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1. Cohen B, Addadi Y, Sapoznik S, Meir G, Kalchenko V, Harmelin A, Ben-Dor S, Neeman M: Transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor C by oxidative and thermal stress is mediated by lens epithelium-derived growth factor/p75. Neoplasia; 2009 Sep;11(9):921-33
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  • Ectopic expression of LEDGF/p75 in C6 rat glioma and in H1299 human non-small cell lung carcinoma induced VEGF-C expression in vitro, whereas in subcutaneous mouse tumor xenografts, LEDGF/p75 stimulated VEGF-C expression and augmented angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
  • LEDGF seemed to conferred this activity on binding to a conserved stress response element (STRE) located in the VEGF-C gene because mutating the STRE was sufficient for the suppression of basal and stress-induced activations of the VEGF-C promoter.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Glioma / genetics. Hyperthermia, Induced. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Oxidative Stress. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19724686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] International / European Research Council / / 232640; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075334; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075334-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA75334
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / lens epithelium-derived growth factor; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2735804
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2. Burgi A, Brodine S, Wegner S, Milazzo M, Wallace MR, Spooner K, Blazes DL, Agan BK, Armstrong A, Fraser S, Crum NF: Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Cancer; 2005 Oct 1;104(7):1505-11
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  • The most frequent NADCs were skin carcinomas (basal cell and squamous cell), Hodgkin disease, and anal carcinoma.
  • The results showed that there were higher rates of melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease among the HIV-infected cohort compared with age-adjusted rates for the general United States population.
  • Melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease occurred at higher rates among HIV-infected individuals.


3. Montironi R, Mazzucchelli R, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Scarpelli M: Mechanisms of disease: high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other proposed preneoplastic lesions in the prostate. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2007 Jun;4(6):321-32
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of disease: high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other proposed preneoplastic lesions in the prostate.
  • This lesion is characterized by cellular proliferations within pre-existing ducts and acini, with nuclear and nucleolar enlargements similar to those seen in prostate cancer, although unlike cancer HGPIN retains a basal-cell layer.
  • The recognition of HGPIN is clinically important because of the strong association between this disease and prostatic carcinoma.
  • Other possible findings in the prostate might indicate premalignant disease (low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atrophy, malignancy-associated changes, and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia or adenosis), but the data for these premalignant diseases are much less convincing than those for HGPIN.

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  • (PMID = 17551536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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4. Wang Z, Prins GS, Coschigano KT, Kopchick JJ, Green JE, Ray VH, Hedayat S, Christov KT, Unterman TG, Swanson SM: Disruption of growth hormone signaling retards early stages of prostate carcinogenesis in the C3(1)/T antigen mouse. Endocrinology; 2005 Dec;146(12):5188-96
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  • [Title] Disruption of growth hormone signaling retards early stages of prostate carcinogenesis in the C3(1)/T antigen mouse.
  • Recent epidemiological studies suggest that elevated serum titers of IGF-I, which are, to a large degree, regulated by GH, are associated with an increase in prostate cancer risk.
  • The purpose of the current study was to develop the first animal models to directly test the hypothesis that a normal, functional GH/IGF-I axis is required for prostate cancer progression.
  • The GH receptor (GHR) gene-disrupted mouse (Ghr(-/-)), which has less than 10% of the plasma IGF-I found in GHR wild-type mice, was crossed with the C3(1)/T antigen (Tag) mouse, which develops prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia driven by the large Tag that progress to invasive prostate carcinoma in a manner similar to the process observed in humans.
  • Disruption of the GHR gene altered neither prostate androgen receptor expression nor serum testosterone titers.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in prostate epithelial cell proliferation and an increase in basal apoptotic indices.
  • These results indicate that disruption of GH signaling significantly inhibits prostate carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Differentiation / metabolism. Apoptosis. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Transgenic. Prostate / pathology. Prostate / physiopathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16141391.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R03 AG020820
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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5. Lorenzo P, Alvarez R, Ortiz MA, Alvarez S, Piedrafita FJ, de Lera AR: Inhibition of IkappaB kinase-beta and anticancer activities of novel chalcone adamantyl arotinoids. J Med Chem; 2008 Sep 11;51(17):5431-40
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  • On the basis of the observations that chalcone 7 (MX781) and some related adamantyl arotinoids (AdArs) inhibit IkappaB alpha kinase beta (IKKbeta) activity, inhibit cell growth, and induce apoptosis in cancer cells, a new series of AdArs structurally related to 7 have been designed and synthesized.
  • Modifications were intended to reduce or eliminate RAR activity, and we evaluated the effect of the novel analogues of 7 on IKKbeta activity and proliferation of a variety of cancer cell lines (leukemia, Jurkat; prostate, PC-3; breast carcinomas, T47D, MDA-MB-468).
  • Several of the analogues elicit stronger growth inhibitory activity against prostate (PC-3) and breast (MDA-MB-468) carcinoma cells, which contain elevated basal IKK activity; this antiproliferative activity correlates with increased inhibition of recombinant IKKbeta in vitro, suggesting that the anticancer activities of these AdArs might be related to the inhibition of IKK/NFkappaB signaling.

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  • (PMID = 18702457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA133475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA55681
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Phosphatidylserines; 0 / Retinoids; 5S5A2Q39HX / Chalcone; EC 2.7.11.10 / I-kappa B Kinase; PJY633525U / Adamantane
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6. Ramos Soler D, Mayordomo Aranda E, Calatayud Blas A, Rubio Briones J, Solsona Narbón E, Llombart Bosch A: [Usefulness of bcl-2 expression as a new basal cell marker in prostatic pathology]. Actas Urol Esp; 2006 Apr;30(4):345-52
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of bcl-2 expression as a new basal cell marker in prostatic pathology].
  • INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of invasive adenocarcinoma of the prostate is often difficult in needle prostatic cores, where, additionally, the assessment of the presence of basal cells has demonstrated to be of paramount importance.
  • In our study, we analyzed comparatively the expression of 34betaE12, p63, bcl-2 and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase in order to evaluate the usefulness of bcl-2 as a new marker of the basal cells in prostatic pathology.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: This study comprises radical prostatectomy specimens from 48 patients which were studied in order to determine the lack of staining of basal cells in invasive tumor areas together with the expression of racemase.
  • Likewise, the presence of basal cells in areas of atrophy, hyperplasia, adenosis, and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) was also examined.
  • Within the areas of adenosis and PIN a discontinuous pattern of basal cell expression was found in some cases.
  • In 2 out of 48 cases (4,2%) of invasive carcinoma a weak bcl-2 expression without a basal cell distribution was found.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In addition to classical markers, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of bcl-2 as a new basal cell marker.

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  • (PMID = 16838605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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7. Han B, Suleman K, Wang L, Siddiqui J, Sercia L, Magi-Galluzzi C, Palanisamy N, Chinnaiyan AM, Zhou M, Shah RB: ETS gene aberrations in atypical cribriform lesions of the prostate: Implications for the distinction between intraductal carcinoma of the prostate and cribriform high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):478-85
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  • [Title] ETS gene aberrations in atypical cribriform lesions of the prostate: Implications for the distinction between intraductal carcinoma of the prostate and cribriform high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical cribriform lesions (ACLs) of the prostate consist of cribriform glands lined with cytologically malignant cells with partial or complete basal cell lining.
  • It may represent cribriform "high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia" (HGPIN) or "intraductal carcinoma of the prostate" (IDC-P), which is almost always associated with clinically aggressive prostate carcinoma (PCa).
  • METHODS: To better understand the biologic and molecular basis of distinction between cribriform HGPIN and IDC, we used break-apart fluorescence in-situ hybridization assay to assess ETS gene aberrations, a specific and commonest molecular alteration involving PCa, in a cohort of 16 isolated ACL, presumed to be an isolated cribriform HGPIN, and 45 carcinoma-associated ACL (ACL-PCa) on radical prostatectomy specimens, presumed to be spectrum of IDC-P.
  • Hundred percent (34 of 34) of the IDC-P showed concordance of ERG rearrangement status with adjacent invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Chromosome Aberrations. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20220513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA69568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102872; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA111275-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
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8. Saldaña C, Díaz-Muñoz M, Antaramián A, González-Gallardo A, García-Solís P, Morales-Tlalpan V: MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells express ryanodine receptor type 1: functional characterization and subcellular localization. Mol Cell Biochem; 2009 Mar;323(1-2):39-47
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  • [Title] MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells express ryanodine receptor type 1: functional characterization and subcellular localization.
  • Breast carcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells are frequently used in biomedical research.
  • Ryanodine (100 nM), cADPR (5 microM), and caffeine (10 mM) promoted cytoplasmic Ca(2+) mobilization; in contrast, ryanodine at inhibitory concentration (100 microM) decreased the basal Ca(2+) level.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Animals. Base Sequence. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism. Female. Humans. Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors / metabolism. Mice. Molecular Sequence Data. Sequence Alignment. Signal Transduction / physiology. Subcellular Fractions / metabolism. Thapsigargin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19082546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4919
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel; 67526-95-8 / Thapsigargin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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9. Baydar DE, Himmetoglu C: Test and Teach. Abnormal glands in the uterine cervix Part 1. Diagnosis: Ectopic prostate tissue in the uterine cervix. Pathology; 2008 Jun;40(4):407-8
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  • [Title] Test and Teach. Abnormal glands in the uterine cervix Part 1. Diagnosis: Ectopic prostate tissue in the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Prostate. Uterine Cervical Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


10. Roznovanu SL, Rădulescu D, Novac C, Stolnicu S: The morphologic changes induced by hormone and radiation therapy on prostate carcinoma. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2005 Apr-Jun;109(2):337-42
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  • [Title] The morphologic changes induced by hormone and radiation therapy on prostate carcinoma.
  • The morphologic changes induced by hormone and radiation therapy were evaluated in prostate biopsy and prostatectomy specimens from patients with residual prostate carcinoma.
  • Following hormone therapy, the nonmalignant prostatic tissue showed atrophy of prostatic acini associated with fibrosis, basal cell hyperplasia, degenerative changes of the secretory epithelial cells, and a marked decrease of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN).
  • In the fragments of residual carcinoma, squamous cell metaplasia, necrosis, and necrobiosis in the foci, vacuolization of the cell cytoplasm, smaller, rare nucleoli, intraluminal crystalloids, higher Gleason score associated with a lower capsular penetration, areas of necrosis and mitoses were found.
  • Following radiation therapy, the nontumoral prostatic tissue showed an increased number of atrophic acini, squamous cell metaplasia, and presence of atypical glands.
  • The morphologic changes induced by radiation therapy in the residual prostatic carcinoma were characterized by an abnormal architectural structure of the glands and presence of cell atypias correlated with the biochemical lowering of serum PSA.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Prostate / drug effects. Prostate / radiation effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / radiation effects. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostate-Specific Antigen / radiation effects. Prostatectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 16607796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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11. Liu YN, Jiang ZM, Wang XY, Zhang HZ, Chen JQ, Huang J, Yang QH: [The value of using an AMACR/34betaE12/p63 cocktail double staining for diagnosis of prostate carcinoma and precarcinomatous lesions]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;35(7):417-20
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  • [Title] [The value of using an AMACR/34betaE12/p63 cocktail double staining for diagnosis of prostate carcinoma and precarcinomatous lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of using an AMACR/34betaE12/p63 cocktail and double-staining for the diagnosis of small focal protatic carcinoma and precarcinomatous lesions.
  • METHODS: A total of 130 consecutive cases were examined over a 3-month period, including 105 prostate needle biopsy samples, 6 radical prostatectomy specimens and 19 benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens which were excised transurethra or above pubis.
  • RESULTS: In the sections stained by the 3-antibody cocktail, blue-black cytoplasmic staining was observed in the epithelial cells of prostatic carcinoma and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) the basal cells of benign glands were stained red.
  • There were no red basal cells around the blue-black glandular epithelium of carcinoma, but discontinuous or consecutive red basal cells were present around the blue-black glandular epithelium of HGPIN.
  • Prostatic carcinoma was found in 214 paraffin blocks (82%), including 31 small focal carcinoma.
  • No benign glands were simultaneously positive for AMACR and negative for basal cell markers.
  • CONCLUSION: Inmmunohistochemistry studies using a 3-antibody cocktail and double staining can improve the detection rate of small focal prostatic carcinoma and HGPIN.

