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1. Livasy CA, Karaca G, Nanda R, Tretiakova MS, Olopade OI, Moore DT, Perou CM: Phenotypic evaluation of the basal-like subtype of invasive breast carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2006 Feb;19(2):264-71
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  • [Title] Phenotypic evaluation of the basal-like subtype of invasive breast carcinoma.
  • Microarray profiling of invasive breast carcinomas has identified five distinct subtypes of tumors (luminal A, luminal B, normal breast-like, HER2 overexpressing, and basal-like) that are associated with different clinical outcomes.
  • The basal-like subtype is associated with poor clinical outcomes and is the subtype observed in BRCA1-related breast cancers.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the histologic and immunophenotypic properties of breast basal-like carcinomas that were first positively identified using DNA microarray analysis.
  • Detailed histologic review was performed on 56 tumors with known microarray profiles (23 basal-like, 23 luminal, and 12 HER2+).
  • Immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor (ER), HER2, EGFR, smooth muscle actin (SMA), p63, CD10, cytokeratin 5/6, cytokeratin 8/18, and vimentin was performed on 18 basal-like, 16 luminal, and 12 HER2+ tumors.
  • The basal-like tumors were grade 3 ductal/NOS (21/23) or metaplastic (2/23) carcinomas that frequently showed geographic necrosis (17/23), a pushing border of invasion (14/23), and a stromal lymphocytic response (13/23).
  • Most basal-like tumors showed immunoreactivity for vimentin (17/18), luminal cytokeratin 8/18 (15/18), EGFR (13/18), and cytokeratin 5/6 (11/18), while positivity for the myoepithelial markers SMA (4/18), p63 (4/18) and CD10 (2/18) was infrequent.
  • All basal-like tumors tested were ER- and HER2-.
  • Morphologic features significantly associated with the basal-like subtype included markedly elevated mitotic count (P<0.0001), geographic tumor necrosis (P=0.0003), pushing margin of invasion (P=0.0001), and stromal lymphocytic response (P=0.01).
  • The most consistent immunophenotype seen in the basal-like tumors was negativity for ER and HER2, and positivity for vimentin, EGFR, cytokeratin 8/18, and cytokeratin 5/6.
  • The infrequent expression of myoepithelial markers in basal-like carcinomas does not support a direct myoepithelial cell derivation of these tumors.
  • These findings should further assist in the identification of basal-like carcinomas in clinical specimens, facilitating treatment and epidemiologic studies of this tumor subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 16341146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-101227-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / KRT5 protein, human; 0 / KRT6A protein, human; 0 / KRT6B protein, human; 0 / KRT6C protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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2. Bryan BB, Schnitt SJ, Collins LC: Ductal carcinoma in situ with basal-like phenotype: a possible precursor to invasive basal-like breast cancer. Mod Pathol; 2006 May;19(5):617-21
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  • [Title] Ductal carcinoma in situ with basal-like phenotype: a possible precursor to invasive basal-like breast cancer.
  • Basal-like carcinomas have recently been identified in gene expression profiling studies as a subtype of invasive breast cancer.
  • These lesions are estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative (triple negative), and typically express basal cytokeratins, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and/or c-kit.
  • As poorly differentiated invasive ductal carcinomas, they presumably have a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) precursor with similar cytologic and immunophenotypic features.
  • However, the frequency and even the existence of a DCIS lesion with an immunophenotype analogous to that of invasive basal-like carcinomas have not been previously evaluated.
  • We studied 66 cases of high nuclear grade DCIS using antibodies to ER, PR, HER2, three basal cytokeratins, EGFR, and c-kit to determine the frequency of the triple negative phenotype, and to determine the relationship between the triple negative phenotype and expression of basal cytokeratins and other biomarkers characteristically expressed by invasive basal-like carcinomas.
  • Basal cytokeratins, EGFR, or both were expressed by all four triple negative lesions, but by only 21 of 51 (42%) nontriple negative cases (P = 0.04).
  • We conclude that a small proportion of high-grade ductal carcinomas in situ exhibit an ER-negative/PR-negative/HER2-negative (triple negative) phenotype, and these lesions more commonly show expression of basal cytokeratins and/or EGFR than nontriple negative high-grade DCIS.
  • Given that invasive breast cancers typically share immunophenotypic features with the ductal carcinoma in situ from which they arise, our findings raise the possibility that the triple-negative, basal cytokeratin and/or EGFR-positive DCIS lesions we identified represent a precursor lesion to invasive basal-like carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Keratins / analysis


3. Zhou W, Jirström K, Johansson C, Amini RM, Blomqvist C, Agbaje O, Wärnberg F: Long-term survival of women with basal-like ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a population-based cohort study. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:653
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  • [Title] Long-term survival of women with basal-like ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a population-based cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND: Microarray gene-profiling of invasive breast cancer has identified different subtypes including luminal A, luminal B, HER2-overexpressing and basal-like groups.
  • Basal-like invasive breast cancer is associated with a worse prognosis.
  • However, the prognosis of basal-like ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is still unknown.
  • Our aim was to study the prognosis of basal-like DCIS in a large population-based cohort.
  • The association with prognosis was examined for basal-like DCIS and other subtypes using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression models.
  • Thirty-two were basal-like (8.2%), 351 were luminal or HER2-positive (89.5%) and 9 unclassified (2.3%).
  • Seventy-six women had a local recurrence of which 34 were invasive.
  • Basal-like DCIS showed a higher risk of local recurrence and invasive recurrence 1.8 (Confidence interval (CI) 95%, 0.8-4.2) and 1.9 (0.7-5.1), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Basal-like DCIS showed about a doubled, however not statistically significant risk for local recurrence and developing invasive cancer compared with the other molecular subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / mortality. Survivors / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Predictive Value of Tests. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sweden / epidemiology. Time Factors. Tissue Array Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21118480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3001723
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4. Gao LX, Yang GZ, Ding HY, Li L: [Morphological features of basal-like subtype invasive carcinoma of breast]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;37(2):83-7
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  • [Title] [Morphological features of basal-like subtype invasive carcinoma of breast].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the morphological features of basal-like subtype of invasive breast carcinoma (BLSIBC), and to look for diagnostic clues for its recognition.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed in 109 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, with CK5/6, CK14, CK8/ 18, 34betaE12, calponin, p63, CD10, ER, PR and c-erbB-2 monoclonal antibodies.
  • Five subtypes were classified according to immunophenotypes: luminal A subtype (ER+/HER2-), luminal B subtype (ER+/ HER2+), normal breast-like subtype (ER/HER2-), HER2-overexpressing subtype and BLSIBC which was identified with at least one kind of basal-like cytokeratins or markers of myoepithelium and ER/HER2.
  • The microscopic features of basal-like subtype were also analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The number of luminal A case was 48 (44.0%), luminal B 15 (13.8%), HER2 over-expressing 15 (13.6%), normal breast-like 10 (9.1%), basal-like subtype 19 (17.4%).
  • Besides, the other two cases expressed c-erbB-2 or/and ER plus markers for myoepithelium, thus were excluded from all the five mentioned subtypes.
  • Of the 19 basal-like subtype, CK5/6 was expressed in 16 cases, CK8/18 in 17 cases, CK14 in 11 cases, 34betaE12 in 18 cases, p63 in 5 cases, CD10 in 6 cases, and calponin in 1 case.
  • Compared to non basal subtype, there were significantly more high grade cases (P <0.01).
  • The morphological features of basal-like subtype were summarized as the followings: pushing margin (13 cases), lymphocytic tissue hyperplasia (18 cases), nest or sheet arrangement (18 cases), nucleus grade 3 and scattered giant or bizarre nuclei (17 cases), syncytial growth (7 cases), and comedo-like necrosis (17 cases).
  • The frequency of these features were significantly more common than non basal subtype (P <0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The morphologic diagnostic features of BLSIBC are pushing margins, lymphocyte infiltration, comedo-like necrosis, gigantic cell and syncytial growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18681317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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5. Wang X, Chao L, Chen L, Ma G, Jin G, Hua M, Zhou G: The mammographic correlations with Basal-like phenotype of invasive breast cancer. Acad Radiol; 2010 Mar;17(3):333-9
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  • [Title] The mammographic correlations with Basal-like phenotype of invasive breast cancer.
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Mammography contributes to the improvement of breast carcinoma survival through early detection and treatment of breast lesions.
  • The basal-like phenotype has been found to be an independent poor prognostic factor for breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the mammographic correlates of the basal-like phenotype of invasive breast cancer, and to more precisely predict patient outcome and those individuals who will be responsive to a specific therapeutic regimen.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mammographic findings in 267 patients with operable breast cancer were correlated with the basal-like subtype identified using immunohistochemical assessment of breast cancer cases, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2/neu status, cytokeratin (CK5/6), and epidermal growth factor receptor.
  • RESULTS: Of the 267 invasive breast cancers, 40 (15%) were of the basal-like phenotype.
  • Basal-phenotype tumors were significantly more likely to manifest as a mass (P = .002), most of which were indistinct margin (P =.035), at mammography, and architecture distortion at mammography (P = .002).
  • CONCLUSION: The mammographic appearances of basal-like tumors, more mass and architecture distortion, suggest more rapid carcinogenesis.
  • Additional studies are warranted to further refine prognosis, and to optimize treatment in patients with basal-like breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / radiography. Mammography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


6. Tamimi RM, Baer HJ, Marotti J, Galan M, Galaburda L, Fu Y, Deitz AC, Connolly JL, Schnitt SJ, Colditz GA, Collins LC: Comparison of molecular phenotypes of ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res; 2008;10(4):R67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of molecular phenotypes of ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: At least four major categories of invasive breast cancer that are associated with different clinical outcomes have been identified by gene expression profiling: luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and basal-like.
  • However, the prevalence of these phenotypes among cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has not been previously evaluated in detail.
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of these distinct molecular subtypes among cases of DCIS and invasive breast cancer.
  • METHODS: We constructed tissue microarrays (TMAs) from breast cancers that developed in 2897 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study (1976 to 1996).
  • Using these immunostain results, cases were grouped into molecularly defined subtypes.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of the distinct molecular phenotypes differed significantly between DCIS (n = 272) and invasive breast cancers (n = 2249).
  • The luminal A phenotype was significantly more frequent among invasive cancers (73.4%) than among DCIS lesions (62.5%) (p = 0.0002).
  • In contrast, luminal B and HER2 molecular phenotypes were both more frequent among DCIS (13.2% and 13.6%, respectively) as compared with invasive tumours (5.2% and 5.7%, respectively) (p < 0.0001).
  • The basal-like phenotype was more frequent among the invasive cancers (10.9%) than DCIS (7.7%), although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.15).
  • High-grade DCIS and invasive tumours were more likely to be HER2 type and basal-like than low- or intermediate-grade lesions.
  • Among invasive tumours, basal-like and HER2 type tumours were more likely to be more than 2 cm in size, high-grade and have nodal involvement compared with luminal A tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: The major molecular phenotypes previously identified among invasive breast cancers were also identified among cases of DCIS.
  • However, the prevalence of the luminal A, luminal B and HER2 phenotypes differed significantly between DCIS and invasive breast cancers.

