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1. Asuman C, Ozlem A, Burçak T, Onder P: An unusual location of basal cell carcinoma: the clitoris and the vulva. Indian J Dermatol; 2008;53(4):192-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual location of basal cell carcinoma: the clitoris and the vulva.
  • Vulvar basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms and less than 1% of all BCCs.
  • Vulvar BCCs are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic and tend to grow at slow rates.
  • We report a 78 year-old woman presenting with the complaint of painful vulvar ulceration and vaginal bleeding.

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  • (PMID = 19882033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2763753
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Basal cell carcinoma / clitoris / vulva
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2. van der Avoort IA, van der Laak JA, Paffen A, Grefte JM, Massuger LF, de Wilde PC, de Hullu JA, Bulten J: MIB1 expression in basal cell layer: a diagnostic tool to identify premalignancies of the vulva. Mod Pathol; 2007 Jul;20(7):770-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MIB1 expression in basal cell layer: a diagnostic tool to identify premalignancies of the vulva.
  • Lichen sclerosus, high-grade usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and differentiated VIN have a different malignant potential.
  • The objective of this study was to quantify the proliferative activity in the basal region of the epithelium of vulvar premalignancies.
  • Furthermore, we investigated whether MIB1 expression in the basal region of vulvar epithelium can be helpful in diagnosing differentiated VIN, which may be hard to discern from normal epithelium.
  • MIB1 was used to immunohistochemically visualise proliferating cells within formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, archival tissue sections of different vulvar premalignancies (N=48) and normal vulvar epithelium (N=16).
  • MIB1 expression differed among the various vulvar premalignancies; a MIB1-negative basal cell layer was a distinct feature of normal vulvar epithelium.
  • No MIB1-negative basal cell layer was noted in differentiated VIN or other vulvar premalignancies.
  • Owing to this negative cell layer, the MIB1 proliferation index in normal vulvar epithelium was significantly lower than in vulvar premalignancies.
  • In conclusion, MIB1 expression can be a helpful tool in diagnosing a premalignancy and has additional value especially to distinguish differentiated VIN neoplasia from normal vulvar epithelium, but cannot explain the differences in malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / biosynthesis. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / metabolism. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17464313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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3. Subhawong AP, Subhawong T, Nassar H, Kouprina N, Begum S, Vang R, Westra WH, Argani P: Most basal-like breast carcinomas demonstrate the same Rb-/p16+ immunophenotype as the HPV-related poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas which they resemble morphologically. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Feb;33(2):163-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Most basal-like breast carcinomas demonstrate the same Rb-/p16+ immunophenotype as the HPV-related poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas which they resemble morphologically.
  • Basal-like carcinomas (BLCs) of the breast share discriminatory morphologic features with poorly differentiated high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx, penis, and vulva.
  • HPV E6 protein also inactivates p53, further compromising the G1-S cell cycle checkpoint.
  • Six of the Rb-/p16+ IDC also had a significant ductal carcinoma in situ component.
  • The ductal carcinoma in situ in 4 of these 6 cases showed the same Rb-/p16+ phenotype as the associated IDC.
  • In conclusion, BLC and UTNC, but not HER-2, luminal A, or luminal B carcinomas, frequently demonstrate an Rb-/p16+ phenotype, similar to the HPV-related squamous cell carcinomas that BLC resemble morphologically.

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  • (PMID = 18936692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA088843; None / None / / P50 CA088843-06A19005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 88843; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA088843-06A19005
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS243756; NLM/ PMC2965595
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4. Saini R, Sarnoff DS: Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva presenting as unilateral pruritus. J Drugs Dermatol; 2008 Mar;7(3):288-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva presenting as unilateral pruritus.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignancy, which often occurs as a result of ultraviolet light on sun-exposed areas.
  • A more rare location for the presentation of BCC is the non-sun-exposed genital area, where squamous cell cancer occurs frequently in the setting of human papilloma virus and chronic inflammatory lesions (i.e., lichen sclerosus et atrophicus).
  • A delay in diagnosis can result in wider surgical margins and potential recurrences.
  • We present a case of BCC of the vulva with involvement of the clitoris presenting with unilateral pruritus and treated as an allergic contact dermatitis with topical corticosteroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Pruritus / etiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Dermatitis, Allergic Contact / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Vulva / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18380212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Giuliani M, Di Stefano L, Zoccali G, Angelone E, Leocata P, Mascaretti G: Gorlin syndrome associated with basal cell carcinoma of the vulva: A case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(5):519-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gorlin syndrome associated with basal cell carcinoma of the vulva: A case report.
