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Items 1 to 94 of about 94
1. Kurokawa I, Senba Y, Nishimura K, Habe K, Hakamada A, Isoda K, Yamanaka K, Mizutani H, Tsubura A: Cytokeratin expression in trichilemmal carcinoma suggests differentiation towards follicular infundibulum. In Vivo; 2006 Sep-Oct;20(5):583-5
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin expression in trichilemmal carcinoma suggests differentiation towards follicular infundibulum.
  • An immunohistochemical study of cytokeratins (CK) in a case of trichilemmal carcinoma (TLC).
  • CK expression showed the presence of CK 1, 10, 14 and 17, suggesting that TLC differentiates toward follicular infundibulum.
  • Trichilemmal carcinoma (TLC) is a rare cutaneous tumor, and is considered as a malignant counterpart of trichilemmoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17091763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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2. Hellani A, Baghdadi H, Dabbour N, Almassri N, Abu-Amero KK: A novel PTCH1 germline mutation distinguishes basal cell carcinoma from basaloid follicular hamartoma: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:52

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  • [Title] A novel PTCH1 germline mutation distinguishes basal cell carcinoma from basaloid follicular hamartoma: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws and developmental defects.
  • The disorder results from mutations in the PTCH1 gene.
  • Examination of the jaw cysts revealed many keratinizing cysts without granular cell layers a finding that raised the suspicion of nevoid basal cell carcinoma.
  • Histopathological examination showed basaloid proliferation in the upper dermis with follicular differentiation surrounded by a loose mucinous stroma and retraction artifacts.
  • These features make it difficult to differentiate between nevoid basal cell carcinoma and basaloid follicular hamartoma, especially the presence of these findings on a non-hairy area.
  • BCL-2 staining was positive in the periphery of the basaloid proliferation, which is typical of basaloid follicular hamartoma, and not in a diffuse pattern, which is typical of nevoid basal cell carcinoma.
  • Since histology was equivocal and palmoplantar pits are seen in both basaloid follicular hamartoma and nevoid basal cell carcinoma, molecular genetic investigation was necessary to differentiate between the two potential diagnoses.
  • CONCLUSION: Screening the PTCH1 gene for mutations helped to differentiate between basaloid follicular hamartoma and nevoid basal cell carcinoma and confirmed the diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19203369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2642855
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3. Fernandez-Flores A: Advanced differentiation in trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma investigated by immunohistochemistry against neurofilaments. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2009;47(1):61-4
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  • [Title] Advanced differentiation in trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma investigated by immunohistochemistry against neurofilaments.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and trichoepithelioma (TE) are sometimes diagnostic challenges for the pathologist in terms of their differential diagnosis.
  • Moreover, some consider that TE is a better differentiated follicular tumour, while BCC represents a less developed stage in differentiation.
  • For instance, the latter opinion is supported by the evidence of follicular papillae in TE.The formation of a perifollicular nerve plexus happens later than the formation of the follicular papillae in the development of a normal follicle.

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  • (PMID = 19419939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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4. Mancuso M, Leonardi S, Tanori M, Pasquali E, Pierdomenico M, Rebessi S, Di Majo V, Covelli V, Pazzaglia S, Saran A: Hair cycle-dependent basal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis in Ptc1neo67/+ mice exposed to radiation. Cancer Res; 2006 Jul 1;66(13):6606-14
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  • [Title] Hair cycle-dependent basal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis in Ptc1neo67/+ mice exposed to radiation.
  • We examined the effects of hair cycle phase on basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tumorigenesis induced by radiation in mice lacking one Patched allele (Ptc1(neo67/+)).
  • Our results show that Ptc1(neo67/+) mouse skin irradiated in early anagen is highly susceptible to tumor induction, as a 3.2-fold incidence of visible BCC-like tumors was observed in anagen-irradiated compared with telogen-irradiated mice.
  • In fact, in addition to typical BCC-like tumors, we observed development of a distinct basal cell tumor subtype characterized by anti-cytokeratin 14 and anti-smooth muscle actin reactivity.
  • Examination of anatomic and immunohistochemical relationships revealed a close relation of these tumors with the follicular outer root sheath of anagen skin.
  • In contrast, there are strong indications for the derivation of typical, smooth muscle actin-negative BCC-like tumors from cell progenitors of interfollicular epidermis.
  • These results underscore the role of follicular bulge stem cells and their progeny with high self-renewal capacity in the formation of basal cell tumors and contribute to clarify the relationship between target cell and tumor phenotype in BCC tumorigenesis induced by radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Hair Follicle / radiation effects. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Allelic Imbalance. Animals. Cell Lineage. Female. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Mice. Skin / radiation effects. Stem Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16818633.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gli protein, mouse; 0 / Gli2 protein; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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5. Jung YH, Kang MS: Composite follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of thyroid gland: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Nov;25(11):1683-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Composite follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of thyroid gland: a case report.
  • Pathologically, the tumor had two distinct tumor components with intermingled areas: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma composed of columnar cells, mucocytes, and squamoid cells showing solid and cystic lesion.
  • Several small cysts lined by benign ciliated columnar epithelia suggesting that this tumor had originated from solid cell nest were seen around the tumor.
  • By immunohistochemistry, columnar cells and squamoid cells in mucoepidermoid carcinoma were positive for cytokeratin but negative for thyroglobulin, TTF-1 and calcitonin.
  • Positivity of p63 was seen in squamoid cells and basal cells of cysts.
  • Tumor cells of papillary carcinoma are positive for TTF-1, thyroglobulin but negative for CEA, calcitonin and p63.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21060764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967012
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / Carcinoma, Papillary / Solid Cell Nests / Thyroid Gland
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6. Tanese K, Fukuma M, Yamada T, Mori T, Yoshikawa T, Watanabe W, Ishiko A, Amagai M, Nishikawa T, Sakamoto M: G-protein-coupled receptor GPR49 is up-regulated in basal cell carcinoma and promotes cell proliferation and tumor formation. Am J Pathol; 2008 Sep;173(3):835-43
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  • [Title] G-protein-coupled receptor GPR49 is up-regulated in basal cell carcinoma and promotes cell proliferation and tumor formation.
  • The significance of Hedgehog (HH) signaling in the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been established.
  • Although several target genes of HH signaling have been described previously, their precise role in tumorigenesis and cell proliferation is not yet known.
  • GPR49 is a novel gene reported to be a marker of follicular and other tissue stem cells.
  • Moreover, knockdown of mouse Gpr49 showed suppression of cell proliferation in a mouse BCC cell line, and overexpression of GPR49 in human immortalized keratinocyte HaCaT cells induced proliferation.
  • In addition, inhibition of the HH signaling pathway in a mouse BCC cell line down-regulated endogenous Gpr49, whereas activation of HH signaling in mouse NIH3T3 cells up-regulated endogenous GPR49.
  • These results suggest that GPR49 is expressed downstream of HH signaling and promotes cell proliferation and tumor formation in cases of BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18688030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / LGR5 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2527081
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7. Go JW, Oh HE, Cho HK, Kang WH, Ro BI: A case of basaloid follicular hamartoma. Ann Dermatol; 2010 May;22(2):229-31

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  • [Title] A case of basaloid follicular hamartoma.
  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH), uncommon rare benign neoplasm connected to the adnexal structures, presents with multiple clinical manifestations that can develop into basal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20548923.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883435
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Basaloid follicular hamartoma
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8. Córdoba A, Guerrero D, Larrinaga B, Iglesias ME, Arrechea MA, Yanguas JI: Bcl-2 and CD10 expression in the differential diagnosis of trichoblastoma, basal cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma with follicular differentiation. Int J Dermatol; 2009 Jul;48(7):713-7
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  • [Title] Bcl-2 and CD10 expression in the differential diagnosis of trichoblastoma, basal cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma with follicular differentiation.
  • BACKGROUND: Both trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin are characterized morphologically by the proliferation of basaloid cells; however, BCCs are clinically associated with a more aggressive behavior.
  • An accurate diagnosis of these lesions is essential for effective, timely treatment and appropriate therapeutic decisions.
  • RESULTS: Bcl-2 is useful for the detection of BCC with diffuse expression in nests of basaloid cells, but cannot distinguish between BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoblastoma, as both lesions show the same pattern with positive and negative areas.