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  • (PMID = 18681955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA087969; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087969; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089393
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2575540
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7. Munjal K, Ambaye A, Evans MF, Mitchell J, Nandedkar S, Cooper K: Immunohistochemical analysis of ER, PR, Her2 and CK5/6 in infiltrative breast carcinomas in Indian patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2009;10(5):773-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of ER, PR, Her2 and CK5/6 in infiltrative breast carcinomas in Indian patients.
  • AIM: Breast cancer is biologically a heterogeneous disease.
  • Gene expression studies identified distinct breast cancer subtypes that differ in prognosis.
  • Aim is to identify the immunohistochemical subtypes of breast carcinoma and correlate the results with pathological features associated with adverse prognosis in our study population.
  • METHOD: We included 107 consecutive cases of invasive breast carcinoma and sub classified using immunohistochemical staining for ER, PR, Her2, and CK5/6 into the following subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, Her2(+) and unclassified.
  • Associations between tumor subtypes and tumor characteristics were examined.
  • RESULTS: The proportion of each subtype in our patient population was: luminal A 37.4%, luminal B 11.1%, Her2(+) 29% and basal-like 7.5%.
  • The following variables were significantly associated with IHC breast cancer subtypes: patient age (p<0.05), overall histopathology grade (p<0.001), nuclear grade (p<0.005) and mitotic index (p<0.001).
  • Her2(+) and basal like subtypes were associated with poor differentiation (p<0.01), higher nuclear grade (p<0.05) and high mitotic index (p<0.05).
  • There was also a relatively high percentage of the Her2(+) subtype (29%).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Keratin-5 / metabolism. Keratin-6 / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20104967.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRT5 protein, human; 0 / KRT6A protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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8. Lee JS, Fackler MJ, Lee JH, Choi C, Park MH, Yoon JH, Zhang Z, Sukumar S: Basal-like breast cancer displays distinct patterns of promoter methylation. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Jun 15;9(12):1017-24
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  • [Title] Basal-like breast cancer displays distinct patterns of promoter methylation.
  • Recent microarray profiling studies on breast cancer have identified distinct subtypes that are associated with different clinical outcomes.
  • Promoter hypermethylation of several known or putative tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during the pathogenesis of breast cancer.
  • We proposed that immunohistopathologic subtypes of breast cancer are likely to contain distinct promoter methylation patterns.
  • A panel of 10 gene promoters was assessed by quantitative multiplex methylation-specific PCR in 114 invasive ductal carcinomas from Korea representing the three major subtypes [57 luminal, 24 human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), and 33 basal-like] based on immunohistochemical findings of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, cytokeratin 5/6 and epidermal growth factor receptor.
  • The median methylation levels of HIN1, RASSF1A and TWIST, and the average methylation ratio were significantly lower in basal-like subtype compared to luminal or HER2 subtypes.
  • In contrast, BRCA1 methylation level was significantly higher in basal-like subtype than in luminal subtype.
  • The methylation status of a panel of four genes (APC1, CDH, BRCA1 and RAR-β) in luminal and HER2 subtypes were dissimilar, where HER2 tumors showed a significantly higher level of methylation compared to luminal tumors.
  • These results suggest that gene methylation in breast cancer can potentially serve as epigenetic biomarkers and may contribute further to current breast cancer classification.

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  • (PMID = 20505321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA088843; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA048943; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA88843; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA048943-11; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA048943-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA048943-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA048943-11
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS288633; NLM/ PMC3094906
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9. Kim MJ, Ro JY, Ahn SH, Kim HH, Kim SB, Gong G: Clinicopathologic significance of the basal-like subtype of breast cancer: a comparison with hormone receptor and Her2/neu-overexpressing phenotypes. Hum Pathol; 2006 Sep;37(9):1217-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathologic significance of the basal-like subtype of breast cancer: a comparison with hormone receptor and Her2/neu-overexpressing phenotypes.
  • DNA microarray profiling studies have led to the classification of invasive breast carcinoma into luminal/estrogen receptor-positive, normal breast-like, Her2/neu-overexpressing, and basal-like types.
  • Among these groups, the basal-like subtype is associated with the poorest clinical outcome in Western countries.
  • To date, the clinicopathologic characteristics of the basal-like carcinomas, compared with other subtypes, have not been described in the Korean population.
  • In this study, we used tissue microarray to examine the expression of basal cytokeratins (CK) (CK5 and CK14) and luminal CK (CK8/18), epidermal growth factor receptor, c-kit, hormone receptors (HRs), p53, and Her2/neu in 776 consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive breast carcinoma from January 1993 to December 1998 and categorized these cases into 5 subgroups (basal-like, HR-expressing, Her2/neu-overexpressing, HR and Her2/neu-expressing, and null subtypes negative for all markers), based on the immunohistochemical data.
  • We identified cases of 114 (14.7%) basal-like, 345 (44.5%) HR-expressing, 133 (17.1%) Her2/neu-overexpressing, 61 (7.8%) HR and Her2/neu-expressing, and 123 (15.9%) null subtypes.
  • Histologically, most basal-like breast cancers were invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (98 cases, 86.0%), with high nuclear and/or histologic grades, and most metaplastic carcinomas (6 [75.0%] of 8 cases) were the basal-like subtype.
  • Both basal-like and Her2/neu-overexpressing subtypes were associated with larger tumor sizes (mean, 3.6 and 3.3 cm, respectively) than the HR-expressing group (mean, 2.8 cm) (P = .001 and P = .036, respectively).
  • Nodal stage of Her2/neu-overexpressing subtype was higher than that of basal-like subtype; however, overall stage was not different between the 2 groups (P = .010 and .123, respectively).
  • Distant metastasis was most frequently observed in the Her2/neu-overexpressing subtype (33.8%), which was prognostically the worst subgroup of breast cancers.
  • In contrast to previous findings from Western countries, our analyses reveal that the Her2/neu status is the most important prognostic factor of breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis


10. Milde S, Gaedcke J, v Wasielewski R, Bruchardt H, Wingen L, Gadzicki D, Arps H, Kreipe HH: [Diagnosis and immunohistochemistry of medullary breast cancer]. Pathologe; 2006 Sep;27(5):358-62
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and immunohistochemistry of medullary breast cancer].
  • Medullary carcinoma of the breast has a relatively favorable prognosis despite its malignant histopathological appearance, providing a challenge for the pathologically based diagnosis of breast cancer.
  • The importance of the immunophenotype of medullary carcinoma is not well defined.
  • We examined 32 medullary carcinomas in comparison with 30 high grade ductal invasive carcinomas with similar morphology using 23 different immunohistochemical markers.
  • The results showed an overlap with the so called basal like subtype of invasive breast cancer (negativity for steroid hormone receptor, positivity for basal cytokeratins).
  • In combining the characteristic morphological criteria and the immunohistochemical detection of the basal like phenotype and EGFR, a higher diagnostic accuracy can be achieved.
  • The immunophenotype alone does not allow a definite classification of medullary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16868735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Livasy CA, Perou CM, Karaca G, Cowan DW, Maia D, Jackson S, Tse CK, Nyante S, Millikan RC: Identification of a basal-like subtype of breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Hum Pathol; 2007 Feb;38(2):197-204
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of a basal-like subtype of breast ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Microarray profiling of invasive breast carcinomas has identified subtypes including luminal A, luminal B, HER2-overexpressing, and basal-like.
  • The poor-prognosis, basal-like tumors have been immunohistochemically characterized as estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, HER2/neu-negative, and cytokeratin 5/6-positive and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of basal-like ductal carcinoma in situ in a population-based series of cases using immunohistochemical surrogates.
  • A total of 245 pure ductal carcinoma in situ cases from a population-based, case-control study were evaluated for histologic characteristics and immunostained for ER, HER2/neu, EGFR, cytokeratin 5/6, p53, and Ki-67.
  • The subtypes were defined as: luminal A (ER+, HER2-), luminal B (ER+, HER2+), HER2 positive (ER-, HER2+), and basal-like (ER-, HER2-, EGFR+, and/or cytokeratin 5/6+).
  • The prevalence of breast cancer subtypes was basal-like (n = 19 [8%]); luminal A, n = 149 (61%); luminal B, n = 23 (9%); and HER2+/ER-, n = 38 (16%).
  • The basal-like subtype was associated with unfavorable prognostic variables including high-grade nuclei (P < .0001), p53 overexpression (P < .0001), and elevated Ki-67 index (P < .0001).
  • These studies demonstrate the presence of a basal-like in situ carcinoma, a potential precursor lesion to invasive basal-like carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17234468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-101227-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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12. Ishihara A, Tsuda H, Kitagawa K, Yoneda M, Shiraishi T: Morphological characteristics of basal-like subtype of breast carcinoma with special reference to cytopathological features. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(3):179-85
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  • [Title] Morphological characteristics of basal-like subtype of breast carcinoma with special reference to cytopathological features.
  • Expression profiling of invasive breast carcinomas by DNA microarray techniques has identified five distinct subtypes of tumors (luminal A, luminal B, normal breast-like, HER2 overexpression, and basal-like) that are associated with different clinical outcomes and with different chemotherapy.
  • Basal-like carcinoma is associated with younger patient age, high histological grade, aggressive clinical course, development of distant metastasis, poor prognosis, and relatively high mortality rate.
  • Basal-like carcinomas do not express estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or HER2 (triple-negative phenotype).
  • Therefore, patients with basal-like carcinomas are not likely to benefit from endocrine therapies or trastuzumab, but are likely to benefit from systemic chemotherapy.
  • Although genetic, morphological, and immunohistochemical features of basal-like carcinomas have been reported, there is no universal definition for those tumors.
  • In the present paper, we present data of histological and cytological features of basal-like breast carcinoma, and discuss about its morphological spectrum.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19466513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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13. Ono M, Tsuda H, Shimizu C, Yamamoto S, Shibata T, Kouno T, Tamura K, Ando M, Katsumata N, KInoshita T, Fujiwara Y: Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor cell apoptosis as predictive markers for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):559

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  • [Title] Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor cell apoptosis as predictive markers for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.
  • : 559 Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER-2.
  • We examined the value of histological parameters including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumor cell apoptosis as surrogate markers for pCR in TNBC.
  • METHODS: Of 474 patients who received NAC and subsequent surgical therapy to stage II-III invasive breast carcinoma between 1999 and 2007, 102 (22%) had TNBC, and 92 core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens before NAC were available.
  • We first immunohistochemically confirmed TNBC and basal-like subtype by current criteria for ER, PgR, and HER-2, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK14, EGFR, and p53.
  • All cases were TNBC, and 54 tumors (59%) were basal-like subtype defined as expression of at least one of CK5/6, CK14 and EGFR in >1% of cancer cells.
  • The pCR rate did not differ significantly between the basal-like type (31%) and non-basal-like type (24%).