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  • (PMID = 17069678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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12. Koo BH, Hurskainen T, Mielke K, Aung PP, Casey G, Autio-Harmainen H, Apte SS: ADAMTSL3/punctin-2, a gene frequently mutated in colorectal tumors, is widely expressed in normal and malignant epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells and other cell types, and its mRNA is reduced in colon cancer. Int J Cancer; 2007 Oct 15;121(8):1710-6
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  • [Title] ADAMTSL3/punctin-2, a gene frequently mutated in colorectal tumors, is widely expressed in normal and malignant epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells and other cell types, and its mRNA is reduced in colon cancer.
  • Quantitative real-time PCR (RTQ-PCR) was used to compare mRNA expression levels in colon carcinoma (n = 10) and adjacent normal colon.
  • ADAMTSL3 is expressed in epithelial cells of the colon, fallopian tube, skin, breast, prostate, epididymis, liver, pancreatic islets and bile ducts, as well as by vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, cortical and ganglionic neurons and cardiac myocytes.
  • Malignant epithelial cells in colon cancer, as well as breast, prostate, renal and skin tumors expressed ADAMTSL3.
  • Normal colon showed stronger immunostaining of surface than basal crypt epithelium and staining of a variety of cells within the lamina propria and submucosa.
  • RTQ-PCR comparison of ADAMTSL3 mRNA in colon carcinoma and adjacent normal colon demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the tumors, possibly reflecting their decreased stromal content and lack of complete differentiation of tumor samples.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17597111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR49930; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR50953
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADAMTSL3 protein, human; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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13. Wang Y, Revelo MP, Sudilovsky D, Cao M, Chen WG, Goetz L, Xue H, Sadar M, Shappell SB, Cunha GR, Hayward SW: Development and characterization of efficient xenograft models for benign and malignant human prostate tissue. Prostate; 2005 Jul 1;64(2):149-59
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  • [Title] Development and characterization of efficient xenograft models for benign and malignant human prostate tissue.
  • BACKGROUND: Various research groups have attempted to grow fresh, histologically intact human prostate cancer tissues in immunodeficient mice.
  • Furthermore, xenografts could only be established using high-grade, advanced stage, but not low- or moderate-grade prostate cancer tissues.
  • METHODS: This paper describes methods for xenografting both benign and malignant human prostate tissue to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice.
  • Grafted benign tissues in all sites appropriately expressed AR, PSA, cytokeratins 8, 18, and 14 as well as p63; carcinoma tissues did not express the basal cell markers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that sub-renal capsule and orthotopic grafting of human prostate tissue can be used for many basic scientific and translational studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Transplantation. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Asian J Androl. 2014 May-Jun;16(3):407-12 [24589467.001]
  • (PMID = 15678503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA89520; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK063587; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA68485
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Samaratunga H, Delahunt B: Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: current opinion and controversies. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Aug;30(4):237-46
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  • [Title] Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: current opinion and controversies.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the morphologic spectrum and clinical significance of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (DAP).
  • DAP is found in both the periurethral region and peripheral zone of the prostate and is considered high grade in the modified Gleason grading system.
  • Immunostaining for prostatic-specific antigen and prostate-specific acid phosphatase is present in these tumors, a high percentage of which overexpress alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase.
  • A basal cell layer can be seen in some of these tumors, which is probably due to tumor growth into preexisting ducts.
  • This usually represents an advanced stage of tumor progression and is not a precursor of invasive carcinoma.
  • The term ductal carcinoma is also inappropriate because this includes some urothelial carcinomas of ductal origin.

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  • (PMID = 18773743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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15. Zenzmaier C, Untergasser G, Hermann M, Dirnhofer S, Sampson N, Berger P: Dysregulation of Dkk-3 expression in benign and malignant prostatic tissue. Prostate; 2008 Apr 01;68(5):540-7
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  • Dkk-3 is proposed to function as a secreted tumor suppressor since it is downregulated in a number of cancer cells and prostate cancer tissue and thus may be a promising candidate molecule for therapeutic interference.
  • METHODS: The in situ tissue localization of Dkk-3 protein in normal prostate (NP), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate carcinoma (PCa) was investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC)/immunofluorescence.
  • In addition, biological function of Dkk-3 in terms of proliferation and viability was evaluated in primary prostate basal epithelial cells (PrEC), stromal cells (PrSC), and established human PCa cell lines by treatment with recombinant protein or by overexpression.
  • RESULTS: Stimulation with purified recombinant protein and overexpression of Dkk-3 did not significantly alter in vitro cell proliferation in any primary or tumor cell line evaluated.
  • Dkk-3 was expressed in both the basal and secretory epithelium of NP.
  • In BPH expression was restricted to defined basal cells and was absent in tumor cells of high grade PCa.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Dkk-3 expression in the normal epithelium of the prostate is lost during benign and malignant transformation and differentiation processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cells, Cultured. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18247400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Austria / Austrian Science Fund FWF / / M 903
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DKK3 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
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16. O'Reilly T, McSheehy PM: Biomarker Development for the Clinical Activity of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus (RAD001): Processes, Limitations, and Further Proposals. Transl Oncol; 2010 Apr;3(2):65-79
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  • Everolimus demonstrates growth-inhibitory activity against a broad range of tumor cell histotypes in vitro and has the capacity to retard tumor growth in preclinical tumor models in vivo through mechanisms directed against both the tumor cell and the solid tumor stroma components.
  • These properties have rendered it to be a clinically active drug, with subsequent registration in renal cell carcinoma (Motzer et al. [2008].
  • Although everolimus has a high specificity for its molecular target, the ubiquitous nature of mTOR and the multifactorial influence that mTOR signaling has on cell physiology have made studies difficult on the identification and validation of a biomarker set to predict and monitor drug sensitivity for clinical use.
  • In particular, we show how basal levels of pAKT and pS6 together could, in principle, be used to stratify patients for likely response to an mTOR inhibitor.

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  • (PMID = 20360931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-5233
  • [Journal-full-title] Translational oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2847314
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17. Baird DM: Variation at the TERT locus and predisposition for cancer. Expert Rev Mol Med; 2010;12:e16
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  • Furthermore, there is good evidence from a number of independent genome-wide association studies to implicate variants at the 5p15.33 locus in cancer risk at several different sites: lung cancer, basal cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer show strong associations, while bladder, prostate and cervical cancer and glioma also show risk alleles in this region.

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  • (PMID = 20478107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-3994
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert reviews in molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Mol Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Number-of-references] 174
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18. Biermann K, Montironi R, Lopez-Beltran A, Zhang S, Cheng L: Histopathological findings after treatment of prostate cancer using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Prostate; 2010 Aug;70(11):1196-200
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  • [Title] Histopathological findings after treatment of prostate cancer using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU).
  • BACKGROUND: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment is a novel minimally invasive therapeutic option for patients with localized prostate cancer.
  • Little is known about the histological findings in prostate biopsies upon HIFU treatment.
  • METHOD: We examined the spectrum of histological changes in prostate biopsies of 25 prostate cancer patients who were previously treated with HIFU.
  • In benign glands, histological examination revealed a heterogeneous cellular damage and cellular response including cytologic atypia and basal cell hyperplasia.
  • Eleven patients (44%) had residual prostatic carcinoma after treatment.

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  • [Copyright] 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20564422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Dotto J, Pelosi G, Rosai J: Expression of p63 in thymomas and normal thymus. Am J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;127(3):415-20
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  • The p63 gene, a member of the p53 family, is an epithelial marker expressed in embryonic ectoderm, breast myoepithelium, prostate, oral epithelium, epidermis, and urothelium.
  • The DeltaN-p63 isoforms of p63, which are believed to behave as oncogenes, are expressed in squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and transitional cell carcinoma.
  • We studied 66 cases of thymoma (1 type A, 8 type AB, 12 type B1, 19 type B2, 12 type B3, and 14 type C/thymic carcinoma) and 10 specimens of normal human thymus arranged in tissue microarrays.

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  • (PMID = 17276940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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20. Kuzmanov A, Hayrabedyan S, Karaivanov M, Todorova K: Basal cell subpopulation as putative human prostate carcinoma stem cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2007;45(2):75-80
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  • [Title] Basal cell subpopulation as putative human prostate carcinoma stem cells.
  • The present study examines the expression of p63, glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP1) and alpha-methylacyl-CoAracemase (AMACR) in serial slices in proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) in order to implicate that some of the basal cells are probably the putative human prostate carcinoma stem cells (PHPCSC).
  • Quantitative immunohistochemistry analysis (QIHC) of the studied antigen expression levels revealed that there are two populations of p63 basal cells.
  • Type I basal cells had high AMACR, low GSTP1 and p63 expression.
  • Type II basal cells had low AMACR, high GSTP1 and p63 expression.
  • Therefore, we propose that the putative human prostate carcinoma stem cells probably reside within the population of type I basal cells.

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  • (PMID = 17597019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione S-Transferase pi; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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21. Chakraborty S, Swanson BJ, Bonthu N, Batra SK: Aberrant upregulation of MUC4 mucin expression in cutaneous condyloma acuminatum and squamous cell carcinoma suggests a potential role in the diagnosis and therapy of skin diseases. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Jul;63(7):579-84
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  • [Title] Aberrant upregulation of MUC4 mucin expression in cutaneous condyloma acuminatum and squamous cell carcinoma suggests a potential role in the diagnosis and therapy of skin diseases.
  • RESULTS: While the normal epidermis showed a negative to weak-positive expression of MUC4, its expression was significantly upregulated in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) where the intensity of staining correlated negatively with tumour grade and positively with age.
  • Malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous cysts were negative.