  • If both stromal and epithelial areas are stained, these cases are classified as BCC with follicular differentiation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD10 is useful for distinguishing between BCC with widespread follicular differentiation and trichoblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neprilysin / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cell Division. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 19570076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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9. Abenoza P, Kowalczyk J, Nousari CH: Basal cell carcinoma-associated paratumoral follicular and epidermal hyperplasia. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):348-51
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Conditions.

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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma-associated paratumoral follicular and epidermal hyperplasia.
  • Reactive epithelial hyperplasia is a well-known phenomenon which occurs adjacent to certain neoplasms such as cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma, granular cell tumor, Spitz nevus, and melanoma.
  • We report 46 cases of paratumoral follicular and epidermal hyperplasia associated with basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • It may resemble other tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma and may appear in sections where BCC is absent.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2011 Feb;33(1):107 [21239900.001]
  • (PMID = 20145534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Weyers W, Hörster S, Diaz-Cascajo C: Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):634-41
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

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  • [Title] Tumor of follicular infundibulum is Basal cell carcinoma.
  • Tumor of follicular infundibulum (TFI) is currently thought to be a benign epithelial neoplasm with follicular differentiation.
  • It is encountered commonly in association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), often as an incidental finding.
  • We reexamined 24 cases of TFI and noted, often only focally, many changes typical of BCC, including palisading of cells at the periphery of aggregations, germinative cells, follicular germs in the absence of a follicular papilla, crowding of cells, individual necrotic neoplastic cells, fibromucinous stroma, and clefts between aggregations of neoplastic cells and stroma.
  • Those findings prompted us to conclude that TFI may be one of many manifestations of BCC rather than a differential diagnosis of it.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19652582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Tuttle MS, Rosenberg AS, Winfield HL, Somach SC: Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia with follicular differentiation overlying basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Aug;31(6):557-60
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

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  • [Title] Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia with follicular differentiation overlying basal cell carcinoma.
  • We present a series of 25 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with overlying cytologically bland epidermal hyperplasia and cyst formation.
  • In the majority of cases, Ki-67 expression was prominent throughout the BCCs, but only expressed in the basal and suprabasal layers of the adjacent hyperplastic epithelium, which was equivalent to normal epidermis.
  • The morphologic characteristics and immunohistochemical staining patterns in these tumors suggest that the epidermal hyperplasia represents pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia with follicular differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Differentiation. Cysts / metabolism. Cysts / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2011 Feb;33(1):107 [21239900.001]
  • (PMID = 19590419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Mills O, Thomas LB: Basaloid follicular hamartoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Aug;134(8):1215-9
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  • [Title] Basaloid follicular hamartoma.
  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma is a benign lesion of important consideration because it can be mistaken both clinically and histologically for basal cell carcinoma.
  • The formation of basaloid follicular hamartoma has been linked to a mutation in the patched gene, which is part of the same pathway implicated in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
  • While these hamartomas are considered benign lesions, malignant growths have been reported to arise within them, which raises the question, "Is basaloid follicular hamartoma a premalignant lesion?
  • " Correct identification allows for periodic monitoring for malignant transformation, while sparing patients unnecessary surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Hair Follicle / pathology. Hamartoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Mutation. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20670146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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13. Yébenes M, Toll A, Vélez M, Barranco C, Alonso-López NA, Gonzalez-Sarmiento R, Bellosillo B, Pujol RM: Linear unilateral hamartomatous basal cell naevus with glandular and follicular differentiation. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2008 Jul;33(4):429-32
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  • [Title] Linear unilateral hamartomatous basal cell naevus with glandular and follicular differentiation.
  • Mosaicisms are characterized by genetic or functional differences between > or = 2 cell lines in one person, derived from a single zygote.
  • Of the various clinical patterns of cutaneous mosaicism, linear lesions following Blaschko's lines are probably the most commonly encountered, Several cases of multiple basal cell carcinomas or basaloid hamartomatous lesions distributed in a segmentary distribution and following Blaschko's lines have been described.
  • The various terms of 'linear unilateral basal cell naevus with comedones', 'linear unilateral basaloid follicular hamartoma', 'linear unilateral basal cell naevus', and 'basal-cell and linear unilateral adnexal hamartoma' have been used to define this apparently heterogeneous group of disorders.
  • We report a 66-year-old woman with a linear unilateral lesion that appeared during puberty and that histologically showed an adnexal hamartomatous lesion with multiple superficial and nodular basal cell carcinomas.
  • Focal areas of glandular and follicular differentiation were also noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Mosaicism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18312461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Shumaker PR, Lane K, Harford R: Linear unilateral basal cell nevus: a benign follicular hamartoma simulating multiple basal cell carcinomas. Cutis; 2006 Aug;78(2):122-4
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  • [Title] Linear unilateral basal cell nevus: a benign follicular hamartoma simulating multiple basal cell carcinomas.
  • We report a case of linear unilateral basal cell nevus (LBCN) occurring on the left lateral neck and left posterior shoulder of a 23-year-old woman.
  • LBCN is a rare benign follicular hamartoma that must be distinguished from the more aggressive unilateral and segmental variant of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) and the linear variant of BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16983901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Krahl D, Sellheyer K: Basal cell carcinoma and pilomatrixoma mirror human follicular embryogenesis as reflected by their differential expression patterns of SOX9 and β-catenin. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1294-301
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma and pilomatrixoma mirror human follicular embryogenesis as reflected by their differential expression patterns of SOX9 and β-catenin.
  • BACKGROUND: The current classification schemes of adnexal tumours are predominantly based on morphological and immunophenotypical similarities to adult skin structures, whereas a link between the embryology of the skin and the histogenesis of adnexal tumours has been largely neglected.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the expression patterns of two proteins with proven relevance for hair follicle homeostasis (SOX9 and β-catenin) during human cutaneous embryogenesis and to compare the findings with their expression in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and pilomatrixoma.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical evaluation with monoclonal antibodies against SOX9 and β-catenin was carried out in embryonic and adult human scalp skin, and BCC and pilomatrixoma samples.
  • RESULTS: We found that the expression patterns of SOX9 and β-catenin during human hair follicle embryogenesis mirror the patterns in BCC and pilomatrixoma in spatial distribution within the various follicular subcompartments.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Pilomatrixoma / metabolism. SOX9 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Skin / embryology. Skin / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20105172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SOX9 Transcription Factor; 0 / SOX9 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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16. Sellheyer K, Krahl D: Basal cell (trichoblastic) carcinoma common expression pattern for epithelial cell adhesion molecule links basal cell carcinoma to early follicular embryogenesis, secondary hair germ, and outer root sheath of the vellus hair follicle: A clue to the adnexal nature of basal cell carcinoma? J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Jan;58(1):158-67
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  • [Title] Basal cell (trichoblastic) carcinoma common expression pattern for epithelial cell adhesion molecule links basal cell carcinoma to early follicular embryogenesis, secondary hair germ, and outer root sheath of the vellus hair follicle: A clue to the adnexal nature of basal cell carcinoma?
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is still viewed by many dermatologists as a tumor of the interfollicular epidermis, although references were made early in the dermatopathologic literature to the resemblance of BCC to the hair follicle.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize the common expression pattern for the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM) in BCCs, various stages of follicular embryogenesis, and adult hair follicles and, thereby, in analogy point to the similarity between BCC and the hair follicle.
  • CONCLUSION: BCC expresses the cell-cell adhesion molecule Ep-CAM similar to the embryonic hair germ, the secondary hair germ of the terminal hair follicle, and the outer root sheath of the vellus hair follicle.
  • We suggest that this may be a clue to the adnexal nature of BCC and propose that BCC is the most primitive follicular tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Hair Follicle / embryology. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18158927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / tumor-associated antigen GA733
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17. Oseroff AR, Shieh S, Frawley NP, Cheney R, Blumenson LE, Pivnick EK, Bellnier DA: Treatment of diffuse basal cell carcinomas and basaloid follicular hamartomas in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome by wide-area 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. Arch Dermatol; 2005 Jan;141(1):60-7
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  • [Title] Treatment of diffuse basal cell carcinomas and basaloid follicular hamartomas in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome by wide-area 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the use of wide-area 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy to treat numerous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFHs).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / drug therapy. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15655143.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA55791
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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18. Lee PL, Lourduraj LT, Palko MJ 3rd, Jukic DM, English JC 3rd: Hereditary basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome. Cutis; 2006 Jul;78(1):42-6
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  • [Title] Hereditary basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.
