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1. Jambusaria-Pahlajani A, Schmults CD, Miller CJ, Shin D, Williams J, Kurd SK, Gelfand JM: Test characteristics of high-resolution ultrasound in the preoperative assessment of margins of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatol Surg; 2009 Jan;35(1):9-15; discussion 15-6
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  • [Title] Test characteristics of high-resolution ultrasound in the preoperative assessment of margins of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Noninvasive techniques to assess subclinical spread of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) may improve surgical precision.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of high-resolution ultrasound to assess the margins of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) before Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS).
  • Qualitative analyses showed that high-resolution ultrasound was less likely to identify extension from tumors with subtle areas of extension, such as small foci of dermal invasion from infiltrative SCC and micronodular BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ultrasonography. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19018815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K23 AR051125
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS483270; NLM/ PMC4348076
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2. Elamin I, Zecević RD, Vojvodić D, Medenica L, Pavlović MD: Cytokine concentrations in basal cell carcinomas of different histological types and localization. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2008 Jun;17(2):55-9
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  • [Title] Cytokine concentrations in basal cell carcinomas of different histological types and localization.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant skin tumor.
  • Cytokines as major mediators of the immune system have been shown to play an important role in biology of the neoplasm with the general predomination of Th2 cytokines, whereas IFN-?
  • OBJECTIVE: We were interested in comparing cytokine levels in BCC and cutaneous squamous cell tumors with BCC of different localization and histological subtypes.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Explants from freshly excised BCC from 18 patients, and cutaneous squamous cell tumors (solar keratoses and Bowen's disease) from 9 patients were cultivated for 24 h.
  • RESULTS: Tissue explants of BCC contained significantly higher concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 compared to those of squamous cell tumors.
  • Interleukin-6 concentrations were higher in aggressive BCC variants (infiltrative and micronodular), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.068).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Cytokines / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Female. Humans. Interleukin-4 / analysis. Interleukin-5 / analysis. Male. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18709290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1318-4458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica, et Adriatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovenia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-5; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4
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3. Sebastián Villalón-López J, Arturo Valle-Mejía C, Patiño-Lara A, Moreno-Pérez Bertha A, Alejo Muñoz-López J, Alcantar-Andrade A: Supraestructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: case report and review. J Cancer Res Ther; 2005 Jul-Sep;1(3):132-5

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  • [Title] Supraestructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: case report and review.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent type of skin cancer in humans, with cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as important risk factor for development of the illness as such as severe solar burns during childhood or adolescence.
  • Tumors can be classified as: nodular, superficial, micronodular, morphea variety, infiltrating, pigmented, metatypic and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus.
  • Mohs' micrographic surgery is the standard treatment for all non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Orbital exenteration is also used for treatment of malignancies of ocular tissues, mainly squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma and BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Maxilla / surgery. Orbit Evisceration / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17998643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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4. Blázquez-Sánchez N, de Troya-Martín M, Frieyro-Elicegui M, Fúnez-Liébana R, Martín-Márquez L, Rivas-Ruiz F: [Cost analysis of Mohs micrographic surgery in high-risk facial basal cell carcinoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2010 Sep;101(7):622-8
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  • [Title] [Cost analysis of Mohs micrographic surgery in high-risk facial basal cell carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Análisis de costes de la cirugía micrográfica de Mohs en el carcinoma basocelular facial de alto riesgo.
  • INTRODUCTION: Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is the treatment of choice for high-risk facial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as it offers the greatest chance of cure with maximum preservation of healthy tissue.
  • Histology showed that 64% of the tumors were infiltrative or micronodular carcinomas.
  • The most common surgical reconstruction techniques were direct closure (21%) and closure with a local skin flap or graft (71%); the corresponding estimates for conventional surgery were 2% and 89%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / economics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / economics. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery / economics. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20858388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-2190
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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5. Alessi SS, Sanches JA, Oliveira WR, Messina MC, Pimentel ER, Festa Neto C: Treatment of cutaneous tumors with topical 5% imiquimod cream. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2009;64(10):961-6
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we present our experience in the treatment of 123 cutaneous tumors of various types, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Paget's disease, and trichoepithelioma, with 5% imiquimod cream from 2003 to 2008 in the Cutaneous Oncology Group of the Dermatology Department of Hospital das Clinicas.