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  • (PMID = 20591909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078590-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA78590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA127297; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 133774; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA133774
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-4; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS224552; NLM/ PMC2920126
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22. Zhu Y, Fan QH, Zhou ZS, Zhang ZH, Wang C, Zhang WM, Song GX: [Basal cell carcinoma of prostate: clinicopathologic analysis of two cases]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;38(7):477-8
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  • [Title] [Basal cell carcinoma of prostate: clinicopathologic analysis of two cases].
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19781196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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23. Halsey MA, Calder KB, Mathew R, Schlauder S, Morgan MB: Expression of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504S) in sebaceous neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37(4):446-51
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  • AMACR has been established as a valuable diagnostic marker for prostate cancer and has recently been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Five samples of normal sebaceous glands as well as five cases each of sebaceous hyperplasia (SH), sebaceous adenoma (SA), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with sebaceous differentiation and extraocular sebaceous carcinoma (SC) were evaluated for immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of AMACR.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / enzymology. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / enzymology. Sebaceous Glands / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 19638170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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24. Yu T, Zhu SX, Zheng S, Chen SP: [Detection of AMACR (P504S), P63 and 34betaE12 cocktail in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2007 Mar;13(3):222-5
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  • [Title] [Detection of AMACR (P504S), P63 and 34betaE12 cocktail in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of detection of AMACR (P504S), P63 and 34betaE12 cocktail in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa).
  • METHODS: The expressions of AMACR, P63 and 34betaE12 were examined in the biopsy specimens of 42 cases of prostate cancer, 12 cases of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and 30 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using the Maxvision single-step immunohistochemical method with triple-antibody cocktail (AMACR/P63/34betaE12) staining and double-color chromogens in single paraffin sections .
  • P63 and 34betaE12 cocktail staining can increase the sensitivity and specificity of the basal cell detection.
  • The immunohistochemical analysis with triple-antibody cocktail (AMACR/P63/34betaE12) staining and double-color chromogens can improve diagnostic accuracy and has an important applied value for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Early Diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17393784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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25. Hudson E, Rashid M, Carter AC, Lester JF: Basaloid carcinoma of the prostate: a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl); 2008 Sep;17(5):509-11
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  • [Title] Basaloid carcinoma of the prostate: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Malignant tumours arising from the basal cells of the prostate gland are extremely rare, and the majority of reports in the literature suggest a relatively indolent clinical course.
  • We report a case of infiltrative basaloid carcinoma of the prostate in a 68-year old man that did not respond to systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18616505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2354
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cancer Care (Engl)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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26. Alberti C: Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate carcinoma: focusing on its pathophysiologic mechanisms and pathological features. G Chir; 2010 Nov-Dec;31(11-12):568-74
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate carcinoma: focusing on its pathophysiologic mechanisms and pathological features.
  • Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate carcinoma: focusing on its pathophysiologic mechanisms and pathological features. C.
  • Alberti Prostate carcinoma, even at advanced stages, responds in most patients to androgen deprivation therapies, that are able to exploit the androgen-sensitivity of prostate cancer cells.
  • Intriguing links between the development of hormone-insensitivity and neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate carcinoma have been hypothesized.
  • While, some time ago, NE cells have been considered as derived from progenitor neural crest cells, currently are thought to arise, as well as both basal and secretory cells of prostate gland, from common pluripotent stem cells.
  • NE cell are nonproliferative, terminally differentiated, PSA/acid phosphatase and androgen receptor (AR)-negative cells, moreover exhibiting an antiapoptotic phenotype due to survivin expression.
  • The propensity of prostate cancer cells to undergo a transdifferentiation pathway towards NE phenotype is due to several microenvironmental conditions such as androgen depletion (induced by LH-RH analogs or antagonists, antiandrogens, 5-α-reductase inhibitors), ionizing-radiation therapy, adrenergic factors, increase in interleukin-6 signaling cascade.
  • NE differentiation in prostate malignancy arises in three different forms: carcinoid, oat cell carcinoma, focally NE-differentiated conventional tumor.
  • Selective expression of stem cell-associated markers, such as CD44/Oct4A gene, in NE cancerous cells explain their therapy escape together with tumor recurrence and metastasis.
  • Serum levels of CgA reflect NE differentiation in prostate carcinoma more suitably than those of NSE.
  • Although valuable insights into the nature of NE differentiation in prostate carcinoma have been achieved in the last decades, additional understanding is needed about its pathogenetic mechanisms in order to devise novel therapy strategies to target them.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Cell Transdifferentiation. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Androgens / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Chromogranins / metabolism. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Pluripotent Stem Cells / metabolism. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Treatment Failure


27. Bonkhoff H: [Differential diagnosis of prostate cancer: impact of pattern analysis and immunohistochemistry]. Pathologe; 2005 Nov;26(6):405-21
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  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis of prostate cancer: impact of pattern analysis and immunohistochemistry].
  • Prostate cancer offers a wide range of growth patterns depicted in the classical Gleason diagram.
  • In the present review, the use of immunohistochemical markers is discussed with emphasis to a pattern-based approach to differential diagnosis in prostate pathology.
  • Basal cell markers (34betaE12 and P63) are very useful to analyze histo-architectural features of small and large glandular lesions.
  • A number of lesions which may be confused with small acinar adenocarcinoma (Cowper's gland, nephrogenic metaplasia, mesonephric glands) and poorly differentiated prostate cancer (urothelial neoplasia, mucinous colon cancer and other metastatic lesions) lacks convincing PSA immunoreactivity.
  • Basal cell markers and the nuclear androgen receptors are important markers to differentiate Gleason grade 5 A und 5 B patterns from prostatic involvement by transitional cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cell Division / physiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology


28. Baseskioglu B, Akdogan B, Baydar DE, Ozen H: Can p53, Ki-67 and bcl-2 predict biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy? Indian J Urol; 2010 Apr;26(2):206-12
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  • While the secretory layer showed negative or weak bcl-2 staining in most cases, expression in basal cells was often stronger.
  • Statistical analysis revealed differences in staining between normal and carcinoma for all three markers.
  • CONCLUSION: The proteins bcl-2, p53 and Ki-67 were expressed at a different rate in normal and neoplastic prostate tissue.
  • Bcl-2 was mainly expressed by basal cells in normal glands. p53 and Ki-67 expression were increased in most prostate carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20877598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2938544
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bcl-2 / ki-67 / microarray / p53 / prostate cancer
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29. Kuroda N, Katto K, Tamura M, Shiotsu T, Nakamura S, Ohtsuki Y, Hes O, Michal M, Inoue K, Ohara M, Mizuno K, Lee GH: Immunohistochemical application of D2-40 as basal cell marker in evaluating atypical small acinar proliferation of initial routine prostatic needle biopsy materials. Med Mol Morphol; 2010 Sep;43(3):165-9
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical application of D2-40 as basal cell marker in evaluating atypical small acinar proliferation of initial routine prostatic needle biopsy materials.
  • D2-40 has been recently discovered as a lymphatic endothelial cell marker, and some investigators have found that D2-40 is also expressed in myoepithelial cells of salivary gland or breast.
  • In this study, we evaluated D2-40 expression of basal cells and applied D2-40 immunohistochemistry in the combination of P504S, cytokeratin 5, and p63 for ten lesions with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) in initial prostatic needle biopsy.
  • As a result, D2-40 was expressed in basal cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, and some stromal fibroblasts of normal prostatic tissue.
  • D2-40 was comparable to cytokeratin 5 and p63 as a basal cell marker, and there were no lesions that failed to provide an accurate final diagnosis using only D2-40 immunohistochemistry without cytokeratin 5 or p63.
  • Pathologists should pay attention to avoid recognizing these cells as basal cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biopsy, Needle. Early Diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-5 / isolation & purification. Male. Membrane Proteins / isolation & purification. Middle Aged. Prostate / pathology. Racemases and Epimerases / isolation & purification. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20857265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1499
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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30. Perk J, Gil-Bazo I, Chin Y, de Candia P, Chen JJ, Zhao Y, Chao S, Cheong W, Ke Y, Al-Ahmadie H, Gerald WL, Brogi E, Benezra R: Reassessment of id1 protein expression in human mammary, prostate, and bladder cancers using a monospecific rabbit monoclonal anti-id1 antibody. Cancer Res; 2006 Nov 15;66(22):10870-7
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  • [Title] Reassessment of id1 protein expression in human mammary, prostate, and bladder cancers using a monospecific rabbit monoclonal anti-id1 antibody.
  • Id proteins are a class of dominant-negative antagonists of helix-loop-helix transcription factors and have been shown to control differentiation of a variety of cell types in diverse organisms.
  • To explore this issue, we developed and characterized a highly specific rabbit monoclonal antibody against Id1 to assess its expression in human breast, prostate, and bladder malignancies.
  • Interestingly, we detected nuclear expression of the Id1 protein in the tumor cells in 10 of 45 cases of poorly differentiated and highly aggressive carcinoma with metaplastic morphology.
  • Similarly, only 1 of 30 prostate cancer samples showed Id1-positive tumor cells, whereas in almost all, endothelial cells showed high Id1 expression.
  • Intriguingly, whereas normal prostate glands do not show any Id1 protein expression, basal layer cells of benign prostate glands in proximity to tumors expressed high levels of the Id1 protein.
  • In contrast to the lack of Id1 expression in the usual types of mammary and prostate cancers, the majority of transitional cell bladder tumors showed Id1 protein expression in both tumor and endothelial cells.

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  • (PMID = 17108123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / ID1 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1
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31. Mao J, Ligon KL, Rakhlin EY, Thayer SP, Bronson RT, Rowitch D, McMahon AP: A novel somatic mouse model to survey tumorigenic potential applied to the Hedgehog pathway. Cancer Res; 2006 Oct 15;66(20):10171-8
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  • All mice exhibited rhabdomyosarcoma and basal cell carcinoma; 40% also developed medulloblastoma.
  • In contrast, widespread activation of SmoM2 in the postnatal prostate epithelium results in no detectable morphologic outcome in 12-month-old mice.


32. Bianchi-Frias D, Vakar-Lopez F, Coleman IM, Plymate SR, Reed MJ, Nelson PS: The effects of aging on the molecular and cellular composition of the prostate microenvironment. PLoS One; 2010 Sep 01;5(9)
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  • [Title] The effects of aging on the molecular and cellular composition of the prostate microenvironment.
  • BACKGROUND: Advancing age is associated with substantial increases in the incidence rates of common diseases affecting the prostate gland including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma.
  • The prostate is comprised of a functional secretory epithelium, a basal epithelium, and a supporting stroma comprised of structural elements, and a spectrum of cell types that includes smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells.
  • In this study we sought to identify aging-associated alterations in the mouse prostate microenvironment that could influence pathology.
  • By histology, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy we determined that the collagen matrix is abundant and disorganized, smooth muscle cell orientation is disordered, and inflammatory infiltrates are significantly increased, and are comprised of macrophages, T cells and, to a lesser extent, B cells.
  • CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that during normal aging the prostate stroma exhibits phenotypic and molecular characteristics plausibly contributing to the striking age associated pathologies affecting the prostate.