  • Gorlin syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is a hereditary condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity.
  • The syndrome is characterized by numerous manifestations: basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are the leading ones.
  • In this article a typical Gorlin syndrome case associated with basal cell carcinoma of the vulva is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / complications. Vulvar Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17139991.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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6. Pisani C, Poggiali S, De Padova L, Andreassi A, Bilenchi R: Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Apr;20(4):446-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common human malignancy, accounting for 75% of all non-melanoma skin cancer, is uncommon on unexposed skin such as the perianal and genital regions.
  • We describe a woman with BCC of the vulva treated with local resection.
  • Although the aetiology of vulvar BCC is not known, early diagnosis is important.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16643146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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7. Gupta R, Bansal B, Singh S, Yadav I, Gupta K, Kudesia M: Lichen planus of uterine cervix - the first report of a novel site of occurrence: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9306

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Lichen planus is an immune mediated inflammatory lesion involving skin and mucosal sites including oral mucosa, vulva and rarely vagina.
  • Lichen planus occurring at mucosal sites has been shown to be associated with squamous cell carcinoma in a proportion of cases.
  • Microscopic sections from this area showed dense lymphocytic infiltrate at the junction of mucosa and submucosa causing disruption of the basal cell layer.

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  • (PMID = 20062629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803969
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8. Celik H, Gurates B, Yavuz A, Dogan Z, Cobanoglu B, Saral Y: Vulvar basal cell carcinoma with clitoral involvement. Acta Derm Venereol; 2009;89(2):191-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vulvar basal cell carcinoma with clitoral involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Clitoris / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19326012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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9. DeAmbrosis K, Nicklin J, Yong-Gee S: Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva: a report of four cases. Australas J Dermatol; 2008 Nov;49(4):213-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva: a report of four cases.
  • Four cases of vulval basal cell carcinoma were identified in multiparous females aged 46-78 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pruritus Vulvae / etiology. Treatment Outcome. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Australas J Dermatol. 2009 Nov;50(4):297; author reply 297-8 [19916978.001]
  • (PMID = 18855783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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10. Nazari Z, Omranipour R: Unusual location of vulvar basal cell carcinoma. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2006 Oct;10(4):242-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual location of vulvar basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a rare tumor of the vulva; it accounts for approximately 2% to 4% of vulvar cancer.
  • In our case, chronic irritation secondary to long-term chronic candidiasis in the presence of diabetes mellitus may have been contributory to the development of vulvar BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Perineum / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17012990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-2591
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Lui PC, Fan YS, Lau PP, Chau TK, Tang VW, Tse GM, Yu AM, Vong JS, Tan PH, Trendell-Smith NJ: Vulvar basal cell carcinoma in China: a 13-year review. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2009 May;200(5):514.e1-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vulvar basal cell carcinoma in China: a 13-year review.
  • OBJECTIVE: We conducted a 12-year retrospective review of vulvar basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in a Chinese population.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Medical records and histopathologic reports were examined from 5 major Hospitals in Hong Kong to list all patients diagnosed with vulvar BCC.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen vulvar BCCs were diagnosed.
  • The predominant histologic pattern was nodular, which may be mistaken as adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The high proportion of pigmented vulvar BCCs suggested that biopsy should be performed for any pigmented lesion in a Chinese patient.
  • Formal histopathologic assessment should be used to reach an objective diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / ethnology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / ethnology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19200934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. de Giorgi V, Salvini C, Massi D, Raspollini MR, Carli P: Vulvar basal cell carcinoma: retrospective study and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):192-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vulvar basal cell carcinoma: retrospective study and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm.
  • It does not occur only in anatomical areas commonly exposed to sunlight, but also in relatively protected body sites such as the axillae, the groin and buttocks, and in regions which are entirely protected from the sun, like the vulva.
  • The aim of this study is to assess the impact and clinical features of BCCs in the vulva versus other anatomical sites.
  • RESULTS: Out of 3604 cases of BCC, 63 were in the vulva.
  • The average size of the vulvar BCCs was 2.1 cm and 18 (28%) were ulcerated at presentation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that vulvar BCC is not a particularly rare occurrence; in fact it should be suspected whenever lesions that we believe to be inflammatory do not respond to usual treatment.
  • In case of suspicion, a biopsy is recommended to obtain a preoperative confirmatory diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15790457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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13. Bukhari IA, Khalid AJ: Vulvar basal cell carcinoma misdiagnosed for 4 years. Saudi Med J; 2006 Jan;27(1):93-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vulvar basal cell carcinoma misdiagnosed for 4 years.
  • Vulvar basal cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous neoplasm occurring mainly in white postmenopausal females.
  • Here, we report a 59-year-old white female who had vulvar basal cell carcinoma misdiagnosed for 4 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16432603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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14. Kimball KJ, Straughn JM, Conner MG, Kirby TO: Recurrent basosquamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):400-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent basosquamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
  • BACKGROUND: Basosquamous cell carcinoma (BSC) of the vulva is a rare entity with interesting prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • CASE: A case of recurrent BSC of the vulva treated with unilateral radical vulvectomy and unilateral lymph node dissection is reported.
  • CONCLUSION: BSC is a rare disorder of the vulva.
  • The metastatic potential of this tumor is not fully understood, but likely is intermediate between squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16624392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Rausch D, Angermeier M, Capaldi L, Wharton G, Lawrence WD, Robinson-Bostom L: Multinucleated atypia of the vulva. Cutis; 2005 Feb;75(2):118-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multinucleated atypia of the vulva.
  • Multinucleated atypia of the vulva (MAV) is an entity with a distinctive histologic pattern of multinucleation in the basal and middle layers of the squamous epithelium that may mimic human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous atypias.
  • MAV is rarely reported in the literature, and we believe it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of flesh-colored vulvar papules and vulvar epidermal atypias with multinucleated squamous cells.
  • We describe the case of a 49-year-old patient with the diagnosis of MAV.
  • Results of histopathologic examination revealed a focal area of multinucleation in the basal to middle epithelial layers of the vulvar squamous epithelium, accompanied by mild hyperkeratosis and chronic inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Skin / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 15773533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Venkatesan A: Pigmented lesions of the vulva. Dermatol Clin; 2010 Oct;28(4):795-805
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  • [Title] Pigmented lesions of the vulva.
  • Approximately one of every 10 women has a pigmented vulvar lesion.
  • Given the risk of melanomas and pigmented vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (squamous cell carcinoma in situ), proper evaluation of vulvar pigmented lesions is critical.
  • Most vulvar lesions are benign; however, vulvar lesions grossly, dermoscopically, and histologically can appear atypical compared with pigmented lesions on the rest of the body.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Diseases / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acanthosis Nigricans. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperpigmentation. Keratosis, Seborrheic. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Melanosis. Pigmentation Disorders

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20883921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0520
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Regauer S, Nogales FF: Vulvar trichogenic tumors: a comparative study with vulvar basal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Apr;29(4):479-84
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  • [Title] Vulvar trichogenic tumors: a comparative study with vulvar basal cell carcinoma.
  • Trichogenic tumors are very rare in genital skin and often cause diagnostic problems because they are mitotically active and they share some histologic features with basal cell carcinomas (BCCs).
  • We present the clinical and histologic features of 16 vulvar trichogenic tumors (6 plaque-like, 10 nodular; average age, 65 years) in comparison with 16 BCCs (11 plaque-like, 5 nodular; average age, 78 years).
  • Superficial plaque-like trichogenic tumors featured basal keratinocyte proliferations with peripheral nuclear palisading but no clefting at the epithelial-stromal interface.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15767801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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18. Mulvany NJ, Allen DG: Differentiated intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):125-35
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  • [Title] Differentiated intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva.
  • One lesion was still in situ, whereas 5 were associated with squamous carcinoma, 4 of well-differentiated keratinizing type and 1 of poorly differentiated spindle-cell type.
  • In all 6 vulvar specimens, DVIN showed intense immunoreactivity for Ki-67 in the basal and parabasal cells while only 4 specimens showed reactivity for p53.
  • There was little difference in the pattern of Ki-67 expression between DVIN and squamous carcinoma.
  • Our study suggests that Ki-67 and p16 are useful for distinguishing DVIN and classical VIN 3, whereas p53 and CD1a are useful for distinguishing DVIN and invasive squamous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18156987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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19. van der Avoort IA, van de Nieuwenhof HP, Otte-Höller I, Nirmala E, Bulten J, Massuger LF, van der Laak JA, Slootweg PJ, de Hullu JA, van Kempen LC: High levels of p53 expression correlate with DNA aneuploidy in (pre)malignancies of the vulva. Hum Pathol; 2010 Oct;41(10):1475-85
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  • [Title] High levels of p53 expression correlate with DNA aneuploidy in (pre)malignancies of the vulva.
  • The molecular pathogenesis of human papilloma virus-unrelated vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is not well known.
  • Whether malignant progression of lichen sclerosus and differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma could be accompanied by altered DNA content has not been studied extensively.
  • DNA content in isolated nuclei of microdissected normal vulvar epithelium (n = 2), lichen sclerosus (n = 9), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 13), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 17) from 22 patients was measured via DNA image cytometry.
  • For additional analysis, 6 differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia lesions were selected, bringing the number of patients to 28. p53 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on consecutive tissue sections.
  • Thirty-eight percent (5/13) of differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia lesions and 65% (11/17) of squamous cell carcinomas were DNA aneuploid or tetraploid.
  • In lesions that contained differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and adjacent squamous cell carcinoma, the ploidy status of differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia did not exceed that of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Similarly, we found p53-positive nonproliferating cells with increased DNA content in the superficial compartment of 6 additional solitary differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia lesions that were not associated with squamous cell carcinoma, indicating ascending aneuploid cells from the basal compartment.
  • DNA ploidy measurements suggest that differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia has a higher malignant potential than lichen sclerosus and thus is a more likely precursor of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aneuploidy. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Proliferation. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Vulva / metabolism. Vulva / pathology. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / genetics. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / metabolism. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20656324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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20. Raspagliesi F, Fontanelli R, Rossi G, Ditto A, Solima E, Hanozet F, Kusamura S: Photodynamic therapy using a methyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in recurrent Paget's disease of the vulva: a pilot study. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Nov;103(2):581-6
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy using a methyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in recurrent Paget's disease of the vulva: a pilot study.
  • OBJECTIVE: In the past, treating vulvar Paget's disease through surgery has resulted in a high recurrence rate of the disease.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5 ALA) is an effective treatment for some conditions such as Bowen's disease, subsets of basal cell carcinomas and vulvar carcinoma.
  • This paper outlines a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using MAL-PDT in the treatment of recurrent vulvar Paget's disease.
  • Vulvar biopsies were obtained before and 1 month after the PDT-treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MAL-PDT is a feasible treatment and seems to offer a reliable strategy in the control of vulvar Paget's disease and of its symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16793128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / delta-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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21. van der Avoort IA, van der Laak JA, Otte-Höller I, van de Nieuwenhof HP, Massuger LF, de Hullu JA, van Kempen LC: The prognostic value of blood and lymph vessel parameters in lichen sclerosus for vulvar squamous cell carcinoma development: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopy study. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Aug;203(2):167.e1-8
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  • [Title] The prognostic value of blood and lymph vessel parameters in lichen sclerosus for vulvar squamous cell carcinoma development: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopy study.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Quantitative analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 28 patients with LS (7 adjacent to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, 21 solitary) and immunohistochemical staining for CD34 (vascular and lymphangiogenic lymph endothelial cells), D2-40 (lymphatic-specific marker), and alpha-SMA (pericyte marker).
  • Electron microscopy revealed detachment of pericytes from vascular endothelial cells and increased thickening of basement membrane, whereas endothelial cell function did not appear strongly impaired.
  • Hyalinization in LS is associated with pericyte detachment from the basal lamina of vascular endothelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Blood Vessels / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Microscopy, Electron. Paraffin Embedding. Probability. Prognosis. Statistics, Nonparametric. Vulva / pathology. Vulva / ultrastructure

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20417485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Salgarello M, Farallo E, Barone-Adesi L, Cervelli D, Scambia G, Salerno G, Margariti PA: Flap algorithm in vulvar reconstruction after radical, extensive vulvectomy. Ann Plast Surg; 2005 Feb;54(2):184-90
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  • [Title] Flap algorithm in vulvar reconstruction after radical, extensive vulvectomy.
  • This study is a retrospective review of a 4-year experience with 31 flaps in 20 consecutive vulvar reconstructions.
  • Closure of vulvar defects is preferably performed using fasciocutaneous flaps, which are very reliable flaps and can be raised with different techniques to meet different needs.
  • Among them, the island V-Y flap is the workhorse flap for vulvar reconstruction because of its versatility, reliability, and technical simplicity compared with its very low complication rate.
  • If the vulvar defect is large and/or reaches the vulva-crural fold, V-Y flaps are also preferred to close these large and posteriorly extended excisions.
  • If the vulvar defect is very large, extending both anteriorly and posteriorly, the use of a distally based, vertically oriented rectus abdominis muscle flap is recommended.
  • Using this algorithm, immediate vulvar reconstruction with pedicled local or regional flaps can be performed easily and reliably.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Vulva / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15655471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Liegl B, Regauer S: p53 immunostaining in lichen sclerosus is related to ischaemic stress and is not a marker of differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (d-VIN). Histopathology; 2006 Feb;48(3):268-74
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  • [Title] p53 immunostaining in lichen sclerosus is related to ischaemic stress and is not a marker of differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (d-VIN).
  • AIM: To analyse p53 immunoreactivity in 207 biopsy specimens of lichen sclerosus (LS) and "differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia" (d-VIN), a postulated precursor lesion for LS-associated vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is characterized by atypical basal keratinocyte proliferations with p53+ basal/suprabasal keratinocyte nuclei.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty early, 78 classic, 30 hypertrophic vulvar LS, 26 paediatric vulvar and penile LS, 33 vulvar LS-associated SCC and 30 vulvar/penile control specimens were examined for p53 expression and the presence of d-VIN.
  • Eighty percent of early and 69% of paediatric LS showed discontinuous/continuous p53 staining in basal keratinocytes.
  • Classic LS showed no p53 staining in 17%, discontinuous basal keratinocyte staining in 20%, continuous basal keratinocyte staining in 58%, basal/suprabasal staining in 5%.
  • Hypertrophic LS revealed basal keratinocyte staining in 32% and basal/suprabasal staining in 61%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Ischemia / pathology. Keratinocytes / chemistry. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Vulva / blood supply. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / chemistry. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16430473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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24. Ordi J, Alejo M, Fusté V, Lloveras B, Del Pino M, Alonso I, Torné A: HPV-negative vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with basaloid histologic pattern: an unrecognized variant of simplex (differentiated) VIN. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Nov;33(11):1659-65
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  • [Title] HPV-negative vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with basaloid histologic pattern: an unrecognized variant of simplex (differentiated) VIN.
  • Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is classified into 2 clinicopathologic subtypes, classic, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and affecting relatively young women, and simplex (differentiated), negative for HPV and affecting elderly women.
  • Simplex VIN is characterized by atypia of the basal layer with high degree of cellular differentiation and shows negative staining for p16(INK4a) and frequent positivity for p53.
  • Simplex VIN is frequently associated with squamous cell hyperplasia and lichen sclerosus.
  • From a series of 110 invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva negative for HPV by highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction, 51 had VIN lesions located at least 1 cm away from the tumor.
  • Squamous cell hyperplasia was identified in 1 case and lichen sclerosus in 1 case.
  • The invasive squamous cell carcinoma was of keratinizing type in 3 cases and basaloid in 1 case.
  • Immunostaining for p16(INK4a) and p53 protein may be helpful in the identification of these lesions and the differential diagnosis with classic, HPV-positive basaloid VIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / complications. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus / pathology. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Skin / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19730361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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25. de Giorgi V, Massi D, Mannone F, Checcucci V, De Magnis A, Sestini S, Papi F, Lotti T: Dermoscopy in vulvar basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol; 2007 Mar;143(3):426-7
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy in vulvar basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Dermoscopy. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17372116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Suda T, Kakinuma H: Erosive velvety lesion on the vulva--vulvar basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Mar;142(3):385-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Erosive velvety lesion on the vulva--vulvar basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16549720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Bordel Gómez MT, Sánchez Estella J, Cardeñoso Alvarez E, Santos Durán JC, Román Curto C: [Basocellular cancer of the vulva: a rare location for one of the most frequent types of skin cancer]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 Jul-Aug;97(6):415-6
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  • [Title] [Basocellular cancer of the vulva: a rare location for one of the most frequent types of skin cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma basocelular vulvar: una rara localización del cáncer de piel más frecuente.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16956526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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