  • Patients were divided into two separate groups according to their diagnosis and comorbidities; these comorbidities included epidermodysplasia verruciformis, xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism, basal cell nevus syndrome, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, HIV, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, and kidney transplantation.
  • Having a cutaneous comorbidity, high-risk tumors such as mixed aggressive BCC (sclerodermiform or micronodular), nodular BCC, or Bowen's disease, and presenting no local reaction to imiquimod were considered as risk factors for a worse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Dec;41(6):1002-7 [10570388.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 May;44(5):807-13 [11312429.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2002 May;28(5):427-9 [12030878.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 2002 Sep;138(9):1165-71 [12224977.001]
  • [Cites] J Dermatolog Treat. 2002 Sep;13(3):123-7 [12227875.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Oct;47(4 Suppl):S240-8 [12271286.001]
  • [Cites] J Drugs Dermatol. 2008 May;7(5):447-51 [18505136.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2003 Oct;29(10):1027-34 [12974699.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2003 Dec;29(12):1181-6 [14725659.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004 May;50(5):722-33 [15097956.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2005 May;152(5):939-47 [15888150.001]
  • [Cites] Eur J Dermatol. 2005 Sep-Oct;15(5):374-81 [16172048.001]
  • [Cites] J Drugs Dermatol. 2007 May;6(5):507-13 [17679185.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2002 Dec;147(6):1227-36 [12452875.001]
  • (PMID = 19841702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2763070
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Basal cell carcinoma / Imiquimod / Immunomodulator / Immunotherapy / Non-melanoma skin cancer
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6. Betti R, Menni S, Radaelli G, Bombonato C, Crosti C: Micronodular basal cell carcinoma: a distinct subtype? Relationship with nodular and infiltrative basal cell carcinomas. J Dermatol; 2010 Jul;37(7):611-6
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  • [Title] Micronodular basal cell carcinoma: a distinct subtype? Relationship with nodular and infiltrative basal cell carcinomas.
  • Micronodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) may be more difficult to eradicate and prone to recurrence than nodular subtype.
  • The aim of the study was to compare anatomical and histological characteristics of the basal cell carcinomas subtypes and the relationship of the micronodular BCC with other subtypes.
  • Primary BCCs (n = 3074) were classified as superficial, nodular, micronodular, morpheic/infiltrative.
  • Fifty-one micronodular BCCs were matched randomly with nodular and infiltrative cases, by age, sex, and tumor site.
  • Micronodular, nodular and infiltrative BCC were prevalently located in the head/neck (P < 0.0001), while superficial in the other regions (P < 0.0001).
  • The Clark level was comparable between micronodular and infiltrative BCC, while nodular BCC showed a more superficial level than micronodular (P < 0.001) and infiltrative (P < 0.001) BCC.
  • No nodular BCC had level IV and only 37.3% level III, while 92% of both micronodular and infiltrative BCC were level III or IV.
  • The percentage of level IV was 11.8% and 25.5% in micronodular and infiltrative BCC, respectively.
  • In the mid-face/periauricular region, 95.5% of micronodular and 100% of infiltrative cases of were level III or IV, compared to 50% of nodular BCC (P < 0.001).
  • It can be concluded that micronodular BCC shows intermediate characteristics compared with nodular and infiltrative subtypes but appears to have a specific individuality making it a distinct subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20629826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Villalon-Lopez JS, Valle-Mejia CA, Patino-Lara A, Moreno-Perez BA, Munoz-Lopez JA, Alcantar-Andrade A: Supraestructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: case report and review. J Cancer Res Ther; 2006 Jul-Sep;2(3):140-3

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  • [Title] Supraestructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: case report and review.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent type of skin cancer in humans, with cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation as an important risk factor for development of illness such as severe solar burns during childhood or adolescence.
  • Tumors can be classified as nodular, superficial, micronodular, morphea variety, infiltrating, pigmented, metatypic and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus.
  • Mohs' micrographic surgery is the standard treatment for all nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Orbital exenteration is also used for treatment of malignancies of ocular tissues, mainly squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma and BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Maxilla / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17998694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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8. Handa Y, Kato Y, Ishikawa H, Tomita Y: Giant superficial basal cell carcinoma of the scrotum. Eur J Dermatol; 2005 May-Jun;15(3):186-8
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  • [Title] Giant superficial basal cell carcinoma of the scrotum.
  • The majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) occur on sun-exposed areas.
  • Most of the histopathologic subtypes of giant BCC are micronodular, morpheaform and nodular, but superficial subtype is rare.
  • Because giant BCC is potentially life threatening, early diagnosis and adequate treatment are essential to prevent both recurrence and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Scrotum. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Japan. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Rare Diseases. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15908305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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9. Raasch BA, Buettner PG, Garbe C: Basal cell carcinoma: histological classification and body-site distribution. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Aug;155(2):401-7
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma: histological classification and body-site distribution.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide in white-skinned populations.
  • METHODS: A case series of BCC from a prospective population-based register study collecting information on all excised and histologically confirmed skin cancers in Townsville, north Australia between 1997 and 1999.
  • Incidence rates for 'high risk' BCC were 261.3 for males, 146.5 for females with infiltrative, and 156.7 for males and 100.2 for females with micronodular types.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16882181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Gore SM, Kasper M, Williams T, Regl G, Aberger F, Cerio R, Neill GW, Philpott MP: Neuronal differentiation in basal cell carcinoma: possible relationship to Hedgehog pathway activation? J Pathol; 2009 Sep;219(1):61-8
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  • [Title] Neuronal differentiation in basal cell carcinoma: possible relationship to Hedgehog pathway activation?
  • Although deregulated Hedgehog signalling and elevated Gli transcription factor expression are known to promote the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), little is known about molecular mechanisms driving the development of specific growth pattern subtypes.
  • Moreover, we found that expression of these neuronal differentiation markers showed strong correlation to BCC subtype, with more aggressive infiltrative and morphoeic BCC showing low levels or lack of expression compared to nodular, superficial and micronodular subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Hedgehog Proteins / genetics. Neurons / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers / analysis. Case-Control Studies. Cell Differentiation. Cells, Cultured. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. GAP-43 Protein / genetics. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Neurofilament Proteins / genetics. Neuronal Plasticity. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transduction, Genetic. Tubulin / genetics. Zinc Finger Protein GLI1

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  • (PMID = 19479712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Austria / Austrian Science Fund FWF / / FWF/ P 20652; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / GAP-43 Protein; 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / GLI2 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / Zinc Finger Protein GLI1; 0 / activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein
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11. Madge SN, Khine AA, Thaller VT, Davis G, Malhotra R, McNab A, O'Donnell B, Selva D: Globe-sparing surgery for medial canthal Basal cell carcinoma with anterior orbital invasion. Ophthalmology; 2010 Nov;117(11):2222-8
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  • [Title] Globe-sparing surgery for medial canthal Basal cell carcinoma with anterior orbital invasion.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a case series of patients with anterior orbital invasion by medial canthal basal cell carcinoma (BCC) managed with non-exenterating surgery.
  • Histologic evidence of orbital invasion was present in every patient, the subtypes being infiltrative (9/20, 45%), nodular (4/20, 20%), micronodular (2/20, 10%), multifocal (1/20, 5%), and mixed (4/20, 20%); extratumoral perineural invasion was present in 1 patient (5%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Orbit / surgery. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20570356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Paavilainen V, Aaltonen M, Tuominen J, Saari KM: Histological characteristics of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid. Ophthalmic Res; 2007;39(1):45-8

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  • [Title] Histological characteristics of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the eyelid and to determine their effect on the size, depth of invasion and need of retreatment of a nonselected patient material seen in south-western Finland.
  • The most frequent histological subtype was nodular (84.5%) followed by sclerosing (5.8%), micronodular (4.9%), keratotic (2.9%) and superficial (1.9%) types of BCC of the eyelid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 17164577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-3747
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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13. Marasà L, Marasà S, Sciancalepore G: Collagen IV, laminin, fibronectin, vitronectin. Comparative study in basal cell carcinoma. Correlation between basement membrane molecules expression and invasive potential. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Jun;143(3):169-73
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  • [Title] Collagen IV, laminin, fibronectin, vitronectin. Comparative study in basal cell carcinoma. Correlation between basement membrane molecules expression and invasive potential.
  • AIM: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a malignant carcinoma arising by cells of epidermal basal layer and adnexal epithelium.
  • METHODS: Particularly formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cases of BCC, 20 recurring and 20 not recurring, had been studied, with immunohistochemical techniques to value the distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic components of basal membrane.
  • The same antigens exhibited discontinuous positivity in cells with non distinguished borders, seating around nests of 85% micronodular recurring BCC.
  • CONCLUSION: A correlation between basal membrane's break and carcinoma's recurrence has been noticed.
  • This shows the utility of other prognostic factors helping the valuation of malignant progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Basement Membrane / chemistry. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Collagen Type IV / analysis. Fibronectins / analysis. Laminin / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vitronectin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18833058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type IV; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Vitronectin
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14. Olmedo JM, Warschaw KE, Schmitt JM, Swanson DL: Optical coherence tomography for the characterization of basal cell carcinoma in vivo: a pilot study. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Sep;55(3):408-12
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  • [Title] Optical coherence tomography for the characterization of basal cell carcinoma in vivo: a pilot study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to define and characterize basal cell carcinoma by using optical coherence tomography.
  • METHODS: Twenty-three patients with 49 lesions clinically suggestive of superficial basal cell carcinoma were recruited.
  • RESULTS: Basal cell carcinoma was identified in 27 patients; all 27 had optical coherence tomographic images for comparison.
  • Of the remainder, 20 sites matched the histologic features seen on light microscopy, with excellent correlation between optical coherence tomographic images and histopathologic features of superficial, nodular, micronodular and infiltrative basal cell carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Optical coherence tomography technology has potential for the diagnosis and histopathologic characterization of basal cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, Optical Coherence

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  • (PMID = 16908344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Misago N, Mori T, Narisawa Y: Nestin expression in stromal cells of trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Nov;24(11):1354-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nestin expression in stromal cells of trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Both trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are considered to be a benign and malignant neoplasm of follicular germinative cells respectively.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was performed with antibody against nestin for 15 trichoblastomas including large/small nodular, retiform and trichoepithelioma types, while adding the superficial type associated with nevus sebaceous and for 20 BCCs including superficial, nodular, nodulo-infiltrative, and infiltrative/micronodular types.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Stromal Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20337823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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16. Blázquez-Sánchez N, de Troya-Martín M, Frieyro-Elicegui M, Fúnez-Liébana R, Martín-Márquez L, Rivas-Ruiz F: Cost Analysis of Mohs Micrographic Surgery in High-Risk Facial Basal Cell Carcinoma. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2010 Sep;101(7):622-628

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cost Analysis of Mohs Micrographic Surgery in High-Risk Facial Basal Cell Carcinoma.
  • [Transliterated title] Análisis de costes de la cirugía micrográfica de Mohs en el carcinoma basocelular facial de alto riesgo.
  • INTRODUCTION: Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is the treatment of choice for high-risk facial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as it offers the greatest chance of cure with maximum preservation of healthy tissue.
  • Histology showed that 64% of the tumors were infiltrative or micronodular carcinomas.
  • The most common surgical reconstruction techniques were direct closure (21%) and closure with a local skin flap or graft (71%); the corresponding estimates for conventional surgery were 2% and 89%, respectively.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 28709544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-2190
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliograficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Análisis de costes / Cirugía micrográfica / Cost analysis / Cost-effectiveness / Coste/beneficio / Micrographic surgery / Mohs
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17. Filho LL, de Oliveira de Avelar Alchorne A, Pereira GC, Lopes LR, de Carvalho TC: Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of basal cell carcinoma following curettage and electrodessication. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Jun;47(6):610-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of basal cell carcinoma following curettage and electrodessication.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • METHODS: 20 primary BCC outpatients were studied at the Dermatology Service of Getúlio Vargas Hospital in the city of Teresina--State of Piauí--Brazil, with lesions of up to 1 cm in diameter on the face, and up to 1.5 cm elsewhere, and with no clinical signs of sclerosing and micronodular forms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The persistence of tumoral residues after 2 curettage and electrofulguration cycles for basal cell carcinoma was found in 5 sites treated (25%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Curettage. Electrosurgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18477158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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18. Kaur P, Mulvaney M, Carlson JA: Basal cell carcinoma progression correlates with host immune response and stromal alterations: a histologic analysis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):293-307

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma progression correlates with host immune response and stromal alterations: a histologic analysis.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can be subclassified into low- and high-risk types for local recurrence.
  • Nodular (84%) was the most common pattern identified followed by superficial (77%), infiltrative (27%), morpheic (5%) and micronodular patterns (4%).
  • Micronodular and infiltrative-morpheic patterns were not identified together in mixed patterned BCCs, and these high-risk types were contiguous with nodular BCC.
  • Superficial predominant BCC (major growth pattern) was significantly associated with trunk and extremity location (76%) and skin without solar elastosis (82%), whereas BCC harboring a nodular growth pattern component was significantly associated with a head and neck location (63%) and the presence of adjacent solar elastosis (all P< or =0.03).
  • Significant correlations were identified for BCC subtypes with inflammatory and stromal alterations: superficial BCC with old regression and moderate to dense peritumoral lymphocytic infiltrates; high-risk types correlated with active regression; infiltrative and morpheic BCC with fibrosing tumor stroma; and micronodular BCC with loss of both host inflammatory and stromal tumor responses.
  • Evaluating the theoretical histologic stepwise model of BCC progression (superficial-to-nodular-to-micronodular, or superficial-to-nodular-to-infiltrative-to-morpheic BCC types) revealed significant linear correlations with host response and alterations of tumor stroma (r=0.54, P=0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Stromal Cells / immunology. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Shape. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Inflammation / immunology. Inflammation / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16871032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. McCutcheon B, White K, Kotwall C, Germolic D, Rebolloso Y, Hamann MS, Stiles A: A preliminary study of imiquimod treatment in variants of basal cell carcinoma. Am Surg; 2005 Aug;71(8):662-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A preliminary study of imiquimod treatment in variants of basal cell carcinoma.
  • Imiquimod is a topical immune response modifier that has proved efficacious in the treatment of the superficial variant of basal cell carcinoma.
  • The nodular variant of basal cell carcinoma has shown moderate response to imiquimod; other variants have not been tested.
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytokine response of imiquimod in all variants of basal cell carcinoma.
  • Ten patients were selected who had clinically and histologically proven basal cell carcinoma.
  • Nine of 10 lesions resolved clinically, which included nodular, superficial, infiltrative, adenoid, and micronodular variants.
  • We concluded that topical 5 per cent imiquimod is an effective treatment of various subtypes of basal cell carcinoma.
  • Larger studies are needed to prove the efficacy of imiquimod on nonsuperficial variants of basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Biopsy. Humans. Pilot Projects. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16217949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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20. Wu JK, Oh C, Strutton G, Siller G: An open-label, pilot study examining the efficacy of curettage followed by imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of primary nodular basal cell carcinoma. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 Feb;47(1):46-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An open-label, pilot study examining the efficacy of curettage followed by imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of primary nodular basal cell carcinoma.
  • SUMMARY The short-term efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of primary superficial basal cell carcinoma has been established.
  • This study investigated its efficacy following curettage (without electrodesiccation) for the treatment of primary nodular basal cell carcinoma on the trunk and limbs.
  • Curettage was used to de-bulk the lesion and confirm suitable histology.
  • Lesions displaying more aggressive subtypes (such as micronodular or morpheoic components) were excluded.
  • Three months post treatment all lesions were excised, and 32 of 34 treated lesions (94%) were histologically clear of basal cell carcinoma.
  • Curettage followed by imiquimod 5% cream is effective for the treatment of primary nodular basal cell carcinoma on the trunk and limbs, and most patients are pleased with the cosmetic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Curettage / methods. Emollients / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pilot Projects. Risk Assessment. Single-Blind Method. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16405483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Emollients; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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21. Patel YG, Nehal KS, Aranda I, Li Y, Halpern AC, Rajadhyaksha M: Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions. J Biomed Opt; 2007 May-Jun;12(3):034027
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Confocal reflectance mosaicing of basal cell carcinomas in Mohs surgical skin excisions.
  • Precise removal of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) with minimal damage to the surrounding normal skin is guided by the examination of frozen histology of each excision during Mohs surgery.
  • Comparison of mosaics to histology shows that nodular, micronodular, and superficial BCCs are easily detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Mohs Surgery / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 17614735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-3668
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01EB002715
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Hatton MP: Eyelid basal cell carcinoma developing in an epidermoid cyst: a previously unreported event. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Nov-Dec;26(6):491-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Eyelid basal cell carcinoma developing in an epidermoid cyst: a previously unreported event.
  • A 72-year-old woman presented with a 3 × 2 × 1-mm right lower eyelid micronodular, whitish solid lesion at the nasal eyelid margin that had caused madarosis.
  • Local excision led to the microscopic discovery of 2 epidermoid cysts, one of which harbored a basal cell carcinoma arising from its orthokeratinizing squamous cell lining.
  • BER-EP4-positive immunostaining confirmed the basal cell nature of the neoplasm.
  • This is the first example in the eyelid of an epidermoid cyst displaying malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Eyelid Diseases / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20736874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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23. Betti R, Radaelli G, Bombonato C, Crosti C, Cerri A, Menni S: Anatomic location of Basal cell carcinomas may favor certain histologic subtypes. J Cutan Med Surg; 2010 Nov-Dec;14(6):298-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anatomic location of Basal cell carcinomas may favor certain histologic subtypes.
  • BACKGROUND: Differences in age, site, and subtype exist in basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • Subtype was classified as superficial, nodular, micronodular, morpheic-infiltrative, or fibroepithelial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21084023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Shah SM, Konnikov N, Duncan LM, Tannous ZS: The effect of 595 nm pulsed dye laser on superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas. Lasers Surg Med; 2009 Aug;41(6):417-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of 595 nm pulsed dye laser on superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have supporting vasculature that could serve as a target for 595 nm pulsed dye laser (PDL).
  • The tumor and 4 mm of peripheral skin were treated using a set of previously optimized laser parameters: one pass, 15 J/cm2 energy, 3 ms pulse length, no cooling, and 7 mm spot size with 10% overlap.
  • Tumor histologic types among the complete responders included superficial, nodular, micronodular, and keratinizing.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / radiotherapy. Lasers, Dye / therapeutic use. Low-Level Light Therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cohort Studies. Humans. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm, Residual. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden


25. Cohen PR, Schulze KE, Nelson BR: Cutaneous carcinoma with mixed histology: a potential etiology for skin cancer recurrence and an indication for Mohs microscopically controlled surgical excision. South Med J; 2005 Jul;98(7):740-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous carcinoma with mixed histology: a potential etiology for skin cancer recurrence and an indication for Mohs microscopically controlled surgical excision.
  • Cutaneous carcinomas with mixed histology describe nonmelanoma skin cancers which have more than one histologic subtype.
  • These include basal cell carcinomas with concurrent aggressive growth patterns (such as sclerosing, infiltrating, micronodular, keratinizing, and tumors with perineural involvement) and nonaggressive growth patterns (such as superficial, nodular, and follicular) and squamous cell carcinomas with concurrent poorly differentiated and well-differentiated components.
  • One mechanism of recurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancer may very well result from the inadequate initial treatment of cutaneous tumors with mixed histology.
  • We describe two patients whose skin cancers had more than one histologic subtype to demonstrate the histologic features of cutaneous malignancies with more than one pathologic pattern and to emphasize how inaccurate a single diagnostic biopsy can be.
  • We also suggest that clinicians consider Mohs surgical excision of nonmelanoma skin cancers since this technique incorporates microscopically controlled removal of the tumor with complete pathologic evaluation of all surgical margins for any residual cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] South Med J. 2005 Jul;98(7):680 [16108234.001]
  • (PMID = 16108247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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26. Fletcher KC Jr, Shonka DC Jr, Russell MA, Park SS: Defects of the nasal internal lining: etiology and repair. Arch Facial Plast Surg; 2005 May-Jun;7(3):189-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze risk factors leading to full-thickness (FT) defects, to review methods of repair, and to present guidelines for management of aggressive basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of the nose.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Internal lining defects are more likely to occur from aggressive histologic subtypes of BCC (infiltrative, morpheaform, and micronodular) than nonaggressive subtypes (P < .05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Nasal Mucosa / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Esthetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Nasal Cavity / physiopathology. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome. Wound Healing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15897409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of facial plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Facial Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Dixon A: Micronodular basal cell carcinomas. Aust Fam Physician; 2006 Dec;35(12):965-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Micronodular basal cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17149470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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