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  • (PMID = 20824135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA103728; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK069690; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA126540; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA103728
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2931699
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33. Komura K, Inamoto T, Tsuji M, Ibuki N, Koyama K, Ubai T, Azuma H, Katsuoka Y: Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: unusual subtype of prostatic carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;15(6):594-600
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: unusual subtype of prostatic carcinoma.
  • Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate, which has been generally considered to be indolent, is an unusual histological type of prostatic carcinoma and is extremely rare.
  • This tumor has been classified according to the prevalent pattern of growth as adenoid cystic carcinoma or basaloid cell carcinoma (BCC), with the former growth pattern being considered to be the main feature of this entity.
  • His prostate was slightly enlarged, stony hard, and with a rough surface on digital rectal examination, while serum prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations were within the normal ranges (0.007 and 0.9 ng/mL, respectively).
  • Specimens obtained by prostatic needle biopsy showed immunohistochemical reactivity for cytokeratin 34βE12 and P63, findings that were identical to those seen in basal cell carcinoma.
  • Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare tumor, reported in 56 cases so far, and among all these, the pure form of BCC is extremely rare.
  • Our findings reveal that tumors with a basaloid cell-predominant pattern have significant potential for a poor prognosis, in contrast with the conventional understanding regarding this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20422244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. Lopez-Beltran A, Qian J, Montironi R, Luque RJ, Bostwick DG: Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (adenosis) of the prostate: DNA ploidy analysis and immunophenotype. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Apr;13(2):167-73
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  • [Title] Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (adenosis) of the prostate: DNA ploidy analysis and immunophenotype.
  • Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) of the prostate is a microscopic proliferation of small acini that may be mistaken for adenocarcinoma.
  • There were rare scattered immunoreactive cells for chromogranin, bcl-2, and c-erbB-2 in nodular hyperplasia and AAH (mainly in the basal cell compartment) and in carcinoma.
  • The ki67-MIB1 labeling index was different between nodular hyperplasia and AAH (p<0.001) and carcinoma (p=0.003) but not between AAH and carcinoma (p=0.203).
  • Microvessel density was different between AAH and carcinoma (p=0.001) but not between nodular hyperplasia and AAH (p=0.105) or carcinoma (p=0.0820).
  • All foci of nodular hyperplasia, AAH, and carcinoma were diploid.

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  • (PMID = 15864380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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35. Bian Y, Terse A, Du J, Hall B, Molinolo A, Zhang P, Chen W, Flanders KC, Gutkind JS, Wakefield LM, Kulkarni AB: Progressive tumor formation in mice with conditional deletion of TGF-beta signaling in head and neck epithelia is associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Cancer Res; 2009 Jul 15;69(14):5918-26
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  • The precise role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is not yet fully understood.
  • A molecular analysis revealed an enhanced proliferation and loss of apoptosis in the basal layer of the head and neck epithelia of Tgfbr1 cKO mice 4 weeks after tamoxifen and DMBA treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / toxicity. Animals. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Cycle. Cell Proliferation. Enzyme Activation. Female. Gene Deletion. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Models, Biological. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19584284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DE000698-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.11 / TGF-beta type I receptor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149166; NLM/ PMC2758611
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36. Flury SC, Galgano MT, Mills SE, Smolkin ME, Theodorescu D: Atypical small acinar proliferation: biopsy artefact or distinct pathological entity? BJU Int; 2007 Apr;99(4):780-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) represents minimally sampled prostate cancer not fully evaluated on a biopsy or a distinct pathological entity, by examining prostates removed at radical cystectomy, as a finding of ASAP of the prostate on needle-core biopsy is closely associated with the detection of cancer on subsequent biopsy.
  • The remaining eight foci all lacked CK903 stain, indicating disruption of the basal cell layer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cell Proliferation. Cystectomy / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prostate / pathology. Prostatectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17378841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Bühler P, Wolf P, Katzenwadel A, Schultze-Seemann W, Wetterauer U, Freudenberg N, Elsässer-Beile U: Primary prostate cancer cultures are models for androgen-independent transit amplifying cells. Oncol Rep; 2010 Feb;23(2):465-70
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  • [Title] Primary prostate cancer cultures are models for androgen-independent transit amplifying cells.
  • Numerous efforts exist for developing primary prostate cancer cultures for studying the biology of this tumor entity and for evaluation of the effectiveness of novel therapies.
  • The aim of the present study was to characterize primary outgrowing prostate epithelial cells due to their basal or luminal characteristics and their potential for serving as androgen-responsible model.
  • From fresh prostate cancer radical prostatectomy specimens, pieces of approximately 2-4 mm diameter were placed on top of transwell culture chambers, which were coated with matrigel and cultured in prostate epithelial selection medium with 10% fetal calf serum.
  • From the monolayer of the outgrowing cells, RNA was isolated and the expression of androgen receptor (AR), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Kallikrein 2 (KlK2), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), cytokeratin (CK)5, and CK18 was determined by realtime quantitative PCR.
  • The outgrowing cells from the prostate cancer tissue pieces could be characterized as epithelial cells with basal and transit amplifying characteristics as shown by co-expression of CK5 and CK18.
  • In all cultures, a very low expression of the luminal cell marker genes AR, PSA and KLK2 was measured.
  • Due to the co-expression of basal and luminal marker genes, primary prostate cancer cultures can be charaterized as models of transit amplifying cells of the prostatic epithelium.
  • They do not represent the differentiated secretory androgen-responsive cell phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / pharmacology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / pharmacology. Antigens, Neoplasm. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Epithelial Cells / pathology. GPI-Linked Proteins. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Phenotype. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured


38. Netto GJ, Epstein JI: Benign Mimickers of Prostate Adenocarcinoma on Needle Biopsy and Transurethral Resection. Surg Pathol Clin; 2008 Dec;1(1):1-41
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  • [Title] Benign Mimickers of Prostate Adenocarcinoma on Needle Biopsy and Transurethral Resection.
  • Prostate needle biopsy currently is the gold standard method for the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of prostate cancer.
  • This article discusses histologic mimickers of prostate carcinoma highlighting microscopic features that are helpful to reach a correct diagnosis and emphasizing potential diagnostic pitfalls.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26837901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenosis / Atrophy / Basal cell hyperplasia / Clear cell cribriform hyperplasia / Mimickers of prostate cancer / Nephrogenic adenoma / Paraganglia / Prostatitis / Radiation atypia / Xanthoma
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39. Pascal LE, Vêncio RZ, Page LS, Liebeskind ES, Shadle CP, Troisch P, Marzolf B, True LD, Hood LE, Liu AY: Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes. BMC Cancer; 2009 Dec 18;9:452
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  • [Title] Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes.
  • BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer cells in primary tumors have been typed CD10-/CD13-/CD24hi/CD26+/CD38lo/CD44-/CD104-.
  • METHODS: CD26+ cancer cells were isolated from Gleason 3+3 (G3) and Gleason 4+4 (G4) tumors by cell sorting, and their gene expression or transcriptome was determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis.
  • Dataset analysis was used to determine gene expression similarities and differences between G3 and G4 as well as to prostate cancer cell lines and histologically normal prostate luminal cells.
  • RESULTS: The G3 and G4 transcriptomes were compared to those of prostatic cell types of non-cancer, which included luminal, basal, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial.
  • Dataset comparison also showed that the cancer transcriptomes differed substantially from those of prostate cancer cell lines.
  • Differentially expressed genes likely contribute to the prostate cancer phenotype and constitute the signatures of these particular cancer cell types.


40. Bozdogan O, Atasoy P, Bozdogan N, Erekul S, Batislam E, Yilmaz E, Başar MM: BAG-1 expression in hyperplastic and neoplastic prostate tissue: is there any relationship with BCL-related proteins and androgen receptor status? Tumori; 2005 Nov-Dec;91(6):539-45
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  • [Title] BAG-1 expression in hyperplastic and neoplastic prostate tissue: is there any relationship with BCL-related proteins and androgen receptor status?
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To evaluate the function and distribution of BAG-1 protein in hyperplastic and neoplastic prostate tissue and establish the relationship between this protein and BCL-related proteins (BCL-2 and BAX), androgen receptor (AR) expression and chromogranin A.
  • METHODS: Twenty-eight prostatic adenocarcinomas and 16 prostate hyperplasias were included in this retrospective study.
  • RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in HSCOREs of BAX, M30 and AR between the carcinoma and hyperplasia groups.
  • In the carcinoma group there was a positive correlation (Pearson) between BCL-2 and cytoplasmic/nuclear BAG-1.
  • BAG-1 showed the same specific basal cell localization as BCL-2 in hyperplastic and normal glands.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The BAG-1 protein showed a distinct distribution pattern in hyperplastic and neoplastic prostate.


41. Humphrey PA: Diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in prostate needle biopsy tissue. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jan;60(1):35-42
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in prostate needle biopsy tissue.
  • Prostate cancer is a major public health problem throughout the developed world.
  • For patients with clinically localised prostate cancer, the diagnosis is typically established by histopathological examination of prostate needle biopsy samples.
  • Major criteria include an infiltrative glandular growth pattern, an absence of basal cells and nuclear atypia in the form of nucleomegaly and nucleolomegaly.
  • In difficult cases, basal cell absence may be confirmed by immunohistochemical stains for high-molecular-weight cytokeratins (marked with antibody 34betaE12) or p63, which are basal cell markers.
  • Cocktails of antibodies directed against basal cell markers and AMACR are particularly useful in evaluating small foci of atypical glands, and in substantiating a diagnosis of a minimal adenocarcinoma.
  • Measures of tumour extent are (1) number of cores positive for cancer in the number of cores examined, (2) percentage of needle core tissue affected by carcinoma and (3) linear millimetres of carcinoma present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17213347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 74
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860598
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42. Schulz WA, Ingenwerth M, Djuidje CE, Hader C, Rahnenführer J, Engers R: Changes in cortical cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix gene expression in prostate cancer are related to oncogenic ERG deregulation. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:505
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  • [Title] Changes in cortical cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix gene expression in prostate cancer are related to oncogenic ERG deregulation.
  • BACKGROUND: The cortical cytoskeleton network connects the actin cytoskeleton to various membrane proteins, influencing cell adhesion, polarity, migration and response to extracellular signals.
  • Previous studies have suggested changes in the expression of specific components in prostate cancer, especially of 4.1 proteins (encoded by EPB41 genes) which form nodes in this network.
  • METHODS: Expression of EPB41L1, EPB41L2, EPB41L3 (protein: 4.1B), EPB41L4B (EHM2), EPB41L5, EPB49 (dematin), VIL2 (ezrin), and DLG1 (summarized as "cortical cytoskeleton" genes) as well as ERG was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in a well-characterized set of 45 M0 prostate adenocarcinoma and 13 benign tissues.
  • Protein 4.1B was detected most strongly in the basal cells of normal prostate epithelia.
  • Its expression in carcinoma cells was similar to the weaker one in normal luminal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Specific changes in the cortical cytoskeleton were observed during prostate cancer progression.
  • We hypothesize that these alterations may contribute to the increased invasivity conferred to prostate cancer cells by ERG deregulation.