  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome (BFHS) is a rare adnexal tumor genodermatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Syndrome

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  • [CommentIn] Cutis. 2007 Feb;79(2):154; author reply 155-6 [17388219.001]
  • (PMID = 16903320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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19. Leyngold M, Leyngold I, Letourneau PR, Zamboni WA, Shah H: Basal cell carcinoma and rhinophyma. Ann Plast Surg; 2008 Oct;61(4):410-2
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma and rhinophyma.
  • Rhinophyma, the end stage in the development of acne rosacea, is characterized by sebaceous hyperplasia, fibrosis, follicular plugging, and telangiectasia.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a rare finding in patients with rhinophyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Nose Deformities, Acquired / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Precancerous Conditions / surgery. Rhinophyma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Nose / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18812712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3708
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Slodkowska EA, Cribier B, Peltre B, Jones DM, Carlson JA: Calcifications associated with basal cell carcinoma: prevalence, characteristics, and correlations. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Aug;32(6):557-64
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  • [Title] Calcifications associated with basal cell carcinoma: prevalence, characteristics, and correlations.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoma-associated calcifications (Ca(2+)) are a common phenomenon.
  • In the skin, basal cell carcinomas (BCC) can be associated with Ca(2+).
  • In 9 cases (11%), type 2 and type 4 Ca(2+) were linearly arranged, ostensibly after a follicular or eccrine duct tract.
  • Like other follicular-derived tumors (trichilemmal cyst, pilomatricoma, and trichoepithelioma), BCC produce keratins that are ostensibly predisposed to calcification but are not related to matrical differentiation (mature hair keratin formation).
  • Either due to transtumor elimination or due to tumor regression, Ca(2+) are frequently found free in solar elastotic or fibrotic dermis: a histologic clue in sun-damaged skin to the presence of BCC in the surrounding dermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20489568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium Compounds
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21. Alessi E, Venegoni L, Fanoni D, Berti E: Cytokeratin profile in basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Jun;30(3):249-55
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin profile in basal cell carcinoma.
  • Origin of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is still unclear.
  • We studied the cytokeratin (CK) profile in BCC using monoclonal antibodies against 12 CKs to further investigate the suggested origin of the tumor from follicular matrix cells or from follicular outer root sheath cells and to determine if BCC subtypes can be identified on the basis of their CK profiles.
  • Cases of pilomatricoma and samples of fetal skin served as controls to establish the CK profile in matrical cells and developing follicles during intrauterine life, that of the epidermis and cutaneous adnexa in adult life having been determined in a previous study.
  • The study suggests a tumorous differentiation toward follicular outer root sheath cells and, in most cases, also toward the glandular components of the pilosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Fetus. Gestational Age. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / metabolism. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin / chemistry. Skin / embryology

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  • (PMID = 18496426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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22. Lam EW, Lee L, Perschbacher SE, Pharoah MJ: The occurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Dentomaxillofac Radiol; 2009 Oct;38(7):475-9
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  • [Title] The occurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study reviews the occurrence of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KOTs) in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients seen in the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Special Procedures Clinic in the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Toronto.
  • The majority of these were associated with a change in either the size or shape of the follicular space, and both plain film radiography and CT were equally effective at demonstrating these changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Odontogenic Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19767519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Dento maxillo facial radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dentomaxillofac Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. Sobota A, Pena M, Santi M, Ali Ahmed A: Undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):303-6
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  • [Title] Undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
  • Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder characterized by developmental anomalies and occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas and other tumors in early childhood.
  • In this article, the authors report a case of a 19-year-old African American male with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and a history of medulloblastoma at age 2, meningioma at age 14, thyroid follicular adenomas with papillary carcinoma at age 15, and 2 basal cell carcinomas at ages 16 and 18.
  • Recently, he developed sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC).
  • The radiology and pathology of the sinonasal carcinoma are presented in this report.
  • Review of the literature reveals that this is the first case of SNUC occurring in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / complications. Carcinoma / etiology. Nose Neoplasms / etiology


24. Donovan J: Review of the hair follicle origin hypothesis for basal cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg; 2009 Sep;35(9):1311-23
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  • [Title] Review of the hair follicle origin hypothesis for basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer treated by the dermatologic surgeon.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review evidence of a follicular derivation of BCC and to highlight emerging therapeutic strategies to block deregulated patched signaling in BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell. Hair Follicle. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms. Veratrum Alkaloids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19496793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; ZH658AJ192 / cyclopamine
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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25. Pincus LB, McCalmont TH, Neuhaus IM, Kasper R, Oh DH: Basal cell carcinomas arising within multiple trichoepitheliomas. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Oct;35 Suppl 1:59-64
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinomas arising within multiple trichoepitheliomas.
  • Although trichoepitheliomas (TEs) are commonly regarded as benign tumors of follicular origin, the natural history of multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT) and their risk for malignancy has been unclear.
  • We describe a 57-year-old male with numerous skin-colored firm papules and plaques present on the central face since 6 years of age.
  • Biopsies from multiple lesions showed TEs both alone and associated with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the same section, suggesting the secondary development of BCCs within TEs.
  • Awareness of the potential for the evolution of carcinoma in patients with MFT is important in the management of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2008.
  • (PMID = 18544067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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26. Misago N, Mori T, Narisawa Y: Nestin expression in stromal cells of trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Nov;24(11):1354-8
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  • [Title] Nestin expression in stromal cells of trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Both trichoblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are considered to be a benign and malignant neoplasm of follicular germinative cells respectively.
  • A recent investigation revealed that the mesenchymal cells in the perifollicular sheath and evolving follicular papilla of embryonic hair germs and those cells in hair follicles in early anagen express nestin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Stromal Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20337823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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27. Tatsas AD, O'Leary MF, Wright JE, Robbins JB: Cutaneous focal mucinosis causing follicular induction of the epidermis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):462-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous focal mucinosis causing follicular induction of the epidermis.
  • Cutaneous focal mucinosis has been rarely reported in association with follicular induction of the epidermis.
  • We present 2 cases of focal mucinosis with follicular induction and describe the histopathologic findings to create awareness of this association and to prevent confusion with other diagnoses such as dermatofibroma with follicular induction or superficial basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Mucinosis, Follicular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Krahl D, Sellheyer K: p75 Neurotrophin receptor differentiates between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: insights into the histogenesis of adnexal tumours based on embryology and hair follicle biology. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jul;163(1):138-45
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  • [Title] p75 Neurotrophin receptor differentiates between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: insights into the histogenesis of adnexal tumours based on embryology and hair follicle biology.
  • However, a link between the embryology of the skin and the histogenesis of adnexal tumours has been largely overlooked.
  • We therefore speculated that it is involved in the histogenesis of follicular adnexal tumours.
  • One of the most challenging diagnoses in dermatopathology is differentiating morphoeic basal cell carcinoma from desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression pattern of p75NTR during cutaneous embryogenesis, in the adult hair follicle and in morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • RESULTS: All 17 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were immunoreactive with > 80% of the cells stained, whereas 12 of the 14 (86%) morphoeic basal cell carcinomas were p75NTR negative.
  • In the two positive cases of morphoeic basal cell carcinoma < 30% of cells were labelled.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the classification of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma as a follicular hamartoma mimicking the outer root sheath.
  • In contrast, the lack of p75NTR expression in morphoeic basal cell carcinoma favours a concept of this tumour as a more primitive follicular lesion with the characteristics of a carcinoma and not a hamartoma.
  • We suggest including p75NTR as a tool in the differential diagnosis between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Merkel Cells / metabolism. Middle Aged. Skin / embryology. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20184585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor
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29. Kanoh M, Amoh Y, Sato Y, Katsuoka K: Expression of the hair stem cell-specific marker nestin in epidermal and follicular tumors. Eur J Dermatol; 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):518-23
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  • [Title] Expression of the hair stem cell-specific marker nestin in epidermal and follicular tumors.
  • In this study, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of three hair follicle stem cell and progenitor cell markers, nestin, K15, and CD34, in normal human epidermis and hair follicles and in epidermal and follicular tumors, trichilemmoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • In normal human skin, the cells in the epidermal basal layer were positive for K15 and negative for nestin and CD34.
  • These results suggested that trichilemmoma originates in the nestin-positive/K15-positive/CD34-negative outer-root sheath cells below sebaceous glands, BCC tumor cells from the more mature nestin-negative/K15-positive/CD34-negative outer-root sheath cells, and SCC from the nestin-negative/K15-positive/CD34-negative keratinocytes of the basal cell layer in the epidermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Epidermis. Hair Follicle. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Keratin-15 / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18693153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin
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30. Costache M, Bresch M, Böer A: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma versus morphoeic basal cell carcinoma: a critical reappraisal of histomorphological and immunohistochemical criteria for differentiation. Histopathology; 2008 Jun;52(7):865-76
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma versus morphoeic basal cell carcinoma: a critical reappraisal of histomorphological and immunohistochemical criteria for differentiation.
  • AIMS: It is often difficult to differentiate between cases of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE) and morphoeic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) because both lesions have many features in common.
  • The aim was to clarify which criteria for differentiation offer the best basis for diagnosis.
  • Signs of infundibular, follicular or sebaceous differentiation, calcification, osteoma, association with a melanocytic naevus, and absence of solar elastosis below the lesion provided equally robust diagnostic evidence for DTE.
  • CONCLUSION: Histopathologistics need to identify with confidence subtle signs of infundibular, follicular and sebaceous differentiation because these features are dependable criteria to differentiate DTE from MBCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Diagnosis, Differential. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18462369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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31. Abbas O, Mahalingam M: Tumor of the follicular infundibulum: an epidermal reaction pattern? Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):626-33
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  • [Title] Tumor of the follicular infundibulum: an epidermal reaction pattern?
  • Our recent experience indicates that the desmoplastic variant of tumor of the follicular infundibulum (TFI) is not, as previously believed, entirely uncommon.
  • To clarify the defining clinical and microscopic features of TFI with special relevance to the histologic variants, we retrospectively reviewed cases with a histologic diagnosis of TFI between 1999 and 2008.
  • Of interest, approximately one fourth (25%) were associated with other cutaneous lesions, which included basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, desmoplastic malignant melanoma, junctional melanocytic nevus, tricholemmoma, and epidermal inclusion cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19633534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Ramos-Ceballos FI, Pashaei S, Kincannon JM, Morgan MB, Smoller BR: Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 May;35(5):477-83
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  • [Title] Bcl-2, CD34 and CD10 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma, vellus hair hamartoma and neurofollicular hamartoma demonstrate full follicular differentiation.
  • Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome (GBFHS) is a rare, recently-described, autosomal-dominantly inherited disorder that presents with disseminated milia, palmoplantar pitting, hypotrichosis and basaloid follicular hamartomas (BFH).
  • BFH is a benign adnexal tumor that resembles basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • In this study, we report two cases of GBFHS and stain BFH, a vellus hair hamartoma (VHH) and a neurofollicular hamartoma (NH) with CD34, bcl-2 and CD10 to characterize and compare the staining patterns of these follicular tumors.
  • Bcl-2 stained the outermost cell layers of the basaloid nests in all specimens.
  • Bcl-2 stains the outermost cell layer of these tumors.
  • These results show the similarities in differentiation between these benign follicular neoplasms and trichoepithelioma.

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 May;36(5):603; author reply 604 [19476535.001]
  • (PMID = 18399809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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33. Patel AB, Harting MS, Smith-Zagone MJ, Hsu S: Familial basaloid follicular hamartoma: a report of one family. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(4):14
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  • [Title] Familial basaloid follicular hamartoma: a report of one family.
  • Basaloid follicular hamartoma is a rare but benign adnexal neoplasm that can simulate basal cell carcinoma.
  • Criteria for distinction between the hamartoma and carcinoma are delineated, although evolution of basaloid follicular hamartoma into basal cell carcinoma may also be a possibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18627736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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34. Wang A, Arantes S, Conti C, McArthur M, Aldaz CM, MacLeod MC: Epidermal hyperplasia and oral carcinoma in mice overexpressing the transcription factor ATF3 in basal epithelial cells. Mol Carcinog; 2007 Jun;46(6):476-87
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  • [Title] Epidermal hyperplasia and oral carcinoma in mice overexpressing the transcription factor ATF3 in basal epithelial cells.
  • Transgenic mice that overexpress human ATF3 in basal epithelial cells under the control of the bovine keratin 5 (K5) promoter were constructed and characterized for epidermal alterations.
  • Strong, nuclear expression of the exogenous ATF3 protein was seen in basal cells of the epidermis, hair follicles, and oral mucosa.
  • Neoplastic lesions were also seen in the oral cavity of BK5.ATF3 mice, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (60% incidence) and basal cell tumors with follicular differentiation (70% incidence), but not in non-transgenic FVB/N littermates.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17295236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-1987
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES07784; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES11047
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATF3 protein, human; 0 / Activating Transcription Factor 3; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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35. Katona TM, Ravis SM, Perkins SM, Moores WB, Billings SD: Expression of androgen receptor by fibroepithelioma of Pinkus: evidence supporting classification as a basal cell carcinoma variant? Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Feb;29(1):7-12
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  • [Title] Expression of androgen receptor by fibroepithelioma of Pinkus: evidence supporting classification as a basal cell carcinoma variant?
  • The classification of fibroepithelioma of Pinkus as basal cell carcinoma or trichoblastoma remains controversial.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for androgen receptor may be useful in differentiating basal cell carcinoma from trichoepithelioma or trichoblastoma.
  • We studied androgen receptor expression in 13 fibroepitheliomas of Pinkus, 11 basal cell carcinomas, 12 trichoepitheliomas, and 3 trichoblastomas.
  • Androgen receptor expression was present in 77% (10/13) of fibroepitheliomas of Pinkus, 73% (8/11) of basal cell carcinomas, 17% (2/12) of trichoepitheliomas, and 0% (0/3) of trichoblastomas.
  • Androgen receptor expression was significantly higher in fibroepitheliomas of Pinkus compared with trichoepitheliomas and trichoblastomas (P = .0007), but not basal cell carcinoma (P = 1.00).
  • Tumor-associated Merkel cells, a feature of benign follicular tumors, was identified by cytokeratin 20 stains.
  • Merkel cells were identified in 85% (11/13) of fibroepitheliomas of Pinkus, 27% (3/11) of basal cell carcinoma cases, and 73% (11/15) of benign follicular tumors.
  • Cytokeratin 20 expression was significantly higher in fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and benign follicular tumors compared with basal cell carcinomas (P = 0.0111 and P = 0.025, respectively).
  • Similar to basal cell carcinomas, fibroepitheliomas of Pinkus express androgen receptors, potentially supporting classification as a basal cell carcinoma.
  • Conversely, fibroepithelioma of Pinkus demonstrates retention of Merkel cells, a feature of benign follicular tumors.
  • In small, partial biopsy specimens, coexpression of androgen receptor and cytokeratin 20 may aid in the diagnosis of fibroepithelioma of Pinkus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / classification. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Variation / genetics. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Keratin-20 / genetics. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Merkel Cells / metabolism. Merkel Cells / pathology. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2007 Oct;29(5):494 [17890926.001]
  • (PMID = 17284955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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36. Regauer S, Nogales FF: Vulvar trichogenic tumors: a comparative study with vulvar basal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Apr;29(4):479-84
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  • [Title] Vulvar trichogenic tumors: a comparative study with vulvar basal cell carcinoma.
  • Trichogenic tumors are very rare in genital skin and often cause diagnostic problems because they are mitotically active and they share some histologic features with basal cell carcinomas (BCCs).
  • Superficial plaque-like trichogenic tumors featured basal keratinocyte proliferations with peripheral nuclear palisading but no clefting at the epithelial-stromal interface.
  • Nodular trichogenic tumors consisted of solid lobules of squamous cells and anastomosing cords and reticulations of follicular germinative cells with mitoses and apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15767801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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37. Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Hatton MP: Eyelid basal cell carcinoma developing in an epidermoid cyst: a previously unreported event. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Nov-Dec;26(6):491-4
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  • [Title] Eyelid basal cell carcinoma developing in an epidermoid cyst: a previously unreported event.
  • Local excision led to the microscopic discovery of 2 epidermoid cysts, one of which harbored a basal cell carcinoma arising from its orthokeratinizing squamous cell lining.
  • Poral openings indicated that the cysts represented follicular infundibular ectasias.
  • BER-EP4-positive immunostaining confirmed the basal cell nature of the neoplasm.
  • This is the first example in the eyelid of an epidermoid cyst displaying malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Eyelid Diseases / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20736874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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38. Ali F, Brown A, Gottwald L, Thomas J: Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation in a transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jul;32(6):445-8
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation in a transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Shadow cells, characterized by basaloid squamous cells with a distinct well-defined border and a central unstained area as a shadow of lost nuclei, are characteristic of pilomatricoma, a distinct neoplasm of hair matrix differentiation.
  • The presence of shadow cells within tumor islands composed of follicular germinative cells of an otherwise classic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been considered as a distinct diagnostic category of BCC with matrical differentiation.
  • RESULTS: The H&E-stained sections of the hand lesion revealed multiple nodular masses of basaloid follicular germinative cells.
  • These granules are one of the characteristic features of follicular matrix differentiation.
  • CONCLUSION: BCC with matrical differentiation is a distinct pathologic entity and a rare subtype of BCC featuring shadow and matrical cells, typically seen in pilomatricoma, a benign hair matrix neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Heart Transplantation. Immunocompromised Host. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hand / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilomatrixoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15953381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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39. Itin PH: Happle-Tinschert syndrome. Segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas, linear atrophoderma with hypo- and hyperpigmentation, enamel defects, ipsilateral hypertrichosis, and skeletal and cerebral anomalies. Dermatology; 2009;218(3):221-5
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  • [Title] Happle-Tinschert syndrome. Segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas, linear atrophoderma with hypo- and hyperpigmentation, enamel defects, ipsilateral hypertrichosis, and skeletal and cerebral anomalies.
  • Recently, Happle and Tinschert [Acta Derm Venereol 2008;88:382-387] described the case of a multisystem birth defect with segmentally arranged basaloid follicular hamartomas associated with extracutaneous defects in the form of short leg, polydactyly and hypoplastic teeth.
  • Here, a further typical case is reported, and it is emphasized that this phenotype should no longer be categorized as 'basal cell nevus syndrome', and thus be confused with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome of Gorlin [Cancer 1965;18:89-104].
  • A 7-year-old boy had multiple whitish and some scattered brownish basaloid follicular hamartomas involving the right side of his body in a systematized pattern following the lines of Blaschko.
  • The molecular basis of the disorder remains to be elucidated.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple. Bone and Bones / abnormalities. Brain Neoplasms. Hamartoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology. Tooth Abnormalities

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 19005246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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40. González-Guerra E, Requena L, Kutzner H: [Immunohistochemical study of calretinin in normal hair follicles and tumors with follicular differentiation]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 Jul-Aug;99(6):456-63
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemical study of calretinin in normal hair follicles and tumors with follicular differentiation].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio inmunohistoquímico de la calretinina en el folículo piloso normal y neoplasias con diferenciación folicular.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether immunohistochemistry for calretinin allows identification of cutaneous adnexal tumors with follicular differentiation towards cells of the outer root sheath.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the staining pattern for calretinin by immunohistochemistry in 49 biopsies of cutaneous adnexal tumors with follicular differentiation.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen biopsies corresponded to trichilemmomas/inverted follicular keratosis and had staining for calretinin in the epithelium of the most superficial areas of the lesions and in squamous eddies.
  • Three were basal cell carcinomas with variable staining according to the type of follicular differentiation in each variant.
  • Nine trichoblastomas/trichoepitheliomas, 2 infundibular cysts, 1 dilated pore of Winer, and 2 acanthomas of the follicular sheath were negative for calretinin.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Follicle / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Acanthoma / chemistry. Acanthoma / pathology. Calbindin 2. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / chemistry. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Epidermal Cyst / metabolism. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Hamartoma / metabolism. Hamartoma / pathology. Humans. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / chemistry. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18558053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
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41. Kossard S, Tan KB, Choy C: Keratoacanthoma and infundibulocystic squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Apr;30(2):127-34
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  • [Title] Keratoacanthoma and infundibulocystic squamous cell carcinoma.
  • One of the major controversies in dermatopathology is the relationship of keratoacanthoma to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Carcinomas with distinct follicular pattern of differentiation have been described in reference to the isthmus as trichilemmal carcinomas, to the follicular bulb as pilomatricomal carcinomas, and to the stem cell or rapidly amplifying cell compartment as basal cell carcinomas (trichoblastic carcinomas).
  • We have employed the term infundibulocystic or infundibular squamous cell carcinoma to identify a subset of squamous cell carcinomas that demonstrate this pattern of differentiation.
  • The recognition of infundibular squamous cell carcinoma is important in that well-differentiated examples are likely to have been diagnosed as keratoacanthoma, whereas moderately or poorly differentiated tumors would be more often reported as squamous cell carcinomas, leading to underrecognition of these infundibular variants of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The descriptive term infundibulocystic or infundibular squamous cell carcinoma may help to better define an alternative follicular-based pathway to squamous cell carcinoma distinct from the more common evolution from solar keratoses and also refine the classification of keratoacanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Keratoacanthoma / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Skin Diseases / epidemiology. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18360115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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42. Hatta N, Hirano T, Kimura T, Hashimoto K, Mehregan DR, Ansai S, Takehara K, Takata M: Molecular diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and other basaloid cell neoplasms of the skin by the quantification of Gli1 transcript levels. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Feb;32(2):131-6
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  • [Title] Molecular diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and other basaloid cell neoplasms of the skin by the quantification of Gli1 transcript levels.
  • BACKGROUND: Distinguishing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) from other benign and malignant skin tumors is sometimes a difficult task for the pathologists.
  • Because the activation of hedgehog signals and the up-regulation of its critical transcriptional factor Gli1 are well documented in BCC, a molecular technique measuring Gli1 transcripts may aide the diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Gli1 transcript levels were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 68 cases of various skin tumors.
  • The tumors included BCC (21), squamous cell carcinoma (13), seborrheic keratoses (8), trichoepithelioma (5), eccrine poroma/porocarcinoma (4), and sebaceous epithelioma/carcinoma (2).
  • The diagnosis was discordant among three pathologists in the remaining 15 tumors.
  • Histological diagnoses included BCC, BCC with sebaceous differentiation, sebaceoma/sebaceous epithelioma, trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, basaloid follicular harmartoma, basosquamous carcinoma, etc.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of Gli1 transcripts by RT-PCR is helpful in discriminating BCC and trichoepithelioma from other skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Trans-Activators. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 15606671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gli protein; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors
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43. Ko CJ, Kim J, Phan J, Binder SW: Bcl-2-positive epidermal dendritic cells in inverted follicular keratoses but not squamous cell carcinomas or seborrheic keratoses. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jul;33(7):498-501
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  • [Title] Bcl-2-positive epidermal dendritic cells in inverted follicular keratoses but not squamous cell carcinomas or seborrheic keratoses.
  • AIM: In our previous research, bcl-2-positive dendritic cells were seen in increased numbers in suprabasal areas of inverted follicular keratoses (IFKs) compared to seborrheic keratoses (SKs).
  • The purpose of this study was twofold; firstly, to support that these dendritic cells are Langerhans cells and secondly, to contrast the epidermal dendritic cells in IFKs, squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and SKs.
  • SCCs showed bcl-2-positive cells only within the basal layer of the normal epidermis flanking the carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Darier Disease / metabolism. Keratosis, Seborrheic / metabolism. Langerhans Cells / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD1 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Count. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16872473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD1a antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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44. Kazakov DV, Vanecek T, Nemcova J, Kacerovska D, Spagnolo DV, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Spectrum of tumors with follicular differentiation in a patient with the clinical phenotype of multiple familial trichoepitheliomas: a clinicopathological and molecular biological study, including analysis of the CYLD and PTCH genes. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Dec;31(8):819-27
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  • [Title] Spectrum of tumors with follicular differentiation in a patient with the clinical phenotype of multiple familial trichoepitheliomas: a clinicopathological and molecular biological study, including analysis of the CYLD and PTCH genes.
  • We report a patient with multiple trichoepitheliomas whose biopsy material also demonstrated a range of other neoplasms with follicular differentiation, including small nodular trichoblastoma, small nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and areas resembling infundibulocystic BCC/basaloid follicular hamartoma.
  • The occurrence of multiple follicular neoplasms within a single lesion adds evidence that, although in most cases BCC and trichoblastoma are distinct lesions, the 2 neoplasms do encompass a morphological spectrum of follicular differentiation, which is probably more overtly expressed in syndromic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Differentiation. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 19730223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / patched receptors
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45. Brailey LL, Davis T, Kolker SE, Murry TC, Thomas D, Bale AE, Ruhoy SM: Congenital linear unilateral basal cell nevus: a case report with patched gene molecular studies. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jan;34(1):65-70
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  • [Title] Congenital linear unilateral basal cell nevus: a case report with patched gene molecular studies.
  • BACKGROUND: Linear unilateral basal cell nevus represents a linear collection of macules and papules histologically similar to basal cell carcinoma but with benign clinical behavior.
  • We describe a patient who initially presented at the age of 6 months with a unilateral linear basal cell nevus on the right flank.
  • The differential diagnosis included the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
  • Constitutional PTCH mutations are causative of the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, and somatic PTCH mutations are found in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas.
  • Somatic SMO mutations have also been found in some basal cell carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: Histologic examination revealed features initially indistinguishable from basal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Molecular examination indicates that the PTCH and SMO genes are not involved in the pathogenesis of the patients' congenital linear unilateral basal cell nevus.
  • Furthermore, we discuss the relationship between linear basal cell nevus and basaloid follicular hamartoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus / genetics. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thigh
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Loss of Heterozygosity. Microsatellite Repeats. Mutation. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17214858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / SMO protein, human; 0 / patched receptors
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46. Das DK: Marginal vacuoles (fire-flare appearance) in fine needle aspiration smears of thyroid lesions: does it represent diffusing out of thyroid hormones at the base of follicular cells? Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Apr;34(4):277-83
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  • [Title] Marginal vacuoles (fire-flare appearance) in fine needle aspiration smears of thyroid lesions: does it represent diffusing out of thyroid hormones at the base of follicular cells?
  • In this connection, FNA smears of 82 hyperplasia cases, consisting of 71 colloid goiters and 11 hyperplastic nodules (HN), and 76 thyroid neoplasms of follicular epithelium origin were reviewed to detect the MVs and grade them on a sliding scale of + (scanty), ++ (moderate), and +++ (abundant).
  • MVs were present in a significantly higher number of follicular neoplasm (FN; 85.7%) than in papillary thyroid carcinoma (44.4%, P = 0.0069) and Hurthle cell neoplasm (25.0%, P = 0.0083).
  • Among the variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant showed MVs in 94.1% cases, which was higher than those in usual variant (23.5%, P < 0.0001), tall cell variant (16.7%, P = 0.001), and PTC with a significant tall cell component (25.0%, P = 0.001).
  • It was possible to demonstrate pinocytic vesicles on one side (luminal aspect) and MVs on the other side (basal aspect) of follicular cells in colloid goiters.
  • In the aspirates from follicular lesions such as HN, FNs, and follicular variant of PTC, numerous MVs were found to be radiating from the basal aspect of follicular cells in the intact follicles with or without colloid in the central lumen.
  • Since MVs in literature have been linked to thyrotoxicity in Graves' disease and neoplasms with a follicular pattern, our findings suggest that MVs represent the diffusing out of thyroid hormones (T(3) and T(4)) from the basal aspect of follicular cells on their way to interfollicular capillaries.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Child. Female. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Hormones / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16544335.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones
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47. McCall KD, Harii N, Lewis CJ, Malgor R, Kim WB, Saji M, Kohn AD, Moon RT, Kohn LD: High basal levels of functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and noncanonical Wnt5a are expressed in papillary thyroid cancer and are coordinately decreased by phenylmethimazole together with cell proliferation and migration. Endocrinology; 2007 Sep;148(9):4226-37
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  • [Title] High basal levels of functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and noncanonical Wnt5a are expressed in papillary thyroid cancer and are coordinately decreased by phenylmethimazole together with cell proliferation and migration.
  • High basal levels of TLR3 and Wnt5a RNA are present in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cell lines consistent with their overexpression and colocalization in PTC cells in vivo.
  • This is not the case in thyrocytes from normal tissue and in follicular carcinoma (FC) or anaplastic carcinoma (AC) cells or tissues.
  • C10 simultaneously decreased PTC proliferation and cell migration but had no effect on the growth and migration of FC, AC, or FRTL-5 cells.
  • C10 decreases high basal phosphorylation of Tyr705 and Ser727 on Stat3 in PTC cells and inhibits IL-6-induced Stat3 phosphorylation.
  • IL-6-induced Stat3 phosphorylation is important both in up-regulating Wnt5a levels and in cell growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Methimazole / analogs & derivatives. Methimazole / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 3 / physiology. Wnt Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Humans


48. Sid B, Langlois B, Sartelet H, Bellon G, Dedieu S, Martiny L: Thrombospondin-1 enhances human thyroid carcinoma cell invasion through urokinase activity. Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2008;40(9):1890-900
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  • [Title] Thrombospondin-1 enhances human thyroid carcinoma cell invasion through urokinase activity.
  • Since it appeared that TSP-1 could be of prognostic value for certain specific types of cancers, we examined in this study the prospective function of TSP-1 in the control of human follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) cell invasiveness.
  • First, we established that the aggressive behavior of human thyroid malignant cells is closely correlated to the TSP-1 amount.
  • The use of specific anti-TSP-1 blocking antibodies led to a drastic inhibition of the basal FTC cell invasion.
  • Finally, we established that the TSP-1-stimulated FTC cell invasion is wholly abolished under anti-uPA blocking antibodies or aprotinin treatments whereas MMP inhibitors have no effect.
  • All together, we evidenced in the present study that TSP-1 promotes human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell invasion mainly through up-regulation of the urokinase-dependent activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18321763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-2725
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thrombospondin 1; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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49. Weinhaeusel A, Scheuba C, Lauss M, Kriegner A, Kaserer K, Vierlinger K, Haas OA, Niederle B: The influence of gender, age, and RET polymorphisms on C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2008 Dec;18(12):1269-76
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  • [Title] The influence of gender, age, and RET polymorphisms on C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: RET germline mutations predispose to the development of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (hMTC).
  • However, the findings regarding their influence on the clinical course and biological behavior of this disorder are discordant.
  • To clarify the contradictory findings, we studied the association of certain SNPs considering age, gender, and histopathology in a large Austrian cohort with C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) and MTC.
  • METHODS: Genotyping of SNPs located in RET codons 691, 769, 836, and 904 from 199 patients with MTC and CCH (basal calcitonin > 10 pg/mL, pentagastrin stimulated > 100 pg/mL) was performed, and the results were analyzed considering gender, age at diagnosis, and histopathology.
  • In sMTC and sporadic CCH (sCCH) no significant association of SNP frequency with the age at diagnosis was found.
  • In patients with sporadic C-cell disease (sCCH and sMTC), 3.7 times more males than females suffered synchronously from papillary or follicular thyroid cancer (20/97 [20.6%] males; 3/54 [5.6%] females; p = 0.02).
  • In contrast to males, the ratio of CCH to total C-cell disease was significantly higher in females with hereditary (26/32, 81%) compared to those with sporadic disease (27/54, 50%; p = 0.006).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study RET SNPs had no clinical impact on the development of sporadic C-cell disease when the age of diagnosis or gender is considered.
  • C-cell disease seems to predispose males to the development of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18976163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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50. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
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  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm was located in the dermis with focal extension into the subcutis.
  • Rare nodules resembled elements seen in a spiradenoma by containing scattered lymphocytes and globules of hyalinized eosinophilic basal membrane material.
  • Mitotic figures, including abnormal ones, were infrequent, but mild nuclear pleomorphism, nuclear crowding, and individual cell necrosis were easily appreciable in both small basaloid cells and cells with clear cytoplasm.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • It differs from previously published cases of malignant adnexal tumors with multidirectional differentiation and further exemplifies the spectrum of diversity encountered in malignant proliferations with differentiation toward the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Shape. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Schulz T, Proske S, Hartschuh W, Kurzen H, Paul E, Wünsch PH: High-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma: a rare adnexal neoplasm often showing metastatic spread. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):9-16
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  • [Title] High-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma: a rare adnexal neoplasm often showing metastatic spread.
  • It has been debated whether malignant transformation of trichoblastoma occurs.
  • The concept was recently forwarded that basal cell carcinoma is as a malignant neoplasm of follicular germinative cells and should be named trichoblastic carcinoma to show its relationship to trichoblastoma.
  • Almost all basal cell carcinomas are low-grade malignant neoplasms and develop metastases only very rarely, and if so, only after very long duration and untreated growth.
  • Only rare basal cell carcinomas arise in trichoblastomas.
  • Up to now there have only been two reports of high-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma, showing systemic metastatic spread and death.
  • We add two further cases of trichoblastic carcinoma with anaplastic nuclei, arising in trichoblastoma.
  • The other one was a trichoblastic carcinoma at the base of a trichoepithelioma on the right thigh of an 87-year-old woman with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  • Our cases emphasize that high-grade trichoblastic carcinoma develops via malignant transformation of trichoblastoma, and is very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / secondary. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15677970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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52. Sid B, Dedieu S, Delorme N, Sartelet H, Rath GM, Bellon G, Martiny L: Human thyroid carcinoma cell invasion is controlled by the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-mediated clearance of urokinase plasminogen activator. Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2006;38(10):1729-40
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  • [Title] Human thyroid carcinoma cell invasion is controlled by the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-mediated clearance of urokinase plasminogen activator.
  • The expression patterns of both this receptor and the main proteolytic systems involved in cell invasion were examined in two follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines exhibiting different invasive phenotypes.
  • We established that a low expression of LRP at the cell surface was associated to elevated extracellular MMP2 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) activities as well as to high invasiveness properties.
  • Furthermore, the invasive phenotype of thyroid carcinoma cells was not related to their matrix metalloproteinases amount since different specific inhibitors of these proteases failed to affect the invasive properties of both cell lines.
  • Additionally, blocking LRP-mediated clearance led to a further increase of the uPA amount and activities and to increased invasiveness in both cell lines.
  • Finally thyroid carcinoma cells aggressiveness was widely increased by exogenous uPA; and anti-uPA antibodies treatments abolished both basal and receptor-associated protein-induced thyroid cell invasion.
  • Overall our results identified the LRP-mediated clearance of uPA as one of the mechanisms involved during the control of human thyroid carcinoma cell invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Membrane / chemistry. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16807059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-2725
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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53. Colombo P, Locatelli F, Travaglini P: [Useful and limits of the biochemical markers for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma]. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 May-Jun;77(3):209-14
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  • [Title] [Useful and limits of the biochemical markers for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma].
  • A series of biochemical parameters are useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • The measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is considered for the post-surgical/radioiodine follow-up of papillary/follicular carcinomas.
  • Other than in basal conditions, the importance of Tg levels during TSH stimulation is underlined, either by discontinuation of L-T4 therapy or by recombinant human TSH test.
  • The evaluation of basal serum calcitonin levels is recommended for the screening of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • High basal levels suggest the presence of a tumor but a calcitonin increase can be observed also in parafollicular C cell hyperplasia (CCH) and other extra-thyroidal conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17137035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EF0NX91490 / Pentagastrin
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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54. Bialek J, Hombach-Klonisch S, Fiebig B, Weber E, Hoang-Vu C, Klonisch T: Lysosomal acid hydrolases of the cathepsin family are novel targets of INSL3 in human thyroid carcinoma cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2009 Apr;1160:361-6
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  • [Title] Lysosomal acid hydrolases of the cathepsin family are novel targets of INSL3 in human thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • We generated new cell models of stable transfectants of the human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC-133 expressing and secreting bioactive human INSL3.
  • The acquisition of an invasive tumor cell phenotype with local tissue invasion represents the beginning of a number of events leading to metastasis, the major cause of fatal outcome in cancer patients.
  • Here we demonstrate a function of INSL3 in elastin degradation, which is considered an early step during basal membrane penetration and tissue invasion by tumor cells.
  • Thus, we provide the first evidence that the INSL3 peptide can promote early tumor cell invasiveness in human thyroid carcinoma cells by enhancing their metabolic activity and elastin-degrading potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Cathepsin D / metabolism. Cathepsin L. Cathepsins / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cysteine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Elastin / metabolism. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19416220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Leydig insulin-like protein; 0 / Proteins; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; 9007-58-3 / Elastin; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.22.15 / CTSL1 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.15 / Cathepsin L; EC 3.4.23.5 / Cathepsin D
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55. Kazakov DV, Mentzel T, Erlandson RA, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Clear cell trichoblastoma: a clinicopathological and ultrastructural study of two cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Jun;28(3):197-201
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  • [Title] Clear cell trichoblastoma: a clinicopathological and ultrastructural study of two cases.
  • Clear cell change in basal cell carcinomas is a well-recognized phenomenon, but is obviously rare in trichoblastomas.
  • We present two cases of clear cell trichoblastoma in which clear cell change was very much prominent, and the results of an ultrastructural study intended to explore the basis of that feature.
  • Common to both tumors was clear cell cytoplasm evident in the majority of the epithelial cells in one case and almost in the entire epithelial cell population in the other.
  • In most epithelial aggregations the epithelial cells with clear cytoplasm often appeared columnar and were arranged in a palisade along a recognizable basal membrane, thus indicative of outer sheath differentiation at the bulb.
  • There were other signs of follicular differentiation.
  • In addition to the usual organelles, the cytoplasm contained fairly conspicuous tonofilaments and variably sized vacuoles devoid of a limiting membrane, located between the palisaded nuclei and the outer cell membrane.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / ultrastructure. Head and Neck Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / ultrastructure. Skin Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Basement Membrane / ultrastructure. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Desmosomes / ultrastructure. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16778484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Cohen PR, Schulze KE, Nelson BR: Cutaneous carcinoma with mixed histology: a potential etiology for skin cancer recurrence and an indication for Mohs microscopically controlled surgical excision. South Med J; 2005 Jul;98(7):740-7
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  • [Title] Cutaneous carcinoma with mixed histology: a potential etiology for skin cancer recurrence and an indication for Mohs microscopically controlled surgical excision.
  • Cutaneous carcinomas with mixed histology describe nonmelanoma skin cancers which have more than one histologic subtype.
  • These include basal cell carcinomas with concurrent aggressive growth patterns (such as sclerosing, infiltrating, micronodular, keratinizing, and tumors with perineural involvement) and nonaggressive growth patterns (such as superficial, nodular, and follicular) and squamous cell carcinomas with concurrent poorly differentiated and well-differentiated components.
  • One mechanism of recurrence of nonmelanoma skin cancer may very well result from the inadequate initial treatment of cutaneous tumors with mixed histology.
  • We describe two patients whose skin cancers had more than one histologic subtype to demonstrate the histologic features of cutaneous malignancies with more than one pathologic pattern and to emphasize how inaccurate a single diagnostic biopsy can be.
  • We also suggest that clinicians consider Mohs surgical excision of nonmelanoma skin cancers since this technique incorporates microscopically controlled removal of the tumor with complete pathologic evaluation of all surgical margins for any residual cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] South Med J. 2005 Jul;98(7):680 [16108234.001]
  • (PMID = 16108247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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57. Faik Erdogan M, Gursoy A, Erdogan G, Kamel N: Radioactive iodine treatment in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Apr;27(4):359-62
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  • [Title] Radioactive iodine treatment in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of basal and stimulated calcitonin are commonly seen in hereditary and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) following total thyroidectomy.
  • The cause of these high levels can be residual thyroid tissue, possibly with C-cell hyperplasia, and/or residual micro-MTC foci.
  • However, radioactive iodine trapped by thyroid follicular cells may affect the neighbouring parafollicular cells.
  • AIM: To investigate the effect of radioactive iodine treatment as adjuvant therapy to surgery in seven patients with persistent elevation of basal and stimulated calcitonin levels.
