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1. Yu L, Galan A, McNiff JM: Caveats in BerEP4 staining to differentiate basal and squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36(10):1074-176
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  • [Title] Caveats in BerEP4 staining to differentiate basal and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Superficial skin biopsies of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent some of the most common dermatopathology specimens.
  • Superficial shave biopsies containing partial samples of lesions with squamatization present difficulties in distinguishing BCC from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • METHODS: We collected 12 cases of superficial biopsies of BCC with centrally located cords and strands suggesting squamous differentiation at the Yale Dermatopathology Laboratory over a 3-month period and stained them with BerEP4.
  • RESULTS: We found that all cases (12 out of 12) showed membranous and cytoplasmic staining with BerEP4 in the obvious areas of basaloid differentiation at the periphery of the tumors, while cords and strands of enlarged cells with squamoid features in the center and surface of the biopsy failed to label with BerEP4.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19187107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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2. Aiad HA, Hanout HM: Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2007 Sep;19(3):195-201
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical Expression of CD10 in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas.
  • We aimed to determine the immunohistochemical expression of CD10 in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to associate it with the available clinicopathological parameters in both tumors.
  • Results : Positive CD10 staining was identified as brown cytoplasmic, with or without cell membrane staining.
  • BCCs with infiltrating deep margins (12 cases) tended to show CD10 negative basaloid cells (9/12) and CD10 positive stromal cells (12/12) (p=0.0003).
  • Key Words : CD 10 -Immunostaining -Skin.

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  • (PMID = 19190692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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3. de Koning MN, Quint WG, Pirog EC: Prevalence of mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses in different histologic subtypes of vulvar carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 Mar;21(3):334-44
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  • [Title] Prevalence of mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses in different histologic subtypes of vulvar carcinoma.
  • Consecutive cases of vulvar carcinoma were retrieved from the files and included the following histologic subtypes: keratinizing (n=21), basaloid (n=7), warty (n=1), mixed basaloid-warty (n=4), verrucous (n=4), keratoacanthoma (n=1), basal cell carcinoma (n=1).
  • Mucosal HPVs were detected in all but one basaloid/warty carcinomas; of these, nine cases (82%) were positive for HPV 16, including five European subtypes, one African subtype, one North American subtype and two indeterminate subtypes.
  • Mucosal HPVs were not detected in keratinizing carcinomas, keratoacanthoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • All cases of basaloid/warty carcinomas, but none of the remaining tumors, overexpressed p16INK4a protein.
  • Our data do not support a role of beta HPVs in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinoma.
  • The study reaffirms the role of mucosal HPVs, in particular that of HPV 16, in the pathogenesis of basaloid and warty tumor subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / virology. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Mucous Membrane / virology. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / metabolism. Organ Specificity. Papillomavirus E7 Proteins. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Skin / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / metabolism. Tumor Virus Infections / pathology. Tumor Virus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 18192968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16
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4. Scope A, Mahmood U, Gareau DS, Kenkre M, Lieb JA, Nehal KS, Rajadhyaksha M: In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy of shave biopsy wounds: feasibility of intraoperative mapping of cancer margins. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Dec;163(6):1218-28
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  • BACKGROUND: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) images skin at cellular resolution and has shown utility for the diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer in vivo.
  • Tumour islands of basal cell carcinoma were identified at peripheral or deep dermal margins, correlating on histopathology with aggregates of neoplastic basaloid cells.
  • Atypical cobblestone or honeycomb patterns were identified at the epidermal margins in squamous cell carcinomas, correlating with a proliferation of atypical keratinocytes extending to biopsy margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aluminum Compounds. Astringents. Chlorides. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Skin / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
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  • (PMID = 20874785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB002715; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01EB002715; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB002715-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R44 CA093106
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aluminum Compounds; 0 / Astringents; 0 / Chlorides; 3CYT62D3GA / aluminum chloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS237531; NLM/ PMC2988110
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5. Mitsuhashi T, Itoh T, Shimizu Y, Ban S, Ogawa F, Hirose T, Shimizu M: Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: dual differentiations to rare basosquamous and spindle cell variants. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Mar;33(3):246-52
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: dual differentiations to rare basosquamous and spindle cell variants.
  • Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is defined as a tumor containing the areas of both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with a transition zone linking the two.
  • Spindle cell squamous carcinoma (SCSC) may have a variable component of conventional SCC and spindle cells.
  • Microscopically, a non-ulcerated upper part of the tumor consisted of large polygonal squamoid cells with occasional keratinization (SCC), trabecular growth of basaloid cells with peripheral palisading (BCC), and an area in which both the components were intermingled.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells in the SCSC (both conventional and spindle cell) area co-expressed CAM5.2, and vimentin.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of SCC of the skin that has dual differentiations to BSC and SCSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 16466514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Kacerovska D, Szepe P, Vanecek T, Nemcova J, Michal M, Mukensnabl P, Kazakov DV: Spiradenocylindroma-like basaloid carcinoma of the anus and rectum: case report, including HPV studies and analysis of the CYLD gene mutations. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Oct;30(5):472-6
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  • [Title] Spiradenocylindroma-like basaloid carcinoma of the anus and rectum: case report, including HPV studies and analysis of the CYLD gene mutations.
  • The authors report a case of basaloid carcinoma involving the anus and rectum of a 57-year-old woman.
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed unusual morphologic features strongly resembling a spiradenocylindroma because it consisted, in most parts, of basaloid cell nodules arranged in a jigsaw-puzzle fashion containing or surrounded by eosinophilic basal membrane material; in addition, there were intratumoral lymphocytes.
  • The overlying squamous epithelium manifested dysplastic changes compatible with in situ squamous carcinoma that gradually became invasive and blended with basaloid cell islands; additionally, there were koilocytes in the squamous epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Human papillomavirus 16 / pathogenicity. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18806492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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7. Hatta N, Hirano T, Kimura T, Hashimoto K, Mehregan DR, Ansai S, Takehara K, Takata M: Molecular diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and other basaloid cell neoplasms of the skin by the quantification of Gli1 transcript levels. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Feb;32(2):131-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and other basaloid cell neoplasms of the skin by the quantification of Gli1 transcript levels.
  • BACKGROUND: Distinguishing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) from other benign and malignant skin tumors is sometimes a difficult task for the pathologists.
  • METHODS: Gli1 transcript levels were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 68 cases of various skin tumors.
  • The tumors included BCC (21), squamous cell carcinoma (13), seborrheic keratoses (8), trichoepithelioma (5), eccrine poroma/porocarcinoma (4), and sebaceous epithelioma/carcinoma (2).
  • Histological diagnoses included BCC, BCC with sebaceous differentiation, sebaceoma/sebaceous epithelioma, trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, basaloid follicular harmartoma, basosquamous carcinoma, etc.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of Gli1 transcripts by RT-PCR is helpful in discriminating BCC and trichoepithelioma from other skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15606671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gli protein; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors
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8. Ordi J, Alejo M, Fusté V, Lloveras B, Del Pino M, Alonso I, Torné A: HPV-negative vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with basaloid histologic pattern: an unrecognized variant of simplex (differentiated) VIN. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Nov;33(11):1659-65
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  • [Title] HPV-negative vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with basaloid histologic pattern: an unrecognized variant of simplex (differentiated) VIN.
  • Histologically, classic VIN may be basaloid and characterized by a replacement of the whole epidermis by a homogeneous population of small, "undifferentiated" keratinocytes, which are diffusely positive for p16(INK4a) and negative for p53.
  • Simplex VIN is frequently associated with squamous cell hyperplasia and lichen sclerosus.
  • From a series of 110 invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva negative for HPV by highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction, 51 had VIN lesions located at least 1 cm away from the tumor.
  • In 4 (7.8%) cases, the VIN had basaloid histologic features.
  • All cases showed obvious architectural disorganization with a homogeneous population of basaloid, undifferentiated keratinocytes with scanty cytoplasm replacing the whole epidermis.
  • Squamous cell hyperplasia was identified in 1 case and lichen sclerosus in 1 case.