43. Rukin NJ, Zeegers MP, Ramachandran S, Luscombe CJ, Liu S, Saxby M, Lear J, Strange RC: A comparison of sunlight exposure in men with prostate cancer and basal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2007 Feb 12;96(3):523-8
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  • [Title] A comparison of sunlight exposure in men with prostate cancer and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Ultraviolet radiation exposure increases basal cell carcinoma (BCC) risk, but may be protective against prostate cancer.
  • We attempted to identify exposure patterns that confer reduced prostate cancer risk without increasing that of BCC.
  • We used a questionnaire to assess exposure in 528 prostate cancer patients and 442 men with basal cell carcinoma, using 365 benign prostatic hypertrophy patients as controls.
  • Skin type 1 (odds ratio (OR)=0.47, 95% CI=0.26-0.86), childhood sunburning (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.26-0.57), occasional/frequent sunbathing (OR=0.21, 95% CI=0.14-0.31), lifetime weekday (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.80-0.91) and weekend exposure (OR=0.79, 95% CI=0.73-0.86) were associated with reduced prostate cancer risk.
  • Combinations of one or two parameters were associated with a progressive decrease in the ORs for prostate cancer risk (OR=0.54-0.25) with correspondingly increased BCC risk (OR=1.60-2.54).
  • Our data do not define exposure patterns that reduce prostate cancer risk without increasing BCC risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17262085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360028
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44. Epstein JI: An update of the Gleason grading system. J Urol; 2010 Feb;183(2):433-40
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  • RESULTS: Since the introduction of the Gleason grading system more than 40 years ago many aspects of prostate cancer have changed, including prostate specific antigen testing, transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy with greater sampling, immunohistochemistry for basal cells that changed the classification of prostate cancer and new prostate cancer variants.
  • The grading of variants and subtypes of acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate, including cancer with vacuoles, foamy gland carcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma, pseudohyperplastic carcinoma and small cell carcinoma have also been modified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is remarkable that nearly 40 years after its inception the Gleason grading system remains one of the most powerful prognostic factors for prostate cancer.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Urological Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20006878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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45. Jiang Z, Li C, Fischer A, Dresser K, Woda BA: Using an AMACR (P504S)/34betaE12/p63 cocktail for the detection of small focal prostate carcinoma in needle biopsy specimens. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;123(2):231-6
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  • [Title] Using an AMACR (P504S)/34betaE12/p63 cocktail for the detection of small focal prostate carcinoma in needle biopsy specimens.
  • We assessed the usefulness of immunohistochemical analysis with a 3-antibody cocktail (alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase [AMACR, or P504S], 34betaE12, p63) and a double-chromogen reaction for detection of limited prostate cancer in 138 needle biopsy specimens, including 82 with small foci of prostatic adenocarcinoma and 56 benign prostates.
  • When carcinoma was present, red cytoplasmic granular staining (AMACR) in the malignant glands and cells and dark brown nuclear (p63) and cytoplasmic (34betaE12) staining in basal cells of adjacent nonmalignant glands were found.
  • Of 82 cases of small foci of prostatic adenocarcinoma, 78 (95%) expressed AMACR; all malignant glands were negative for basal cell staining.
  • All benign glands adjacent to malignant glands were recognized easily by basal cell marker positivity and little or no AMACR expression.
  • No benign glands were simultaneously positive for AMACR and negative for basal cell markers (specificity, 100%).
  • Our results indicate that immunohistochemistry with a 3-antibody cocktail and double chromogen is a simple and easy assay that can be used as a routine test, which overcomes the problems of studying small lesions in prostate needle biopsies with multiple immunohistochemical stains.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Male. Prostate / anatomy & histology. Prostate / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15842047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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46. Angelucci A, Muzi P, Cristiano L, Millimaggi D, Cimini A, Dolo V, Miano R, Vicentini C, Cerù MP, Bologna M: Neuroendocrine transdifferentiation induced by VPA is mediated by PPARgamma activation and confers resistance to antiblastic therapy in prostate carcinoma. Prostate; 2008 May 1;68(6):588-98
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine transdifferentiation induced by VPA is mediated by PPARgamma activation and confers resistance to antiblastic therapy in prostate carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the Western Countries.
  • NET was an early event detectable through the expression of neuro-endocrine (NE) markers within 72 hr after VPA treatment and it was associated to a reduction in the overall cell proliferation.
  • When we interrupted VPA treatment we observed the recovery in residual cells of the basal proliferation rate both in vitro and in a xenograft model.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cell Transdifferentiation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Neurosecretory Systems / drug effects. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Valproic Acid / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anilides / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Drug Combinations. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 18288684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
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47. Hameed O, Humphrey PA: Immunohistochemistry in diagnostic surgical pathology of the prostate. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;22(1):88-104
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemistry in diagnostic surgical pathology of the prostate.
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC) can play an important role in diagnostic surgical pathology of the prostate.
  • Basal cell markers, such as the 34betaE12 antibody and antibodies directed against cytokeratin 5 and 6 or p63, are very useful for demonstration of basal cells as their presence argues against a diagnosis of invasive prostatic carcinoma (PC).
  • However, several benign mimickers of PC, including atrophy, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), nephrogenic adenoma, and mesonephric hyperplasia, can stain negatively with these markers, and thus, a negative basal cell marker immunostain alone does not exclude a diagnosis of benignancy.
  • Although there are examples in the literature of high grade PC that stain focally with some of the basal cell markers, these cases are usually readily diagnosed based on H&E appearances and are unlikely to be confused with these benign mimickers.
  • The use of AMACR/basal cell antibody cocktails has been found to greatly facilitate the distinction between PC and its benign mimickers, especially when only limited tissue is available for staining.
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) are both quite sensitive and fairly specific markers of PC (there are a few nonprostatic tumors that can express one or both), and are both very helpful in establishing or confirming the diagnosis of PC when the differential diagnosis includes other tumors that can involve the prostate such as urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma.
  • AMACR positivity and negative basal cell marker reactions are useful to confirm the presence of residual PC after hormonal or radiation therapy.
  • PSA and PSAP immunohistochemical stains are valuable in confirming metastatic carcinoma as being of prostatic origin and should always be utilized in the diagnostic evaluation of metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary origin in males.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Leukemia / diagnosis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis


48. Harvey AM, Grice B, Hamilton C, Truong LD, Ro JY, Ayala AG, Zhai QJ: Diagnostic utility of P504S/p63 cocktail, prostate-specific antigen, and prostatic acid phosphatase in verifying prostatic carcinoma involvement in seminal vesicles: a study of 57 cases of radical prostatectomy specimens of pathologic stage pT3b. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jul;134(7):983-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of P504S/p63 cocktail, prostate-specific antigen, and prostatic acid phosphatase in verifying prostatic carcinoma involvement in seminal vesicles: a study of 57 cases of radical prostatectomy specimens of pathologic stage pT3b.
  • CONTEXT: Seminal vesicle invasion by prostatic carcinoma is directly associated with tumor staging; verification is challenging when the tumor demonstrates cribriform or papillary growth patterns or there are back-to-back small-gland proliferations.
  • P504S is overexpressed in prostatic carcinoma and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia with cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. p63 has positive immunoreactivity in basal cell nuclei of benign prostatic glands.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of a single-color P504S/p63 cocktail immunostain in verifying prostatic carcinoma within the seminal vesicle.
  • DESIGN: Sections from 57 radical prostatectomy specimens of pathologic stage pT3b that contain seminal vesicle with prostatic carcinoma involvement were immunostained with primary antibodies against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and a cocktail of antibodies against P504S and p63.
  • RESULTS: Prostatic carcinoma cells from all 57 cases were diffusely positive for P504S, PSA, and PAP with cytoplasmic staining and no p63 nuclear staining.
  • Seminal vesicle epithelium from all 57 cases was negative for all 3 markers with distinct p63 nuclear staining of the basal cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The P504S/p63 one-color cocktail is a practical and cost-effective stain to differentiate prostatic carcinoma that involves the seminal vesicle from seminal vesicle epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / analysis. Racemases and Epimerases / analysis. Seminal Vesicles / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / economics. Immunohistochemistry / standards. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate / chemistry. Prostatectomy. Staining and Labeling / economics. Staining and Labeling / standards

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  • (PMID = 20586625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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49. Dennler S, André J, Verrecchia F, Mauviel A: Cloning of the human GLI2 Promoter: transcriptional activation by transforming growth factor-beta via SMAD3/beta-catenin cooperation. J Biol Chem; 2009 Nov 13;284(46):31523-31
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  • GLI2 (GLI-Kruppel family member 2), a zinc finger transcription factor that mediates Hedgehog signaling, is implicated in the progression of an ever-growing number of human malignancies, including prostate and pancreatic cancer, as well as basal cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • Its expression is up-regulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in a variety of cell types, both normal and transformed.
  • This region harbors SMAD and lymphoid enhancer factor/T cell factor binding sites that allow functional cooperation between SMAD3 and beta-catenin, recruited to the promoter in response to TGF-beta to drive GLI2 gene transcription.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cells, Cultured. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. Cloning, Molecular. Humans. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Luciferases / metabolism. Molecular Sequence Data. Protein Binding. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Trans-Activators / genetics. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19797115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLI2 protein, human; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2797221
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50. Ozawa MG, Yao VJ, Chanthery YH, Troncoso P, Uemura A, Varner AS, Kasman IM, Pasqualini R, Arap W, McDonald DM: Angiogenesis with pericyte abnormalities in a transgenic model of prostate carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Nov 15;104(10):2104-15
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis with pericyte abnormalities in a transgenic model of prostate carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model vasculature suggest that, as tumors develop, vessels invade the glandular epithelium.
  • METHODS: Eighty-micron cryostat sections of normal prostate and three histopathologic stages of TRAMP tumor sections, classified by epithelial cell E-cadherin immunoreactivity, were immunostained with vascular endothelial cell and pericyte receptor antibodies and evaluated by confocal microscopy.
  • RESULTS: In the normal mouse prostate, capillaries were most abundant in the fibromuscular tunica between the epithelium and smooth muscle of the ductules.
  • In the prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) stage, vessels accompanied epithelial cell protrusions into the ductule lumen but remained in the connective tissue at the basal side of the epithelium.
  • Angiogenesis and loss of vascular hierarchy were also found in human prostate carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vascular abnormalities, which begin at the PIN stage and intensify in well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors, may be useful readouts for early detection and treatment assessment in prostate carcinoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16208706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL024136; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-59157; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-24136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA90270
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
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51. Nanni S, Priolo C, Grasselli A, D'Eletto M, Merola R, Moretti F, Gallucci M, De Carli P, Sentinelli S, Cianciulli AM, Mottolese M, Carlini P, Arcelli D, Helmer-Citterich M, Gaetano C, Loda M, Pontecorvi A, Bacchetti S, Sacchi A, Farsetti A: Epithelial-restricted gene profile of primary cultures from human prostate tumors: a molecular approach to predict clinical behavior of prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 2006 Feb;4(2):79-92
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  • [Title] Epithelial-restricted gene profile of primary cultures from human prostate tumors: a molecular approach to predict clinical behavior of prostate cancer.
  • The histopathologic and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer and the limited availability of human tumor tissue make unraveling the mechanisms of prostate carcinogenesis a challenging task.
  • Our goal was to develop an ex vivo model that could be reliably used to define a prognostic signature based on gene expression profiling of cell cultures that maintained the tumor phenotype.
  • To this end, we derived epithelial cultures from tissue explanted from 59 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy or cistoprostatectomy because of prostate benign hyperplasia/prostate cancer or bladder carcinoma.
  • Cultures from normal/hyperplastic tissues with a prevalent luminal phenotype and from normal prostate epithelial tissue with basal phenotype (PrEC) served as controls.
  • We have established a large number of prostate primary cultures highly enriched in the secretory phenotype.
  • Our findings provide (a) a method to expand human primary prostate carcinoma cells with a luminal phenotype, (b) a powerful experimental model to study primary prostate cancer biology, and (c) a novel means to characterize these tumors from a molecular genetic standpoint for prognostic and/or predictive purposes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Cells, Cultured. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Phenotype. Prognosis. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Hyperplasia / genetics. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16513839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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52. Levi F, Randimbison L, Te VC, Conconi MM, La Vecchia C: Risk of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer after skin cancer diagnosis. Int J Cancer; 2008 Dec 15;123(12):2899-901
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  • [Title] Risk of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer after skin cancer diagnosis.
  • Ultraviolet radiation is the major cause of skin cancer, but promotes vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin D has been inversely related to the risk of several common cancers including prostate, breast and colorectum.
  • We therefore computed the incidence of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer following skin cancer using the datasets of the Swiss cancer Registries of Vaud and Neuchâtel.
  • Between 1974 and 2005, 6,985 histologically confirmed squamous cell skin cancers, 21,046 basal cell carcinomas and 3,346 cutaneous malignant melanomas were registered, and followed up to the end of 2005 for the occurrence of second primary cancer of the prostate, breast and colorectum.
  • Overall, 680 prostate cancers were observed versus 568.3 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.29), 440 breast cancers were observed versus 371.5 expected (SIR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.08-1.30) and 535 colorectal cancers were observed versus 464.6 expected (SIR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06-1.25).
  • When basal cell, squamous cell and skin melanoma were considered separately, all the SIRs for prostate, breast and colorectal cancers were around or slightly above unity.
  • These findings, based on a population with a long tradition of systematic histologic examination of all surgically treated skin lesions, do not support the hypothesis that prostate, breast and colorectal cancer risk is decreased following skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Registries. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Switzerland / epidemiology