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  • (PMID = 27960670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Chen LY, Chen HF: [Research progress on basal-like breast cancer]. Ai Zheng; 2008 May;27(5):555-8
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  • [Title] [Research progress on basal-like breast cancer].
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women all around the world.
  • Presently, the prognosis of breast cancer is predicted based on histopathologic tumor characteristics.
  • Molecular markers could help to predict the prognosis and treatment response in breast cancer.
  • According to gene expression profile, invasive breast cancers are classified into four subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressing and basal-like) and associated with different prognosis.
  • The basal-like subtype is associated with poor prognosis.
  • This article simply introduced the distribution of molecular subtypes, summed up recent researches on the characteristics and prognosis of basal-like phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Keratin-17 / metabolism. Keratin-5 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18479610.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caveolin 1; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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15. Weigelt B, Kreike B, Reis-Filho JS: Metaplastic breast carcinomas are basal-like breast cancers: a genomic profiling analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Sep;117(2):273-80
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  • [Title] Metaplastic breast carcinomas are basal-like breast cancers: a genomic profiling analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Metaplastic breast carcinomas (MBCs) comprise a group of aggressive and chemotherapy resistant cancers characterised by neoplastic cells displaying differentiation towards squamous epithelium or mesenchymal elements.
  • Previous histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of MBCs suggested that these cancers would have a basal-like profile.
  • METHODS: We investigated the molecular subtype of 20 MBCs using microarray-based expression profiling data.
  • These data were compared with those of 79 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) of basal-like phenotype by unsupervised hierarchical clustering, supervised analysis and pathway analysis.
  • RESULTS: We demonstrate that 95% of all MBCs are of basal-like molecular subtype.
  • Furthermore, unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis and pathway analysis of the profiles of MBCs revealed that MBCs are part of the spectrum of basal-like breast cancers.
  • Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) identified 1,385 transcripts differentially expressed between MBCs and IDCs of basal-like phenotype.
  • Pathway analysis using these genes revealed that DNA repair pathways, including BRCA1 pathway, PTEN, a gene whose loss of function is associated with resistance to chemotherapy, and TOP2A, the molecular target of anthracyclines, are significantly downregulated in MBCs compared to basal-like IDCs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that MBCs are part of the spectrum of basal-like breast carcinomas and display a myoepithelial and EMT-like molecular make-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling

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  • (PMID = 18815879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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16. Yu L, Yang W, Cai X, Shi D, Fan Y, Lu H: Centrally necrotizing carcinoma of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of 33 cases indicating its basal-like phenotype and poor prognosis. Histopathology; 2010 Aug;57(2):193-201
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  • [Title] Centrally necrotizing carcinoma of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of 33 cases indicating its basal-like phenotype and poor prognosis.
  • AIMS: To investigate the clinicopathological features and immunophenotype of centrally necrotizing carcinoma (CNC) of the breast to ascertain its relationship to basal-like phenotype and its prognosis.
  • The striking feature of CNC was a central, necrotic or acellular zone surrounded by a ring-like area of viable tumour cells.
  • Tumour cells displayed invasive ductal carcinoma of high grade.
  • The expression rate of basal-like markers was higher than that of myoepithelial markers (87.9% versus 46.2%).
  • Basal-like subtype was shown by 63.6% of cases.
  • The expression rate of CK5/6 (90.5%) was highest among basal-like markers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CNC has distinctive morphological features, which mostly exhibit a basal-like immunophenotype and poor prognosis.
  • CNC is a typical representative of basal-like breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20716161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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17. Nalwoga H, Arnes JB, Wabinga H, Akslen LA: Frequency of the basal-like phenotype in African breast cancer. APMIS; 2007 Dec;115(12):1391-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequency of the basal-like phenotype in African breast cancer.
  • Basal-like breast carcinoma has been recognized as a subtype with specific prognostic implications.
  • However, there is a lack of reports about this category of breast tumors in African women.
  • The aim of this study was to explore the basal-like phenotype in breast cancer patients in an African population, and a registry-based series was included from the well-defined Kyadondo County in Uganda (1.7 millions).
  • We studied a total of 65 archival paraffin blocks of invasive breast cancer using antibodies against cytokeratin 5/6 and P-cadherin, and these markers were expressed in 34% of all cases and in 52% of ER (estrogen receptor)-negative tumors.
  • All basal-like tumors were ER negative (p<0.0005) and PR (progesterone receptor) negative (p=0.002).
  • Basal-like breast carcinomas were of a higher histologic grade (p=0.001), had high mitotic counts (p=0.002), and marked nuclear pleomorphism (p=0.002).
  • In conclusion, the basal-like phenotype is frequent in this African series of breast cancer and is strongly associated with poor prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18184410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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18. Haupt B, Ro JY, Schwartz MR: Basal-like breast carcinoma: a phenotypically distinct entity. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jan;134(1):130-3
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  • [Title] Basal-like breast carcinoma: a phenotypically distinct entity.
  • Gene microarray profiling of human breast carcinomas has recently categorized invasive breast carcinomas into 5 distinct subtypes; luminal A, luminal B, normal breastlike, human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressing, and basal-like.
  • Basal-like breast carcinomas are characterized by high expression of basal cytokeratins; low or absent expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2/neu; and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and/or c-kit, and they are frequently associated with breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) mutations and poor clinical outcome.
  • Recent studies have begun to provide insights into the molecular genetics, biology, morphology, and clinical outcome of this subtype of breast carcinoma.
  • We reviewed the literature related to basal-like breast carcinomas to better understand this clinically significant subtype of breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology


19. Sitterding SM, Wiseman WR, Schiller CL, Luan C, Chen F, Moyano JV, Watkin WG, Wiley EL, Cryns VL, Diaz LK: AlphaB-crystallin: a novel marker of invasive basal-like and metaplastic breast carcinomas. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Feb;12(1):33-40
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  • [Title] AlphaB-crystallin: a novel marker of invasive basal-like and metaplastic breast carcinomas.
  • Basal-like tumors are a newly recognized estrogen receptor (ER) negative and HER2 negative breast cancer subtype that express basal epithelial genes and are associated with poor survival.
  • Metaplastic carcinomas are thought to belong within the basal-like group.
  • We have recently demonstrated that the small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin is commonly expressed in basal-like tumors and contributes to their aggressive phenotype.
  • The current study examined the rates and patterns of alphaB-crystallin expression in whole tissue sections of human breast, including normal tissue, proliferative lesions, in situ and invasive carcinomas (ER positive, HER2 positive, basal-like, and metaplastic cancers).
  • In normal breast tissue, proliferative lesions and in situ carcinomas, alphaB-crystallin expression was restricted to the myoepithelial cell compartment of ductal and lobular units.
  • Most basal-like and metaplastic carcinomas demonstrated cytoplasmic expression of alphaB-crystallin (81% and 86%, respectively).
  • Conversely, no staining for alphaB-crystallin was observed in nonbasal-like (ie, ER positive or HER2 positive) breast carcinomas.
  • Taken together, our results indicate that alphaB-crystallin is a sensitive (81%) and specific (100%) marker for basal-like breast carcinomas.
  • Moreover, the high rates of expression of alphaB-crystallin in metaplastic breast carcinomas (86%) suggest that these tumors may represent a histologically distinctive subset of basal-like breast tumors with a similar underlying molecular etiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. alpha-Crystallin B Chain / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Cyst / metabolism. Breast Cyst / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Metaplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18164413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA89018; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA097198
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / alpha-Crystallin B Chain
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20. Liu H, Fan QH, Zhang ZH, Li X, Yu HP, Liu GZ, Meng FQ: [Roles of immunohistochemistry in prognostic assessment of basal-like breast cancer]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Jan;38(1):23-8
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  • [Title] [Roles of immunohistochemistry in prognostic assessment of basal-like breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVES: Basal cell-like breast cancer is one of the subtypes using molecular typing, and this subtype attracted a wide spread attention.
  • The prognosis of basal cell-like breast cancer using different immunohistochemical criteria were analyzed.
  • METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-four invasive breast cancers with a follow-up information over 5 years were evaluated for ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6, CK14, EGFR expression on tissue microarray immunohistochemically.
  • Based on the results, these cases using four different diagnostic criteria were categorized, namely: Nielsen (ER-/HER2-, CK5/6+ and/or EGFR+), Kim (ER-/PR-/HER2-, CK5/6+ and/or CK14+ and/or EGFR+), Triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), and basal-CK (CK5/6+ and/or CK14+).
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of basal cell-like breast cancer by Nielsen, Kim, Triple-negative and basal-CK were 15.5% (44/284), 14.8% (42/284), 43.3% (123/284) and 21.1% (60/284) respectively; the recurrence rates were 18.2% (8/44), 21.4% (9/42), 10.6% (13/123) and 11.7% (7/60) respectively.
  • These were higher than recurrence rates for other subtypes, but only the differences by Nielsen's and Kim's criteria were significant.
  • Using Nielsen's and Triple-negative's criteria, basal-like tumors showed shorter 5-year disease-free survival (both P < 0.
  • 01) and overall survival (P < 0.05 and 0.01) than luminal A subtype, using Kim's criteria, basal-like tumors showed a lower 5-year disease-free but not overall survival than luminal A subtype (P < 0.01); no significant difference was found on 5-year survival between basal-like and non-basal-like tumors when typed by basal-CK.
  • CONCLUSION: Basal cell-like breast cancers are more likely to show more recurrence and worse outcome, but different immunohistochemical diagnostic criteria have an influence on their prognostic analysis, so a uniform diagnostic criteria is essential for the further study of basal-like breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19489221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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21. Habashy HO, Powe DG, Rakha EA, Ball G, Macmillan RD, Green AR, Ellis IO: The prognostic significance of PELP1 expression in invasive breast cancer with emphasis on the ER-positive luminal-like subtype. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Apr;120(3):603-12
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  • [Title] The prognostic significance of PELP1 expression in invasive breast cancer with emphasis on the ER-positive luminal-like subtype.
  • The aim of the present study, which uses tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, is to explore the clinical and biological relevance of PELP1 protein expression in a large series of consecutive patients (1,162 patients) with invasive breast cancers with particular emphasis on its role in the ER-positive/luminal-like class of tumours.
  • Our results showed that increased PELP1 expression is associated with tumours of larger size, higher histological grade, higher mitotic count, and with positive expression of basal cytokeratins (CK) (CK14; P = 0.018 and CK5/6; P = 0.029), P-cadherin (P = 0.002), p53 and MIB1 (P = 0.018).
  • A significant association between PELP1 expression and shorter breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) (P = 0.002) and disease-free survival (DFI) (P = 0.006) was found.
  • In the ER-positive/luminal-like group (n = 768), PELP1 expression showed similar association with other clinicopathological variables and was an independent predictor of shorter DFI (HR = 1.256, P = 0.036).
  • In conclusion, PELP1 protein expression is an independent prognostic predictor of shorter BCSS and DFI in breast cancer and its elevated expression is positively associated with markers of poor outcome.
  • PELP1 appears to have a potential application in assessing the clinical outcome of patients with ER-positive breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Estrogens. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Trans-Activators / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19495959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Co-Repressor Proteins; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PELP1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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22. Demir H, Turna H, Can G, Ilvan S: Clinicopathologic and prognostic evaluation of invasive breast carcinoma molecular subtypes and GATA3 expression. J BUON; 2010 Oct-Dec;15(4):774-82
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic and prognostic evaluation of invasive breast carcinoma molecular subtypes and GATA3 expression.
  • PURPOSE: recently, molecular subclassification of breast carcinomas has been proposed as a new prognostic parameter.
  • METHODS: we classified 222 invasive breast carcinoma cases in 5 molecular subtypes by using tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry methods.
  • These subtypes were luminal A (estrogen receptor/ER and/or progesterone receptor/ PR positive), luminal B (ER and/or PR positive + HER2 positive), HER2-expressing type (ER and PR negative, HER2 positive), basal-like type (ER, PR and HER2 negative, positive with at least one of these myoepithelial markers: CK5/6, CK14, EGFR) and null type (ER, PR, HER2 and myoepithelial markers negative).
  • We compared these subtypes according to their clinicopathological features and GATA3 expression.
  • RESULTS: luminal A was the most frequent subtype.
  • According to overall survival rates, HER2-expressing and basal- like types had the worst prognosis, while luminal A had the best.
  • Most of the squamous differentiated metaplastic carcinomas were basal-like type.
  • Most basal-like tumors were grade III.
  • GATA3 positivity was associated with low grade tumors and luminal A subtype.
  • CONCLUSION: molecular classification can be accepted as an independent prognostic factor for invasive breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. GATA3 Transcription Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21229645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GATA3 Transcription Factor; 0 / GATA3 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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23. Liu H, Fan QH, Li X, Liu GZ: [Clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance of basal-like breast cancer]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 May;38(5):316-22
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance of basal-like breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyzed a large group of invasive breast cancers with long-term follow-up information to evaluate the clinicopathologic, morphological and prognostic features of basal-like breast cancers in Chinese population.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ER, HER2, CK5/6, EGFR on tissue microarray with 1311 invasive breast cancers.
  • Based on the results, these cases were categorized into luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, HER2-overexpressing and null subtypes.
  • RESULTS: Basal-like breast cancers constituted 17.0% of 1311 invasive breast cancers with a significantly larger size, higher grade and higher incidence of the medullary carcinoma, frequent recurrence and infrequent node metastasis.
  • Morphologically, basal-like breast cancers showed a significantly more solid architecture and ribbon-like architecture associated with necrosis (more geographic necrosis) and central scar, a more pushing margin, lymphocytic infiltration and a higher mitosis score, more syncytial growth, presence of basaloid cells, spindle cells and squamous metaplasia.
  • The disease-free survival and overall survival of basal-like breast cancers were significantly poorer than that of luminal A subtype, but similar to the other ER-negative subtypes.
  • Basal markers were not independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Basal-like breast cancers in Chinese population has a similar prevalence to that of the western populations.
  • They have distinct clinicopathologic features compared to other non-basal breast cancers, but overlapping with other ER-negative breast cancers.
  • Morphological features are strongly associated with basal-like breast cancers although they are not very specific.
  • The survival of basal-like breast cancers is poorer than luminal A, but similar to the other ER-negative breast cancers, and basal markers are not independent prognostic factors of breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology


24. Kusińska R, Potemski P, Jesionek-Kupnicka D, Kordek R: Immunohistochemical identification of basal-type cytokeratins in invasive ductal breast carcinoma--relation with grade, stage, estrogen receptor and HER2. Pol J Pathol; 2005;56(3):107-10
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical identification of basal-type cytokeratins in invasive ductal breast carcinoma--relation with grade, stage, estrogen receptor and HER2.
  • Gene expression analyses with cDNA microarray technology identified distinct groups of breast cancers.
  • Tumors with no ER expression could be divided into three subgroups: "basal-like" subtype, HER2-positive subtype, and "normal breast-like".
  • "Basal-like" subtype was characterized by high expression of keratins 5 and 17, laminin and fatty acid binding protein 7.
  • In the present study, we analyzed the usefulness of immunohistochemistry for separation of the distinct subtypes of the breast ductal carcinomas and provided further characterization of "basal-like subtype".
  • A consecutive series of 195 primary operable invasive breast carcinomas was immunostained for HER2, ER, PGR, CK5/6 and CK17.
  • ER/PGR was present in 109 cases (55.9%), but in this group there were 8 cases with HER2 overexpression and 17 cases with basal-cytokeratin positivity.
  • Similarly, in 17 out of 72 "basal-like" tumors there was ER/PGR positivity, and also in 17 of them there was HER2 overexpression.
  • Tumor grade differed significantly (p < 0.001) between luminal and basal cytokeratin- or HER2-positive tumors.
  • Our study showed that immunohistochemistry is useful for dividing breast cancers into separate subgroups, but further analyses for better characterization of cases presenting two or three markers should be performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Keratins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16334976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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25. Bergamaschi A, Kim YH, Kwei KA, La Choi Y, Bocanegra M, Langerød A, Han W, Noh DY, Huntsman DG, Jeffrey SS, Børresen-Dale AL, Pollack JR: CAMK1D amplification implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in basal-like breast cancer. Mol Oncol; 2008 Dec;2(4):327-39
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  • [Title] CAMK1D amplification implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in basal-like breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer exhibits clinical and molecular heterogeneity, where expression profiling studies have identified five major molecular subtypes.
  • The basal-like subtype, expressing basal epithelial markers and negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, is associated with higher overall levels of DNA copy number alteration (CNA), specific CNAs (like gain on chromosome 10p), and poor prognosis.
  • Discovering the molecular genetic basis of tumor subtypes may provide new opportunities for therapy.
  • To identify the driver oncogene on 10p associated with basal-like tumors, we analyzed genomic profiles of 172 breast carcinomas.
  • The smallest shared region of gain spanned just seven genes at 10p13, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID (CAMK1D), functioning in intracellular signaling but not previously linked to cancer.
  • By microarray, CAMK1D was overexpressed when amplified, and by immunohistochemistry exhibited elevated expression in invasive carcinomas compared to carcinoma in situ.
  • Engineered overexpression of CAMK1D in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells led to increased cell proliferation, and molecular and phenotypic alterations indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including loss of cell-cell adhesions and increased cell migration and invasion.
  • Our findings identify CAMK1D as a novel amplified oncogene linked to EMT in breast cancer, and as a potential therapeutic target with particular relevance to clinically unfavorable basal-like tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1 / genetics. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Gene Amplification. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19383354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112016; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009302; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097139-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112016
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.17 / CAMK1D protein, human; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS83121; NLM/ PMC2653212
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26. Shin BK, Lee Y, Lee JB, Kim HK, Lee JB, Cho SJ, Kim A: Breast carcinomas expressing basal markers have poor clinical outcome regardless of estrogen receptor status. Oncol Rep; 2008 Mar;19(3):617-25
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  • [Title] Breast carcinomas expressing basal markers have poor clinical outcome regardless of estrogen receptor status.
  • To evaluate the clinical significance of gene expression-based classification and define the characteristic features of the new basal-like subtype, invasive breast carcinomas were divided into ER, HER2, basal-like and null subtypes by immunohistochemical analysis.
  • A total of 401 invasive breast carcinomas were submitted to tissue microarray and stained with ER, HER2, EGFR, c-KIT and cytokeratin (CK) 5/6.
  • The basal-like tumors, defined as positive for one or more basal markers but negative for both ER and HER2, comprised 18.5%.
  • Expression of the basal marker itself showed negative prognostic effect, particularly in node-positive group.
  • Even ER-positive patients had far shorter disease-free survival (DFS) when the tumor coexpressed one or more basal marker (p<0.001).
  • Discrimination of basal-like subtype or tumors positive for basal markers may be clinically significant also in the treatment and prognosis of breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / classification. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / classification. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis


27. Carey LA, Perou CM, Livasy CA, Dressler LG, Cowan D, Conway K, Karaca G, Troester MA, Tse CK, Edmiston S, Deming SL, Geradts J, Cheang MC, Nielsen TO, Moorman PG, Earp HS, Millikan RC: Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. JAMA; 2006 Jun 7;295(21):2492-502
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.
  • CONTEXT: Gene expression analysis has identified several breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2+/ER-), luminal A, and luminal B.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine population-based distributions and clinical associations for breast cancer subtypes.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Immunohistochemical surrogates for each subtype were applied to 496 incident cases of invasive breast cancer from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (ascertained between May 1993 and December 1996), a population-based, case-control study that oversampled premenopausal and African American women.
  • Subtype definitions were as follows: luminal A (ER+ and/or progesterone receptor positive [PR+], HER2-), luminal B (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+), basal-like (ER-, PR-, HER2-, cytokeratin 5/6 positive, and/or HER1+), HER2+/ER- (ER-, PR-, and HER2+), and unclassified (negative for all 5 markers).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined the prevalence of breast cancer subtypes within racial and menopausal subsets and determined their associations with tumor size, axillary nodal status, mitotic index, nuclear pleomorphism, combined grade, p53 mutation status, and breast cancer-specific survival.
  • RESULTS: The basal-like breast cancer subtype was more prevalent among premenopausal African American women (39%) compared with postmenopausal African American women (14%) and non-African American women (16%) of any age (P<.001), whereas the luminal A subtype was less prevalent (36% vs 59% and 54%, respectively).
  • The HER2+/ER- subtype did not vary with race or menopausal status (6%-9%).
  • Compared with luminal A, basal-like tumors had more TP53 mutations (44% vs 15%, P<.001), higher mitotic index (odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-21.7), more marked nuclear pleomorphism (OR, 9.7; 95% CI, 5.3-18.0), and higher combined grade (OR, 8.3; 95% CI, 4.4-15.6).
  • Breast cancer-specific survival differed by subtype (P<.001), with shortest survival among HER2+/ER- and basal-like subtypes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Basal-like breast tumors occurred at a higher prevalence among premenopausal African American patients compared with postmenopausal African American and non-African American patients in this population-based study.
  • A higher prevalence of basal-like breast tumors and a lower prevalence of luminal A tumors could contribute to the poor prognosis of young African American women with breast cancer.


28. Hasegawa M, Moritani S, Murakumo Y, Sato T, Hagiwara S, Suzuki C, Mii S, Jijiwa M, Enomoto A, Asai N, Ichihara S, Takahashi M: CD109 expression in basal-like breast carcinoma. Pathol Int; 2008 May;58(5):288-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD109 expression in basal-like breast carcinoma.
  • Breast cancer can be classified into several subtypes based on gene expression profiling.
  • Basal-like breast carcinoma (BLC) has a triple negative phenotype, that is, the subtype lacks the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).
  • It has been recently reported that CD109, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface protein, is a new breast myoepithelial marker.
  • In the present study CD109 expression was investigated in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast on immunohistochemistry.
  • Eighty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma sections were immunostained with anti-CD109, anti-cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), anti-calponin, anti-vimentin and anti-p63 antibodies.
  • CD109 expression was detected in 18 of 30 basal-like breast carcinomas (BLC) but not in other types of 53 IDC (non-BLC) that were positive for ER, PgR and/or HER2.
  • These findings indicate that CD109 is a useful diagnostic marker for BLC and that CD109 expression may affect biological properties of cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism


29. Wu WX, Zhang YP, Wen XW, Lu N, Tang ZY, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Wang W, Yang HJ: [Relationship between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and basal cell-like phenotype in breast cancer]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Aug;38(8):519-23
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  • [Title] [Relationship between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and basal cell-like phenotype in breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and basal cell-like phenotype breast cancer (BLBC).
  • METHODS: Three hundred and eighty two cases of breast cancers including basal cell-like, luminal A, luminal B and Her-2 subtypes were collected from 458 cases of invasive breast cancers based on their immunophenotypes.
  • The relationship of these markers with the basal cell-like phenotype of breast cancer was studied.
  • The positive rates of FOXC-2 and vimentin were higher in BLBC than in other subtypes of breast cancer (P < 0.01).
  • The expression of E-cadherin was the lowest among the 4 subtypes of breast cancers (P < 0.01).
  • Syndecan-1 was positive in the stromal cells adjacent to cancer cells in 17 cases (41.5%) BLBC and the expression was higher than that in other subtypes (P = 0.007).
  • CONCLUSION: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is probably related to the basal cell-like phenotype of breast cancers, and this may be one of the reasons accounting for the different biological behavior of BLBC from other subtypes of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Female. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Syndecan-1 / metabolism. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20021961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Syndecan-1; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / mesenchyme fork head 1 protein
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30. Sek P, Zawrocki A, Biernat W, Piekarski JH: HER2 molecular subtype is a dominant subtype of mammary Paget's cells. An immunohistochemical study. Histopathology; 2010 Oct;57(4):564-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HER2 molecular subtype is a dominant subtype of mammary Paget's cells. An immunohistochemical study.
  • AIMS:   To test the hypothesis that the similarity of the molecular subtypes of Paget's cells to the molecular subtypes of the underlying breast carcinomas favours the epidermotrophic theory of the origin of Paget's cells.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS:   The immunohistochemical expression of markers that define particular molecular subtypes of breast carcinomas were analysed.
  • The whole analysis was performed by means of tissue microarrays in mammary Paget's disease and in the underlying breast carcinoma(s).
  • Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-overexpression subtype [oestrogen receptor (ER(-) ); HER2(+) ] was a dominant molecular subtype of Paget's cells (37 of 43 analysed cases; 86%).
  • Luminal B (ER(+) ; HER2(+) ) and luminal A (ER(+) ; HER(-) ) subtypes were identified in 12% and 2% of cases, respectively.
  • None of the analysed tumours presented a basal-like phenotype.
  • A similar distribution of molecular subtypes was identified in the underlying in situ breast carcinomas (HER2 subtype, 82%; luminal A, 6%; luminal B, 6%; basal-like, 6% of cases) and in the invasive component (HER2 subtype, 84%; luminal A, 8%; luminal B, 8%; basal-like, 0% of cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS:   HER2 molecular subtype is the dominant, but not the sole subtype seen in Paget's cells of the nipple.
  • A similar distribution of molecular subtypes in both Paget's cells and in the underlying carcinomas strongly suggests their common origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Paget's Disease, Mammary / classification. Paget's Disease, Mammary / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Estrogen / genetics. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.
  • [ErratumIn] Histopathology. 2010 Dec;57(6):944
  • (PMID = 20955381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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31. Mahler-Araujo B, Savage K, Parry S, Reis-Filho JS: Reduction of E-cadherin expression is associated with non-lobular breast carcinomas of basal-like and triple negative phenotype. J Clin Pathol; 2008 May;61(5):615-20
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  • [Title] Reduction of E-cadherin expression is associated with non-lobular breast carcinomas of basal-like and triple negative phenotype.
  • AIM: E-cadherin inactivation in breast cancer has been shown to be strongly associated with lobular breast cancer.
  • However, little is known about the levels of E-cadherin expression according to the breast cancer "molecular" subtypes.
  • The aim of this study was to address the distribution of E-cadherin expression according to the different molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
  • METHODS: E-cadherin expression was immunohistochemically analysed in a tissue microarray containing duplicate cores of 245 invasive breast carcinomas, of which 182 cases were of non-lobular histology, using a semi-quantitative scoring system based on the percentage of cells showing membrane immunopositivity.
  • RESULTS: In non-lobular breast carcinomas, reduced and/or negative E-cadherin expression was significantly associated with lack of oestrogen receptor expression, low levels of CCND1 expression, positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 and 17, epidermal growth factor receptor and caveolins 1 and 2, p53 expression, high MIB-1 proliferation indices, basal-like phenotype and triple negative phenotype.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that in the group of non-lobular breast cancers, reduction/lack of E-cadherin expression is preferentially found in basal-like breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Phenotype. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18156431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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32. Sasaki Y, Tsuda H: Clinicopathological characteristics of triple-negative breast cancers. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(4):254-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological characteristics of triple-negative breast cancers.
  • Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a group of breast carcinomas that are negative for expression of hormone receptors and HER2.
  • DNA microarray analyses have proved that TNBCs are composed of the basal-like subtype and normal breast (or unclassified) subtype, the former being correlated with an aggressive clinical course.
  • Histological types of TNBCs are reported to be common with those of basal-like subtype, comprising high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, no special type [solid-tubular carcinoma (or atypical medullary carcinoma), invasive ductal carcinoma with a large central acellular zone], typical medullary carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinomas.
  • The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers and molecular changes including TP53 gene mutations, BRCA1 inactivation, and many chromosomal alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis


33. Park SY, Lee HE, Li H, Shipitsin M, Gelman R, Polyak K: Heterogeneity for stem cell-related markers according to tumor subtype and histologic stage in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Feb 1;16(3):876-87
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  • [Title] Heterogeneity for stem cell-related markers according to tumor subtype and histologic stage in breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression of stem cell-related markers at the cellular level in human breast tumors of different subtypes and histologic stage.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed immunohistochemical analyses of 12 proteins [CD44, CD24, ALDH1, vimentin, osteonectin, EPCR, caveolin 1, connexin 43, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), MUC1, claudin 7, and GATA3] selected based on their differential expression in breast cancer cells with more differentiated and stem cell-like characteristics in 47 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) only, 135 cases of IDC with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 35 cases of DCIS with microinvasion, and 58 cases of pure DCIS.
  • RESULTS: CD44 and EPCR expression was different among the four histologic groups and was lower in invasive compared with in situ tumors, especially in luminal A subtype.
  • The expression of vimentin, osteonectin, connexin 43, ALDH1, CK18, GATA3, and MUC1 differed by tumor subtype in some histologic groups.
  • ALDH1-positive cells were more frequent in basal-like and HER2+ than in luminal tumors.
  • CD44+/CD24- cells were detected in 69% of all tumors with 100% of the basal-like and 52% of HER2+ tumors having some of these cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in breast cancer, the frequency of tumor cells positive for stem cell-like and more differentiated cell markers varies according to tumor subtype and histologic stage.

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  • (PMID = 20103682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089393-100014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089393-100014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089393-090014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA006516; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089393-090014; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006516
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD24; 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 1.2.1.- / aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; EC 1.2.1.36 / Retinal Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS159835; NLM/ PMC2818503
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34. Liu N, Niu Y, Wang SL, Yu Q, Zhang RJ, Liu TJ: [Diagnostic and prognostic significance of FOXA1 expression in molecular subtypes of breast invasive ductal carcinomas]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 May 25;90(20):1403-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnostic and prognostic significance of FOXA1 expression in molecular subtypes of breast invasive ductal carcinomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of FOXA1 in breast invasive ductal carcinomas, observe its expression in all molecular subtypes of breast invasive ductal carcinomas and understand its diagnostic and prognostic significance.
  • METHODS: Tissue specimens were obtained from 213 cases of breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and their expressions of FOXA1 and Ki67 detected by immunohistochemistry.
  • And the expressions of CK5/6 and CK14 were detected to distinguish between normal breast-like subtype and basal-like subtype.
  • The expression of FOXA1 had difference between luminal and non-luminal subtypes.
  • In luminal subtype, the expression of FOXA1 was associated with histological grade, PR, NPI, Ki67 and A subtype.
  • FOXA1 is a promising candidate for clinical identification of luminal A subtype.
  • Prognostic analysis of FOXA1 in low-risk breast cancers may prove to be useful in clinical treatment decision-making.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20646630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXA1 protein, human; 0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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35. Lester T, Wang J, Bourne P, Yang Q, Fu L, Tang P: Different panels of markers should be used to predict mammary Paget's disease associated with in situ or invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2009;39(1):17-24
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  • [Title] Different panels of markers should be used to predict mammary Paget's disease associated with in situ or invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • Mammary Paget's disease (MPD) is a rare manifestation of breast carcinoma involving the nipple.
  • Our objective was to identify molecular markers and molecular subtypes that may predict patients at high risk of developing MPD.
  • Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed with antibodies to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), HER2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and several cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14, CK17, CK8, CK18) on representative sections of 121 cases of ductal carcinoma of the breast, including 28 cases with MPD, 81 cases with neither MPD nor nipple involvement, and 12 cases of non-MPD with nipple involvement.
  • The rates of receptor expression and subtype distributions of 3 IHC-based molecular classifications were compared among these groups.
  • (1) MPD is more likely to be associated with ER- and PR-negative ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but not invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC);.
  • (2) MPD is more likely to be associated with HER2-over expression subtype DCIS, but not IDC; and (3) carcinomas with non-MPD nipple involvement differ from those with MPD, since they are more likely to be ER- and PR-positive, HER2-negative, and luminal A subtype.
  • In summary, different panels of markers should be used to predict MPD associated with different underlying lesions; for DCIS, the ER-negative, PR-negative, and HER2-subtype and not basal-like subtype is most predictive of MPD; for IDC, the luminal B-subtype is most predictive of MPD.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Paget's Disease, Mammary / complications. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis


36. Del Casar JM, Martín A, García C, Corte MD, Alvarez A, Junquera S, González LO, Bongera M, García-Muñiz JL, Allende MT, Vizoso F: Characterization of breast cancer subtypes by quantitative assessment of biological parameters: relationship with clinicopathological characteristics, biological features and prognosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Dec;141(2):147-52
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  • [Title] Characterization of breast cancer subtypes by quantitative assessment of biological parameters: relationship with clinicopathological characteristics, biological features and prognosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: Gene expression analysis has identified several breast cancer subtypes, including luminal, epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive (HER2+), and basal-like.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The biological parameters were examined by enzyme immunoassay, radioligand-binding assay or ELISA, in tumors from 787 patients with invasive breast cancer.
  • Subtype definitions were as follows: luminal (ER+), HER2+ (HER2+, ER-, PgR-) and basal-like (HER2-, ER-, PgR-).
  • In addition, we divided basal tumors into two groups based on their HER1 status.
  • RESULTS: A 55.8% of tumors were of luminal type, 11.9% basal-like HER1+, 10.7 basal-like HER1-, and the remainder 21.6% HER2+.
  • Both HER2+ and basal-like subtypes were more frequent in younger and premenopausal women, showing a higher percentage of cases of poorly differentiated tumors and higher S-phase fraction, when compared with those of luminal subtype.
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the subtype of tumor was related to both relapse and overall survival, being those of luminal subtype associated with the best prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Through the classification of breast tumors in four groups, according to their ER, PgR, HER2 and HER1 status, it is possible to obtain a major division of breast tumors associated with significant differences in biological features and clinical behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18768247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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37. Ihemelandu CU, Dewitty RL Jr, Leffall LD Jr, Suryanarayana SM, Frederick WA: Clinical significance of p53 and bcl-2 protein coexpression phenotypes in molecular breast cancer subtypes of pre-menopausal and post-menopausal African-American women. Am Surg; 2009 Sep;75(9):776-84; discussion 784
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of p53 and bcl-2 protein coexpression phenotypes in molecular breast cancer subtypes of pre-menopausal and post-menopausal African-American women.
  • With the current classification of breast carcinoma into molecular subtypes with distinct prognosis and response to therapy, we sort to assess the clinical significance of p53 and bcl-2 coexpression phenotypes in invasive breast tumors and correlate this to the different molecular breast cancer subtypes in African-American women.
  • Results were correlated to molecular breast cancer subtypes, and clinicopathologic variables of prognostic significance.
  • Our study sample included all African-American women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1998 to 2005.
  • Combined analysis of p53 and bcl-2 showed that 53.2 per cent of the tumors displayed p53(-)bcl-2(+) phenotype which was significantly associated with the luminal A subtype, whereas 11.6 per cent displayed the p53(+)bcl-2(-) phenotype which was significantly associated with the basal cell-like and Her-2/neu.
  • Neither p53 expression nor bcl-2 expression individually or in combination were of independent prognostic significance. p53(+)bcl-2(-) phenotype is significantly correlated with the basal cell-like subtype and may be associated with the biologic aggressiveness of this cohort of molecular breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Postmenopause. Premenopause. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