  • The invasive squamous cell carcinoma was of keratinizing type in 3 cases and basaloid in 1 case.
  • In conclusion, simplex, HPV-negative VIN may occasionally have basaloid morphology.
  • Immunostaining for p16(INK4a) and p53 protein may be helpful in the identification of these lesions and the differential diagnosis with classic, HPV-positive basaloid VIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / complications. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / pathology. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Skin / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19730361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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9. Puizina-Ivić N, Sapunar D, Marasović D, Mirić L: An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:61-5
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  • [Title] An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis.
  • The Bcl-2 protein has been shown to suppress cell death and protects cell against apoptosis induced by different death-inducing signals.
  • In this study the authors have analyzed imunohistochemically the expression of Bcl-2 protein in the histopathological variants of the most common malignant tumors of the skin--basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell tumor (SCC), as well as in the precancerous lesion actinic keratosis (AK) and in benign tumor seborrheic keratosis (SK).
  • In cases of hypertrophic and atrophic variants of AK, Bcl-2 expression was confined to basal cell layer, as well as in one case of hypertrophic variant in suprabasal cells.
  • In three histological variants of SK expresseion of Bcl-2 protein was in areas of basaloid proliferation, while in areas of squamous differentiation was negative.
  • In morpheaform variant reduced amount of Bcl-2 expression indicated that this variant of BCC has increased cell proliferation, and in practice shows tendency for recurrence and difficulties to eradicate.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Keratosis, Seborrheic / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism


10. Li N, Wolgamot G, Argenyi Z: Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (Merkel cell carcinoma) with prominent microcystic features, mimicking eccrine carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):410-4
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma (Merkel cell carcinoma) with prominent microcystic features, mimicking eccrine carcinoma.
  • Although primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma [Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC)] may show divergent features, including microcystic ('tubuloglandular'), squamous, eccrine and rhabdomyoblastic, a diffuse microcystic pattern is exceedingly rare.
  • Punch biopsies from both patients revealed an infiltrating neoplasm with prominent microcystic features that mimick tubuloglandular structures, lined by hyperchromatic basaloid cells, which were strongly positive for chromogranin and BerEP4, variably positive for CK7 and CK5/6 and negative for CK20, synaptophysin, S-100, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), estrogen/progesterone receptors (ER/PR), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
  • Although the lack of CK20 staining is unusual, the histologic characteristics along with the remaining immunohistochemical studies favor the diagnosis of a primary cutaneous neuroendocrine cell carcinoma over the variants of eccrine carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17448197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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11. Yang HM, Cabral E, Dadras SS, Cassarino DS: Immunohistochemical expression of D2-40 in benign and malignant sebaceous tumors and comparison to basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Dec;30(6):549-54
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of D2-40 in benign and malignant sebaceous tumors and comparison to basal and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma presents an important challenge to both clinicians and pathologists, as many cases are initially misdiagnosed both clinically and histopathologically, potentially leading to adverse medical and legal outcomes.
  • The distinction of sebaceous carcinoma from benign sebaceous proliferations and other tumors is therefore of utmost importance, and immunohistochemistry may be useful in this differential.
  • We studied the expression of D2-40 (podoplanin) by immunohistochemistry to determine if it can aid in this differential diagnosis and to evaluate the possibility of lymphangiogenesis in sebaceous carcinoma.
  • A total of 36 cases of sebaceous lesions, including 16 sebaceous carcinomas, 7 sebaceous adenomas, 6 sebaceomas, and 7 cases of normal glands and sebaceous hyperplasia, and 17 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 10 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, were also examined.
  • We found no significant increase in tumor lymphangiogenesis by semiquantitative scoring of lymphovascular density per square millimeter of tumoral/peritumoral stroma in sebaceous carcinoma versus benign sebaceous proliferations.
  • However, D2-40 staining showed a different pattern in the benign tumors, which were positive only in the basaloid cells (most pronounced in sebaceoma), versus sebaceous carcinoma, which was either negative or focally positive in a haphazard pattern in most cases, although some cases of basaloid sebaceous carcinomas showed strong positivity.
  • We also found D2-40 to be only weakly and focally positive in basal cell carcinoma and weakly to moderately positive in squamous cell carcinoma, which showed increased staining with decreased differentiation.
  • Therefore, overall, D2-40 is, of limited diagnostic utility in sebaceous lesions but may be useful in distinguishing sebaceoma and basaloid sebaceous carcinoma from basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19033927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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12. Chaux A, Reuter V, Lezcano C, Velazquez EF, Torres J, Cubilla AL: Comparison of morphologic features and outcome of resected recurrent and nonrecurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: a study of 81 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Sep;33(9):1299-306
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of morphologic features and outcome of resected recurrent and nonrecurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the penis: a study of 81 cases.
  • Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is considered a loco-regional disease with a fairly predictable pattern of progression.
  • Local recurrence (defined as the presence of tumor after a primary treatment affecting any remainder tissue, including skin, erectile corpora, or urethra) present in up to 30% of the patients increases the risk of regional inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes metastases.
  • Comparison of recurrent and nonrecurrent tumors showed that high grade tumors (basaloid and sarcomatoid) tended to be significantly associated with recurrent tumors, whereas low grade variants (papillary, warty and verrucous) were more frequent in the nonrecurrent group; recurrent tumors invaded into deeper anatomic levels than nonrecurrent tumors.
  • Mortality was higher in the recurrent group (56% vs. 29%, P=0.0188); 80% of patients with high-grade tumors (basaloid, sarcomatoid, and high grade usual or hybrid verrucous SCCs) died from penile cancer.
  • Mortality in patients with usual SCC was higher in the recurrent group, but similar in basaloid and sarcomatoid SCCs.
  • Basaloid, sarcomatoid, and mixed usual-verrucous variants and invasion of corpora cavernosa or preputial skin were significant adverse prognostic factors of recurrent carcinomas.
  • Local excision and partial penectomy were not adequate procedures for sarcomatoid and basaloid penile carcinomas.
  • Conversion from low to high-grade carcinoma was related to significant mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19471153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Ooi CG, James CL, Huilgol SC: Metastatic Bowen carcinoma. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 Nov;47(4):277-80
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  • [Title] Metastatic Bowen carcinoma.
  • A 72-year-old man presented with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to both lungs that was morphologically similar to recurrent, invasive moderately to poorly differentiated carcinoma arising from persistent Bowen's disease of the right cheek.
  • The original lesion of invasive moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma arising in Bowen's disease had been excised 11 years previously.
  • Our case reflects the potentially aggressive nature of invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from Bowen's disease and highlights the importance of approaching this entity with a view to complete surgical excision with adequate margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17034472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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14. Fischer S, Breuninger H, Metzler G, Hoffmann J: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2005 Jan;16(1):53-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) belongs to the spectrum of locally aggressive adnexal carcinomas and most commonly occurs in the head and neck region.
  • In 1982, Goldstein and colleagues first reported MAC to be a distinct histologic entity characterized by a combination of keratinous cysts in the upper dermis, islands and strands of small basaloid, benign-appearing keratinocytes or squamous cells in the deeper dermis within a dense desmoplastic stroma, and areas of ductular differentiation.
  • Previous histopathologic diagnoses were squamous cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • Local recurrences of the tumor occurred, despite histographic surgery because in hematoxylin and eosin stains, small islands of the deceptively benign-appearing small basaloid cells of MAC were not recognized as tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15699645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ball NJ, Tanhuanco-Kho G: Merkel cell carcinoma frequently shows histologic features of basal cell carcinoma: a study of 30 cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Aug;34(8):612-9
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  • [Title] Merkel cell carcinoma frequently shows histologic features of basal cell carcinoma: a study of 30 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a basaloid cutaneous neoplasm that may be mistaken for basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • Squamous cell carcinoma was identified in four cases (13%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2008 Aug;35(8):789-90 [18687075.001]
  • (PMID = 17640231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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16. Fantini F, Greco A, Cesinaro AM, Surrenti T, Peris K, Vaschieri C, Marconi A, Giannetti A, Pincelli C: Pathologic changes after photodynamic therapy for Basal cell carcinoma and Bowen disease: a histologic and immunohistochemical investigation. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Feb;144(2):186-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic changes after photodynamic therapy for Basal cell carcinoma and Bowen disease: a histologic and immunohistochemical investigation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vivo reactions and the mechanisms of cell death after photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cutaneous carcinomas.