53. Escaff S, Fernández JM, González LO, Suárez A, González-Reyes S, González JM, Vizoso FJ: Study of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in prostate cancer. Br J Cancer; 2010 Mar 2;102(5):922-9
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  • [Title] Study of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Extracellular matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have raised an extraordinary interest in cancer research because of their potential role in basal membrane and extracellular matrix degradation, consequently facilitating tumour invasion and metastases development.
  • More than 2600 determinations on cancer specimens from 133 patients with clinically localised prostate carcinoma, 20 patients with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and 50 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and controls, were performed.
  • RESULTS: When compared with benign pathologies, prostate carcinomas had higher expression of all MMPs and TIMPs.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of MMPs and TIMPs seems to have an important role in the molecular biology of prostate carcinomas, and their expression by tumours may be of clinical interest to used as indicators of tumour aggressiveness.

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  • (PMID = 20160732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2833257
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54. Varma M, Jasani B: Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry in morphologically difficult prostate cancer: review of current literature. Histopathology; 2005 Jul;47(1):1-16
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry in morphologically difficult prostate cancer: review of current literature.
  • Varma M & Jasani B (2005) Histopathology47, 1-16 Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry in morphologically difficult prostate cancer: review of current literatureImmunohistochemistry is widely used to distinguish prostate cancer from benign mimics and to establish the prostatic origin of poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • We critically review the recent advances in prostate cancer immunohistochemistry, including the introduction of newer basal cell markers such as p63 and the discovery of the overexpression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) in prostate cancer.
  • The description of newer urothelial markers to aid the distinction of prostate cancer from urothelial carcinoma is also presented together with refinements in the quality control of PSA and PSAP immunostaining.
  • Although AMACR is a useful immunohistochemical marker for prostate cancer, it has significant limitations.
  • These limitations are discussed and the need for interpreting AMACR immunoreactivity in the appropriate morphological context and in conjunction with basal call markers is emphasized.
  • We also describe the utility of an immunohistochemical panel composed of PSA, PSAP and high molecular weight cytokeratin for distinguishing poorly differentiated prostate cancer from high-grade urothelial carcinoma.
  • A morphological differential diagnosis based selection of immunohistochemical markers is highlighted as a novel approach in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in routine surgical pathology practice.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Prostate / chemistry. Prostate / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity


55. Iczkowski KA, Montironi R: Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate strongly expresses HER-2/neu. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Dec;59(12):1327-30
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  • [Title] Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate strongly expresses HER-2/neu.
  • Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma (ACBCC) is a rare neoplasm in the prostate.
  • Protein and mRNA expression were 2+ to 3+ (of 3+) in all patients with ACBCC, compared to a breast cancer control with strong reactivity, whereas protein expression was noted in only one acinar carcinoma and mRNA expression was absent in all acinar carcinomas.
  • Benign acini expressed HER-2/neu only in the basal layer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism


56. Bohn OL, Rios-Luna NP, Navarro L, Duran-Peña A, Sanchez-Sosa S: Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate gland: a case report and brief review of the basal cell proliferations of the prostate gland. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Oct;14(5):365-8
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate gland: a case report and brief review of the basal cell proliferations of the prostate gland.
  • Basal cell proliferations within the prostate gland encompass a group of benign and malignant entities.
  • Although basal cell hyperplasia is a common finding, basal cell carcinoma of the prostate gland is a rare tumor that can be mistaken by a benign condition and represents a diagnostic problem in genitourinary pathology.
  • We report a case of basal cell carcinoma in a previously healthy 65-year-old man with urinary symptoms and low prostate-specific antigen.
  • The microscopic findings are presented and the use of immunohistochemical markers classifying basal cell lesions of the prostate discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Prostate / metabolism. Prostate / pathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20850702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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57. Cavalcanti Fde B, Alves VA, Pereira J, Kanamura CT, Wakamatsu A, Saldanha LB: Proliferative lesions of prostate: a multivariate approach to differential diagnosis. Pathol Oncol Res; 2005;11(2):103-7
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  • [Title] Proliferative lesions of prostate: a multivariate approach to differential diagnosis.
  • Of these parameters, seven (glandular fusion, crystalloids, nucleolomegaly, papillary architecture, visibility of basal cell layer, areas of normal luminal cell nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and areas of high luminal cell nucleus/cytoplasm ratio) remained significant in discriminating the groups.
  • Multivariate analysis selected a small panel of histological features as those most helpful in the differential diagnosis of proliferative lesions in prostate biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15999155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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58. Garber K: A tale of two cells: discovering the origin of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2010 Oct 20;102(20):1528-9, 1535
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A tale of two cells: discovering the origin of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cells / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20935266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Halat SK, MacLennan GT: Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol; 2008 Apr;179(4):1576
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18295260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Ali TZ, Epstein JI: Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):697-705
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • We studied 29 cases of basal cell carcinoma of the prostate including what others call adenoid cystic carcinoma of the prostate.
  • Other patterns included: basal cell hyperplasialike in 9 cases (32%); small tubules occasionally lined by a hyaline rim in 9 cases (32%), with 4 of these cases also demonstrating intermingling cords of cells; and large solid nests in 8 cases (28.5%), 5 of which had central necrosis.
  • Perineural and vascular invasion was seen in 2 basal cell carcinomas with large basaloid nests.
  • Basal cell markers (HMWCK, p63) either:.
  • Basal cell carcinomas are rare tumors with a broad morphologic spectrum.
  • The most common morphology among those with an aggressive behavior is large solid nests more often with central necrosis, high Ki67%, and less staining with basal cell markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Transurethral Resection of Prostate

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  • (PMID = 17460452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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61. Bauer R: Cylindroma of the prostate. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Aug;31(8):1288-91
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  • [Title] Cylindroma of the prostate.
  • A sporadic prostate tumor morphologically and immunophenotypically identical to dermal cylindroma is reported for the first time.
  • The patient was a 78-year-old man with normal prostate-specific antigen serum level.
  • The only obvious difference from typical dermal cylindroma was a lack of intratumoral Langerhans cells in the prostate neoplasm.
  • Differentiation from all hitherto known variants of basal cell proliferative lesions of the prostate was straightforward.
  • However, focal cylindromalike features have been reported in rare cases of otherwise typical basaloid proliferations of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Male. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17667556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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62. Lemonnier L, Lazarenko R, Shuba Y, Thebault S, Roudbaraki M, Lepage G, Prevarskaya N, Skryma R: Alterations in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and swelling-activated Cl- current associated with neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer epithelial cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):335-49
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  • [Title] Alterations in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and swelling-activated Cl- current associated with neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer epithelial cells.
  • Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation of prostate epithelial/basal cells is a hallmark of advanced, androgen-independent prostate cancer, for which there is no successful therapy.
  • Here we report for the first time on alterations in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and its key determinant, swelling-activated Cl- current (I(Cl,swell)), associated with NE differentiation of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer epithelial cells.
  • This occurred as a result of both the increased endogenous expression of ClC-3, which is a volume-sensitive Cl- channel involved, as we show, in I(Cl,swell) in LNCaP (lymph-node carcinoma of the prostate) cells and the weaker negative I(Cl,swell) control from Ca2+ entering via store-dependent pathways.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Size. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Patch-Clamp Techniques. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15947107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Chloride Channels; 0 / ClC-3 channel; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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63. Sung MT, Jiang Z, Montironi R, MacLennan GT, Mazzucchelli R, Cheng L: Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504S)/34betaE12/p63 triple cocktail stain in prostatic adenocarcinoma after hormonal therapy. Hum Pathol; 2007 Feb;38(2):332-41
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  • Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) has recently been shown to be a highly sensitive marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
  • However, there is limited information concerning its utility as a marker for prostate carcinoma after hormonal therapy.
  • Our current investigation was conducted to evaluate the expression of AMACR in patients with prostate carcinoma after hormonal therapy and assess its diagnostic utility in combination with p63 and high molecular weight cytokeratin (34betaE12) staining.
  • Prostate tissues from 49 patients who had been treated with hormonal therapy were immunohistochemically analyzed for AMACR, 34betaE12, and p63 expression by a triple antibody cocktail stain.
  • All malignant acini were completely negative for both basal cell markers (34betaE12 and p63).
  • In all cases, basal cells were strongly stained by p63 in benign acini with a mean positive percentage of 96%.
  • Similarly, basal cells in benign acini displayed moderate staining intensities for 34betaE12 in 3 (7%) of 41 cases and strong immunostaining for this marker in the remaining 38 cases (93%); the mean percentage of positive cells was 92%.
  • alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression may be substantially diminished or entirely lost in prostate carcinoma after hormonal therapy.
  • It is important that pathologists be aware that some hormonally treated prostate carcinomas do not express AMACR, and that immunostaining in such cases must be interpreted with caution.
  • A triple cocktail stain using AMACR, 34betaE12, and p63 can be helpful in evaluating prostate specimens for the presence of residual or recurrent carcinoma after hormonal therapy for cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17134736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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64. Amann T, Bataille F, Spruss T, Dettmer K, Wild P, Liedtke C, Mühlbauer M, Kiefer P, Oefner PJ, Trautwein C, Bosserhoff AK, Hellerbrand C: Reduced expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2IIIb in hepatocellular carcinoma induces a more aggressive growth. Am J Pathol; 2010 Mar;176(3):1433-42
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  • [Title] Reduced expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2IIIb in hepatocellular carcinoma induces a more aggressive growth.
  • Here, we analyzed the expression and function of FGFR2-IIIb in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • FGFR2-IIIb expression in HCC tissues and cell lines was lower than in primary human hepatocytes and nontumorous tissue.
  • A decrease in FGFR-2IIIb expression in HCC cell lines was not related to promoter hypermethylation.
  • FGFR2-IIIb re-expression in stable transfected HCC cell lines induced a higher basal apoptosis rate and a significantly reduced proliferation and migratory potential in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. DNA Methylation / drug effects. DNA Methylation / genetics. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / genetics. Female. Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Pyrroles / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20093481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / SU 5402; 126469-10-1 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 7; EC 2.7.1.- / keratinocyte growth factor receptor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2832162
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65. Pascal LE, True LD, Campbell DS, Deutsch EW, Risk M, Coleman IM, Eichner LJ, Nelson PS, Liu AY: Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate. BMC Genomics; 2008 May 23;9:246
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  • [Title] Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate.
  • BACKGROUND: : Expression levels of mRNA and protein by cell types exhibit a range of correlations for different genes.
  • In this study, we compared levels of mRNA abundance for several cluster designation (CD) genes determined by gene arrays using magnetic sorted and laser-capture microdissected human prostate cells with levels of expression of the respective CD proteins determined by immunohistochemical staining in the major cell types of the prostate - basal epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial - and for prostate precursor/stem cells and prostate carcinoma cells.
  • Immunohistochemical stains of prostate tissues from more than 50 patients were scored for informative CD antigen expression and compared with cell-type specific transcriptomes.

