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1. Chatelain D, Mokrani N, Fléjou JF: [Anal and anal margin tumors]. Ann Pathol; 2007 Dec;27(6):459-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cancers are infrequent and consisted of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, or poorly differentiated basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18554556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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2. Duvall E: The use of the 'borderline' category in the reporting of cervical cytopathology in the UK: results of a survey conducted under the aegis of the British Society for Clinical Cytology. Cytopathology; 2008 Jun;19(3):167-71
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  • RESULTS: There is wide variation in the use of the 'borderline' category in the UK but the majority of respondents (77.6%) used it when reporting smears that were either on the borderline between negative and low grade squamous dyskaryosis ('borderline ?low grade'), or on the borderline between negative and high grade squamous dyskaryosis ('borderline ?high grade'), or on the borderline between negative and glandular dyskaryosis 'borderline ?glandular dyskaryosis').
  • A significant minority (15.7%), however, did not use 'borderline' when reporting smears that showed an abnormality that was possibly high grade squamous dyskaryosis.
  • The proposed revised BSCC terminology with separate categories for borderline ?low grade, borderline ?high grades and borderline ?
  • [MeSH-major] Pathology, Clinical / standards. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Professional Practice / standards. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


3. Quintyn-Ranty ML, Escourrou G, Guilbeau C, Rimailho J, Delisle MB: [Vaginal adenoid cystic carcinoma: a case report]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Apr;28(2):135-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Vaginal adenoid cystic carcinoma: a case report].
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma generally arises from the salivary glands and is rarely found in the female genital tract.
  • Differential diagnosis includes adenoid basal carcinoma, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 48-year-old woman with previous cervical HPV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18675169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins
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4. van Neer PL, Bouakaz A, Vlaanderen E, de Hart J, van de Vosse FN, van der Steen AF, de Jong N: Detecting broken struts of a Björk-Shiley heart valve using ultrasound: a feasibility study. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2006 Apr;32(4):503-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The Björk-Shiley (BScc) mechanical heart valve has extensively been used in surgery from 1979 to 1986.
  • Many approaches have been attempted to noninvasively determine BScc valve integrity.
  • In our study we analyze leg movement of the BScc valves outlet strut during the cardiac cycle with ultrasound.
  • BScc valves were mounted in the mitral position in an in vitro pulse duplicator system.
  • The results showed no significant difference in movement between both legs of the outlet strut of the intact BScc valve (amplitude of movement 9.2 microm +/- 0.1 microm).
  • In conclusion, the proposed method has shown to be feasible in vitro and has potentials for in vivo detection of BScc valve outlet strut fracture.

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  • (PMID = 16616597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-5629
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Ali F, Brown A, Gottwald L, Thomas J: Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation in a transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jul;32(6):445-8
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation in a transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Shadow cells, characterized by basaloid squamous cells with a distinct well-defined border and a central unstained area as a shadow of lost nuclei, are characteristic of pilomatricoma, a distinct neoplasm of hair matrix differentiation.
  • The presence of shadow cells within tumor islands composed of follicular germinative cells of an otherwise classic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been considered as a distinct diagnostic category of BCC with matrical differentiation.
  • RESULTS: The H&E-stained sections of the hand lesion revealed multiple nodular masses of basaloid follicular germinative cells.
  • Elsewhere, the majority of the tumor contained a population of shadow cells, similar to those in pilomatricoma, with basaloid-appearing matrical cells in the periphery.
  • Trichohyaline granules were identified in the cytoplasm of many of the peripheral basaloid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Heart Transplantation. Immunocompromised Host. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hand / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilomatrixoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15953381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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6. Nagakawa H, Hiroshima K, Takiguchi Y, Yatomi M, Takahashi Y, Mikami M, Nakatani Y, Kuriyama T: Basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung in a young woman. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb;11(1):66-8
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung in a young woman.
  • We report a rare case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the lung in a young Japanese woman.
  • Transbronchial fine-needle aspiration cytology supported a tentative diagnosis of primary squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • Necropsy established the diagnosis of basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • This is the youngest patient with a case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the lung ever reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16508733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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7. Oztürk O, Sari M, Inanli S, Kara EK: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: a case report. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2005;15(5-6):125-9
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: a case report.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a very rare, high grade, and aggressive variant of SCC, with a predilection for the upper aerodigestive system.
  • We present a 50-year-old man with basaloid SCC of the supraglottic larynx, which was initially misdiagnosed as SCC.
  • Basaloid SCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of upper aerodigestive system malignancies because it has a distinct prognostic significance compared to conventional SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16444094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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8. Bădulescu F, Crişan A, Bădulescu A, Schenker M: Recent data about the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oncogenesis of head and neck cancer. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2010;51(3):437-40
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  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a small circular DNA-virus and the high-risk types 16, 18 is implicated in oncogenesis of head and neck cancer--especially oropharynx (tonsil and base of tongue), poorly differentiated (the basaloid type), locoregional advanced stage, poorly differentiated, at the younger male, non-smokers, non-drinkers, sexual behaviors.
  • The prognostic is favorable of human papillomavirus tumor status for patients with oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy (accelerated fractionation without total dose reduction).

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  • (PMID = 20809017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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9. Slater DN, Rice S, Stewart R, Melling SE, Hewer EM, Smith JH: Proposed Sheffield quantitative criteria in cervical cytology to assist the grading of squamous cell dyskaryosis, as the British Society for Clinical Cytology definitions require amendment. Cytopathology; 2005 Aug;16(4):179-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proposed Sheffield quantitative criteria in cervical cytology to assist the grading of squamous cell dyskaryosis, as the British Society for Clinical Cytology definitions require amendment.
  • OBJECTIVE: In 1986, the British Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC) published quantitative criteria to assist diagnosis in a three-tier grading system of squamous cell dyskaryosis.
  • Following the Terminology Conference in 2002, however, the BSCC recommended on their website that the three-tier model should be replaced by a new two-tier system of low- and high-grade squamous abnormalities.
  • The latter broadly equate with the two-grade Bethesda System (TBS) for reporting squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of the BSCC three-tier quantitative definitions, to investigate if they were applicable to liquid-based cytology (LBC) and to see how they related to the proposed new two-tier BSCC system.
  • METHODS: Quantitative image analysis was undertaken on illustrations from the 1986 BSCC terminology publication and on microscope slides from external quality assessment and Cytology Training Centre teaching sets.
  • No grade of dyskaryosis had a mean area NC ratio over 50%, indicating that the BSCC quantitative definitions are incorrect.
  • Accordingly it is possible that those reporting cervical cytology could be interpreting the BSCC NC ratios as meaning diameter rather than area.
  • The similar NC ratios of borderline nuclear changes associated with human papilloma virus and mild dyskaryosis support the BSCC proposal that these can be combined to constitute a low-grade category.
  • This study shows that the BSCC area NC ratio criteria of grading squamous cell dyskaryosis require amendment.
  • In addition, this study supports the new BSCC recommendation of low- and high-grade squamous cell categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The study proposes Sheffield quantitative criteria to assist the grading of squamous cell abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Terminology as Topic. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Nucleus Structures / pathology. Cell Nucleus Structures / ultrastructure. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Image Cytometry / standards. Societies, Medical


10. Alkan S, Coskun BU, Ugur S, Başak T, Dadas B: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Mar;33(1):71-4
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare tumor with distinct morphological and biological features that differentiate it from the common form of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the head and neck region.
  • We present two cases of BSCC of the larynx; both being transglottic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16188414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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11. Rekhi B, Kane SV, Chaturvedi P: Cytomorphology of a metastatic basaloid squamous carcinoma from an intranasal tumor: a diagnostic mimic for a neuroendocrine tumor--a rare case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jul;37(7):546-8
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  • [Title] Cytomorphology of a metastatic basaloid squamous carcinoma from an intranasal tumor: a diagnostic mimic for a neuroendocrine tumor--a rare case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neuroblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19373914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. El-Mofty SK, Zhang MQ, Davila RM: Histologic identification of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes: a reliable predictor of the site of an occult head and neck primary carcinoma. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):163-8
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  • [Title] Histologic identification of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes: a reliable predictor of the site of an occult head and neck primary carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) often present with cervical lymph node metastasis.
  • These are believed to have a special predilection for the oropharyngeal tonsils and are characterized by nonkeratinizing basaloid morphology, and a strong reactivity to p16 immunostain.
  • RESULTS: Of the 93 cases of metastatic carcinomas 32 were oropharyngeal, 35 oral, and 26 arose in the laryx/hypopharynx.
  • In addition, a positive microscopic identification of HPV-related carcinoma is a reliable predictor of oropharyngeal origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20614311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807564
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; HPV / ISH / Nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma / Occult head and neck carcinoma / Oropharynx / p16
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13. Kimura T, Mukai M, Shiotani A, Moro K, Ikeda A, Okada Y: Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the hypopharynx with an extensive spindle cell component exhibiting a pedunculated polypoid mass. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Apr;129(4):e94-6
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the hypopharynx with an extensive spindle cell component exhibiting a pedunculated polypoid mass.
  • We report a case of basaloid squamous carcinoma of the hypopharynx with an extensive spindle cell component in an 82-year-old man.
  • Histologically, most (70%) of the tumor was composed of malignant spindle cell proliferation, and the rest (30%) was basaloid squamous carcinoma.
  • The preoperative histologic diagnosis was difficult because the endoscopic biopsy specimens showed only spindle cell proliferation.
  • This is an unusual presentation of basaloid squamous carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15794698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Thariat J, Badoual C, Faure C, Butori C, Marcy PY, Righini CA: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: role of HPV and implication in treatment and prognosis. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Oct;63(10):857-66
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: role of HPV and implication in treatment and prognosis.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck.
  • Wain's criteria (peripheral palisading, association with SCC, high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, high mitotic rate, solid growth), anti-34BE12 and CK 5/6 staining, and absence of neuroendocrine markers are mandatory for the diagnosis of BSCC.
  • On the other hand, BSCC is frequently considered a high-grade carcinoma of poorer prognosis than its SCC counterparts, mostly due to a higher rate of distant metastases.
  • However, BSCC has similar or better locoregional control rates and a relatively better radiosensitivity than SCC.
  • BSCC seems to have a dual behaviour depending, at least partly, on its recently described association with HPV.
  • The basaloid subtype of SCC, owing to its particular behaviour, should be systematically investigated along with HPV and smoking status, as those factors may be determinant in the response to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Prognosis


15. Fantini F, Greco A, Cesinaro AM, Surrenti T, Peris K, Vaschieri C, Marconi A, Giannetti A, Pincelli C: Pathologic changes after photodynamic therapy for Basal cell carcinoma and Bowen disease: a histologic and immunohistochemical investigation. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Feb;144(2):186-94
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  • [Title] Pathologic changes after photodynamic therapy for Basal cell carcinoma and Bowen disease: a histologic and immunohistochemical investigation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vivo reactions and the mechanisms of cell death after photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cutaneous carcinomas.
  • DESIGN: Skin biopsy specimens were obtained sequentially after PDT for basal cell carcinoma and in situ squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen disease).
  • We used electron microscopy to evaluate cell damage at the ultrastructural level.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evidence of the mechanisms of tumor cell damage after PDT, detection of histologic and/or immunohistochemical signs of apoptosis, and time course of the tumor destruction and inflammatory reaction.
  • In basal cell carcinoma, nodule damage progressed from scant apoptotic cells seen at the dermal-epithelial junction to massive destruction seen after 1 and 2 days.
  • The periphery of the basaloid nodules consistently showed earlier and predominant damage, as demonstrated by the perfect coincidence of histologic and immunohistochemical evidence with apoptotic markers (TUNEL and caspase-3 staining).
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18283175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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16. Lu SY, Eng HL, Huang CC, Chien CY, Lui CC, Lin JW: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: report of two cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 May;134(5):883-5
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: report of two cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16647553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Rasheed S, Yap T, Zia A, McDonald PJ, Glynne-Jones R: Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Feb;11(2):191-7
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  • [Title] Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review.
  • PURPOSE: Since 1943 [1], only 45 patients of squamous cancer of the rectum have been reported in the published reports and the largest series to date consists of 12 patients.
  • Reports suggest that the primary treatment is surgical resection but, in the light of nonsurgical advances in the treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we present a review of the literature and report six patients treated by chemoradiation therapy (CRT).
  • METHOD: A literature search was undertaken using the keywords squamous cell, epidermoid, basaloid and cloacagenic and cancer of rectum and colon to provide evidence for this discussion from studies of surgery, radiation therapy and CRT in rectal SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18462236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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18. Strati K, Pitot HC, Lambert PF: Identification of biomarkers that distinguish human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive versus HPV-negative head and neck cancers in a mouse model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Sep 19;103(38):14152-7
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  • Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide.
  • The cancers arising in the HPV16-transgenic mice mirror the molecular and histopathological characteristics of human HPV-positive HNSCC that distinguish the latter from human HPV-negative HNSCC, including overexpression of p16 protein and formation of more basaloid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 16959885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U19 CA113297; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098428; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE017315; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113297; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16; 56-57-5 / 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide; EC 3.6.4.12 / Mcm7 protein, mouse; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1599927
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19. Chernock RD, Lewis JS Jr, Zhang Q, El-Mofty SK: Human papillomavirus-positive basaloid squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract: a distinct clinicopathologic and molecular subtype of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2010 Jul;41(7):1016-23
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-positive basaloid squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract: a distinct clinicopathologic and molecular subtype of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract is a rare, morphologically distinct variant of squamous cell carcinoma that is thought to be clinically aggressive.
  • The histologic features are distinct from, but often confused with, those of human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The role of human papillomavirus as an etiologic agent in true basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is controversial.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine human papillomavirus prevalence and its clinicopathologic significance in upper aerodigestive tract tumors with true basaloid squamous cell carcinoma histology.
  • Overall survival was better for human papillomavirus-positive basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (P < .05), with 86% of patients alive at 3 years compared with 35.3% of patients with human papillomavirus-negative tumors.
  • These findings suggest that a subset of basaloid squamous cell carcinomas is virally driven.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / virology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20236687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS534623; NLM/ PMC3873737
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20. Hantschmann P, Sterzer S, Jeschke U, Friese K: P53 expression in vulvar carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, squamous cell hyperplasia and lichen sclerosus. Anticancer Res; 2005 May-Jun;25(3A):1739-45
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  • [Title] P53 expression in vulvar carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, squamous cell hyperplasia and lichen sclerosus.
  • BACKGROUND: p53 inactivation due to oncogenic viral proteins or mutations is an important molecular mechanism in carcinogenesis, which has also been demonstrated for vulvar carcinoma.
  • To evaluate p53 changes in vulvar carcinogenesis, we analyzed p53 expression in vulvar carcinoma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), lichen sclerosus (LS) and squamous cell hyperplasia (SH).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three carcinomas, 141 cases of VIN, 55 biopsies of LS with 8 associated to carcinoma, 57 cases of SH with 14 associated to carcinoma and 10 cases without neoplastic changes were stained immunohistologically for p53.
  • Forty % of LS and SH not associated to carcinoma showed immunohistological signs of p53 mutation, while cases associated with carcinoma did so in 90%.
  • Sixty-seven % of the carcinomas showed immunohistological changes of p53 expression.
  • Tumors with low p53 expression were significantly associated with patients younger than 50 years (p<0.01) and basaloid or condylomatous tumor type (p<0.015).
  • CONCLUSION: p53 mutations are present in typical keratinizing carcinomas, precursor lesions and disorders with elevated risk for vulvar cancer.
  • Thus, p53 mutation seems to occur early in vulvar carcinogenesis and may become a useful marker, especially in lesions with increased risk of carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism


21. Berney DM, Stankiewicz E, Adlan AM, Kudahetti S, Biedrzycki OJ, Hadway P, Watkin N, Corbishley C: DNA topoisomerase I and IIalpha expression in penile carcinomas: assessing potential tumour chemosensitivity. BJU Int; 2008 Sep;102(8):1040-4
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  • [Title] DNA topoisomerase I and IIalpha expression in penile carcinomas: assessing potential tumour chemosensitivity.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the tissue expression of DNA topoisomerase I (Topo I) and IIalpha (Topo II), to pursue the possibility of future chemotherapy regimens for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (SCCP), as high expression of Topo I might indicate sensitivity to the camptothecins, whereas high Topo II might indicate sensitivity to etoposide.
  • Tumour type was also strongly correlated with Topo II and Ki-67 expression, with the highest expression in basaloid carcinomas and the lowest in verrucous carcinomas.
  • The strong positivity of Topo II in high-grade and basaloid SCCPs suggests that treatment with etoposide or other Topo II 'poisons' might be a better target for future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / enzymology. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Penile Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 18489530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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22. Salerno G, Di Vizio D, Staibano S, Mottola G, Quaremba G, Mascolo M, Galli V, De Rosa G, Insabato L: Prognostic value of p27Kip1 expression in Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the larynx. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:146
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of p27Kip1 expression in Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the larynx.
  • BACKGROUND: Very few reports have investigated the role of cell cycle regulators as biomarkers in Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma (BSCC) of the larynx, a definite morphologic, uncommon, very aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Lower expression of Ki67/Mib-1, a proliferation marker highly expressed in the majority of tumours, and p53, a tumour suppressor protein that can induce an arrest of the G1-S transition, was related to a better prognosis in laryngeal BSCC.
  • Up to date the role of this protein was never studied in BSCC.
  • Aim of our study was to investigate the potential prognostic value of p27kip1 levels and their correlation with Ki67/Mib-1 and p53 expression in BSCC of the larynx.
  • METHODS: The retrospective study group consisted of 15 male and 1 female patients, affected by laryngeal BSCC, ranging in age from 44 to 69 years (mean 58).
  • In our series of laryngeal BSCC the resulting data seem to confirm the clinical prognostic relevance of p27kip1 low expression, which directly correlated with biological aggressiveness and consequent shortened survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16740156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1559634
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23. Chaux A, Velazquez EF, Algaba F, Ayala G, Cubilla AL: Developments in the pathology of penile squamous cell carcinomas. Urology; 2010 Aug;76(2 Suppl 1):S7-S14
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  • [Title] Developments in the pathology of penile squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the epithelium covering glans, coronal sulcus, and foreskin.
  • The most common subtype is the usual SCC, representing one half to two thirds of penile carcinomas.
  • Penile verruciform tumors encompass verrucous, warty (condylomatous), and papillary, not otherwise specified, carcinomas.
  • In contrast, basaloid and sarcomatoid carcinomas are among the most aggressive penile tumors.
  • Other SCC variants, such as carcinoma cuniculatum and pseudohyperplastic, adenosquamous and acantholytic carcinomas, are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Consensus. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20691888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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24. Shibata Y, Baba E, Ariyama H, Miki R, Ogami N, Arita S, Qin B, Kusaba H, Mitsugi K, Noshiro H, Yao T, Nakano S: Metastatic basaloid-squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus treated by 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Jul 14;13(26):3634-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic basaloid-squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus treated by 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSC) of the esophagus is a rare malignant disease.
  • A 57-year-old woman was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus upon endoscopic examination.
  • The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was BSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17659717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4146806
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25. Winters R, Naud S, Evans MF, Trotman W, Kasznica P, Elhosseiny A: Ber-EP4, CK1, CK7 and CK14 are useful markers for basaloid squamous carcinoma: a study of 45 cases. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Dec;2(4):265-71
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  • [Title] Ber-EP4, CK1, CK7 and CK14 are useful markers for basaloid squamous carcinoma: a study of 45 cases.
  • Diagnosis of basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSCC) currently relies mainly on histological criteria, with variable immunohistochemical results reported in small series.
  • We explored the use of a battery of immunohistochemical stains to elucidate this diagnosis on 45 cases of BSCC.
  • To further elucidate the immunohistochemical profile of BSCC, to explore potential genetic pathways of malignant transformation using proliferation markers, and to investigate a possible link with Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Forty-five cases of BSCC and 34 site-matched cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were obtained from the archives of the pathology department at our institution.
  • Ber-EP4 is a useful diagnostic marker for BSCC, positive in 82% (37/45) of the cases and in 68% (23/34) of SCC.
  • An alternative is the combination of cytokeratins CK14 and CK7, known to be negative, and CK1, known to be positive, which achieves an accuracy of 73% (33/45) in BSCC and 88% (30/34) in SCC.
  • Increased expression of the proliferation markers supports the concept that BSCC is a rapidly growing tumor.
  • Results of p16 stains support an etiological link between BSCC and HPV; interestingly, HPV was present significantly more in BSCC (71% (32/45)), than in SCC (59% (20/34)) in this study (P=0.02).

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  • (PMID = 20614292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 22435-22
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Keratin-1; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807584
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Basaloid squamous carcinoma / Basosquamous carcinoma / Immunohistochemistry / Squamous cell carcinoma
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26. Yen TC, Chang JT, Ng SH, Chang YC, Chan SC, Wang HM, See LC, Chen TM, Kang CJ, Wu YF, Lin KJ, Liao CT: Staging of untreated squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa with 18F-FDG PET: comparison with head and neck CT/MRI and histopathology. J Nucl Med; 2005 May;46(5):775-81
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  • [Title] Staging of untreated squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa with 18F-FDG PET: comparison with head and neck CT/MRI and histopathology.
  • This prospective, nonrandomized, case-control study evaluated the impact of (18)F-FDG PET in staging untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa (BSCC) and compared the results with CT/MRI and histopathology.
  • METHODS: Between January 2002 and April 2004, 102 untreated BSCC patients with cM0 (no evidence of distant metastatic focus on chest radiograph, liver ultrasonograph, and bone scan) were enrolled with either conventional work-up (CWU, n = 51) or PET (CWU+PET, n = 51).
  • RESULTS: Significant benefits of PET compared with those of CT/MRI for BSCC patients were in the detection of locoregional (AUC, 0.973 vs. 0.928; P = 0.026), regional (AUC, 0.939 vs. 0.837; P = 0.026), and level II (AUC, 0.974 vs. 0.717; P = 0.02) lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSION: The role of (18)F-FDG PET for BSCC with cM0 is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Mouth Mucosa / radionuclide imaging. Mouth Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15872350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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27. Chaux A, Tamboli P, Ayala A, Soares F, Rodríguez I, Barreto J, Cubilla AL: Warty-basaloid carcinoma: clinicopathological features of a distinctive penile neoplasm. Report of 45 cases. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jun;23(6):896-904
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  • [Title] Warty-basaloid carcinoma: clinicopathological features of a distinctive penile neoplasm. Report of 45 cases.
  • Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, but there are several subtypes with different clinicopathologic, viral, and outcome features.
  • We are presenting 45 cases of a distinctive morphological variant of penile squamous cell carcinoma composed of mixed features of warty and basaloid carcinomas.
  • (1) the most common, observed in two-thirds of the cases was that of a typical condylomatous tumor on surface and basaloid features in deep infiltrative nests;.
  • (2) in 15% of the cases, there were non-papillomatous invasive carcinoma nests with mixed basaloid and warty features; and (3) unusually, predominantly papillomatous.
  • Associated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was identified in 19 cases and mostly showed basaloid, warty-basaloid, or warty features.
  • Warty-basaloid carcinomas are morphologically distinctive human papillomavirus-related penile neoplasms that, such as basaloid carcinomas, are biologically more aggressive than typical warty carcinoma from which they should be distinguished.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brazil. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Paraguay. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Texas. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20305615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Wadehra V, Johnson SJ: Comments on 'The revised BSCC terminology for abnormal Cervical Cytology'. Cytopathology; 2008 Dec;19(6):400-1
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  • [Title] Comments on 'The revised BSCC terminology for abnormal Cervical Cytology'.