  • Photodynamic therapy is a new treatment modality for nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • DESIGN: Skin biopsy specimens were obtained sequentially after PDT for basal cell carcinoma and in situ squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen disease).
  • We used electron microscopy to evaluate cell damage at the ultrastructural level.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Evidence of the mechanisms of tumor cell damage after PDT, detection of histologic and/or immunohistochemical signs of apoptosis, and time course of the tumor destruction and inflammatory reaction.
  • In basal cell carcinoma, nodule damage progressed from scant apoptotic cells seen at the dermal-epithelial junction to massive destruction seen after 1 and 2 days.
  • The periphery of the basaloid nodules consistently showed earlier and predominant damage, as demonstrated by the perfect coincidence of histologic and immunohistochemical evidence with apoptotic markers (TUNEL and caspase-3 staining).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study defines the time course and characteristics of the skin tumor response to PDT.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18283175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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17. Ali F, Brown A, Gottwald L, Thomas J: Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation in a transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jul;32(6):445-8
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation in a transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Shadow cells, characterized by basaloid squamous cells with a distinct well-defined border and a central unstained area as a shadow of lost nuclei, are characteristic of pilomatricoma, a distinct neoplasm of hair matrix differentiation.
  • The presence of shadow cells within tumor islands composed of follicular germinative cells of an otherwise classic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been considered as a distinct diagnostic category of BCC with matrical differentiation.
  • RESULTS: The H&E-stained sections of the hand lesion revealed multiple nodular masses of basaloid follicular germinative cells.
  • Elsewhere, the majority of the tumor contained a population of shadow cells, similar to those in pilomatricoma, with basaloid-appearing matrical cells in the periphery.
  • Trichohyaline granules were identified in the cytoplasm of many of the peripheral basaloid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Heart Transplantation. Immunocompromised Host. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15953381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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18. Basile JR, Lin YL: A salivary gland adenocarcinoma mimicking a microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2010 Apr;109(4):e28-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A salivary gland adenocarcinoma mimicking a microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • The microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare, slow-growing but locally aggressive neoplasm arising in the midface and lips of middle-aged adults.
  • The MAC is histologically characterized by deeply infiltrating nests and islands of basaloid or squamous cells forming cysts and ductal structures, proliferating in a dense sclerotic stroma and occasionally exhibiting perineural invasion.
  • We describe a salivary gland adenocarcinoma arising in the lower lip, characterized by ductal structures and cords, 3-5 cell layers in thickness, set in a dense fibrous stroma and also invading nerves, thus mimicking a MAC in both its clinical and its histopathologic appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Lip Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Cell Proliferation. Connective Tissue / pathology. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibrosis. Humans. Lip / innervation. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sclerosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011 Sep;112(3):284-6 [21684772.001]
  • (PMID = 20303043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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19. Jani P, Chetty R, Ghazarian DM: An unusual composite pilomatrix carcinoma with intralesional melanocytes: differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical evaluation, and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Apr;30(2):174-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual composite pilomatrix carcinoma with intralesional melanocytes: differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical evaluation, and review of the literature.
  • We report a case of an extremely rare histologic combination of pilomatrix or pilomatrical carcinoma with admixed melanocytes within the same tumor mass.
  • Pilomatrix carcinoma is a neoplasm of low-grade malignancy that is characterized by a tendency for recurrence but low risk of metastasis.
  • Histologically, it was typified by asymmetry and poor circumscription, the presence of several variably sized and shaped basaloid aggregations, and surface ulceration.
  • The tumors were composed of pleomorphic basaloid cells with prominent nucleoli and frequent mitoses (some of which were atypical) accompanied by central areas with keratotic material, shadow cells, and foci of necrosis.