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  • (PMID = 18501003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2164
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Genomics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK63630; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98699; United States / PHS HHS / / PM50 GMO76547; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / U01 DK063630; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA085859; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA098699; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P50 GM076547; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK069690; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK069690; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111244; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85859; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111244
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2413246
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66. Osunkoya AO, Hansel DE, Sun X, Netto GJ, Epstein JI: Aberrant diffuse expression of p63 in adenocarcinoma of the prostate on needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy: report of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Mar;32(3):461-7
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  • [Title] Aberrant diffuse expression of p63 in adenocarcinoma of the prostate on needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy: report of 21 cases.
  • Aberrant diffuse expression of p63 in prostate carcinoma cells is a rare and poorly understood phenomenon.
  • We studied 19 cases of prostate cancer with aberrant diffuse expression of p63 on needle biopsy and reviewed the subsequent radical prostatectomies in 6 cases.
  • In all 8 radical prostatectomies p63 positive cancer was present, with in 2/8 cases both p63 positive cancer and usual p63 negative acinar prostate cancer.
  • The presence of p63 positive atypical glands with an infiltrative pattern and perineural invasion on radical prostatectomy confirmed the needle biopsy diagnosis of carcinoma.
  • Rarely, prostate cancer can aberrantly express diffuse p63 staining in a nonbasal cell distribution leading to the erroneous diagnosis of atrophy or atypical basal cell proliferation.
  • The diagnosis of prostate cancer is based on the morphology and confirmed by the absence of high molecular weight cytokeratin staining and positivity for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase in the atypical glands.
  • Pathologists need to be aware of this rare and unusual phenomenon, which is a potential pitfall in prostate cancer diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 18300803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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67. Chung AC, Zhou S, Liao L, Tien JC, Greenberg NM, Xu J: Genetic ablation of the amplified-in-breast cancer 1 inhibits spontaneous prostate cancer progression in mice. Cancer Res; 2007 Jun 15;67(12):5965-75
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  • [Title] Genetic ablation of the amplified-in-breast cancer 1 inhibits spontaneous prostate cancer progression in mice.
  • Although the amplified-in-breast cancer 1 (AIB1; SRC-3, ACTR, or NCoA3) was defined as a coactivator for androgen receptor (AR) by in vitro studies, its role in AR-mediated prostate development and prostate cancer remained unexplored.
  • We report here that AIB1 is expressed in the basal and stromal cells but not in the epithelial cells of the normal mouse prostates.
  • AIB1 deficiency only slightly delayed prostate growth and had no effect on androgen-dependent prostate regeneration, suggesting an unessential role of AIB1 in AR function in the prostate.
  • Surprisingly, when prostate tumorigenesis was induced by the SV40 transgene in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice, AIB1 expression was observed in certain epithelial cells of the prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and well-differentiated carcinoma and in almost all cells of the poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • After AIB1 was genetically inactivated in AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice, the progression of prostate tumorigenesis in most AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice was arrested at the well-differentiated carcinoma stage.
  • Wild-type (WT)/TRAMP mice developed progressive, multifocal, and metastatic prostate tumors and died between 25 and 34 weeks.
  • In contrast, AIB1-/-/TRAMP mice only exhibited PIN and early-stage well-differentiated carcinoma by 39 weeks.
  • AIB1-/-/TRAMP prostates showed much lower cell proliferation than WT/TRAMP prostates.
  • Our results indicate that induction of AIB1 expression in partially transformed epithelial cells is essential for progression of prostate tumorigenesis into poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • Inhibition of AIB1 expression or function in the prostate epithelium may be a potential strategy to suppress prostate cancer initiation and progression.

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  • (PMID = 17575167.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK58242; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK058242-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119689-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112403; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112403-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112403-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK058242-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119689-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119689; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112403; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK058242; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119689
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.3.1.48 / Histone Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.48 / Ncoa3 protein, mouse; EC 2.3.1.48 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS50339; NLM/ PMC2898573
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68. Mazzucchelli R, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Scarpelli M, Kirkali Z, Montironi R: Rare and unusual histological variants of prostatic carcinoma: clinical significance. BJU Int; 2008 Nov;102(10):1369-74
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  • [Title] Rare and unusual histological variants of prostatic carcinoma: clinical significance.
  • We review the clinicopathological features of the following unusual histological variants of prostatic carcinoma: small cell carcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma, sarcomatoid (carcinosarcoma), basal cell, squamous cell and adenosquamous, and urothelial carcinoma.
  • These variants are rare and account for 5-10% of carcinomas that originate in the prostate.
  • Only basal cell carcinoma is seen as a low-grade carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18793296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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69. Hameed O, Humphrey PA: Pseudoneoplastic mimics of prostate and bladder carcinomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Mar;134(3):427-43
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  • [Title] Pseudoneoplastic mimics of prostate and bladder carcinomas.
  • CONTEXT: The differential diagnoses of prostatic carcinoma and bladder epithelial neoplasms include several histologic mimics that should be known to avoid misdiagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss pseudoneoplastic lesions of the prostate and bladder that could potentially be confused with prostatic carcinoma and bladder epithelial neoplasms, respectively, with specific focus on their distinguishing histopathologic features.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pseudoneoplastic lesions in the prostate include those of prostatic epithelial origin, the most common being atrophy, adenosis (atypical adenomatous hyperplasia), basal cell hyperplasia, and crowded benign glands, as well as those of nonprostatic origin, such as seminal vesicle epithelium.
  • Such lesions often mimic lower-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma, whereas others, such as clear cell cribriform hyperplasia and granulomatous prostatitis, for example, are in the differential diagnosis of Gleason adenocarcinoma, Gleason grade 4 or 5.
  • Pseudoneoplastic lesions of the urinary bladder include lesions that could potentially be confused with urothelial carcinoma in situ, such as reactive urothelial atypia, and others, such as polypoid/papillary cystitis, where papillary urothelial neoplasms are the main differential diagnostic concern.
  • Several lesions can mimic invasive urothelial carcinoma, including pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia, von Brunn nests, and nephrogenic adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Plasma Cell / diagnosis. Prostatic Diseases / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20196670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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70. D'Anello L, Sansone P, Storci G, Mitrugno V, D'Uva G, Chieco P, Bonafé M: Epigenetic control of the basal-like gene expression profile via Interleukin-6 in breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:300
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  • [Title] Epigenetic control of the basal-like gene expression profile via Interleukin-6 in breast cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal-like carcinoma are aggressive breast cancers that frequently carry p53 inactivating mutations, lack estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and express the cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that IL-6, whose methylation-dependent autocrine loop is triggered by the inactivation of p53, induces an epigenetic reprogramming that drives breast carcinoma cells towards a basal-like/stem cell-like gene expression profile.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / genetics. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD44 / genetics. Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation / drug effects. DNA Methylation / genetics. DNA Methylation / physiology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Estrogen Receptor alpha / genetics. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Glycoproteins / genetics. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Humans. Peptides / genetics. Peptides / metabolism. RNA Interference. RNA, Messenger. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


71. Hameed O, Humphrey PA: Stratified epithelium in prostatic adenocarcinoma: a mimic of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jul;19(7):899-906
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  • Typically glands of prostatic adenocarcinoma have a single cell lining, although stratification can be seen in invasive carcinomas with a cribriform architecture, including ductal carcinoma.
  • In 4 cases, the focus with glands having stratified epithelium was the sole carcinomatous component in the biopsy, while such a component represented 5-30% of the invasive carcinoma seen elsewhere in the remaining cases.
  • The main attribute in all these foci was the presence of glandular profiles lined by several layers of epithelial cells with cytological and architectural features resembling flat or tufted high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, but lacking basal cells as confirmed by negative 34betaE12 and/or p63 immunostains in all cases.
  • Prostatic adenocarcinoma with stratified malignant glandular epithelium can be identified in prostate needle biopsy samples harboring non-cribriform prostatic adenocarcinoma and resembles glands with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Recognition of this pattern of prostatic adenocarcinoma is necessary to correctly diagnose such cases as invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16607376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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72. Pearson HB, Phesse TJ, Clarke AR: K-ras and Wnt signaling synergize to accelerate prostate tumorigenesis in the mouse. Cancer Res; 2009 Jan 01;69(1):94-101
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  • [Title] K-ras and Wnt signaling synergize to accelerate prostate tumorigenesis in the mouse.
  • Aberrant Ras and Wnt signaling are emerging as key events in the multistep nature of prostate tumorigenesis and progression.
  • Here, we report the generation of a compound model of prostate cancer to define the synergism of activated K-ras (K-ras(+/V12)) and dominant stabilized beta-catenin (Catnb(+/lox(ex3))) in the murine prostate.
  • Concomitant with elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, PBCre(+)K-ras(+/V12) mice developed AH at 100 days (100% incidence) and low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma (60% and 7% incidence) by 500 days.
  • These lesions displayed elevated Wnt signaling and basal levels of MAPK signaling.
  • Synchronous activation of K-ras and beta-catenin significantly reduced survival (average 189 days), reflecting accelerated tumorigenesis and the development of invasive carcinoma that displayed activated Wnt and MAPK signaling.
  • Notably, expression of the basal cell marker p63 negatively correlated with tumor grade, resembling human prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Taken together, our data show that combinatorial oncogenic mutations of K-ras and beta-catenin drive rapid progression of prostate tumorigenesis to invasive carcinoma, characterized by the synergistic elevation of androgen receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, and c-Myc.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. ras Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19117991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0301154
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / Myc protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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73. Rafnar T, Sulem P, Stacey SN, Geller F, Gudmundsson J, Sigurdsson A, Jakobsdottir M, Helgadottir H, Thorlacius S, Aben KK, Blöndal T, Thorgeirsson TE, Thorleifsson G, Kristjansson K, Thorisdottir K, Ragnarsson R, Sigurgeirsson B, Skuladottir H, Gudbjartsson T, Isaksson HJ, Einarsson GV, Benediktsdottir KR, Agnarsson BA, Olafsson K, Salvarsdottir A, Bjarnason H, Asgeirsdottir M, Kristinsson KT, Matthiasdottir S, Sveinsdottir SG, Polidoro S, Höiom V, Botella-Estrada R, Hemminki K, Rudnai P, Bishop DT, Campagna M, Kellen E, Zeegers MP, de Verdier P, Ferrer A, Isla D, Vidal MJ, Andres R, Saez B, Juberias P, Banzo J, Navarrete S, Tres A, Kan D, Lindblom A, Gurzau E, Koppova K, de Vegt F, Schalken JA, van der Heijden HF, Smit HJ, Termeer RA, Oosterwijk E, van Hooij O, Nagore E, Porru S, Steineck G, Hansson J, Buntinx F, Catalona WJ, Matullo G, Vineis P, Kiltie AE, Mayordomo JI, Kumar R, Kiemeney LA, Frigge ML, Jonsson T, Saemundsson H, Barkardottir RB, Jonsson E, Jonsson S, Olafsson JH, Gulcher JR, Masson G, Gudbjartsson DF, Kong A, Thorsteinsdottir U, Stefansson K: Sequence variants at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus associate with many cancer types. Nat Genet; 2009 Feb;41(2):221-7
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  • Following up on our genome-wide scan of basal cell carcinoma, we found that rs401681[C] on chromosome 5p15.33 satisfied our threshold for genome-wide significance (OR = 1.25, P = 3.7 x 10(-12)).
  • We tested rs401681 for association with 16 additional cancer types in over 30,000 cancer cases and 45,000 controls and found association with lung cancer (OR = 1.15, P = 7.2 x 10(-8)) and urinary bladder, prostate and cervix cancer (ORs = 1.07-1.31, all P < 4 x 10(-4)).
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Case-Control Studies. Female. Gene Frequency. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genome-Wide Association Study. Humans. Linkage Disequilibrium. Male. Middle Aged. Quantitative Trait Loci. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19151717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-1718
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01-DA017932; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA017932; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A4994; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10589
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLPTM1L protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS389117; NLM/ PMC4525478
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74. Rana S, Sen R, Kalra R, Arora B, Sharma P, Gahlawat S: Immunohistochemical study of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostatic carcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Oct;49(4):495-9
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostatic carcinoma.
  • The present study provides an analysis of immunohistochemical expression and localization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in formalin fixed paraffin embedded specimens of prostate.
  • Thirty-five cases each of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostatic carcinoma and 30 cases of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) were taken up for study.
  • EGFR positivity was observed in all the cases (100%) of BPH and PIN and in only 10 cases (28.5%) of prostatic carcinoma.
  • In both BPH and PIN the basal cells revealed significantly higher intensity and percentage cell positivity than the luminal cells.
  • Intensity and percentage of positively stained basal cells in BPH was higher than PIN basal cells but the difference was not statistically significant.
  • The intensity and percentage cell positivity of BPH basal cells and PIN basal and luminal cells were significantly greater than the epithelial cells of prostatic carcinoma.