38. Weigelt B, Horlings HM, Kreike B, Hayes MM, Hauptmann M, Wessels LF, de Jong D, Van de Vijver MJ, Van't Veer LJ, Peterse JL: Refinement of breast cancer classification by molecular characterization of histological special types. J Pathol; 2008 Oct;216(2):141-50
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  • [Title] Refinement of breast cancer classification by molecular characterization of histological special types.
  • Most invasive breast cancers are classified as invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC NOS), whereas about 25% are defined as histological 'special types'.
  • These special-type breast cancers are categorized into at least 17 discrete pathological entities; however, whether these also constitute discrete molecular entities remains to be determined.
  • Current therapy decision-making is increasingly governed by the molecular classification of breast cancer (luminal, basal-like, HER2+).
  • The molecular classification is derived from mainly IDC NOS and it is unknown whether this classification applies to all histological subtypes.
  • We aimed to refine the breast cancer classification systems by analysing a series of 11 histological special types [invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), tubular, mucinous A, mucinous B, neuroendocrine, apocrine, IDC with osteoclastic giant cells, micropapillary, adenoid cystic, metaplastic, and medullary carcinoma] using immunohistochemistry and genome-wide gene expression profiling.
  • Hierarchical clustering analysis confirmed that some histological special types constitute discrete entities, such as micropapillary carcinoma, but also revealed that others, including tubular and lobular carcinoma, are very similar at the transcriptome level.
  • When classified by expression profiling, IDC NOS and ILC contain all molecular breast cancer types (ie luminal, basal-like, HER2+), whereas histological special-type cancers, apart from apocrine carcinoma, are homogeneous and only belong to one molecular subtype.
  • Our analysis also revealed that some special types associated with a good prognosis, such as medullary and adenoid cystic carcinomas, display a poor prognosis basal-like transcriptome, providing strong circumstantial evidence that basal-like cancers constitute a heterogeneous group.
  • Taken together, our results imply that the correct classification of breast cancers of special histological type will allow a more accurate prognostication of breast cancer patients and facilitate the identification of optimal therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic


39. Ribeiro-Silva A, Oliveira da Costa JP: Osteopontin expression according to molecular profile of invasive breast cancer: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jul-Sep;23(3):154-60
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  • [Title] Osteopontin expression according to molecular profile of invasive breast cancer: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study.
  • There is growing interest in the role of OPN in breast cancer.
  • In an attempt to obtain new insight into the pathogenesis of OPN-associated breast carcinomas, an immunohistochemical panel with 17 primary antibodies including cytokeratins and key regulators of the cell cycle was performed in 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of invasive breast carcinomas.
  • There was no correlation between OPN expression and carcinomas of the basal-like phenotype (p=0.1615); however, OPN correlated positively with c-erbB-2 status (p=0.0286) and negatively with carcinomas of the luminal subtype (p=0.0353).
  • Here, we hypothesize that the differential expression of OPN in the first subtype of carcinomas may contribute to their more aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Osteopontin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18949741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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40. Prat A, Parker JS, Karginova O, Fan C, Livasy C, Herschkowitz JI, He X, Perou CM: Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res; 2010;12(5):R68
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  • [Title] Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: In breast cancer, gene expression analyses have defined five tumor subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like and claudin-low), each of which has unique biologic and prognostic features.
  • Here, we comprehensively characterize the recently identified claudin-low tumor subtype.
  • METHODS: The clinical, pathological and biological features of claudin-low tumors were compared to the other tumor subtypes using an updated human tumor database and multiple independent data sets.
  • These main features of claudin-low tumors were also evaluated in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models.
  • RESULTS: Claudin-low tumors are characterized by the low to absent expression of luminal differentiation markers, high enrichment for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers, immune response genes and cancer stem cell-like features.
  • Clinically, the majority of claudin-low tumors are poor prognosis estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative (triple negative) invasive ductal carcinomas with a high frequency of metaplastic and medullary differentiation.
  • They also have a response rate to standard preoperative chemotherapy that is intermediate between that of basal-like and luminal tumors.
  • Interestingly, we show that a group of highly utilized breast cancer cell lines, and several genetically engineered mouse models, express the claudin-low phenotype.
  • Finally, we confirm that a prognostically relevant differentiation hierarchy exists across all breast cancers in which the claudin-low subtype most closely resembles the mammary epithelial stem cell.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results should help to improve our understanding of the biologic heterogeneity of breast cancer and provide tools for the further evaluation of the unique biology of claudin-low tumors and cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 20813035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES010126; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA58223-09A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA138255; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN43308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-138255
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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41. Williams DJ, Cohen C, To TV, Page AJ, Lawson D, Sussman ZM, Nassar A: Triple-negative breast carcinoma in women from Vietnam and the United States: characterization of differential marker expression by tissue microarray. Hum Pathol; 2009 Aug;40(8):1176-81
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  • [Title] Triple-negative breast carcinoma in women from Vietnam and the United States: characterization of differential marker expression by tissue microarray.
  • Triple-negative breast carcinoma accounts for approximately 15% of all breast cancers.
  • It is characterized by an aggressive clinical history, high rate of local relapse, and association with the basal epithelial-like subtype.
  • Variations in breast cancer subtype and clinical outcome often exist across racial and ethnic lines.
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the immunohistochemical and clinicopathologic characteristics of triple-negative breast carcinoma in women living in Vietnam with those from the United States.
  • Invasive triple-negative breast carcinoma of patients from the 2 populations was characterized by tissue microarray for the expression of basal cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK7, CK14), luminal cytokeratins (CK8, CK18, CK19), and markers associated with the basal phenotype (cKit, epithelial growth factor receptor, P-cadherin, p53, and p63).
  • Significant differences in expression between the 2 populations were not observed for the basal cytokeratins.
  • However, epithelial growth factor receptor and P-cadherin, markers associated with the basal phenotype, were underexpressed in Vietnamese patients.
  • Triple-negative breast carcinoma in Vietnamese women was smaller and less likely to be grade III.
  • These differences in histology and marker expression suggest that triple-negative breast carcinoma has unique biological characteristics in women from Vietnam and the United States, and may follow a unique clinical course in each of the 2 populations.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2010 Jan;41(1):150; author reply 150-1 [19762068.001]
  • (PMID = 19368951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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42. Bauer KR, Brown M, Cress RD, Parise CA, Caggiano V: Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: a population-based study from the California cancer Registry. Cancer; 2007 May 1;109(9):1721-8
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  • [Title] Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: a population-based study from the California cancer Registry.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumor markers are becoming increasingly important in breast cancer research because of their impact on prognosis, treatment, and survival, and because of their relation to breast cancer subtypes.
  • The triple-negative phenotype is important because of its relation to the basal-like subtype of breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Using the population-based California Cancer Registry data, we identified women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer between 1999 and 2003.
  • We examined differences between triple-negative breast cancers compared with other breast cancers in relation to age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), stage at diagnosis, tumor grade, and relative survival.
  • RESULTS: A total of 6370 women were identified as having triple-negative breast cancer and were compared with the 44,704 women with other breast cancers.
  • Women with triple-negative breast cancers were significantly more likely to be under age 40 (odds ratio [OR], 1.53), and non-Hispanic black (OR, 1.77) or Hispanic (OR, 1.23).
  • Regardless of stage at diagnosis, women with triple-negative breast cancers had poorer survival than those with other breast cancers, and non-Hispanic black women with late-stage triple-negative cancer had the poorest survival, with a 5-year relative survival of only 14%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Triple-negative breast cancers affect younger, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women in areas of low SES.
  • In addition, non-Hispanic black women with late-stage triple-negative breast cancer had the poorest survival of any comparable group.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ethnology. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 17387718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N02-PC-15105; United States / PHS HHS / / U55/CCR921930-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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43. Carvalho LV, Pereira EM, Frappart L, Boniol M, Bernardo WM, Tarricone V, Tavtigian S, Southey MC: Molecular characterization of breast cancer in young Brazilian women. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2010 May-Jun;56(3):278-87
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of breast cancer in young Brazilian women.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution of molecular subtypes of breast tumors diagnosed in young Brazilian women and to analyze the frequency of loss of heterozygocity (LOH) in BRCA1 among different molecular subtypes of early-onset breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Samples from 72 cases of invasive breast carcinoma diagnosed in women aged between 19 and 40 years were evaluated using an immunohistochemical panel of biomarkers.
  • RESULTS: We found 13 cases (18%) that had an immunohistochemical profile consistent with being basal-like.
  • Forty cases (55%) were luminal A type; 11% (8 cases) were luminal B type, 13% (9 cases) were HER2-overexpressing tumors and two cases were ER-/HER2- carcinomas lacking basal marker expression.
  • Four of the 16 informative cases at D17S1322, one of the four informative cases at D17S855, and none of the five informative cases at D17S1323 displayed LOH (four basal-like and one Luminal A).
  • Microsatellite instability (MSI) at D17S855 and D17S1322 was found in two cases (one a basal-like and one Luminal A).
  • CONCLUSION: In our study, basal-like tumor was the second most frequent molecular type among young Brazilian women and was only observed in women diagnosed under the age of 35 years.
  • There was no significant difference of LOH at BRCA1 locus rates between basal-like breast tumors and not-basal-like breast tumors (p=0.62).
  • LOH in BRCA1 and MSI in these breast cancers were not frequent but may indicate a small group of breast cancers with a specific molecular makeup.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Genes, BRCA1. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brazil. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Microsatellite Instability. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20676533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-9282
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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44. Matos I, Dufloth R, Alvarenga M, Zeferino LC, Schmitt F: p63, cytokeratin 5, and P-cadherin: three molecular markers to distinguish basal phenotype in breast carcinomas. Virchows Arch; 2005 Oct;447(4):688-94
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  • [Title] p63, cytokeratin 5, and P-cadherin: three molecular markers to distinguish basal phenotype in breast carcinomas.
  • Human breast carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors diverse in behavior, outcome, and response to therapy.
  • The purpose of this study was to classify and characterize breast carcinomas based on variations in protein expression patterns derived from immunohistochemical analyses on tissue microarrays (TMAs).
  • Therefore, 11 TMAs representing 168 invasive breast carcinomas were constructed.
  • Breast tumors were classified into four different subtypes depending on estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 expression.
  • Basal-type tumors expressed neither of these proteins and represented 7.6% of our series; basal-like HER2-overexpressing tumors did not express ER and represented 17.7%; luminal-type tumors expressed ER and represented 72.8% of this series (luminal A 56.3%, luminal B 16.5%).
  • Moreover, we characterized each subtype based on P-cadherin (P-CD), p63, cytokeratin (CK)5, BCL2, and Ki67 expression.
  • Basal-type tumors were mostly grade III, more frequently P-CD-, p63-, and CK5-positive, and had a high proliferation rate.
  • Conversely, luminal-type tumors rarely expressed basal markers and had a low grade and proliferation rate.
  • Basal-like HER2-overexpressing tumors showed a basal-type profile similar with a high grade and up-regulation of P-CD and CK5.
  • With this study, we show that P-CD, p63, and CK5 are important molecular markers that can be used to distinguish a basal phenotype.
  • In addition, we also demonstrate the usefulness of TMAs in breast carcinoma immunoprofiling.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16012853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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45. Bertolo C, Guerrero D, Vicente F, Cordoba A, Esteller M, Ropero S, Guillen-Grima F, Martinez-Peñuela JM, Lera JM: Differences and molecular immunohistochemical parameters in the subtypes of infiltrating ductal breast cancer. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Sep;130(3):414-24
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  • [Title] Differences and molecular immunohistochemical parameters in the subtypes of infiltrating ductal breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and patients are categorized into subtypes according to gene expression.
  • We studied the associations among molecular, immunohistochemical, and clinicopathologic features and their distribution according to the subtypes luminal, HER2, basal, and normal-like in 60 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis (M0).
  • Expression of bcl-2 was associated with the luminal subtype (P=.003), and CDH-1 hypermethylation was present preferentially in HER2 tumors (P=.038).
  • The basal subtype was characterized by the expression of beta-catenin (P=.003).
  • The hypermethylation of CDH-1 and the expression of bcl-2, cyclin D1, and beta-catenin proteins differ among breast cancer subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology


46. Yu L, Yang WT, Cai X, Lu HF, Fan YZ, Shi DR: [Clinicopathologic study of centrally necrotizing carcinoma of breast]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Oct;38(10):657-62
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic study of centrally necrotizing carcinoma of breast].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotype of centrally necrotizing carcinoma (CNC) of breast; and to study its relationship with basal-like breast cancer.
  • The peripheral zone of tumor cells showed features of grade 3 invasive ductal carcinoma in 32 cases and grade 2 in 3 cases.
  • Twenty cases of CNC were associated with ductal carcinoma in-situ.
  • A component of invasive micropapillary carcinoma was identified in 5 cases.
  • Immunohistochemical study of 31 cases showed that the expression rate of basal-like markers (83.9%, 26 cases) was higher than that of myoepithelial markers (38.7%, 12 cases).
  • The percentage of basal-like subtype (64.5%, 20 cases) was higher than luminal-A (9.7%, 3 cases), luminal-B (9.7%, 3 cases), HER2 over-expression (12.9%, 4 cases) and null (3.2%, 1 case) subtypes.
  • In 20 cases of basal-like carcinoma, the expression ratio of CK5/6 was highest amongst basal-like markers (18 cases), the other markers ratios of CK17, CK14 and epidermal growth factor receptor were 8/10, 14/19 and 8/16, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CNC is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma and has distinctive, easily discernible morphologic features.
  • The majority of CNC exhibits basal-like immunophenotype and carries a poor prognosis.
  • CNC is the typical representative of basal-like breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20078968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTA2 protein, human; 0 / Actins; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Keratin-5
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47. Lopes N, Sousa B, Vieira D, Milanezi F, Schmitt F: Vessel density assessed by endoglin expression in breast carcinomas with different expression profiles. Histopathology; 2009 Nov;55(5):594-9
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  • [Title] Vessel density assessed by endoglin expression in breast carcinomas with different expression profiles.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the relationship between microvessel density assessed by endoglin expression and the molecular subtypes of human invasive breast carcinomas and whether there is evidence to indicate that angiogenesis could be a putative target for therapy in specific subsets of breast cancer.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied a series of 161 breast carcinomas, but information was available on only 142 tumours.
  • We correlated endoglin expression with distinct breast carcinoma subgroups classified according to immunohistochemical profiling.
  • Additionally, we compared it with other biomarkers for the aggressive basal-like subset and with available histopathological data.
  • Although the basal-like subtype has higher microvessel density, there are no significant differences with the other molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study found no significant differences in tumour vascularity in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Receptors, Cell Surface / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19912365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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48. O'Brien KM, Cole SR, Tse CK, Perou CM, Carey LA, Foulkes WD, Dressler LG, Geradts J, Millikan RC: Intrinsic breast tumor subtypes, race, and long-term survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Dec 15;16(24):6100-10
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  • [Title] Intrinsic breast tumor subtypes, race, and long-term survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.
  • PURPOSE: Previous research identified differences in breast cancer-specific mortality across 4 intrinsic tumor subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2(+)/ER(-)).
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used immunohistochemical markers to subtype 1,149 invasive breast cancer patients (518 African American, 631 white) in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of women diagnosed with breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Cancer subtypes luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, and HER2(+)/ER(-) were distributed as 64%, 11%, 11%, and 5% for whites, and 48%, 8%, 22%, and 7% for African Americans, respectively.
  • Breast cancer mortality was higher for participants with HER2(+)/ER(-) and basal-like breast cancer compared with luminal A and B.
  • African Americans had higher breast cancer-specific mortality than whites, but the effect of race was statistically significant only among women with luminal A breast cancer.
  • However, when compared with the luminal A subtype within racial categories, mortality for participants with basal-like breast cancer was higher among whites (HR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.4) than African Americans (HR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4), with the strongest effect seen in postmenopausal white women (HR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.5-10.0).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the association of basal-like breast cancer with poor prognosis and suggest that basal-like breast cancer is not an inherently more aggressive disease in African American women compared with whites.
  • Additional analyses are needed in populations with known treatment profiles to understand the role of tumor subtypes and race in breast cancer mortality, and in particular our finding that among women with luminal A breast cancer, African Americans have higher mortality than whites.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 21169259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES010126; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016086-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009330; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016086; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32-CA009330; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50-CA58223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058223-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009330-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016086-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA058223-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30-CA16086
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS238222; NLM/ PMC3029098
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49. Dalgin GS, Alexe G, Scanfeld D, Tamayo P, Mesirov JP, Ganesan S, DeLisi C, Bhanot G: Portraits of breast cancer progression. BMC Bioinformatics; 2007;8:291
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  • [Title] Portraits of breast cancer progression.
  • RESULTS: We illustrate the method on a public microarray dataset from 36 breast cancer patients of whom 31 were diagnosed with at least two of three pathological stages of disease (atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).
  • Our method identifies an optimum set of genes and divides the samples into stable clusters which correlate with clinical classification into Luminal, Basal-like and Her2+ subtypes.
  • Our analysis reveals a hierarchical portrait of breast cancer progression and identifies genes and pathways for each stage, grade and subtype.
  • An intriguing observation is that the disease phenotype is distinguishable in ADH and progresses along distinct pathways for each subtype.
  • The genetic signature for disease heterogeneity across subtypes is greater than the heterogeneity of progression from DCIS to IDC within a subtype, suggesting that the disease subtypes have distinct progression pathways.
  • Our method identifies six disease subtype and one normal clusters.
  • The first split separates the normal samples from the cancer samples.
  • Next, the cancer cluster splits into low grade (pathological grades 1 and 2) and high grade (pathological grades 2 and 3) while the normal cluster is unchanged.
  • The final six disease clusters are mapped into one Luminal A, three Luminal B, one Basal-like and one Her2+.
  • CONCLUSION: We confirm that the cancer phenotype can be identified in early stage because the genes altered in this stage progressively alter further as the disease progresses through DCIS into IDC.
  • We identify six subtypes of disease which have distinct genetic signatures and remain separated in the clustering hierarchy.
  • Our findings suggest that the heterogeneity of disease across subtypes is higher than the heterogeneity of the disease progression within a subtype, indicating that the subtypes are in fact distinct diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17683614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC bioinformatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Bioinformatics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1978212
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50. Moriya T, Kanomata N, Kozuka Y, Hirakawa H, Kimijima I, Kimura M, Watanabe M, Sasano H, Ishida T, Ohuchi N, Kurebayashi J, Sonoo H: Molecular morphological approach to the pathological study of development and advancement of human breast cancer. Med Mol Morphol; 2010 Jun;43(2):67-73
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  • [Title] Molecular morphological approach to the pathological study of development and advancement of human breast cancer.
  • Since the concept of gene profile-based intrinsic subtypes was proposed, various studies on pathological characteristics have been performed.
  • Particularly, triplenegative (TN) breast cancer, which is negative for all hormone receptors [estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)], has been attracting attention because effects of endocrine and targeting therapies cannot be anticipated and thus selecting a treatment method is difficult.
  • TN cancer accounts for about 10%-15% of all invasive breast cancer cases in Japanese, which is significantly lower than the incidence reported in the United States.
  • Cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is positive in 80%, being classified as basal-like carcinoma, but it should be understood that TN breast cancer and basal-like carcinoma are not necessarily the same.
  • In any case, the prognosis of TN breast cancer is poor.
  • Pathologically, TN breast cancer shows certain morphological characteristics, such as high grade and a pushing margin, and abnormalities of BRCA1 and p53 are frequently noted.
  • At present, as no effective therapeutic strategy has been established for TN breast cancer, further clarification of the molecular biological characteristics of such cancers is needed.
  • In addition, the incidence of TN-type ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is low, suggesting that TN does not remain preinvasive DCIS for a prolonged period and that it transforms to invasive cancer in an early stage.
  • Because mammary gland basal cells have characters of progenitor or stem cells that differentiate into both luminal epithelium and myoepithelial cells, these cells may be utilized for the differential diagnosis of the benignity or malignancy of intraductal lesions in routine pathological practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Progression


51. Lopez-Garcia MA, Geyer FC, Lacroix-Triki M, Marchió C, Reis-Filho JS: Breast cancer precursors revisited: molecular features and progression pathways. Histopathology; 2010 Aug;57(2):171-92
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  • [Title] Breast cancer precursors revisited: molecular features and progression pathways.
  • Increasingly more coherent data on the molecular characteristics of benign breast lesions and breast cancer precursors have led to the delineation of new multistep pathways of breast cancer progression through genotypic-phenotypic correlations.
  • It has become apparent that oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive and -negative breast lesions are fundamentally distinct diseases.
  • Within the ER-positive group, histological grade is strongly associated with the number and complexity of genetic abnormalities in breast cancer cells.
  • Genomic analyses of high-grade ER-positive breast cancers have revealed that a substantial proportion of these tumours harbour the characteristic genetic aberrations found in low-grade ER-positive disease, suggesting that at least a subgroup of high-grade ER-positive breast cancers may originate from low-grade lesions.
  • The ER-negative group is more complex and heterogeneous, comprising distinct molecular entities, including basal-like, HER2 and molecular apocrine lesions.
  • Here, we review the available molecular data on breast cancer risk indicator and precursor lesions, the putative mechanisms of progression from in situ to invasive disease, and propose a revised model of breast cancer evolution based on the molecular characteristics of distinct subtypes of in situ and invasive breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Keratins / metabolism. Metaplasia / genetics. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / genetics. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20500230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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52. Celis JE, Gromov P, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Friis E, Jirström K, Llombart-Bosch A, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Rank F, Gromova I: 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2008 Oct;7(10):1795-809
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma.
  • Established histopathological criteria divide invasive breast carcinomas into defined groups.
  • Ductal of no specific type and lobular are the two major subtypes accounting for around 75 and 15% of all cases, respectively.
  • The remaining 10% include rarer types such as tubular, cribriform, mucinous, papillary, medullary, metaplastic, and apocrine breast carcinomas.
  • Molecular profiling technologies, on the other hand, subdivide breast tumors into five subtypes, basal-like, luminal A, luminal B, normal breast tissue-like, and ERBB2-positive, that have different prognostic characteristics.
  • An additional subclass termed "molecular apocrine" has recently been described, but these lesions did not exhibit all the histopathological features of classical invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs).
  • IACs make up 0.5-3% of the invasive ductal carcinomas, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, there are presently no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis and as a result no precise information as to their prognosis.
  • Toward this goal our laboratories have embarked in a systematic proteomics endeavor aimed at identifying biomarkers that may characterize and subtype these lesions as well as targets that may lead to the development of novel targeted therapies and chemoprevention strategies.
  • By comparing the protein expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts and non-malignant breast epithelial tissue we have previously reported the identification of a few proteins that are specifically expressed by benign apocrine lesions as well as by the few IACs that were available to us at the time.
  • Here we reiterate our strategy to reveal apocrine cell markers and present novel data, based on the analysis of a considerably larger number of samples, establishing that IACs correspond to a distinct molecular subtype of breast carcinomas characterized by the expression of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase alone or in combination with a novel form of acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1).
  • Moreover we show that 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase is not expressed by other breast cancer types as determined by gel-based proteomics and immunohistochemistry analysis and that antibodies against this protein can identify IACs in an unbiased manner in a large breast cancer tissue microarray making them potentially useful as a diagnostic aid.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / enzymology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18632593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9484
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; EC 6.2.1.- / ACSM1 protein, human; EC 6.2.1.- / Coenzyme A Ligases
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53. Viloria-Petit AM, David L, Jia JY, Erdemir T, Bane AL, Pinnaduwage D, Roncari L, Narimatsu M, Bose R, Moffat J, Wong JW, Kerbel RS, O'Malley FP, Andrulis IL, Wrana JL: A role for the TGFbeta-Par6 polarity pathway in breast cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Aug 18;106(33):14028-33
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  • [Title] A role for the TGFbeta-Par6 polarity pathway in breast cancer progression.
  • The role of polarity signaling in cancer metastasis is ill defined.
  • Using two three-dimensional culture models of mammary epithelial cells and an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer, we reveal that Par6 signaling, which is regulated directly by TGFbeta, plays a role in breast cancer metastasis.
  • Interference with Par6 signaling blocked TGFbeta-dependent loss of polarity in acini-like structures formed by non-transformed mammary cells grown in three-dimensional structures and suppressed the protrusive morphology of mesenchymal-like invasive mammary tumor cells without rescuing E-cadherin expression.
  • Moreover, blockade of Par6 signaling in an in vivo orthotopic model of metastatic breast cancer induced the formation of ZO-1-positive epithelium-like structures in the primary tumor and suppressed metastasis to the lungs.
  • Analysis of the pathway in tissue microarrays of human breast tumors further revealed that Par6 activation correlated with markers of the basal carcinoma subtype in BRCA1-associated tumors.
  • These studies thus reveal a key role for polarity signaling and the control of morphologic transformation in breast cancer metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19667198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / PARD6A protein, human; 0 / Par6 protein, mouse; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2729014
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54. Millar EK, Graham PH, O'Toole SA, McNeil CM, Browne L, Morey AL, Eggleton S, Beretov J, Theocharous C, Capp A, Nasser E, Kearsley JH, Delaney G, Papadatos G, Fox C, Sutherland RL: Prediction of local recurrence, distant metastases, and death after breast-conserving therapy in early-stage invasive breast cancer using a five-biomarker panel. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct 1;27(28):4701-8
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  • [Title] Prediction of local recurrence, distant metastases, and death after breast-conserving therapy in early-stage invasive breast cancer using a five-biomarker panel.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the clinical utility of intrinsic molecular phenotype after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) with lumpectomy and whole-breast irradiation with or without a cavity boost.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four hundred ninety-eight patients with invasive breast cancer were enrolled into a randomized trial of BCT with or without a tumor bed radiation boost.
  • Tumors were classified by intrinsic molecular phenotype as luminal A or B, HER-2, basal-like, or unclassified using a five-biomarker panel: estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, CK5/6, and epidermal growth factor receptor.
  • Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards methodology were used to ascertain relationships to ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), and death from breast cancer.
  • Three hundred ninety-four patients were classified as luminal A, 23 were luminal B, 52 were basal, 13 were HER-2, and 16 were unclassified.
  • There were 24 IBTR (4.8%), 35 LRR (7%), 47 distant metastases (9.4%), and 37 breast cancer deaths (7.4%).
  • The overall 5-year disease-free rates for the whole cohort were: IBTR 97.4%, LRR 95.6%, DDFS 92.9%, and breast cancer-specific death 96.3%.
  • A significant difference was observed for survival between subtypes for LRR (P = .012), DDFS (P = .0035), and breast cancer-specific death (P = .0482), but not for IBTR (P = .346).
  • CONCLUSION: The 5-year and 10-year survival rates varied according to molecular subtype.
  • Although this approach provides additional information to predict time to IBTR, LRR, DDFS, and death from breast cancer, its predictive power is less than that of traditional pathologic indices.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Keratin-5 / metabolism. Keratin-6 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19720911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00138814
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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55. Voduc KD, Cheang MC, Tyldesley S, Gelmon K, Nielsen TO, Kennecke H: Breast cancer subtypes and the risk of local and regional relapse. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Apr 1;28(10):1684-91
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  • [Title] Breast cancer subtypes and the risk of local and regional relapse.
  • PURPOSE: The risk of local and regional relapse associated with each breast cancer molecular subtype was determined in a large cohort of patients with breast cancer.
  • Subtype assignment was accomplished using a validated six-marker immunohistochemical panel applied to tissue microarrays.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Semiquantitative analysis of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from 2,985 patients with early invasive breast cancer.
  • Patients were classified into the following categories: luminal A, luminal B, luminal-HER2, HER2 enriched, basal-like, or triple-negative phenotype-nonbasal.
  • Multivariable Cox analysis was used to determine the risk of local or regional relapse associated the intrinsic subtypes, adjusting for standard clinicopathologic factors.
  • RESULTS: The intrinsic molecular subtype was successfully determined in 2,985 tumors.
  • For patients undergoing breast conservation, HER2-enriched and basal subtypes demonstrated an increased risk of regional recurrence, and this was statistically significant on multivariable analysis.
  • After mastectomy, luminal B, luminal-HER2, HER2-enriched, and basal subtypes were all associated with an increased risk of local and regional relapse on multivariable analysis.
  • Molecular subtyping of breast tumors using a six-marker immunohistochemical panel can identify patients at increased risk of local and regional recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local


56. Aleskandarany MA, Rakha EA, Ahmed MA, Powe DG, Paish EC, Macmillan RD, Ellis IO, Green AR: PIK3CA expression in invasive breast cancer: a biomarker of poor prognosis. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jul;122(1):45-53
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  • [Title] PIK3CA expression in invasive breast cancer: a biomarker of poor prognosis.
  • The implications of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3CA) mutations and its aberrant protein expression in breast cancer (BC) different molecular subtypes and patients' outcome remain controversial.
  • Increased PIK3CA expression was associated with the basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) and HER2-positive classes as well as triple negative non-basal (TNnon-B) tumors (P < 0.001).
  • Although, PIK3CA over-expression was more prevalent in BLBC and HER2-positive tumors it appeared to be a marker of poor differentiation rather than of a particular subtype.
  • Thus, targeting of PIK3CA using specific inhibitors could potentially be beneficial, particularly for patients with more aggressive poorly differentiated tumors, irrespective of their molecular subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19701705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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57. Vincent-Salomon A, Lucchesi C, Gruel N, Raynal V, Pierron G, Goudefroye R, Reyal F, Radvanyi F, Salmon R, Thiery JP, Sastre-Garau X, Sigal-Zafrani B, Fourquet A, Delattre O, breast cancer study group of the Institut Curie: Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Apr 1;14(7):1956-65
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  • [Title] Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.
  • PURPOSE: To gain insight into genomic and transcriptomic subtypes of ductal carcinomas in situ of the breast (DCIS).
  • RESULTS: Thirty-two DCIS exhibited a luminal phenotype; 21 were ERBB2 positive, and 4 were ERBB2/estrogen receptor (ER) negative with 1 harboring a bona fide basal-like phenotype.
  • Strikingly, amplicons but also low copy number changes especially on 1q, 8q, and 16q in DCIS regulated the expression of a subset of genes in a very similar way to that recently described in invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These combined approaches show that the molecular heterogeneity of breast ductal carcinomas exists already in in situ lesions and further indicate that DCIS and invasive ductal carcinomas share genomic alterations with a similar effect on gene expression profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Genomics

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  • (PMID = 18381933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Investigator] Asselain B; Aurias A; Barillot E; Bollet M; Campana F; Cottu P; de Cremoux P; Diéras V; Mignot L; Pierga JY; Poupon MF; Stoppa-Lyonnet D; Tardivon A; Thibault F; This P
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58. Elsheikh SE, Green AR, Rakha EA, Powe DG, Ahmed RA, Collins HM, Soria D, Garibaldi JM, Paish CE, Ammar AA, Grainge MJ, Ball GR, Abdelghany MK, Martinez-Pomares L, Heery DM, Ellis IO: Global histone modifications in breast cancer correlate with tumor phenotypes, prognostic factors, and patient outcome. Cancer Res; 2009 May 1;69(9):3802-9
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  • [Title] Global histone modifications in breast cancer correlate with tumor phenotypes, prognostic factors, and patient outcome.
  • Post-translational histone modifications are known to be altered in cancer cells, and loss of selected histone acetylation and methylation marks has recently been shown to predict patient outcome in human carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to detect a series of histone lysine acetylation (H3K9ac, H3K18ac, H4K12ac, and H4K16ac), lysine methylation (H3K4me2 and H4K20me3), and arginine methylation (H4R3me2) marks in a well-characterized series of human breast carcinomas (n = 880).
  • Our analyses revealed low or absent H4K16ac in the majority of breast cancer cases (78.9%), suggesting that this alteration may represent an early sign of breast cancer.
  • There was a highly significant correlation between histone modifications status, tumor biomarker phenotype, and clinical outcome, where high relative levels of global histone acetylation and methylation were associated with a favorable prognosis and detected almost exclusively in luminal-like breast tumors (93%).
  • Moderate to low levels of lysine acetylation (H3K9ac, H3K18ac, and H4K12ac), lysine (H3K4me2 and H4K20me3), and arginine methylation (H4R3me2) were observed in carcinomas of poorer prognostic subtypes, including basal carcinomas and HER-2-positive tumors.
  • Clustering analysis identified three groups of histone displaying distinct pattern in breast cancer, which have distinct relationships to known prognostic factors and clinical outcome.
  • This study identifies the presence of variations in global levels of histone marks in different grades, morphologic types, and phenotype classes of invasive breast cancer and shows that these differences have clinical significance.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cluster Analysis. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Methylation. Microarray Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phenotype. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19366799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Histones
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