  • In addition, intermingled with the pilomatrix carcinoma, several easily identified pigmented cells with dendritic processes were present singly and as small aggregates.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed the CK14 to be positive mainly within the keratinizing and the squamous epithelial elements of the tumor.
  • Pilomatrix carcinoma with melanocytes should be distinguished from the conventional pilomatrixoma with pigmentation, melanocytic matricoma, melanoma, and pigmented basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation.
  • Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the occurrence of pilomatrix carcinoma with melanocytes because of its potential for diagnosis as melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18360125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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20. Velazquez EF, Melamed J, Barreto JE, Aguero F, Cubilla AL: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the penis: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Sep;29(9):1152-8
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  • [Title] Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the penis: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases.
  • A total of 400 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis were reviewed from which 15 sarcomatoid carcinomas (4%) were identified.
  • Grossly, most tumors were large, polypoid, and ulcerated masses frequently affecting the glans (93%) and deeply invading corpora cavernosa (80%) and skin.
  • Four cases showed a minor mixed component of usual, papillary, verrucous, and basaloid carcinoma.
  • One of the cases was multicentric with a separate independent focus of well-differentiated carcinoma with pseudohyperplastic features.
  • Associated low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were noted in 73% of the cases.
  • Diffuse immunoreactivity for p53, compared with a more basal and focal reactivity in differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, may be indicative of a late mutation in the natural progression of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16096403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Bhadani PP, Sen R, Bhadani UK, Karki S, Agarwal S: Is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) useful in skin adnexal masses? A study on 5 cases of pilomatixoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Apr;50(2):411-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) useful in skin adnexal masses? A study on 5 cases of pilomatixoma.
  • PMX was diagnosed on FNAC in 3 cases on finding groups of basaloid cells, ghost epithelial cells, pink fibrillary material and calcium deposits.
  • Other cases were diagnosed as epidermal inclusion cyst with the differential diagnosis of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and skin appendageal tumor of undetermined origin in one case each.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Pilomatrixoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17883095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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22. Nagatsuka H, Rivera RS, Gunduz M, Siar CH, Tamamura R, Mizukawa N, Asaumi J, Nagai N: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma with mandibular bone marrow involvement: a case report with immunohistochemistry. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Dec;28(6):518-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma with mandibular bone marrow involvement: a case report with immunohistochemistry.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare, locally aggressive cutaneous neoplasm with a high probability of persistence locally but a low probability of metastasis.
  • The tumor consisted mainly of squamous and basaloid epithelial nests and cords embedded in a desmoplastic stroma.
  • Our results indicate that microcystic adnexal carcinoma consists of tumor cells capable of both follicular and eccrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Lip Neoplasms / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17122497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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23. Martín de Las Mulas J, Molina AM, Millán Y, Carrasco L, Moyano R, Mozos E: Spontaneous trichoepithelioma in a laboratory mouse: gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical findings. Lab Anim; 2007 Jan;41(1):136-40
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  • The epithelial islands were composed of basaloid cells.
  • The cystic structures were lined by squamous epithelium with or without a granular cell layer and contained lamellar or amorphous keratin, as well as wide areas of matrical keratinization (ghost cells) with or without a peripheral layer of basaloid cells and calcified contents.
  • Mitotic activity of basaloid cells was moderate to high, but nuclear or mitotic atypia were not observed.
  • The immunohistochemical profile of this rare type of tumour of the skin of mice, which includes a first-time description of involucrin expression, confirms the histological evidence of differentiation towards more than one segment of follicular epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Mice. Rodent Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17234060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-6772
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory animals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Precursors; 60108-77-2 / involucrin
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24. Klenzner T, Arapakis I, Kayser G, Boedeker CC: Eccrine porocarcinoma of the ear mimicking basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Jul;135(1):158-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Eccrine porocarcinoma of the ear mimicking basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / diagnosis. Ear, External. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16815204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Koutis EV, Assimakopoulos DA, Doukas MG, Zinovieva I: A rare nasal tip skin metastasis of a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Am J Med; 2008 Sep;121(9):e3-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare nasal tip skin metastasis of a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / secondary. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18724953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-7162
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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