29. Niimi S, Satou B, Asaoka M: [Pleomorphic carcinoma; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Jun;63(6):489-91
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  • [Title] [Pleomorphic carcinoma; report of a case].
  • We experienced a case of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma.
  • For the shadow was strongly suspisious for lung carcinoma left lower lobectomy was performed.
  • The resected tumor was composed of spindle cell component and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma component indicating unusual pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20533742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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30. Chapman-Fredricks J, Jorda M, Gomez-Fernandez C: A limited immunohistochemical panel helps differentiate small cell epithelial malignancies of the sinonasal cavity and nasopharynx. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 May;17(3):207-10
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  • [Title] A limited immunohistochemical panel helps differentiate small cell epithelial malignancies of the sinonasal cavity and nasopharynx.
  • BACKGROUND: Distinguishing small cell epithelial malignancies of the sinonasal cavity and nasopharynx is difficult due to overlapping morphologic characteristics, particularly in small biopsies.
  • The aim of this study is to identify a limited immunohistochemical panel that may help to differentiate these morphologically similar small cell epithelial malignancies.
  • DESIGN: We reviewed 37 cases of histologically similar small cell epithelial malignancies of the sinonasal cavity and nasopharynx: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) (16), basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) (15), and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (HGNEC) (6) obtained at Jackson Memorial Hospital/UM Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center between 2003 and 2007.
  • Immunohistochemistry for HLA-DR was positive in all cases of NPC, whereas BSCC and HGNEC were uniformly negative.
  • Cases of NPC and BSCC were positive for CK5/6 whereas cases of HGNEC were negative.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A limited immunohistochemical panel of CK, CK5/6, p63, and HLA-DR is useful in discriminating nasopharyngeal, basaloid squamous cell, and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the sinonasal cavity and nasopharynx.

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  • (PMID = 19077909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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31. Fischer S, Breuninger H, Metzler G, Hoffmann J: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2005 Jan;16(1):53-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) belongs to the spectrum of locally aggressive adnexal carcinomas and most commonly occurs in the head and neck region.
  • In 1982, Goldstein and colleagues first reported MAC to be a distinct histologic entity characterized by a combination of keratinous cysts in the upper dermis, islands and strands of small basaloid, benign-appearing keratinocytes or squamous cells in the deeper dermis within a dense desmoplastic stroma, and areas of ductular differentiation.
  • The authors report the case of a 78-year-old woman in whom a diagnosis of MAC was made when a tumor on the right cheek recurred for the second time.
  • Previous histopathologic diagnoses were squamous cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • Local recurrences of the tumor occurred, despite histographic surgery because in hematoxylin and eosin stains, small islands of the deceptively benign-appearing small basaloid cells of MAC were not recognized as tumor cells.
  • The reported case demonstrates the difficulties in diagnosing MAC and indicates that MAC should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of slowly growing tumors in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15699645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Wu C, Herman BA, Retta SM, Grossman LW, Liu JS, Hwang NH: On the closing sounds of a mechanical heart valve. Ann Biomed Eng; 2005 Jun;33(6):743-50
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  • In the present study, the frequency characteristics of the closing sound in air of a Björk-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) valve are investigated.
  • It is found that for the BSCC valve tested, the distribution of the sound energy over its frequency domain changes at different valve closing speeds, but the cut-off frequency remains unchanged at 123.32 +/- 6.12 kHz.

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  • (PMID = 16078614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-6964
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of biomedical engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Biomed Eng
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Bonvicini F, Venturoli S, Ambretti S, Paterini P, Santini D, Ceccarelli C, Zerbini M, Musiani M: Presence and type of oncogenic human papillomavirus in classic and in differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and keratinizing vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. J Med Virol; 2005 Sep;77(1):102-6
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  • [Title] Presence and type of oncogenic human papillomavirus in classic and in differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and keratinizing vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The presence and type of oncogenic papillomavirus (HPV) in classic warty/basaloid vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and in differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and keratinizing vulvar squamous cell carcinoma was investigated using three techniques, that is, histology, in situ hybridization, and PCR-ELISA.
  • Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive keratinizing vulvar squamous cell carcinoma proved completely negative for HPV by PCR-ELISA, in situ hybridization, and histologic examination, while in classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, a HPV positivity of 66.1% was found.
  • PCR-ELISA proved to be the most suitable method to detect and type mucosal oncogenic HPvs. The absolute absence of HPV DNA in differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias and in keratinizing vulvar squamous cell carcinoma suggests a strong HPV-independent pathway of malignant progression to invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomaviridae / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16032717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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34. Pereira MC, Oliveira DT, Landman G, Kowalski LP: Histologic subtypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma: prognostic relevance. J Can Dent Assoc; 2007 May;73(4):339-44
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  • [Title] Histologic subtypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma: prognostic relevance.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity.
  • The conventional tumour and several histologic subtypes of SCC present morphologic features and specific behaviour when they occur in the oral mucosa.
  • For example, basaloid SCC is an aggressive tumour and verrucous carcinoma has the lowest invasive and metastatic potential; however, the clinical and biologic course of these oral SCC variants has not been completely established.
  • The purpose of this article is to review the various subtypes of oral SCC, emphasizing problems in their histologic diagnosis and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Humans. Prognosis


35. Kobayashi Y, Nakanishi Y, Taniguchi H, Sekine S, Igaki H, Tachimori Y, Kato H, Matsubara H, Okazumi S, Shimoda T: Histological diversity in basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(3):231-8
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  • [Title] Histological diversity in basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (BSCCE) is a distinct variant of esophageal cancer.
  • Histological features were classified into five components: solid nest (SN), microcyst and/or trabecular nest (MT), ductal differentiation (DD), cribriform pattern (CP), and an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) component.


36. Farrell T, Chang YL: Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary glands. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Oct;131(10):1602-4
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  • [Title] Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary glands.
  • Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary glands is a relatively rare slow-growing tumor with an infiltrating growth pattern.
  • The infiltrating growth pattern and likelihood of vascular and perineural involvement distinguishes basal cell adenocarcinoma from basal cell adenoma.
  • Other diagnostic considerations include adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous carcinoma.
  • Basal cell adenocarcinomas show strong immunoreactivity to cytokeratin 7 and variable myoepithelial staining with S100.
  • It is necessary to differentiate basal cell adenocarcinoma from other basaloid cell tumors of the minor salivary glands because of the prognosis and potential differences in treatment, particularly adenoid cystic adenocarcinoma and basaloid squamous carcinoma.
  • Surgical excision with a wide margin to ensure complete removal has been suggested as the primary treatment for basal cell adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17922602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Tilakaratne WM, Kobayashi T, Ida-Yonemochi H, Swelam W, Yamazaki M, Mikami T, Alvarado CG, Shahidul AM, Maruyama S, Cheng J, Saku T: Matrix metalloproteinase 7 and perlecan in oral epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ: an aid for histopathologic recognition of their cell proliferation centers. J Oral Pathol Med; 2009 Apr;38(4):348-55
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  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinase 7 and perlecan in oral epithelial dysplasia and carcinoma in situ: an aid for histopathologic recognition of their cell proliferation centers.
  • BACKGROUND: As one of the valuable tools for differential diagnoses of oral epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we have proposed the immunohistochemistry for perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG).
  • The most striking finding was strong expression of MMP-7 in epithelial dysplasia with a two-phase appearance: a clear demarcation of MMP-7-immunopositive (+) lower dysplastic/basaloid cells from non-positive upper keratinized cells.
  • In SCC, MMP-7 positivity was reduced from carcinoma cells but instead appeared in stromal cells.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the enhanced metabolism of perlecan associated with MMP-7 plays an important role in the cell proliferation of oral epithelia in their malignant transformation process, and that MMP-7 immunohistochemistry may be a valuable aid for identification of the cell proliferation center in oral CIS and dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / biosynthesis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Tongue Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / biosynthesis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19239574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0714
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans; 143972-95-6 / perlecan; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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38. Oikawa K, Tabuchi K, Nomura M, Okubo H, Wada T, Iijima T, Hara A: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: a report of two cases. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2007 Mar;34(1):119-23
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: a report of two cases.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm and a histologically distinctive variant of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Since the first description by Wain et al. in 1986, only 18 cases with BSCC in the nasal cavity or in the paranasal cavity have been reported in the English literature.
  • We report herein two cases of BSCC of the maxillary sinus.
  • He died of lung metastasis 6 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • We reviewed the clinical features of BSCC from the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Maxillary Sinus / pathology. Maxillary Sinus / radiography. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17141998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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39. Campos MS, Modolo F, de Oliveira JS, Pinto-Júnior DS, de Sousa SC: Atypical presentation of oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. J Contemp Dent Pract; 2009;10(2):98-104
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  • [Title] Atypical presentation of oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIM: The purpose of this report is to present the clinical and histological features of a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) occurring in the retromolar trigone of a 59-year-old man and to relate its immunohistochemical characteristics.
  • BACKGROUND: BSCC is an aggressive distinct variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) requiring recognition as a separate entity from SCC due to its peculiar behavior.
  • Histologically, nests and cords of closely packed, moderately pleomorphic basaloid cells with nuclear palisading along the periphery of the neoplastic nests surrounded by a fibrous stroma were found.
  • SUMMARY: Since this tumor can mimic other neoplasms such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and basal cell adenocarcinoma, histological features are essential to differentiate between them.
  • CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: BSCC needs to be differentiated from other neoplasms as early as possible because of its adverse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Laminin / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Necrosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis


40. Bandyopadhyay A, Das TK, Raha K, Hati GC, Mitra PK, Dasgupta A: A study of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions with histopathological corroboration. J Indian Med Assoc; 2005 Jun;103(6):312-4, 316
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  • All smears were evaluated according to cell size, amount of cytoplasm, cytologic atypia and presence of lymphocytes. (a) Variable cytologic appearances of pleomorphic salivary adenoma were observed. (b) Cellular pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma showed basaloid cell features. (c) Tumours with intermediate size cells and bland cytology included low grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma and cystic lesions. (d) Warthin's tumour, oncocytoma, salivary duct carcinoma and high grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma revealed large cells and abundant cytoplasm with or without atypia.
  • Malignant tumours included muco-epidermoid carcinoma (n = 5), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3), acinic cell carcinoma (n = 2), adenocarcinoma (n= 2), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), undifferentiated carcinoma (n= 4) and malignant lymphoma (n = 1).
  • So it can be concluded that fine needle aspiration cytology can play important role in early diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic planning of salivary gland lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16225156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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41. González-García R, Nam-Cha SH, Muñoz-Guerra MF, Gamallo-Amat C: Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2006 Mar;11(2):E206-9
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  • [Title] Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma.
  • Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory.
  • We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland.
  • We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

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  • (PMID = 16505803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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42. Klenzner T, Arapakis I, Kayser G, Boedeker CC: Eccrine porocarcinoma of the ear mimicking basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Jul;135(1):158-60
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  • [Title] Eccrine porocarcinoma of the ear mimicking basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / diagnosis. Ear, External. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16815204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Soriano E, Righini Ch, Faure C, Lantuejoul S, Colonna M, Bolla M, Brambilla E, Reyt E: [Course and prognosis of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma: case-control study of 49 patients]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2005 Sep;122(4):173-80
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  • [Title] [Course and prognosis of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma: case-control study of 49 patients].
  • INTRODUCTION: The course and prognosis of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) are not well known.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the course and prognosis in a population of BSCC patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of 49 patients with BSCC in comparison with a cross-matched population of 49 patients treated for well- to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed that survival in BSCC group was lower than in the SCC group.
  • Local recurrence in the BSCC group was not higher than in the SCC group, but mortality by distant metastasis was six times higher than in the SCC population.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We consider BSCC patients as a high-risk population and we complete diagnosis explorations including a FDG-PET before curative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous. Head and Neck Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Case-Control Studies. Cohort Studies. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16230937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. Díaz de Liaño A, Olivera E, Yárnoz C, García-Bragado F, Ortiz H: [Multifocal basaloid squamous carcinoma of the esophagus]. Cir Esp; 2007 Dec;82(6):358-60
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  • [Title] [Multifocal basaloid squamous carcinoma of the esophagus].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma basaloide escamoso multifocal de esófago.
  • Basaloid-squamous carcinoma is a poorly-differentiated variety of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We present a case of basaloid-squamous cell of the esophagus a 54 year-old man who underwent an esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy and has been followed-up for 5 years with no evidence of disease recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18053506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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45. Li N, Wolgamot G, Argenyi Z: Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (Merkel cell carcinoma) with prominent microcystic features, mimicking eccrine carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):410-4
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (Merkel cell carcinoma) with prominent microcystic features, mimicking eccrine carcinoma.
  • Although primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma [Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC)] may show divergent features, including microcystic ('tubuloglandular'), squamous, eccrine and rhabdomyoblastic, a diffuse microcystic pattern is exceedingly rare.
  • In this study, we present two cases of MCC with prominent microcystic features, which precluded a definitive diagnosis in the initial punch biopsy.
  • Punch biopsies from both patients revealed an infiltrating neoplasm with prominent microcystic features that mimick tubuloglandular structures, lined by hyperchromatic basaloid cells, which were strongly positive for chromogranin and BerEP4, variably positive for CK7 and CK5/6 and negative for CK20, synaptophysin, S-100, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), estrogen/progesterone receptors (ER/PR), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
  • Although the lack of CK20 staining is unusual, the histologic characteristics along with the remaining immunohistochemical studies favor the diagnosis of a primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma over the variants of eccrine carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neck / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17448197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. Kacerovska D, Szepe P, Vanecek T, Nemcova J, Michal M, Mukensnabl P, Kazakov DV: Spiradenocylindroma-like basaloid carcinoma of the anus and rectum: case report, including HPV studies and analysis of the CYLD gene mutations. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Oct;30(5):472-6
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  • [Title] Spiradenocylindroma-like basaloid carcinoma of the anus and rectum: case report, including HPV studies and analysis of the CYLD gene mutations.
  • The authors report a case of basaloid carcinoma involving the anus and rectum of a 57-year-old woman.
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed unusual morphologic features strongly resembling a spiradenocylindroma because it consisted, in most parts, of basaloid cell nodules arranged in a jigsaw-puzzle fashion containing or surrounded by eosinophilic basal membrane material; in addition, there were intratumoral lymphocytes.
  • The overlying squamous epithelium manifested dysplastic changes compatible with in situ squamous carcinoma that gradually became invasive and blended with basaloid cell islands; additionally, there were koilocytes in the squamous epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Human papillomavirus 16 / pathogenicity. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18806492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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47. Marioni G, Ottaviano G, Marchese-Ragona R, Giacomelli L, Bertolin A, Zanon D, Marino F, Staffieri A: High nuclear expression of the apoptosis inhibitor protein survivin is associated with disease recurrence and poor prognosis in laryngeal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2006 Feb;126(2):197-203
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  • [Title] High nuclear expression of the apoptosis inhibitor protein survivin is associated with disease recurrence and poor prognosis in laryngeal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Nuclear expression of survivin should be studied as a promising marker of higher-risk laryngeal basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (BSCCs), which can then be treated more aggressively and followed more closely.
  • OBJECTIVE: BSCC is an uncommon bimorphic variant of SCC.
  • The hypothesized greater aggressiveness and poorer prognosis of head and neck BSCC compared to SCC are still under debate.
  • The regulation of apoptotic cell death has a profound effect on the pathogenesis and progression of malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / metabolism. Laryngeal Neoplasms / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16428200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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48. Kocjan G, Chandra A, Cross P, Denton K, Giles T, Herbert A, Smith P, Remedios D, Wilson P: BSCC Code of Practice--fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytopathology; 2009 Oct;20(5):283-96
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  • [Title] BSCC Code of Practice--fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • Both have been prepared with wide consultation within and outside the BSCC and have been endorsed by the Royal College of Pathologists.
  • This COP provides evidence-based recommendations for setting up FNA services, managing the patients, taking the samples, preparing the slides, collecting material for ancillary tests, providing rapid on-site assessment, classifying the diagnosis and providing a final report.
  • [MeSH-minor] Ambulatory Care Facilities. Bronchoscopy. Endoscopy. Great Britain. Humans. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / pathology. Quality Control. Specimen Handling. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19754835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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49. Zhang S, Bao R, Bagby J, Abreo F: Fine needle aspiration of salivary glands: 5-year experience from a single academic center. Acta Cytol; 2009 Jul-Aug;53(4):375-82
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  • There were 5 false negatives: 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 1 acinic cell carcinoma, 1 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 1 metastatic basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The only false positive was a pleomorphic adenoma misdiagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with the literature that salivary gland FNA has good sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of salivary neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19697720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. El-Mofty SK, Patil S: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma: characterization of a distinct phenotype. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2006 Mar;101(3):339-45
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma: characterization of a distinct phenotype.
  • We have recently shown that HPV-positive tonsillar carcinoma in young patients exhibits nonkeratinizing basaloid morphology and a characteristic immunophenotype.
  • The purpose of this study was to review a large number of cases of oropharyngeal carcinomas, in all age groups, and to identify tumors with nonkeratinizing morphology.
  • Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the prevalence and type of HPV DNA was determined in representative cases and in a control group of conventional keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas.
  • A total of 235 carcinomas were reviewed; 141 of the tonsils and 94 in the base of tongue.
  • Ninety (36%) of the tonsillar and 30 (32%) of the base of tongue carcinomas were nonkeratinizing (NKCa) with basal cell features; the rest were classical keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (KSCC).
  • It is concluded that NKCa of the tonsils and base of tongue is a distinct subtype of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with high prevalence of HPV DNA and a characteristic immunophenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16504868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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51. Ryska A, Ludvíková M, Rydlová M, Cáp J, Zalud R: Massive squamous metaplasia of the thyroid gland-- report of three cases. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(2):99-106
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  • [Title] Massive squamous metaplasia of the thyroid gland-- report of three cases.
  • Three cases of massive squamous cell metaplasia in Hashimoto's thyroiditis are reported.
  • Follicular cells were almost absent; the majority of residual epithelial cells formed squamous nests that were partly solid and partly cystic.
  • There were three types of epithelial cells - squamous, basaloid, and follicular, with oncocytic differentiation.
  • The squamous and basaloid cells showed strong positivity high molecular weight (HMW) cytokeratin, moderate to strong expression of galectin-3 (2/3), and nuclear expression of p63 protein (2/3).
  • The staining pattern of p63 was identical to that of HMW, with predominant positivity at the periphery of cell nests.
  • They may represent a diagnostic pitfall and should not be misdiagnosed as a malignancy, in particular as squamous cell or mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16376021.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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52. Szendroi M, Antal I, Arató G: Adamantinoma of long bones: a long-term follow-up study of 11 cases. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Jun;15(2):209-16
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  • The initial diagnosis at referral was other than adamantinoma in six patients (fibrous dysplasia, carcinoma metastasis, osteofibrous dysplasia, bone cyst, non-ossifying fibroma), referring to the differential diagnostic problems.
  • By histological evaluation, basaloid pattern on a background of fibrotic stroma dominated in six patients, while spindle and squamous features were less frequently seen.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19048403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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53. Fuste V, del Pino M, Perez A, Garcia A, Torne A, Pahisa J, Ordi J: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: human papillomavirus detection, p16(INK4A) overexpression and clinicopathological correlations. Histopathology; 2010 Dec;57(6):907-16
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  • [Title] Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: human papillomavirus detection, p16(INK4A) overexpression and clinicopathological correlations.
  • AIM: To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina (SCCVa), and to evaluate its clinicopathological significance.
  • Patients with a history of carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed <5 years before were excluded.
  • Patients with HPV-positive tumours were associated frequently with a history of carcinoma or intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix or vulva diagnosed more than 5 years before (56% versus 0%; P=0.01).
  • HPV-positive tumours were more frequently of non-keratinizing, basaloid or warty type than HPV-negative neoplasms (84% versus 14.3%; P<0.001), and showed diffuse positive immunoreactivity for p16(INK4a) (96%, versus 14.3%; P<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.
  • (PMID = 21166704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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54. Bhadani PP, Sen R, Bhadani UK, Karki S, Agarwal S: Is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) useful in skin adnexal masses? A study on 5 cases of pilomatixoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Apr;50(2):411-4
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  • PMX was diagnosed on FNAC in 3 cases on finding groups of basaloid cells, ghost epithelial cells, pink fibrillary material and calcium deposits.
  • Other cases were diagnosed as epidermal inclusion cyst with the differential diagnosis of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and skin appendageal tumor of undetermined origin in one case each.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17883095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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55. Chaux A, Pfannl R, Lloveras B, Alejo M, Clavero O, Lezcano C, Muñoz N, de Sanjosé S, Bosch X, Hernández-Pérez M, Velazquez EF, Cubilla AL: Distinctive association of p16INK4a overexpression with penile intraepithelial neoplasia depicting warty and/or basaloid features: a study of 141 cases evaluating a new nomenclature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):385-92
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  • [Title] Distinctive association of p16INK4a overexpression with penile intraepithelial neoplasia depicting warty and/or basaloid features: a study of 141 cases evaluating a new nomenclature.
  • From the pathogenic point of view, penile cancers may be grouped in human papillomavirus-related and unrelated tumors, each one of them with distinctive morphologic features.
  • The former are predominantly composed of small, undifferentiated basaloid cells, with more or less prominent koilocytic changes, and the latter of keratinizing differentiated squamous cells.
  • On the basis of these observations, we constructed a novel nomenclature for penile precancerous lesions and classified them as penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) of differentiated, warty, basaloid, and warty-basaloid types.
  • Distribution of PeIN types was: differentiated, 72%; basaloid, 9%; warty-basaloid, 7%; warty, 4%; and mixed, 7%.
  • There was a striking similarity in the morphology of in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Differentiated PeIN was commonly associated with usual, verrucous, papillary, and other low-grade keratinizing variants of squamous cell carcinoma whereas in basaloid and warty carcinomas the presence of in situ lesions with similar morphology was habitual.
  • To properly distinguish differentiated PeIN from in situ lesions with warty and/or basaloid features only pattern 3, which requires full-thickness staining in all epithelial cells, was considered positive.
  • Using this approach, there was a significant association of the negative patterns and differentiated PeIN and of the positive pattern and warty, basaloid, and warty-basaloid PeIN (P<0.0001).
  • Basaloid variant had the strongest association.
  • Although more studies are necessary to confirm these observations, p16 overexpression seems to be a useful tool for discriminating differentiated from warty, basaloid, and warty-basaloid PeIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Condylomata Acuminata / classification. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Papillomavirus Infections / classification. Penile Neoplasms / classification. Precancerous Conditions / classification. Terminology as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / classification. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / metabolism. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20139761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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56. Moro-Sibilot D, Lantuejoul S, Diab S, Moulai N, Aubert A, Timsit JF, Brambilla C, Brichon PY, Brambilla E: Lung carcinomas with a basaloid pattern: a study of 90 cases focusing on their poor prognosis. Eur Respir J; 2008 Apr;31(4):854-9
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  • [Title] Lung carcinomas with a basaloid pattern: a study of 90 cases focusing on their poor prognosis.
  • Lung carcinoma with a basaloid pattern (BC) is classified as either a basaloid variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or as variant of large cell carcinoma (LCC) depending on the presence of a squamous component.
  • In order to confirm its clinical significance in a larger series, 90 BC, including 46 basaloid variants of LCC and 44 basaloid variants of SCC, were compared with 1,328 other nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with regard to clinical features and survival.
  • The survival of basaloid variants of LCC and SCC was comparable.
  • Basaloid pattern confers a poor prognosis in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, especially in stage I-II patients, suggesting that lung carcinoma with a basaloid pattern is not only a variant of squamous cell carcinoma or large cell carcinoma, but is a unique entity with a significantly poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18094005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-3003
  • [Journal-full-title] The European respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Respir. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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57. Sideri M, Jones RW, Wilkinson EJ, Preti M, Heller DS, Scurry J, Haefner H, Neill S: Squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: 2004 modified terminology, ISSVD Vulvar Oncology Subcommittee. J Reprod Med; 2005 Nov;50(11):807-10
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  • [Title] Squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: 2004 modified terminology, ISSVD Vulvar Oncology Subcommittee.
  • In the current classification, squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is categorized as VIN 1, 2 and 3 according to the degree of abnormality.
  • There is neither evidence that the VIN 1-3 morphologic spectrum reflects a biologic continuum nor that VIN 1 is a cancer precursor.
  • VIN, usual type (warty, basaloid and mixed), is HPV related in most cases.
  • Invasive squamous carcinomas of warty or basaloid type is associated with VIN, usual type.
  • VIN, differentiated type, is seen particularly in older women with lichen sclerosus and/or squamous cell hyperplasia in some cases.
  • Neither VIN, differentiated type, nor associated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is HPV related.
  • The term VIN should apply only to histologically high grade squamous lesions (former terms, VIN 2 and VIN 3 and differentiated VIN 3).
  • Two categories should describe squamous VIN: VIN, usual type (encompassing former VIN 2 and 3 of warty, basaloid and mixed types) and VIN, differentiated type (VIN 3, differentiated type).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Neoplasm Staging / standards. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 16419625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Stelow EB, Mills SE: Squamous cell carcinoma variants of the upper aerodigestive tract. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Dec;124 Suppl:S96-109
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma variants of the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is by far the most common malignancy of the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • In such cases, correct diagnosis is important for prognostic and therapeutic reasons.
  • This article discusses the clinicopathologic features of the upper aerodigestive tract variants of SCC, including verrucous carcinoma, papillary squamous cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, adenoid squamous cell carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • It also discusses the differential diagnoses that must be considered and the use of ancillary testing, especially immunohistochemical analysis, for determining the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Digestive System Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16468420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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59. Subramanian B, Agrawal K, Panda K: Basaloid squamous carcinoma of mandible. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Jan;20(1):151-3
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous carcinoma of mandible.
  • Basaloid squamous carcinoma is a rare distinct histologic variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region.
  • Basaloid squamous carcinoma is more aggressive and has a poorer prognosis, although histologically, it is associated with squamous cell carcinoma and squamous atypia.
  • The usual site of occurrence for basaloid squamous carcinoma is the base of the tongue, hypopharynx (pyriform sinus), and the supraglottic larynx (Wain et al.
  • We are reporting an unusual case of basaloid squmous carcinoma of the mandible with no secondaries and features of sarcomatoid pattern histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Wires. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gingival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gingival Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Neck Dissection. Radiography, Panoramic. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 19165013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Chaux A, Reuter V, Lezcano C, Velazquez EF, Torres J, Cubilla AL: Comparison of morphologic features and outcome of resected recurrent and nonrecurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: a study of 81 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1299-306
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of morphologic features and outcome of resected recurrent and nonrecurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: a study of 81 cases.
  • Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered a loco-regional disease with a fairly predictable pattern of progression.
  • Comparison of recurrent tumors at the time of the primary diagnosis and of recurrence showed that histologic subtype and grade were identical in 76% of the cases and converted to a higher grade tumor in 24% of the cases, especially, in patients treated with local excisions and circumcisions.
  • Comparison of recurrent and nonrecurrent tumors showed that high grade tumors (basaloid and sarcomatoid) tended to be significantly associated with recurrent tumors, whereas low grade variants (papillary, warty and verrucous) were more frequent in the nonrecurrent group; recurrent tumors invaded into deeper anatomic levels than nonrecurrent tumors.
  • Mortality was higher in the recurrent group (56% vs. 29%, P=0.0188); 80% of patients with high-grade tumors (basaloid, sarcomatoid, and high grade usual or hybrid verrucous SCCs) died from penile cancer.
  • Mortality in patients with usual SCC was higher in the recurrent group, but similar in basaloid and sarcomatoid SCCs.
  • In summary, histologic subtypes and grades of SCCs were similar in the majority of original and recurrent carcinomas.
  • Inguinal metastasis and mortality were higher in recurrent than in nonrecurrent carcinomas.
  • Basaloid, sarcomatoid, and mixed usual-verrucous variants and invasion of corpora cavernosa or preputial skin were significant adverse prognostic factors of recurrent carcinomas.
  • Local excision and partial penectomy were not adequate procedures for sarcomatoid and basaloid penile carcinomas.
  • Carcinomas of foreskin had a better prognosis.
  • Conversion from low to high-grade carcinoma was related to significant mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19471153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Chute DJ, Stelow EB: Cytology of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma variants. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jan;38(1):65-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytology of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma variants.
  • The most common diagnosis rendered with head and neck fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • While most cases of metastatic SCC pose little diagnostic difficulty, the diagnosis of metastatic histologic variants of SCC, often coupled with less common etiologies, can be more problematic.
  • This manuscript reviews the clinicopathologic features of the histologic variants of upper aerodigestive tract SCC (verrucous, papillary, spindle cell, undifferentiated, acantholytic, and basaloid) and uncommon etiologies of head and neck SCC (human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr Virus, and NUT midline carcinomas).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology


62. Vasudev P, Boutross-Tadross O, Radhi J: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma: two case reports. Cases J; 2009;2:9351
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma: two case reports.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that occurs preferentially in the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • We present two cases of BSCC, one arising in the conjunctiva and the other arising in a paranasal sinus.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of BSCC of the conjunctiva.
  • BSCC of the head and neck should be distinguished from adenoid cystic carcinoma, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, spindle cell squamous carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma.

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  • [Cites] Eur J Cancer. 2008 Jan;44(2):244-50 [18096379.001]
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  • (PMID = 20062602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2804002
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63. Osakabe M, Hayashi M, Katayama Y, Emura I, Nemoto K, Umezu H, Saitoh K, Motoyama T: Characteristics of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in Japanese women. Pathol Int; 2007 Jun;57(6):322-7
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  • [Title] Characteristics of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in Japanese women.
  • Although the presence of racial differences in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas has been suggested, fully analyzed data concerning such tumors in Japanese women have not been reported.
  • A total of 21 vulvar squamous cell carcinomas of Japanese women who lived in north-east Japan, were studied with respect to histological subtype, HPV, p53 and p16(INK4a).
  • The remaining five tumors of basaloid, warty or verrucous types were positive for HPV.
  • HPV-negative tumors showed a trend of greater accumulation of gene abnormalities, including p53 gene mutation, than HPV-positive ones. p16(INK4a) overexpression was shown to not always be a marker for vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in Japanese women with activated high-risk HPV.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17539962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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64. Serrano MF, El-Mofty SK, Gnepp DR, Lewis JS Jr: Utility of high molecular weight cytokeratins, but not p63, in the differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine and basaloid carcinomas of the head and neck. Hum Pathol; 2008 Apr;39(4):591-8
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  • [Title] Utility of high molecular weight cytokeratins, but not p63, in the differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine and basaloid carcinomas of the head and neck.
  • High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the head and neck overlap significantly in morphology with both basaloid squamous and solid-type adenoid cystic carcinomas.
  • High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas have sheets of small cells with scant cytoplasm, granular chromatin, and inconspicuous nucleoli.
  • Basaloid squamous and adenoid cystic carcinomas are aggressive variants of their respective tumor types which both have nests of basaloid tumor cells with round nuclei, little cytoplasm, and inconspicuous nucleoli.
  • We performed high molecular weight cytokeratin (CK) and p63 immunohistochemistry on 19 neuroendocrine carcinomas, 18 basaloid squamous carcinomas, and 11 solid-type adenoid cystic carcinomas.
  • All basaloid squamous and adenoid cystic carcinomas were positive for CK 5/6 and 34betaE12.
  • Only 4 and 5 of the 19 neuroendocrine carcinomas, respectively, were positive for these markers.
  • Staining was focal in the neuroendocrine cases when positive, whereas almost all basaloid squamous and adenoid cystic carcinomas showed strong staining.
  • Almost all tumors of each type were positive for p63, including neuroendocrine carcinomas, but with different staining patterns.
  • Basaloid squamous carcinomas were diffusely positive, neuroendocrine carcinomas were diffusely positive, but with weak staining, and adenoid cystic carcinomas showed a distinct pattern with staining at the periphery of the cell nests only.
  • We conclude that high molecular weight cytokeratin immunostaining is helpful in distinguishing high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas from similar tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Keratins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-5 / analysis. Keratin-6 / analysis. Male. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Middle Aged. Molecular Weight