75. Yemelyanov A, Gasparian A, Lindholm P, Dang L, Pierce JW, Kisseljov F, Karseladze A, Budunova I: Effects of IKK inhibitor PS1145 on NF-kappaB function, proliferation, apoptosis and invasion activity in prostate carcinoma cells. Oncogene; 2006 Jan 19;25(3):387-98
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  • [Title] Effects of IKK inhibitor PS1145 on NF-kappaB function, proliferation, apoptosis and invasion activity in prostate carcinoma cells.
  • A key antiapoptotic transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB), is known to be critically important for tumor cell growth, angiogenesis and development of metastatic lesions.
  • We and others showed previously that NF-kappaB transcription factor was constitutively activated in androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (PC) cell lines due to the upregulated activity of inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinases (IKK).
  • In this work, using luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Northern blot analysis of expression of endogenous kappaB-responsive genes, we demonstrate that a novel highly specific small-molecule IKK inhibitor, PS1145, efficiently inhibited both basal and induced NF-kappaB activity in PC cells.
  • We also showed that PS1145 inhibited PC cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring / pharmacology. I-kappa B Kinase / antagonists & inhibitors. NF-kappa B / physiology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / prevention & control. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pyridines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Male. Phosphorylation. Rats. Signal Transduction


76. Skogseth H, Larsson E, Halgunset J: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is reduced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. APMIS; 2006 Apr;114(4):307-13
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  • Nevertheless, no change in cell migration was observed when TKI-treated cells were supplied with external uPA, thus indicating more complex mechanisms leading to decreased cell invasion. uPAR expression was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in PC-3 and DU-145 prostate carcinoma cells treated with the two TKI genistein and AG-1478. uPAR mRNA levels were measured with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • uPAR immunocytochemistry was used to examine the receptor distribution in cells grown on a reconstituted basal lamina.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Genistein / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Receptors, Cell Surface / antagonists & inhibitors. Tyrphostins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Male. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Quinazolines. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator

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  • (PMID = 16689831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PLAUR protein, human; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator; 0 / Tyrphostins; 170449-18-0 / tyrphostin AG 1478; DH2M523P0H / Genistein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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77. Nan H, Qureshi AA, Hunter DJ, Han J: Genetic variants in FGFR2 and FGFR4 genes and skin cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study. BMC Cancer; 2009 Jun 06;9:172
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  • METHODS: We evaluated the associations of four genetic variants in the FGFR2 gene highly related to breast cancer risk and the three common tag-SNPs in the FGFR4 gene with skin cancer risk in a nested case-control study of Caucasians within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) among 218 melanoma cases, 285 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 300 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, and 870 controls.

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  • (PMID = 19500394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122838; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132175
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699349
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78. Huang X, Zhu D, Lou Y: A novel anticancer agent, icaritin, induced cell growth inhibition, G1 arrest and mitochondrial transmembrane potential drop in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells. Eur J Pharmacol; 2007 Jun 14;564(1-3):26-36
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  • [Title] A novel anticancer agent, icaritin, induced cell growth inhibition, G1 arrest and mitochondrial transmembrane potential drop in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells.
  • We screened their effects on cell growth in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cell line (estrogen receptor positive) in vitro.
  • PC-3 cell line was used for the measurement of anti-carcinoma activities of 0-100 micromol/l icaritin and 30 micromol/l icariin.
  • Primary cultured rat prostate basal cells used as cell growth selective control.
  • When treated with icaritin for 24 to 72 h, cell growth was strongly inhibited (at 48 h IC(50) was 10.74+/-1.59 micromol/l, P<0.001) companied with a mitochondrial transmembrane potential (_Psim) drop.
  • These findings suggested a novel anticancer efficacy of icaritin mediated selectively via induction of cell cycle arrest but not associated with estrogen receptors in PC-3 cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Flavonoids / pharmacology. G1 Phase / drug effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Cycle Proteins / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Estradiol / pharmacology. Flow Cytometry. G2 Phase / drug effects. Humans. Immunoblotting. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Male. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects


79. Adley BP, Yang XJ: Application of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Feb;28(1):1-13
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  • [Title] Application of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review.
  • Since its discovery, AMACR has gained wide acceptance for use in the diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma in conjunction with morphology and immunohistochemical staining for basal cell markers.
  • Numerous studies have consistently shown high sensitivity and specificity of AMACR for prostate cancer.
  • This review focuses on AMACR expression in prostate cancer and its morphologic variants, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenosis and benign conditions of the prostate.
  • Finally, we emphasize diagnostic pitfalls in the application of AMACR to small, atypical foci of glands seen on prostate needle core biopsy and project future diagnostic as well as clinical applications for the protein.

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  • (PMID = 16566275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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80. Ott C, Huber S: [The clinical significance of cosmic radiation in aviation]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2006 Jan 25;95(4):99-106
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  • Three studies found an increased risk for the development of prostate cancer and two studies were able to demonstrate a higher risk for the appearance of leukaemia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although our review found some studies, that identified higher risks for pilots to develop cancer of the skin, prostate cancer or leukaemia, there is not enough scientific evidence to support the hypothesis, that cosmic radiation is the cause for these findings.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aerospace Medicine. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Confidence Intervals. Humans. Leukemia, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Prospective Studies. Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16485604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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81. Wei W, Barron PD, Rheinwald JG: Modulation of TGF-β-inducible hypermotility by EGF and other factors in human prostate epithelial cells and keratinocytes. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim; 2010 Dec;46(10):841-55
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  • [Title] Modulation of TGF-β-inducible hypermotility by EGF and other factors in human prostate epithelial cells and keratinocytes.
  • The development and tissue architecture of stratified squamous and prostate epithelia are very different, yet the basal cells of both express p63, α6β4 integrin, and Lam332.
  • Keratinocytes and prostate epithelial cells grow well in nutritionally optimized culture media with pituitary extract and certain mitogens.
  • We report that prostate epithelial cells display hypermotility responses indistinguishable from those of keratinocytes.
  • Prostate epithelial cells have a short replicative lifespan, restricted both by p16(INK4A) and telomere-related mechanisms.
  • We immortalized the normal prostate epithelial cell line HPrE-1 by transduction to express bmi1 and TERT.
  • Prostate epithelial cells lose expression of p63, β4 integrin, and Lam332 when they transform to invasive carcinoma.
  • Thus, keratinocytes and prostate epithelial cells possess common hypermotility and senescence mechanisms and immortalized prostate cell lines can be engineered using defined methods to yield cells retaining normal properties.

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  • (PMID = 21042878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-706X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Animal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR042689; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE013178; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30-AR42689; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE 13178
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / kalinin; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS438604; NLM/ PMC3568941
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82. Teglund S, Toftgård R: Hedgehog beyond medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2010 Apr;1805(2):181-208
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hedgehog beyond medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is of central importance during embryo development in metazoans and governs a diverse array of processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue patterning.
  • In normal adult physiology, the pathway is implicated in stem cell maintenance, tissue repair and regeneration.
  • However, the pathway's darker side is its involvement in several types of human cancer, to which it confers growth promoting and/or survival capabilities to the cancer cell to varying degrees, and by different mechanisms.
  • The Hh pathway is firmly linked to the etiology of basal cell carcinoma and to at least a subset of medulloblastoma.
  • There is increasing evidence that other sporadic cancers, including those in pancreas, prostate, lung, and breast, could also be dependent on Hh pathway activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism


83. White SJ, Lu P, Keller GM, Voelkel-Johnson C: Targeting the short form of cFLIP by RNA interference is sufficient to enhance TRAIL sensitivity in PC3 prostate carcinoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Dec;5(12):1618-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeting the short form of cFLIP by RNA interference is sufficient to enhance TRAIL sensitivity in PC3 prostate carcinoma cells.
  • Unfortunately, prostate cancer cells display little if any susceptibility to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
  • Although proteasome inhibitors increased basal levels of short cFLIP isoforms, cFLIPS declined at a similar rate in the absence or presence of proteasome inhibition during doxorubicin treatment.
  • We conclude that doxorubicin-mediated downregulation of cFLIPS, which occurs at the post-transcriptional level independent of proteasome-mediated pathways, is sufficient to enhance TRAIL sensitivity in PC3 prostate carcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Daunorubicin / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. RNA Interference. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / physiology. Transfection

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Prostate Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 17106251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102218
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein; 0 / CFLAR protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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84. Ayyathurai R, Civantos F, Soloway MS, Manoharan M: Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: current concepts. BJU Int; 2007 Jun;99(6):1345-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: current concepts.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology