, the clinical evolution, anatomo-pathological characteristics and treatment adopted are described in a case occurring in the minor salivary glands of the tongue base.
  • In fact, due to the rarity of the epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, there is no uniformity of data in the literature and very different therapeutic strategies have been suggested.
  • Results obtained in the case described confirm that conservative surgery is feasible in this type of neoplastic lesion of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Lasers, Gas / therapeutic use. Sublingual Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20140162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-675X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815361
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CO2 Laser / Myoepithelial carcinoma
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53. Kljajić V, Jović R, Canji K, Nikolin B, Gavrilović M: [Surgical techniques and outcomes in the treatment of malignant tongue base tumors]. Med Pregl; 2007 Jan-Feb;60(1-2):49-53
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  • [Title] [Surgical techniques and outcomes in the treatment of malignant tongue base tumors].
  • INTRODUCTION: Prognosis of patients with malignant tongue base tumors is poor.
  • The aim of this investigation was to compare different treatment modalities in patients with malignant tongue base tumors.
  • Planocellular cancer was diagnosed in 79/82 patients, and the remaining (3182) had transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Tongue base resection only was performed in 12 patients, tongue base resection with epiglottectomy in 20, tongue base resection with supraglottic laryngectomy in 13 and tongue base resection with total laryngectomy in 5 patients.
  • Five-year survival after combined surgical and radiation therapy was 35% CONCLUSION: Development of tongue base carcinoma is strongly associated with alcohol and tobacco consumption.
  • However, combined therapy is the therapy of choice in cases with tongue base carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17853711.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pregl.
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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54. Henstrom DK, Moore EJ, Olsen KD, Kasperbauer JL, McGree ME: Transoral resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Dec;135(12):1231-8
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  • [Title] Transoral resection for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the oncologic and functional outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue who underwent transoral tumor resection and neck dissection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy.
  • PATIENTS: All patients undergoing transoral resection of squamous cell carcinoma on the base of the tongue as part of their primary treatment from January 1, 1996, through January 31, 2005.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transoral resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue with postoperative adjuvant therapy provided excellent local and regional control and minimized morbidity.
  • Transoral resection is a reasonable treatment option for patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, resulting in very low overall loss of organ function in properly selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Enteral Nutrition. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20026821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Fumarola A, Trimboli P, Cavaliere R, Coletta I, Veltri A, Di Fiore A, Ciardi A, Piccirilli F: Thyroid papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a neck branchial cyst. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:24
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  • [Title] Thyroid papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a neck branchial cyst.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid gland derives from one median anlage at the base of the tongue, and from the two fourth branchial pouches.
  • The histology demonstrated a thyroid papillary carcinoma arising within the branchial cyst.
  • Histology showed a multifocal papillary carcinoma with central lymph nodes metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: In a lateral cystic neck mass, although rare, occurrence of ectopic thyroid tissue and presence of a papillary thyroid carcinoma should be kept in mind.

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  • (PMID = 16672060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1468401
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56. Cmelak AJ, Murphy BA, Burkey B, Douglas S, Shyr Y, Netterville J: Taxane-based chemoirradiation for organ preservation with locally advanced head and neck cancer: results of a phase II multi-institutional trial. Head Neck; 2007 Apr;29(4):315-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Forty-four patients with laryngeal or tongue base carcinomas were enrolled.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Laryngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17252600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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57. Kusafuka K, Asano R, Kamijo T, Iida Y, Onitsuka T, Kameya T, Nakajima T: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue base: case report of an unusual location with immunohistochemical analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Mar;38(3):296-9
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue base: case report of an unusual location with immunohistochemical analysis.
  • A case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the tongue base is described.
  • It was characterized by solid tumor nests with central necrosis and rosette formation resembling basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • It was diagnosed as LCNEC of the tongue base.
  • These cells were considered neuroendocrine-related cells in the lingual squamous epithelium, which are related to the tumorigenesis of mucosal LCNEC in the tongue base.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19167190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm
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58. Ongkeko WM, Altuna X, Weisman RA, Wang-Rodriguez J: Expression of protein tyrosine kinases in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jul;124(1):71-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We studied the expression of the following TKs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), c-kit, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and a serine-threonine kinase, Akt.
  • The study included 21 pharyngeal (base of tongue, 14; tonsil, 6; soft palate, 1), 16 laryngeal, and 1 floor of the mouth carcinoma.

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Clin Pathol. 2006 Oct;126(4):618 [17019796.001]
  • (PMID = 15923166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
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59. Budrukkar A, Shahid T, Murthy V, Hussain T, Mulherkar R, Vundinti BR, Deshpande M, Sengar M, Laskar SG, Agarwal JP: Squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue in a patient with Fanconi's anemia treated with radiation therapy: case report and review of literature. Head Neck; 2010 Oct;32(10):1422-7
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue in a patient with Fanconi's anemia treated with radiation therapy: case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Fanconi's anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by congenital anomalies, progressive aplastic anemia, and a predisposition for malignancies.
  • Solid tumors in the head and neck region, especially in the tongue, are rarely observed.
  • METHODS: We report a case of Fanconi's anemia in a 27-year-old man with carcinoma of the base of tongue (T2N0M0) who was treated with radical radiation therapy to a dose of 70 Gy/35 fractions/51 days.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Fanconi Anemia / diagnosis. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy


60. Wakisaka N, Murono S, Minato H, Furukawa M, Yoshizaki T: A case report: Epstein-Barr virus-associated undifferentiated carcinoma of the tongue base. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Dec;33(4):487-91
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  • [Title] A case report: Epstein-Barr virus-associated undifferentiated carcinoma of the tongue base.
  • Although the association between undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is consistent, there is conflicting evidence as to the association of EBV with undifferentiated carcinomas outside the nasopharynx.
  • Here, we report on a case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the tongue base.
  • A 71-year-old male, who had been treated with irradiation for primary unknown right neck metastatic EBV-positive undifferentiated carcinoma 9 years previously, was referred to our clinic with masses at the tongue base and right neck.
  • The lesion at the tongue base was revealed to be an EBV-positive undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • He was treated with resection of tongue base tumor and bilateral-neck dissection, and the defect at the tongue base was reconstructed with a free rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.
  • Re-irradiation was added post-operatively because of a positive surgical margin at the tongue base.
  • Although it is unclear whether our case is recurrent or newly developed EBV-latently infected undifferentiated carcinoma, we propose that EBV-associated tumors should be carefully observed after treatment at least for more than 10 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / virology. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Tongue Neoplasms / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16934421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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61. Galli J, Valenza V, Parrilla C, Galla S, Marchese MR, Castaldi P, Almadori G, Paludetti G: Pharyngocutaneous fistula onset after total laryngectomy: scintigraphic analysis. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2009 Oct;29(5):242-4
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  • In case 1, the test showed a wide pharyngocutaneous fistula the internal orifice of which was at the level of the base of the tongue: on the scintigraphic images, the radiomarked water bolus, from the fistulous orifice, descended along the stoma walls and only a small part reached the oesophagus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Cites] Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2000 Aug;109(8 Pt 1):787-90 [10961815.001]
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  • (PMID = 20162023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-675X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2821128
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Complications / Fistula / Scintigraphy / Total laryngectomy
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62. Alkan S, Coskun BU, Ugur S, Başak T, Dadas B: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Mar;33(1):71-4
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare tumor with distinct morphological and biological features that differentiate it from the common form of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the head and neck region.
  • It is mostly seen in the supraglottic larynx, hypopharynx and a base of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16188414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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63. Dequanter D, Andry G, Lothaire P, Larsimont D, Deraemaecker R: Wide localized excision and reconstruction for minor salivary gland tumours. B-ENT; 2005;1(4):187-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Four consecutive patients suffering from minor salivary gland tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract were treated: two had adenoid cystic carcinomas (one of the lateral oropharyngeal mucosa, one of the retromolar area); one had a polymorphous low-grade carcinoma (at the base of the tongue); and one had mucoepidermoid carcinoma (on the floor of the mouth).
  • One patient is alive with a recurrent tumour of the pterygomaxillary fossa (without trismus) sixteen years after the original operation; another patient is free of recurrent disease at the base of the tongue but has recently undergone surgery, with success, for two pulmonary metastases sixty months after the initial surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For minor salivary gland carcinoma of the head and neck, large resection with immediate reconstruction affords fast recovery and long-lasting locoregional control.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / surgery. Neck Dissection / methods. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16429751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1781-782X
  • [Journal-full-title] B-ENT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] B-ENT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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64. Uzochukwu NO, Shrier DA, Lapoint RJ: Clear cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue: MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2007 Jan;28(1):127-8
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  • [Title] Clear cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue: MR imaging findings.
  • Clear cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue is a rare minor salivary gland neoplasm, and to our knowledge, the MR imaging appearance of this entity has not been described.
  • We present the MR imaging findings in such a case and review the differential diagnosis for tongue base masses in an adult.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Glands, Minor. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laryngoscopy. Middle Aged. Tongue / pathology. Tongue / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17213438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Soderberg C, Perez DS, Ukpo OC, Liang X, O'Reilly AG, Moore EJ, Kademani D, Smith DI: Differential loss of expression of common fragile site genes between oral tongue and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Cytogenet Genome Res; 2008;121(3-4):201-10
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  • [Title] Differential loss of expression of common fragile site genes between oral tongue and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The first were oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and the second were base of tongue/tonsillar (oropharyngeal) SCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Chromosome Fragile Sites. Gene Expression Profiling. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / genetics. Tongue Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18758160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-859X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytogenetic and genome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytogenet. Genome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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66. Kreeft A, Tan IB, van den Brekel MW, Hilgers FJ, Balm AJ: The surgical dilemma of 'functional inoperability' in oral and oropharyngeal cancer: current consensus on operability with regard to functional results. Clin Otolaryngol; 2009 Apr;34(2):140-6
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  • The current survey aims to define the borders of functional inoperability in oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma and evaluate its current use by obtaining opinions from the experts in the field.
  • DESIGN: A web base survey.
  • There is no absolute consensus about the functional outcome after certain surgical procedures, namely: bilateral maxillectomy, resection of a tonsil and resection of base of tongue carcinoma including removal of the vallecula and epiglottis, and total soft palate resection.
  • Disagreement of operability is also observed for T3 and T4 base of tongue carcinomas based on case descriptions and Magnetic Resonance Images.
  • [MeSH-minor] Data Collection. Glossectomy. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve / surgery. Laryngectomy. Mandible / surgery. Maxilla / surgery. Medical Futility. Neoplasm Staging. Palate / surgery. Pharyngectomy. Prognosis. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 19413612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-4486
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Mühlmeier G, Reske SN, Blumstein NM, Völker HU, Maier H: [The importance of PET in searching the primary tumor site in CUP patients -- a case report]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2005 Jul;84(7):516-9
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  • A 58 years old male patient presented with a left cervical metastasis of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • The positron emission tomography localized an uptake of FDG in the left sided base of the tongue.
  • In the left tongue base an induration was palpable which was resected with security distance.
  • The histopathological examination showed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with a largest extension of 5 mm x 10 mm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tongue Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tongue / pathology. Tongue / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16010634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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68. Ye H, Yu T, Temam S, Ziober BL, Wang J, Schwartz JL, Mao L, Wong DT, Zhou X: Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Genomics; 2008;9:69
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  • [Title] Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC) is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics.
  • The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is one of the most common types of HNOSCC.
  • CONCLUSION: In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Tongue Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. Biomarkers / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Collagen / metabolism. DNA Primers / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interleukin-8 / genetics. Interleukin-8 / metabolism. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18254958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2164
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K22 DE014847; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA106451; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE015970; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA114688; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R03 DE016569
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / IL8 protein, human; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2262071
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69. Yoo JS, Rosenthal DI, Mitchell K, Ginsberg LE: Osteoradionecrosis of the hyoid bone: imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Apr;31(4):761-6
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  • Typical postradiation imaging findings included an initial tongue base ulcerative lesion with air approaching the hyoid bone, and subsequent observation of hyoid fragmentation, often with intraosseous or peri-hyoid air and the absence of associated mass-like enhancement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Findings of hyoid fragmentation, cortical disruption, and soft tissue or intraosseous air in the postradiation therapy patient should strongly suggest the diagnosis of hyoid ORN.
  • It is important recognize this entity because the diagnosis may preclude potentially harmful diagnostic intervention and allow more appropriate therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Hyoid Bone / radiation effects. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Osteoradionecrosis / radiography. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pharynx / radiation effects. Pharynx / radiography. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Tongue / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 19942694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Bekelman JE, Wolden S, Lee N: Head-and-neck target delineation among radiation oncology residents after a teaching intervention: a prospective, blinded pilot study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Feb 1;73(2):416-23
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  • At the baseline evaluation, the participants contoured three clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) (70 Gy, 59.4 Gy, and 54 Gy) on six contrast-enhanced axial computed tomography images of a de-identified patient with Stage T2N2bM0 squamous cell carcinoma of the right base of the tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiography. Internship and Residency. Radiation Oncology / education. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Teaching / methods

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  • (PMID = 18538494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Moore EJ, Olsen KD, Kasperbauer JL: Transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a prospective study of feasibility and functional outcomes. Laryngoscope; 2009 Nov;119(11):2156-64
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  • [Title] Transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a prospective study of feasibility and functional outcomes.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the feasibility of transoral robotic surgery as a method of surgical treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Forty-five patients with previously untreated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma underwent transoral robotic surgical removal of the tumor with or without neck dissection and with or without adjuvant therapy.
  • Twenty-six patients had base of tongue primary tumors and 19 had tonsillar fossa tumors.
  • Advantages of the technique include adequate ability to visualize and manipulate with two hands lesions in the base of tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Robotics


72. Bădulescu F, Crişan A, Bădulescu A, Schenker M: Recent data about the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oncogenesis of head and neck cancer. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2010;51(3):437-40
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  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a small circular DNA-virus and the high-risk types 16, 18 is implicated in oncogenesis of head and neck cancer--especially oropharynx (tonsil and base of tongue), poorly differentiated (the basaloid type), locoregional advanced stage, poorly differentiated, at the younger male, non-smokers, non-drinkers, sexual behaviors.
  • The prognostic is favorable of human papillomavirus tumor status for patients with oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy (accelerated fractionation without total dose reduction).

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  • (PMID = 20809017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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73. Bakshi J, Panda NK, Ghoshal S, Nehru VI: Survival patterns in patients with carcinoma base of tongue treated with external beam irradiation and salvage surgery. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Jun;62(2):142-7
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  • [Title] Survival patterns in patients with carcinoma base of tongue treated with external beam irradiation and salvage surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to assess the treatment results and survival in the patients with carcinoma of base of tongue that were treated with primary radiotherapy, radiotherapy with chemotherapy and salvage surgery when indicated.
  • DESIGN: A prospective study was carried out in 78 cases of carcinoma of the base of tongue between 1995 and 1999.
  • Radiotherapy in the dose of 60 Gy was given primarily to the patients with stage III tongue base cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: External beam radiotherapy with salvage surgery results in satisfactory local and regional control in stage III and IV carcinoma base of tongue.

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  • (PMID = 23120701.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3450302
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Base of tongue / Radiation therapy / Salvage surgery / Survival
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74. Schmalbach CE, Miller FR: Occult primary head and neck carcinoma. Curr Oncol Rep; 2007 Mar;9(2):139-46
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  • [Title] Occult primary head and neck carcinoma.
  • Unknown primary carcinoma presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis accounts for approximately 5% of all head and neck malignancies.
  • Over 90% of these malignancies represent squamous cell carcinoma originating within Waldeyer's ring (lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx, tonsil, and base of tongue).
  • Following confirmation of metastatic cervical disease with fine-needle aspiration, all patients presenting with an unknown primary carcinoma require a thorough head and neck history and physical examination, radiographic imaging, panendoscopy with directed biopsies of Waldeyer's ring, and bilateral tonsillectomy.

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  • (PMID = 17288881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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75. Shoushtari AN, Meeneghan M, Treharne GC, Reibel JF, Levine PA, Moskaluk CA, Jameson MJ, Read PW: Clinical nodal staging of T1-2 tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma stratified by p16 status and implications for ipsilateral neck irradiation. Cancer J; 2010 May-Jun;16(3):284-7
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  • [Title] Clinical nodal staging of T1-2 tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma stratified by p16 status and implications for ipsilateral neck irradiation.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported <5% incidence of contralateral nodal metastasis in patients with T1-2 tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We analyzed the nodal staging of T1-2 tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma stratified for p16 status, a marker of human papillomavirus positivity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical and radiographic nodal staging and p16 status of 41 T1-2 tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma patients who were treated between January 2002 and June 2009 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Patients with a history of prior head and neck cancer, synchronous cancers, base of tongue or soft palate invasion, or distant metastases at diagnosis were excluded.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with p16+ T1-2 tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma present with a higher incidence of contralateral nodal spread than those patients with p16- disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20526108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-336X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK067629
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human
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76. Yagi S, Kamei Y, Nakayama B, Toriyama K, Torii S: A new design for free flap reconstruction of the tongue and oropharynx. J Reconstr Microsurg; 2008 Apr;24(3):211-9
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  • [Title] A new design for free flap reconstruction of the tongue and oropharynx.
  • Radical resection of tongue and oropharyngeal carcinomas often results in complex defects that are challenging to reconstruct.
  • The first reconstructs the tongue, the second the tongue base, the third the oral floor, and the fourth the lateral wall.
  • Twenty-three patients (17 men and 6 women) with an average age of 60 years underwent immediate reconstruction using a free flap after radical resection of a malignant carcinoma of tongue or oropharynx using a free flap.
  • Moreover, the functional outcome in patients with and without a tongue base defect was compared.
  • Swallowing in patients with and without a tongue base defect was similar, but speech was more impaired in patients who had a tongue base defect.
  • [MeSH-major] Oropharynx / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Tongue / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Deglutition. Female. Humans. Male. Microsurgery / methods. Middle Aged. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Patient Satisfaction. Speech Intelligibility. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18491260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-684X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of reconstructive microsurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reconstr Microsurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Aubry K, Shao Z, Monteil J, Paraf F, Bessède JP, Rigaud M: FDG-PET/CT of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a rat model. Mol Imaging Biol; 2009 Mar-Apr;11(2):88-93
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a rat model.
  • PROCEDURES: A head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was established in 20 immunocompetent rats, who drank a 4-NQO solution during 16 weeks.
  • FDG-PET/CT confirmed the presence of those tumors and detected ones located on the base of tongue for three of them.
  • Pathologic examination using hematoxylin-eosin staining confirmed squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 4-NITROQUINOLINE-N-OXIDE .
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  • (PMID = 19034583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 56-57-5 / 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide
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78. Riechelmann H: [Human papilloma virus in head and neck cancer]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2010 Jan;89(1):43-8, quiz 49-51
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  • HPV associated carcinomas mostly occur in the oropharynx and particularly in the palatine tonsil and base of tongue.
  • The viral proteins E6 and E7 are crucial for malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Human papillomavirus 16. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / analysis. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Repressor Proteins / analysis. Tongue Neoplasms / mortality. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery. Tonsillar Neoplasms / mortality. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
  • (PMID = 20058217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8685
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E5, Human papillomavirus type 16
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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79. Subramanian B, Agrawal K, Panda K: Basaloid squamous carcinoma of mandible. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Jan;20(1):151-3
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous carcinoma of mandible.
  • Basaloid squamous carcinoma is a rare distinct histologic variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region.
  • Basaloid squamous carcinoma is more aggressive and has a poorer prognosis, although histologically, it is associated with squamous cell carcinoma and squamous atypia.
  • The usual site of occurrence for basaloid squamous carcinoma is the base of the tongue, hypopharynx (pyriform sinus), and the supraglottic larynx (Wain et al.
  • We are reporting an unusual case of basaloid squmous carcinoma of the mandible with no secondaries and features of sarcomatoid pattern histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Wires. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gingival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gingival Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Neck Dissection. Radiography, Panoramic. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 19165013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Carroll WR, Locher JL, Canon CL, Bohannon IA, McColloch NL, Magnuson JS: Pretreatment swallowing exercises improve swallow function after chemoradiation. Laryngoscope; 2008 Jan;118(1):39-43
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  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Swallowing dysfunction is a devastating complication of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx treated at University of Alabama at Birmingham with CRT were included in the study.
  • Outcomes measured by the videofluoroscopy examinations included hyoid elevation, epiglottis inversion, tongue base movement, cricopharyngeal opening, and Rosenbeck aspiration score.
  • The position of the tongue base during swallowing was also significantly closer to the posterior pharyngeal wall (P = .025) for patients receiving pretreatment exercises.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Deglutition / physiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Physical Therapy Modalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cineradiography. Enteral Nutrition. Epiglottis / physiopathology. Esophageal Sphincter, Upper / physiopathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrostomy. Humans. Hyoid Bone / physiopathology. Intubation, Gastrointestinal. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Respiratory Aspiration / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Tongue / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome


81. Miller FR, Karnad AB, Eng T, Hussey DH, Stan McGuff H, Otto RA: Management of the unknown primary carcinoma: long-term follow-up on a negative PET scan and negative panendoscopy. Head Neck; 2008 Jan;30(1):28-34
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  • [Title] Management of the unknown primary carcinoma: long-term follow-up on a negative PET scan and negative panendoscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: The unknown primary carcinoma in the head and neck has been estimated to represent up to 7% of all head and neck carcinomas.
  • METHODS: A cohort of 31 patients with fine-needle aspiration biopsy-confirmed squamous cell carcinoma were prospectively entered into a diagnostic protocol to identify the occult primary tumor.
  • Five occult primary tumors (2 base of tongue and 3 palatine tonsil) were detected during panendoscopy despite a negative PET.
  • Seventeen patients (N1, n = 7; N2a, n = 4; N2b, n = 2; N3, n = 4) had no primary tumor detected and were treated as an unknown primary carcinoma with primary neck dissection +/- radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: A negative PET study in patients with an occult primary head and neck carcinoma does not preclude the need for panendoscopy with biopsy to detect the occult primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Endoscopy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17657782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Lin CX, Li GF: [Application of parasymphyseal mandible osteotomy combined with set-back tongue flap in treatment of tongue base carcinoma]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2008 Mar;37(2):198-202
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  • [Title] [Application of parasymphyseal mandible osteotomy combined with set-back tongue flap in treatment of tongue base carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the approach of parasymphyseal mandible osteotomy combined with set-back tongue flap in treatment of tongue base carcinoma.
  • METHODS: In total 18 patients with cancer of tongue base, 13 were males and 5 females aged of 30 to 65 y (average 52.9 y).
  • Eighteen patients were treated by parasymphyseal mandible osteotomy combined with set-back tongue flap in our hospital from June 2001 to June 2006.
  • CONCLUSION: Parasymphyseal mandible osteotomy provides good exposure, and set-back tongue flap to reconstruction of the base of tongue can partially restore the function of tongue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Mandible / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteotomy. Tongue / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18422283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-9292
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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83. Billan S, Abdah-Bortnyak R, Stein ME, Kuten A: Base of the tongue metastasis: aggressive behavior of triple-negative breast carcinoma. Isr Med Assoc J; 2009 Apr;11(4):250
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  • [Title] Base of the tongue metastasis: aggressive behavior of triple-negative breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Tongue Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19603601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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84. Bell D, Zhao YJ, Rao PH, Weber RS, El-Naggar AK: Translocation t(6;14) as the sole chromosomal abnormality in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of tongue. Head Neck Pathol; 2007 Dec;1(2):165-8
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  • [Title] Translocation t(6;14) as the sole chromosomal abnormality in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of tongue.
  • We present an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of tongue in a 48-year-old male with a restricted chromosomal alteration by cytogenetic and spectral karyotypic analysis (SKY).

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  • (PMID = 20614269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807514
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenoid cystic carcinoma / Comparative genomic hybridizations / Cytogenetic / Spectral karyotyping / Translocations
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85. Chien CY, Su CY, Hwang CF, Chuang HC, Jeng SF, Chen YC: Ablation of advanced tongue or base of tongue cancer and reconstruction with free flap: functional outcomes. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;32(3):353-7
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  • [Title] Ablation of advanced tongue or base of tongue cancer and reconstruction with free flap: functional outcomes.
  • AIM: To evaluate the functional outcomes of patients who underwent total or nearly total glossectomy for advanced tongue or base of tongue cancer.
  • The cumulative 4-year survival rates were 63.8% for tongue cancer and 42.9% for base of tongue cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Catheter Ablation. Glossectomy / methods. Surgical Flaps. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16455224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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86. Rapidis AD, Trichas M, Stavrinidis E, Roupakia A, Ioannidou G, Kritselis G, Liossi P, Giannakouras G, Douzinas EE, Katsilieris I: Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: final results from a phase II study with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil with a four-year follow-up. Oral Oncol; 2006 Aug;42(7):675-84
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  • [Title] Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: final results from a phase II study with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil with a four-year follow-up.
  • Encouraging results have recently been reported in patients (pts) with locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) when induction chemotherapy (IC) is used and followed by radiotherapy (RT).
  • The site of the primary tumors was the anterior mouth in 9 pts, base of tongue and oropharynx in 12, middle third of the face in 8 and larynx in 13.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Remission Induction. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Taxoids / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16731029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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87. Rivera H, Nikitakis NG, Correnti M, Maissi S, Ponce JG: Oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a Venezuelan population. Acta Odontol Latinoam; 2008;21(2):175-80
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  • We clinically evaluated 130 patients with OC and OPC and a histopathologic diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The most common oropharyngeal anatomic location was the base of the tongue (22.3%), followed by the tonsils (13.9%), while the most frequently affected oral location was the oral tongue (19.2%) followed by the gingiva and alveolar mucosa (10.8%), and the floor of mouth (7.7%).
  • Most tumors were diagnosed at an advanced stage with a high incidence of metastatic spread to the regional lymph nodes, indicating possible delays in diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology. Cell Differentiation. Female. Gingival Neoplasms / epidemiology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Floor / pathology. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sex Factors. Smoking / epidemiology. Tongue Neoplasms / epidemiology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Venezuela / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19177856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0326-4815
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta odontológica latinoamericana : AOL
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Odontol Latinoam
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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88. Shin HA, Lim YC, Jeong HM, Choi EC: Role of primary surgery for early-stage (T1-2N0) squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Oral Oncol; 2009 Dec;45(12):1063-6
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  • [Title] Role of primary surgery for early-stage (T1-2N0) squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx.
  • To evaluate treatment outcomes and the role of primary definitive surgery for T(1-2), clinically N(0) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients, we performed a retrospective analysis of 46 consecutive cases treated primarily by surgery and/or postoperative radiotherapy at Yonsei University between May 1992 and December 2006.
  • The most common location was the tonsil (54%), followed by the soft palate (19%), the base of the tongue (BOT) (15%) and the posterior wall (12%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19717331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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89. Borggreven PA, Verdonck-de Leeuw I, Rinkel RN, Langendijk JA, Roos JC, David EF, de Bree R, Leemans CR: Swallowing after major surgery of the oral cavity or oropharynx: a prospective and longitudinal assessment of patients treated by microvascular soft tissue reconstruction. Head Neck; 2007 Jul;29(7):638-47
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  • Comorbid condition, larger tumors (T3-T4 vs T2), and resections of the base of tongue and soft palate combined (vs defects of other dynamic structures) were associated with most profound swallowing problems (p < .05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Comorbidity. Female. Fluoroscopy. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Palate, Soft / surgery. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tongue / surgery. Video Recording


90. Simon C, Goepfert H, Rosenthal DI, Roberts D, El-Naggar A, Old M, Diaz EM Jr, Myers JN: Presence of malignant tumor cells in persistent neck disease after radiotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is associated with poor survival. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Apr;263(4):313-8
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  • [Title] Presence of malignant tumor cells in persistent neck disease after radiotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is associated with poor survival.
  • Non-surgical therapy consisting of external beam radiation with or without chemotherapy is an effective treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx with advanced neck disease (N2a or greater).
  • In order to address the significance of this finding, we conducted a nonrandomized retrospective study, including 35 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy followed by either a radical or modified radical (RND/MRND) or a selective neck dissection (SND) for clinically persistent neck disease 6 weeks after completing therapy for stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx (base of the tongue =15, tonsil =12, soft palate =7 and pharyngeal wall =1).
  • The presence of malignant tumor cells in residual disease in the neck correlated with poor disease-specific and overall survival (P =0.03 and P =0.01, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Survival. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16328403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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91. Pedruzzi PA, Kowalski LP, Nishimoto IN, Oliveira BV, Tironi F, Ramos GH: Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;134(11):1196-204
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  • [Title] Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic significance of several factors in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS: A total of 361 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2001.
  • RESULTS: Most tumors were located at the tonsil (46.8%) or base of the tongue (28.0%) and were at clinical stage III or IV (92.8%).
  • CONCLUSION: A combination of clinical factors, such as symptoms, patients' general status, weight loss, and comorbidities, leads to a relevant stage of clinical severity that can be associated with the TNM stage as predictors of survival in oropharyngeal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / mortality. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / mortality. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19015451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Millwaters M, Khan N, Halfpenny W: Simultaneous lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma presenting as a neck lump. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2008 Mar;46(2):144-5
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  • [Title] Simultaneous lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma presenting as a neck lump.
  • We describe the unusual presentation of a patient with simultaneous follicular lymphoma and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This revealed squamous cell carcinoma arising from the left tongue base with metastatic disease in the left neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17321646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1940
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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93. Park YM, Lee JG, Lee WS, Choi EC, Chung SM, Kim SH: Feasibility of transoral lateral oropharyngectomy using a robotic surgical system for tonsillar cancer. Oral Oncol; 2009 Aug;45(8):e62-6
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  • Safe resection of tonsillar carcinoma was possible with the three-dimensional magnified images.
  • By using the 30 degrees endoscope, we can achieve a better surgical view of the base of the tongue area.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control. Pharyngectomy / methods. Robotics / instrumentation. Tonsillar Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19442570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Lajer CB, von Buchwald C: The role of human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer. APMIS; 2010 Jun;118(6-7):510-9
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  • HPV-positive HNSCC show an affinity for the oropharynx, especially the tonsils and the base of the tongue, and tend to show low differentiation histopathologically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Humans. Immune System / physiology. Papillomavirus Vaccines / immunology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20553531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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95. Grant DG, Hinni ML, Salassa JR, Perry WC, Hayden RE, Casler JD: Oropharyngeal cancer: a case for single modality treatment with transoral laser microsurgery. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Dec;135(12):1225-30
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  • PATIENTS: The study population comprised 69 patients with previously untreated select T1 to T3, N0 to N2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, of whom 44 (74%) had no indication for adjuvant RT and 25 (36%) had an indication for adjuvant RT to the neck alone but declined radiotherapy.
  • The primary tumor sites were the tonsil (n = 28 [41%]), tongue base (n = 28 [41%]), pharyngeal wall (n = 8 [12%]), soft palate (n = 4 [6%]), and vallecula (n = 1 [1%]).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Laser Therapy / methods. Microsurgery / methods. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Enteral Nutrition. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms. Length of Stay. Male. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tracheostomy

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  • (PMID = 20026820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Shiboski CH, Schmidt BL, Jordan RC: Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years. Cancer; 2005 May 1;103(9):1843-9
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  • [Title] Tongue and tonsil carcinoma: increasing trends in the U.S. population ages 20-44 years.
  • BACKGROUND: An increasing incidence of oral carcinoma among young adults has been reported in the U.S. and Europe.
  • Although the association between human papillomavirus infection and tonsillar carcinoma is now well established, to the authors' knowledge little is known about incidence trends in tonsillar carcinoma among younger adults.
  • The objective of the current study was to explore the trends in both oral cavity and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in younger U.S. populations, in particular tongue and tonsillar SCC.
  • METHODS: Using the 1973-2001 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, we computed age, race, and site-specific trends of oral and pharyngeal (excluding nasopharynx) carcinoma incidence rates.
  • There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of oral tongue SCC (APC = +2.1; P < 0.001), base of tongue SCC (APC = +1.7; P = 0.04), and palatine tonsil SCC (APC = +3.9; P < 0.001) among younger white individuals, whereas the incidence of SCC in all other oral and pharyngeal sites decreased or remained constant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increase in tonsil SCC incidence from 1973 to 2001 paralleled the increase in tongue SCC, whereas SCC in all other oral and pharyngeal sites remained constant or decreased.
  • This may suggest similar etiologic factors for SCC affecting the palatine tonsils and tongue in younger populations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Tongue Neoplasms / epidemiology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15772957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA095231; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE14609; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / K23 DE00443; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P01DE13904
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Nguyen NP, Frank C, Moltz CC, Vos P, Smith HJ, Nguyen PD, Martinez T, Karlsson U, Dutta S, Lemanski C, Nguyen LM, Sallah S: Analysis of factors influencing aspiration risk following chemoradiation for oropharyngeal cancer. Br J Radiol; 2009 Aug;82(980):675-80
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  • 46 patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma underwent concurrent chemoradiation at our institution.
  • There was no statistical difference in the aspiration rate between the base of the tongue and tonsillar carcinoma (p = 0.23).
  • Despite anatomical organ preservation, most patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma had moderate to severe dysphagia after chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Barium Sulfate / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Texas. Tongue Neoplasms / complications. Tongue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tongue Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / complications. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19332514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 25BB7EKE2E / Barium Sulfate; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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98. Logemann JA, Rademaker AW, Pauloski BR, Lazarus CL, Mittal BB, Brockstein B, MacCracken E, Haraf DJ, Vokes EE, Newman LA, Liu D: Site of disease and treatment protocol as correlates of swallowing function in patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation. Head Neck; 2006 Jan;28(1):64-73
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  • RESULTS: The most common disorders at baseline and 3 months after treatment were reduced tongue base retraction, reduced tongue strength, and slowed or delayed laryngeal vestibule closure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 27: XXX-XXX, 2005.
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  • (PMID = 16302193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA040007; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / P50 DE011921
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS7896; NLM/ PMC1380204
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99. Mulwafu W, Fagan JJ, Lentin R: Suprahyoid approach to base-of-tongue squamous cell carcinoma. S Afr J Surg; 2006 Aug;44(3):120, 122-4
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  • [Title] Suprahyoid approach to base-of-tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the suprahyoid approach to treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue at Groote Schuur Hospital between 1999 and 2004.
  • DESIGN AND METHOD: Retrospective analysis was done of patients with base-of-tongue squamous cell carcinoma treated using the suprahyoid approach.
  • RESULTS: Seventeen patients underwent treatment for base-of-tongue squamous cell carcinoma utilising the suprahyoid approach.
  • CONCLUSION: The suprahyoid approach to treatment of base-of-tongue squamous cell carcinoma provides good exposure, local tumour control and excellent functional outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Hyoid Bone. Tongue / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16958238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-2361
  • [Journal-full-title] South African journal of surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] S Afr J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
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100. Goldstein NE, Genden E, Morrison RS: Palliative care for patients with head and neck cancer: "I would like a quick return to a normal lifestyle". JAMA; 2008 Apr 16;299(15):1818-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Head and neck cancers constitute a diverse group of diseases including malignancies of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, sinuses, and skull base.

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  • [CommentIn] JAMA. 2008 Jun 11;299(22):2679 [18544727.001]
  • (PMID = 18413876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / K23AG025933; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / K24AG22345
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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