65. Longacre TA, Kong CS, Welton ML: Diagnostic problems in anal pathology. Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):263-78
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  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions are increasing in incidence in the United States and Europe.
  • This trend predates human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and has been associated with persistent high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype infection, previous lower genital tract dysplasia/carcinoma, high frequency anoreceptive intercourse, heavy cigarette smoking, immunosuppression in solid organ transplant and immune disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity.
  • Screening protocols for at-risk patients are under active investigation and pathologists are often asked to assess anal canal and perianal biopsies for the presence of dysplasia and/or invasive carcinoma.
  • Because underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of anal cancer and precancer may lead to inappropriate treatment, it is important for the pathologist to be aware of current screening strategies, specific risk lesions, and the role of pathology in initial diagnosis and evaluation of anal biopsy and/or resection specimens.
  • Standardized histologic criteria and uniform terminology should be used for reporting all anal canal and perianal squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • HPV has been linked to all the major histologic subtypes of anal carcinoma (eg, basaloid, cloacogenic, transitional, etc.) and this association is strongest for anal canal lesions.
  • With the possible exception of the microcystic pattern, histologic subtype does not seem to predict prognosis; and anal squamous cell carcinomas should be classified as either keratinizing or nonkeratinizing.
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas have a worse prognosis and should be distinguished from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Very well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with pushing margins (so-called giant condyloma of Buschke and Lowenstein) should be classified as verrucous carcinoma; this tumor shows aggressive local infiltration but does not metastasize.
  • As all anal condylomata may harbor foci of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma, careful sectioning and complete histologic examination is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Risk Factors. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18724100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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66. Chetty R, Serra S, Hsieh E: Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1668-72
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant.
  • Two cases of a distinctive variety of basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the anal canal are described.
  • Histologic evaluation of the tumors showed lobules and aggregates of medium-sized basaloid cells with distinctive peripheral palisading and focal areas of central, comedo-necrosis.
  • Accompanying dysplasia of the overlying squamous mucosa was absent.
  • This appearance together with microcystic spaces simulated that of an adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • The histologic differential diagnosis is true salivary gland-type adenoid cystic carcinoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry and awareness of this unusual pattern of BSC will facilitate the correct diagnosis being reached.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD20 / metabolism. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. DNA-Binding Proteins. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Radiotherapy. Time Factors. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16327441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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67. Jani P, Chetty R, Ghazarian DM: An unusual composite pilomatrix carcinoma with intralesional melanocytes: differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical evaluation, and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Apr;30(2):174-7
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  • [Title] An unusual composite pilomatrix carcinoma with intralesional melanocytes: differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical evaluation, and review of the literature.
  • We report a case of an extremely rare histologic combination of pilomatrix or pilomatrical carcinoma with admixed melanocytes within the same tumor mass.
  • Pilomatrix carcinoma is a neoplasm of low-grade malignancy that is characterized by a tendency for recurrence but low risk of metastasis.
  • Histologically, it was typified by asymmetry and poor circumscription, the presence of several variably sized and shaped basaloid aggregations, and surface ulceration.
  • The tumors were composed of pleomorphic basaloid cells with prominent nucleoli and frequent mitoses (some of which were atypical) accompanied by central areas with keratotic material, shadow cells, and foci of necrosis.
  • In addition, intermingled with the pilomatrix carcinoma, several easily identified pigmented cells with dendritic processes were present singly and as small aggregates.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed the CK14 to be positive mainly within the keratinizing and the squamous epithelial elements of the tumor.
  • Pilomatrix carcinoma with melanocytes should be distinguished from the conventional pilomatrixoma with pigmentation, melanocytic matricoma, melanoma, and pigmented basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation.
  • Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the occurrence of pilomatrix carcinoma with melanocytes because of its potential for diagnosis as melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nose. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18360125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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68. Burstein DE, Nagi C, Kohtz DS, Lee L, Wang B: Immunodetection of GLUT1, p63 and phospho-histone H1 in invasive head and neck squamous carcinoma: correlation of immunohistochemical staining patterns with keratinization. Histopathology; 2006 May;48(6):717-22
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  • [Title] Immunodetection of GLUT1, p63 and phospho-histone H1 in invasive head and neck squamous carcinoma: correlation of immunohistochemical staining patterns with keratinization.
  • Immunodetection of GLUT1, p63 and phospho-histone H1 in invasive head and neck squamous carcinoma: correlation of immunohistochemical staining patterns with keratinizationAims : To examine invasive head and neck squamous carcinomas for expression of GLUT1, a glucose transporter and marker of increased glucose uptake, glycolytic metabolism and response to tissue hypoxia; p63, a p53 homologue that is a marker of the undifferentiated proliferative basaloid phenotype; and phospho-histone H1, a marker of activation of the cell cycle-promoting cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2.
  • Methods : Routinely processed slides from 34 invasive squamous carcinomas, including 25 with intraepithelial components, were immunostained with anti-GLUT1 (Chemicon), anti-p63 (4A4, Santa Cruz), and antiphospho-histone H1 (monoclonal 12D11).
  • Results : In keratinizing carcinomas, all three markers were most commonly immunodetected peripherally, with loss of expression in central keratinized zones.
  • In contrast, in non-keratinizing carcinomas, p63 and phospho-histone H1 expression was most commonly observed throughout tumour nests and anti-GLUT1 stained in a pattern suggestive of hypoxia-induced expression ('antistromal' staining), in which cells at the tumour-stromal interface were GLUT1- and cells in central, perinecrotic zones showed progressive induction of GLUT1.
  • Intraepithelial components also displayed basal and 'antibasal' GLUT1 staining patterns, homologous to the pro- and antistromal patterns in invasive carcinoma; basal patterns in intraepithelial lesions appeared to be more predictive of keratinizing invasive carcinoma and antibasal intraepithelial staining more predictive of non-keratinizing poorly differentiated carcinomas.
  • Conclusions : Keratinizing and non-keratinizing squamous carcinomas differ in expression patterns of GLUT1, p63 and phospho-histone H1.
  • GLUT1 expression patterns in intraepithelial lesions may be predictive of the differentiation status of the associated invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16681688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / Histones; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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69. Monica V, Ceppi P, Righi L, Tavaglione V, Volante M, Pelosi G, Scagliotti GV, Papotti M: Desmocollin-3: a new marker of squamous differentiation in undifferentiated large-cell carcinoma of the lung. Mod Pathol; 2009 May;22(5):709-17
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  • [Title] Desmocollin-3: a new marker of squamous differentiation in undifferentiated large-cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • Lung cancer classification in small-cell and non-small-cell types was recently challenged by data on the differential efficacy of new cytotoxic agents in specific histotypes.
  • An accurate histotype definition has therefore gained interest in both preoperative and surgical materials, but is a hard task especially in undifferentiated large-cell tumors lacking morphological signs of squamous or glandular differentiation.
  • The responsiveness of these latter subtypes to new drugs apparently more selective for adenocarcinomas or squamous carcinomas is not fully understood, also due to the heterogeneity of diagnostic criteria for this tumor entity.
  • On the basis of gene expression profiling data, reporting a remarkable differential expression of desmocollin-3 (a protein localized in desmosomal junctions of stratified epithelial) between adeno- and squamous cancers, we immunostained 62 cases of resected undifferentiated large-cell lung carcinomas for desmocollin-3 (and for TTF-1, p63 and mucin stain), to test its ability to identify a (residual) squamous phenotype, if present.
  • Desmocollin-3 was expressed in almost half of the undifferentiated large-cell cancers and was mutually exclusive with TTF-1 (positive in 39%; the remaining 18 % of cases was double negative).
  • Special large-cell carcinoma variants expressed desmocollin-3 in 6 of 6 basaloid, 7 of 12 clear-cell types, again mutually exclusive with TTF-1 expression.
  • None of seven sarcomatoid carcinomas reacted for either marker.
  • In 31 cytological samples diagnosed as 'non-small-cell lung carcinoma', desmocollin-3 was again mutually exclusive with TTF-1 and stained all squamous carcinomas, 1 of 19 adenocarcinoma only, and 50% of large-cell carcinoma (all histologically confirmed).
  • This combined morphophenotypic approach may represent a valid adjunct (for both surgical and cytological samples) in the selection of patients with lung cancer to medical treatments tailored according to different efficacy in different lung carcinomas of the squamous, adeno- and large-cell types.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Desmocollins / biosynthesis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19287461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / DSC3 protein, human; 0 / Desmocollins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human
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70. Liao CT, Huang SF, Chen IH, Chang JT, Wang HM, Ng SH, Hsueh C, Lee LY, Lin CH, Cheng AJ, Yen TC: When does skin excision allow the achievement of an adequate local control rate in patients with squamous cell carcinoma involving the buccal mucosa? Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;15(8):2187-94
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  • [Title] When does skin excision allow the achievement of an adequate local control rate in patients with squamous cell carcinoma involving the buccal mucosa?
  • BACKGROUND: The role of cheek skin excision in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa (BSCC) remains controversial.
  • METHODS: A total of 331 patients with BSCC were reviewed.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with BSCC, a good 5-year local control rate may be equally achieved either with or without skin excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Mouth Mucosa / surgery. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18506533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Brustmann H: Epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in the development of an invasive phenotype in vulvar squamous lesions, but is not related to MIB-1 immunoreactivity. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Oct;26(4):481-9
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in the development of an invasive phenotype in vulvar squamous lesions, but is not related to MIB-1 immunoreactivity.
  • This study investigated the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and proliferation as determined by MIB-1 labeling indices (proliferation index [PI]) in 82 cases of vulvar tissues consisting of healthy epithelia (HE) (n = 10), vulvar condylomas (VC; n = 24), high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias (HG-VIN) of warty and basaloid types (n = 26), invasive keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; n = 22), and differentiated VIN adjacent to SCCs (n = 7) by means of a standard immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibodies to characterize EGFR expression, with an emphasis on neoplastic transformation and progression, and to relate it to proliferation.
  • This study shows the upregulation of EGFR expression in a few warty and basaloid HG-VIN cases and in many SCCs of the vulva.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / metabolism. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Phenotype


72. Ghigna MR, Drak Alsibai K, Porras J, Palazzo L, Godchaux JM, Fabre M: Deep-seated rectal/anal basaloid carcinoma: useful immunocytochemistry in rare squamous cell carcinoma variants. Cytopathology; 2009 Oct;20(5):315-20
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  • [Title] Deep-seated rectal/anal basaloid carcinoma: useful immunocytochemistry in rare squamous cell carcinoma variants.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report the cytological aspects of ano-rectal basaloid carcinoma (BC) variant in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC), in a series of 10 cases of deep-seated squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and to discuss the diagnostic difficulties in interpreting the morphology and immunocytochemical findings.
  • Of these two cases, only one was correctly diagnosed by EUS-FNA specimen, whereas in the second case, the initial cytological diagnosis was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and the final diagnosis of basaloid carcinoma variant was established on surgical resection.
  • Immunocytochemistry (ICC) using CK7, CK20 and CK34betae12 on FNA specimens confirmed the diagnosis retrospectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of basaloid variant of SCC in a rectal location can be very difficult, both on account of the uncommon location and because of the low specificity of morphological aspects on EUS-FNA smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasms, Basal Cell. Rectal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18540877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Bellizzi AM, Woodford RL, Moskaluk CA, Jones DR, Kozower BD, Stelow EB: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: assessment for high-risk human papillomavirus and related molecular markers. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Nov;33(11):1608-14
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: assessment for high-risk human papillomavirus and related molecular markers.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the esophagus is rare, historically confused for adenoid cystic carcinoma, and recently shown to behave similar to conventional, keratinizing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • At other sites (eg, oropharynx, anogenital tract) the basaloid phenotype is frequently associated with the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • HPVs role in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas is less certain, and to our knowledge, a direct examination of esophageal BSCC for high-risk HPV has not been performed earlier.
  • Nine cases of esophageal BSCC were retrieved from our surgical pathology files.
  • Twenty-two cases of keratinizing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma served as controls.
  • Compared with controls, BSCC showed less immunoreactivity for p16 and p53 (P=0.003, 0.009).
  • Esophageal BSCC is negative for high-risk HPV by ISH, distinguishing these lesions from other BSCCs.
  • Differential p16 and p53 expression in BSCC suggests that these tumors are molecularly distinct from conventional esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Esophageal Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications


74. Emanuel P, Wang B, Wu M, Burstein DE: p63 Immunohistochemistry in the distinction of adenoid cystic carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2005 May;18(5):645-50
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  • [Title] p63 Immunohistochemistry in the distinction of adenoid cystic carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Morphologic distinction of high-grade adenoid cystic carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma can be difficult.
  • We have investigated the possibility that immunohistochemical staining for the presence of p63, a novel epithelial stem-cell regulatory protein, could be a useful means of distinguishing these two neoplasms.
  • Archival, routinely processed slides were subjected to citrate-based antigen retrieval, exposure to anti-p63 monoclonal 4A4, and developed with a streptavidin-biotin kit and diaminobenzidine as chromogen. p63 was detected in 100% of the adenoid cystic carcinomas (n=14) and 100% of basaloid squamous cell carcinomas (n=16).
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinomas consistently displayed diffuse p63 positivity, with staining of nearly 100% of tumor cells.
  • In contrast, adenoid cystic carcinoma displayed a consistently compartmentalized pattern within tumor nests.
  • (1) selective staining of a single peripheral layer of p63-positive cells surrounding centrally located tumor cells that were p63-negative and (2) tumor nests consisting of multiple contiguous glandular/cribriform-like units of p63-positive cells surrounding or interspersed with p63-negative cells. p63 immunostaining constitutes a specific and accurate means of distinguishing adenoid cystic carcinoma from basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. p63 positivity in adenoid cystic carcinoma appears to be homologous to that seen in the basal and/or myoepithelial compartments of salivary gland and other epithelia, and may signify a stem-cell-like role for these peripheral cells.
  • Diffuse p63 positivity in basaloid squamous cell carcinoma suggests dysregulation of p63-positive stem cells in poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Phosphoproteins / analysis. Trans-Activators / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA-Binding Proteins. Diagnosis, Differential. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 15529180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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75. Sonegawa H, Nukui T, Li DW, Takaishi M, Sakaguchi M, Huh NH: Involvement of deterioration in S100C/A11-mediated pathway in resistance of human squamous cancer cell lines to TGFbeta-induced growth suppression. J Mol Med (Berl); 2007 Jul;85(7):753-62
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  • [Title] Involvement of deterioration in S100C/A11-mediated pathway in resistance of human squamous cancer cell lines to TGFbeta-induced growth suppression.
  • In the present study, we examined the possible deterioration in the pathway in human squamous cancer cell lines, focusing on intracellular localization of S100C/A11 and its functional partners Smad3 and Smad4.
  • All four human squamous cancer cell lines examined (A431, BSCC-93, DJM-1, and HSC-5) were resistant to growth suppression by TGFbeta.
  • In BSCC-93, DJM-1, and HSC-5 cells exposed to TGFbeta, S100C/A11 was not transferred to the nuclei, and p21(WAF1) was not induced.
  • These results indicate that the deterioration in the S100C/A11-mediated pathway conferred upon the cancer cell lines resistance to TGFbeta.
  • Thus, the newly found S100C/A11-mediated pathway is at least partly involved in conferring upon human squamous cell cancers resistant to TGFbeta-induced growth suppression, which is considered to play a critical role for the initiation and progression of many human cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Division / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Smad3 Protein / metabolism. Smad4 Protein / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Humans. Protein Transport. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 17476473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-2716
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / SMAD3 protein, human; 0 / SMAD4 protein, human; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Smad4 Protein; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
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76. Karatzanis AD, Fragkiadakis GM, Prokopakis EP, Koutsopoulos AV, Helidonis ES, Velegrakis GA: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate: case report. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Dec;35(4):592-6
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate: case report.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a histologically distinct variant of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The palate is a very rare site of BSCC development and only three cases have been reported in the international literature.
  • In this report, we present a case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate.
  • The therapeutic strategy and histological findings are described in detail, including immunohistochemistry with the use of involucrin, an agent used for the first time for BSCC diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Palatal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Palate, Soft
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Coloring Agents. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Protein Precursors. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18242906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1476
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Protein Precursors; 60108-77-2 / involucrin
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77. Cabanillas R, Rodrigo JP, Ferlito A, Rinaldo A, Fresno MF, Aguilar C, Alvarez ME, Suárez C: Is there an epidemiological link between human papillomavirus DNA and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx? Oral Oncol; 2007 Apr;43(4):327-32
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  • [Title] Is there an epidemiological link between human papillomavirus DNA and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx?
  • The epidemiological link between human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the pharynx was studied.
  • The tobacco and alcohol consumption and the clinical outcomes of nine patients with BSCC of the pharynx are compared with site and stage matched 109 conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients.
  • The BSCC specimens were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA and p53 expression.
  • We did not find any significant differences in tobacco and alcohol consumption between patients with BSCC and patients with SCC.
  • No HPV DNA was detected in BSCC, and p53 overexpression was found in five (55%) of the cases.
  • Our results do not support an etiological link between HPV DNA and BSCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. DNA, Viral / biosynthesis. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology


78. Knopf A, Schneider J, Schipper J, Hoffmann TK, Bas M: [Sinonasal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in biopsies of inverted papilloma]. HNO; 2008 Aug;56(8):808-12
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  • [Title] [Sinonasal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in biopsies of inverted papilloma].
  • [Transliterated title] Das sinonasale basaloid-squamöse Karzinom in Biopsien eines invertierten Papilloms.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare tumor representing an aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and arising from a common precursor cell.
  • BSCC rarely originates from the sinonasal tract.
  • We report on an 83-year-old woman with BSCC after multiple resections of an inverted papilloma (IP) of the left sinonasal tract.
  • A possible association between sinonasal BSCC and IP, as implicated by the current case, must be further investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Papilloma, Inverted / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17876561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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79. Yu L, Galan A, McNiff JM: Caveats in BerEP4 staining to differentiate basal and squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36(10):1074-176
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  • [Title] Caveats in BerEP4 staining to differentiate basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Superficial skin biopsies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent some of the most common dermatopathology specimens.
  • Superficial shave biopsies containing partial samples of lesions with squamatization present difficulties in distinguishing BCC from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • METHODS: We collected 12 cases of superficial biopsies of BCC with centrally located cords and strands suggesting squamous differentiation at the Yale Dermatopathology Laboratory over a 3-month period and stained them with BerEP4.
  • RESULTS: We found that all cases (12 out of 12) showed membranous and cytoplasmic staining with BerEP4 in the obvious areas of basaloid differentiation at the periphery of the tumors, while cords and strands of enlarged cells with squamoid features in the center and surface of the biopsy failed to label with BerEP4.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Staining and Labeling


80. Rau AR, Kini H, Naik R, Sahu KK: Case reports of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma--an aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Jan;48(1):31-3
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  • [Title] Case reports of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma--an aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a high grade variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma with a predilection for the aero-digestive tract.
  • The typical microscopic features of carcinoma with a basaloid pattern in intimate association with a squamous component helps in diagnosis of this tumour.
  • This study discusses the differential diagnosis of BSCC, as recognition of this tumour may have therapeutic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16758784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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81. Denton K: The proposed BSCC terminology for abnormal cervical cytology. Cytopathology; 2008 Dec;19(6):398-9
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  • [Title] The proposed BSCC terminology for abnormal cervical cytology.


82. Cubilla AL, Lloveras B, Alejo M, Clavero O, Chaux A, Kasamatsu E, Velazquez EF, Lezcano C, Monfulleda N, Tous S, Alemany L, Klaustermeier J, Muñoz N, Quint W, de Sanjose S, Bosch FX: The basaloid cell is the best tissue marker for human papillomavirus in invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 202 cases from Paraguay. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jan;34(1):104-14
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  • [Title] The basaloid cell is the best tissue marker for human papillomavirus in invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 202 cases from Paraguay.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been reported in 12-82% of penile squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).
  • There is an association of the virus with basaloid and warty carcinomas but the reported prevalence is variable.
  • The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of HPV in penile SCC and subtypes using a sensitive technique, to investigate genotypes involved, and to search for other morphologic features associated with the virus from a series of cases from Paraguay.
  • HPV was preferentially associated with warty-basaloid (82%), basaloid (76%), and warty (39%) carcinomas and not detected in verrucous, mixed verrucous-papillary, pseudohyperplastic, and pseudoglandular SCCs.
  • Basaloid cells were more frequently found in HPV positive tumors (72%) and this association was statistically significant in univariate and multivariate analyses.
  • Cells with koilocytotic features and keratinizing squamous cells were also present but to a much lesser degree (47% and 19%, respectively).
  • There was an association between HPV presence and higher histologic grade and with basaloid, warty-basaloid, and warty carcinomas.
  • Our results also suggest that, in penile SCC, the basaloid cell is the best tissue marker for oncogenic HPV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 20035150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Chandra A, Cross P, Denton K, Giles T, Hemming D, Payne C, Wilson A, Wilson P: The BSCC code of practice--exfoliative cytopathology (excluding gynaecological cytopathology). Cytopathology; 2009 Aug;20(4):211-23
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  • [Title] The BSCC code of practice--exfoliative cytopathology (excluding gynaecological cytopathology).
  • It clearly has a role in the diagnosis of neoplastic disease but its role in establishing non-neoplastic diagnoses should also be recognised.
  • Ancillary tests may be required to establish a definitive diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19659955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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84. Kedzia W, Bierła J, Kedzia H: [Agresive variants of uterine cervical cancers]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 Sep;78(9):733-6
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  • Three different variants of biologically agressive cervical cancers, such as: basaloid carcinoma, glassy cell carcinoma and small cell endocrine carcinoma, have been reported.
  • Characteristic morphologic features of these cancers have been emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


85. Chaux A, Soares F, Rodríguez I, Barreto J, Lezcano C, Torres J, Velazquez EF, Cubilla AL: Papillary squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS) of the penis: clinicopathologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome of 35 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):223-30
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  • [Title] Papillary squamous cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS) of the penis: clinicopathologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome of 35 cases.
  • There is a group of low-grade papillomatous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the penis, collectively designated as "verruciform," that are difficult to classify.
  • A proposal of classification grouped these tumors in warty (condylomatous), verrucous, and papillary carcinomas.
  • Papillary carcinomas were large (mean 5.6 cm) exophytic low-grade squamous neoplasms with hyperkeratosis and papillomatosis.
  • Frequent associated lesions were squamous hyperplasia, differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and lichen sclerosus (74%, 46%, and 34%, respectively).
  • In conclusion, papillary carcinomas were exophytic albeit, often deeply invasive low-grade neoplasms, with a low rate of nodal metastasis characterized by complex papillae, irregular fibrovascular cores, and jagged tumor base.
  • Papillary SCC should be distinguished from other penile verruciform tumors, including verrucous and variants, warty and papillary basaloid carcinomas, and carcinoma cuniculatum.
  • Helpful morphologic features for differential diagnosis are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20061934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. de Koning MN, Quint WG, Pirog EC: Prevalence of mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses in different histologic subtypes of vulvar carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 Mar;21(3):334-44
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  • [Title] Prevalence of mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses in different histologic subtypes of vulvar carcinoma.
  • Consecutive cases of vulvar carcinoma were retrieved from the files and included the following histologic subtypes: keratinizing (n=21), basaloid (n=7), warty (n=1), mixed basaloid-warty (n=4), verrucous (n=4), keratoacanthoma (n=1), basal cell carcinoma (n=1).
  • Mucosal HPVs were detected in all but one basaloid/warty carcinomas; of these, nine cases (82%) were positive for HPV 16, including five European subtypes, one African subtype, one North American subtype and two indeterminate subtypes.
  • Two of four verrucous carcinomas were positive for HPV 6.
  • Mucosal HPVs were not detected in keratinizing carcinomas, keratoacanthoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • All cases of basaloid/warty carcinomas, but none of the remaining tumors, overexpressed p16INK4a protein.
  • Our data do not support a role of beta HPVs in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinoma.
  • The study reaffirms the role of mucosal HPVs, in particular that of HPV 16, in the pathogenesis of basaloid and warty tumor subtypes.
  • P16INK4a immunostaining seems to be a sensitive and specific marker of vulvar carcinomas positive for oncogenic mucosal HPvs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / virology. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 18192968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16
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87. Akagi I, Miyashita M, Makino H, Nomura T, Ohkawa K, Tajiri T: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: report of two cases. J Nippon Med Sch; 2008 Dec;75(6):354-60
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: report of two cases.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy of the esophagus.
  • We present two cases of basaloid squamous carcinoma of the esophagus.
  • Both tumors histologically consisted of solid cell nests and displayed focal immunoreactivity for type IV collagen.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19155575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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88. Renaud-Vilmer C, Cavelier-Balloy B, Verola O, Morel P, Servant JM, Desgrandchamps F, Dubertret L: Analysis of alterations adjacent to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and their relationship with associated carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Feb;62(2):284-90
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  • [Title] Analysis of alterations adjacent to invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and their relationship with associated carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In contrast to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the etiologic factors and precancerous lesions associated with penile carcinoma remain uncertain.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the morphologic features of lesions adjacent to invasive penile SCC and their relationship with the associated carcinoma and to compare these associations with vulvar carcinoma.
  • They were classified as penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), squamous hyperplasia (SH), and lichen sclerosus (LS).
  • SCC subtypes were classified as usual, verrucous, warty (condylomatous), basaloid, and mixed.
  • Undifferentiated PIN was always associated with warty (condylomatous) (4 cases), basaloid (16 cases) or mixed SCC (2 cases), and LS with usual (19 cases) or verrucous SCC (7 cases).
  • LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective analysis CONCLUSION: This study suggests that, similarly to vulvar carcinoma, penile SCC occurs in association with two types of penile lesions: undifferentiated (or bowenoid) PIN and LS-linked differentiated PIN and/or SH.
  • It appears that the subtype of these carcinomas is related to these adjacent lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20115951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Hagemann IS, Lu J, Lewis JS Jr: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma arising in [corrected] the renal pelvis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;16(2):199-201
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma arising in [corrected] the renal pelvis.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon and highly aggressive variant that can occur anywhere squamous cancers occur.
  • In this article, we report the first known case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma arising in the renal pelvis.
  • Given the aggressive nature of this neoplasm, it should not be omitted from the differential diagnosis of neoplasms arising from the urothelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Pelvis / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Int J Surg Pathol.2008 Jul;16(3);355
  • (PMID = 18417681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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90. Miralles-Guri C, Bruni L, Cubilla AL, Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S: Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in penile carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2009 Oct;62(10):870-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in penile carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Penile carcinoma is an uncommon and potentially mutilating disease with a heterogeneous aetiology.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection seems to play an important role in the development of a subset of these carcinomas and its presence is thought to be related to the histological type.
  • RESULTS: 31 studies including 1466 penile carcinomas were reviewed.
  • Basaloid and warty squamous cell carcinomas were the most frequent HPV-related histological types, but keratinising and non-keratinising subtypes also showed prevalence rates of around 50%.

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  • (PMID = 19706632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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91. Chen H, Gonzalez JL, Brennick JB, Liu M, Yan S: Immunohistochemical patterns of ProEx C in vulvar squamous lesions: detection of overexpression of MCM2 and TOP2A. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Sep;34(9):1250-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical patterns of ProEx C in vulvar squamous lesions: detection of overexpression of MCM2 and TOP2A.
  • Two major subtypes of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) have been described.
  • Basaloid and warty SCC are human papillomavirus-related and associated with classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN).
  • We analyzed 22 cases with normal vulvar epidermis, 13 cases of lichen sclerosus, 14 cases of condylomas, 23 cases of high-grade classic VIN, 6 cases of differentiated VIN, 3 cases of verrucous carcinomas, 10 cases of keratinizing SCC, and 8 cases of basaloid and warty SCC.
  • ProEx C targets minichromosome maintenance protein and topoisomerase II alpha protein which are overexpressed in the cell nucleus during aberrant S-phase induction.
  • In contrast, ProEx C staining is essentially limited to the basal and parabasal layers in normal epidermis, lichen sclerosus, differentiated VIN, and verrucous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / metabolism. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Female. Humans. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / metabolism. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20697251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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92. Velazquez EF, Cubilla AL: Penile squamous cell carcinoma: anatomic, pathologic and viral studies in Paraguay (1993-2007). Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2007 Aug;29(4):185-98
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  • [Title] Penile squamous cell carcinoma: anatomic, pathologic and viral studies in Paraguay (1993-2007).
  • In developed countries, penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) account for < 1% of all malignancies in men.
  • It is more frequent in rural populations of Africa, Asia and Latin America, where it may constitute nearly 10% of all carcinomas.
  • Different subtypes of penile carcinomas have been described.
  • Less frequent variants include basaloid (10%), warty (10%), papillary (15%), verrucous (3%), sarcomatoid (4%) and adenosquamous (1%).
  • The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in invasive SCC is approximately 42%, with a strong association of HPV and basaloid and warty variants.
  • Probable precursor lesions of penile carcinoma include squamous hyperplasia, low and high grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and lichen sclerosus.

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  • (PMID = 17879626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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93. Valeri RM, Kaplanis K, Apostolou T, Kiziridou A, Pantidou A, Boussoulegas A, Destouni Ch: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with an uncommon metastasis to the left iliac region--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(6):625-8
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with an uncommon metastasis to the left iliac region--case report.
  • We describe a rare and interesting case of a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSC) of the uterine cervix with metastasis in the left iliac region diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA).
  • The material was processed by conventional liquid based cytology (ThinPrep), and by the cell-block technique and diagnosis was based on the cytomorphologic and immunochemical characteristics as well as the patient's history.
  • The cytologic diagnosis concerned a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The histological diagnosis then was an "infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma of basaloid type" of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / therapy


94. Hung JJ, Li AF, Liu JS, Lin YS, Hsu WH: Esophageal carcinosarcoma with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2008 Mar;85(3):1102-4
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  • [Title] Esophageal carcinosarcoma with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma.
  • It often presents as a large intraluminal polypoid tumor with early onset of symptoms resulting in prompt diagnosis.
  • We present here the first case of a carcinosarcoma of the esophagus that had a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma component in addition to the osteosarcoma and without a transitional zone.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Osteosarcoma / pathology


95. Morales-Puebla JM, Toro-Rojas M, Segura-Saint-Gerons R, Fanego-Fernández J, López-Villarejo P: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma: report of five cases. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2010 May;15(3):e451-5
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma: report of five cases.
  • OBJECTIVES: To document the clinical and histopathological characteristics of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC).
  • CASES: retrospective review of five cases with the diagnosis of BSCC of the larynx.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BSCC has well defined histological features.
  • Central comedonecrosis within the cells nests, cell with nuclear palisading and high-grade dysplasia in overlaying mucosa are the main characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Laryngeal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20038913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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96. Ereño C, Gaafar A, Garmendia M, Etxezarraga C, Bilbao FJ, López JI: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a clinicopathological and follow-up study of 40 cases and review of the literature. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Jun;2(2):83-91
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  • [Title] Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a clinicopathological and follow-up study of 40 cases and review of the literature.
  • Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare and aggressive variant of cancer that mainly arises in the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • The basaloid component predominated in 29 cases (72.5%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / diagnosis. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20614328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807543
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Basaloid-squamous cell carcinoma / Differential diagnosis / Head and neck / Hypopharynx / Larynx / Metastasis / Oral cavity / Oropharynx / Prognosis / Recurrence
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97. Ferreira M, Crespo M, Martins L, Félix A: HPV DNA detection and genotyping in 21 cases of primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. Mod Pathol; 2008 Aug;21(8):968-72
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  • [Title] HPV DNA detection and genotyping in 21 cases of primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina.
  • Primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina is rare, and the role of human papilloma virus in its pathogenesis remains unclear.
  • The aims of our study were to determine the distribution of human papilloma virus genotypes in 21 cases of primary invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina and to correlate human papilloma virus genotype with histological subtypes.
  • Six cases were keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, and 15 cases were non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (seven non-keratinizing not otherwise specified, three basaloid, and five warty types).
  • The median age of patients with keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma was 73.8 years and that of non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma patients was 61.5 years (P=0.08).
  • Human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 17 cases (81%): 13 non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (87%) and four keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (67%) (P=0.31).
  • Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina is frequently associated with human papilloma virus infection, and human papilloma virus 16 is the most common genotype.
  • Although without statistical significance, keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is more frequent in older patients, whereas non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma more frequently affects younger women.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / genetics. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Vaginal Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 18500261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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98. Marioni G, Gaio E, Giacomelli L, Marchese-Ragona R, Staffieri C, Staffieri A, Marino F: Endoglin (CD105) expression in head and neck basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Mar;125(3):307-11
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  • [Title] Endoglin (CD105) expression in head and neck basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is an uncommon, high-grade biomorphic variant of SCC with a predilection for the head and neck region.
  • It is a matter of controversy whether the biological and clinical behaviour of BSCC is more aggressive than that of SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface

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  • (PMID = 15966703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
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99. Torres Gómez FJ, Fernández Machín P, Pastor Roldán Aviña J, Torres Gómez A: [Basaloid carcinoma on a perianal fistula]. Cir Esp; 2010 Feb;87(2):116-7
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  • [Title] [Basaloid carcinoma on a perianal fistula].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma basaloide sobre fístula perianal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Rectal Fistula / complications

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  • (PMID = 19540462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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100. Thariat J, Ahamad A, El-Naggar AK, Williams MD, Holsinger FC, Glisson BS, Allen PK, Morrison WH, Weber RS, Ang KK, Garden AS: Outcomes after radiotherapy for basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a case-control study. Cancer; 2008 Jun 15;112(12):2698-709
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  • [Title] Outcomes after radiotherapy for basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is an uncommon, high-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck.
  • The authors investigated the outcomes of patients with BSCC who received radiotherapy and compared them with the outcomes of patients with SCC.
  • METHODS: From 1994 to 2004, 1007 patients received radiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma with lymph node involvement.
  • The histologic types consisted of 51 BSCC, 431 poorly differentiated SCC (PSCC), and 525 well or moderately differentiated SCC (WMSCC).
  • A case-control analysis was performed with BSCC matched against both PSCC and WMSCC to compare disease-control and survival rates.
  • RESULTS: Patients with BSCC received treatment modalities similar to those received by patients with SCC: They received induction chemotherapy (12%) or concurrent chemotherapy (33%), and a median radiation dose of 70 Gray.
  • Posttreatment viable tumor was present in 44%, 13%, and 28% of neck dissection specimens from patients with BSCC, PSCC, and WMSCC, respectively.
  • The 5-year disease-free survival rates (63%, 77%, and 76%, respectively) and overall survival rates (85%, 70%, and 71%, respectively) demonstrated no statistically significant differences for BSCC, PSCC, or WMSCC, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a poorer prognosis could not be demonstrated for irradiated patients with BSCC compared with either PSCC or WMSCC.
  • The BSCC cohort did have a relatively high rate of viable tumor in their posttreatment neck dissections, and they had a relatively high rate of distant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18429002.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA06294
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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