  • RESULTS: A significant decrease in basal and stimulated calcitonin levels was observed in three patients whose disease was localized to the thyroid gland at the final visit.
  • In the remaining four patients, who initially had lymph node involvement at surgery, basal and stimulated calcitonin levels were decreased significantly in only one.
  • At follow-up, of the three patients who showed no decrease in basal and stimulated calcitonin levels, two developed further regional lymph node and distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with persistently elevated basal and stimulated calcitonin levels, radioactive iodine treatment may be the therapy of choice for C-cell hyperplasia and/or micro-MTC after optimal thyroid surgery, especially if the disease has not spread beyond the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16531922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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58. Sellheyer K, Krahl D: Spatiotemporal expression pattern of neuroepithelial stem cell marker nestin suggests a role in dermal homeostasis, neovasculogenesis, and tumor stroma development: a study on embryonic and adult human skin. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Jul;63(1):93-113
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spatiotemporal expression pattern of neuroepithelial stem cell marker nestin suggests a role in dermal homeostasis, neovasculogenesis, and tumor stroma development: a study on embryonic and adult human skin.
  • The follicular connective tissue sheath is proposed as a niche for dermal stem cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: Because the neuroepithelial stem cell marker nestin represents a marker for mesenchymal stem cells in various tissues, our aim was to characterize its spatiotemporal expression pattern in the skin with special reference to the follicular mesenchyme.
  • METHODS: We studied immunohistochemically nestin expression over the course of human cutaneous embryogenesis, in postnatal skin, in scalp wounds, and in the peritumoral stroma of basal cell carcinomas and compared its expression with that of other known mesenchymal markers.
  • RESULTS: Nestin is expressed throughout the entire early embryonic dermis but confined later during development to the follicular connective tissue sheath, where it can also be found in postnatal human hair follicles.
  • Its expression is up-regulated in scalp wounds and the nestin-positive cells seem to originate from the follicular mesenchyme.
  • Nestin is also expressed in a thin layer of fibroblasts in the immediate vicinity of basal cell carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: We propose that nestin functions as a stem cell marker of the follicular mesenchyme and has a major regulatory role in dermal homeostasis, cutaneous neovasculogenesis, and tumor stroma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / analysis. Homeostasis / physiology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / chemistry. Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Skin / blood supply. Skin Physiological Phenomena
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Vessels / chemistry. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Fibroblasts / chemistry. Hair Follicle / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratinocytes / chemistry. Nestin. Scalp / cytology. Scalp / injuries. Skin Neoplasms. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19864043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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59. Steele CL, Shea CR, Petronic-Rosic V: Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis within infundibular cysts. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Apr;34(4):360-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • EH has been observed as an incidental finding in tissue adjacent to and within lesions such as nevi, scars, malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and seborrheic keratoses.
  • We present two cases of EH within infundibular type follicular cysts, a rare finding only once otherwise reported in 1978.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17381810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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60. Su MW, Fromer E, Fung MA: Fibroepithelioma of pinkus. Dermatol Online J; 2006;12(5):2
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  • Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus is an indolent growing tumor that traditionally has been classified as a variant of the basal cell carcinoma.
  • In this case report, we identified a large FEP with benign histologic features suggestive of a follicular origin as demonstrated in part by CK 20 staining and the presence of scattered Merkel cells within the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Merkel Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16962017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Gréco M, Bessaguet-Küpfer I, Bourrigan M, Plantin P: [Diffuse milia in an infant indicative of Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Aug-Sep;133(8-9 Pt 1):697-9
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  • Dermatological examination of the father showed atrophic cutaneous lesions with follicular punctuated depressions (like "ice-pick marks") on the back of the hands and the forearms.
  • In addition, he had a history of basal cell carcinoma with surgery before the age of 35 years.
  • In view of all these factors, a diagnosis of Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome was made.
  • Diagnosis is based on association of follicular atrophoderma, congenital hypotrichosis, hypohydrosis and early basal cell carcinoma.
  • Other than fragile skin and cosmetic blemishes, these tumors are the only complication of the disease and require regular dermatological surveillance and solar protection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Epidermal Cyst / genetics. Hypotrichosis / genetics. Skin Diseases / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypohidrosis / genetics. Infant. Male. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 17053742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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62. Barcelos AC, Nico MM: Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome in a 1-year-old boy and his mother. Pediatr Dermatol; 2008 Jan-Feb;25(1):112-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome is a rare genodermatosis with cancer predisposition, characterized by follicular atrophoderma, multiple milia, congenital hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis and basal cell malformations that include nevoid basal cell carcinomas of early onset.
  • His 16-year-old mother had identical changes since childhood, with hair fragility, and multiple atrophic "ice pick" follicular depressions on the dorsa of her hands.
  • She also had a basal cell carcinoma on her face.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / genetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Heterozygote. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrodermatitis / diagnosis. Acrodermatitis / genetics. Adolescent. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Hypohidrosis / diagnosis. Hypohidrosis / genetics. Hypotrichosis / diagnosis. Hypotrichosis / genetics. Infant. Male. Mothers. Pedigree. Prognosis. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 18304168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Ardigo M, Zieff J, Scope A, Gill M, Spencer P, Deng L, Marghoob AA: Dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscope findings of trichoepithelioma. Dermatology; 2007;215(4):354-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign neoplasms of follicular differentiation.
  • Solitary lesions are often confused with basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and dermoscopy are imaging tools for in vivo, noninvasive evaluation of skin lesions.
  • The RCM findings in TE of keratin-filled cysts in tumor islands and attachment of the tumor to follicular structures have not been previously observed in BCC, and thus may also be diagnostically helpful.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Dermoscopy / methods. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17911996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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64. Bowen AR, LeBoit PE: Fibroepithelioma of pinkus is a fenestrated trichoblastoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):149-54
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  • Pinkus described "pre-malignant fibroepithelioma" as a proliferation that gave rise to many tiny basal cell carcinomas within each lesion.
  • Later authors have generally considered it to be an unusual variant of basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • All FEP examined show a blunt interface with the underlying dermis (where one could be seen), differentiation toward follicular bulbs and papillae, and large areas of cellular stroma.
  • Next, FEP, BCC, and FEP with BCC-like areas were stained with MIB-1 (to assess proliferation), p53 (an oncogene product), and CK20 (a Merkel cell marker) antisera.
  • FEP also shows retention of Merkel cells, a characteristic of benign neoplasms with follicular germinative differentiation but not in general of BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification. Hair Diseases / pathology. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / classification. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 15798442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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65. Hafner C, Schmiemann V, Ruetten A, Coras B, Landthaler M, Reifenberger J, Vogt T: PTCH mutations are not mainly involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic trichoblastomas. Hum Pathol; 2007 Oct;38(10):1496-500

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Trichoblastomas are rare, benign tumors of the appendix in human skin.
  • The histopathology comprises elements of basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma with a variable degree of follicular differentiation.
  • Both basal cell carcinoma and trichoepithelioma reveal alterations of PTCH, the human homolog of the Drosophila segment polarity patched gene.
  • Our results indicate that PTCH mutations are not mainly involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic trichoblastomas, in contrast to basal cell carcinomas and trichoepitheliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / genetics. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17597182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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66. Roh JY, Kee SH, Choi JW, Lee JH, Lee JH, Lee ES, Kim YS: Expression of class II beta-tubulin in non-melanoma cutaneous tumors. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Feb;34(2):166-73
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  • In contrast, the expression of class II tubulin in follicular differentiation and cutaneous tumors has not been studied.
  • METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of class II tubulin was investigated in 117 cutaneous tumors: 30 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), seven keratoacanthomas (KAs), 57 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), 23 trichoepitheliomas (TEs), and in the adjacent non-neoplastic skin.
  • Moreover, class II tubulin expression was increased in the areas of squamous or follicular differentiation in cutaneous tumors.
  • On grading the follicular differentiation or myofibroblastic response with anti-class II tubulin, TE showed follicular differentiation more frequently (p < 0.001) with less of a myofibroblastic response (p = 0.001) than BCC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Class II tubulin expression is closely related to squamous or follicular differentiation and may be helpful in distinguishing most SCCs from KAs and BCC from TE.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratoacanthoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tubulin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Epidermis / cytology. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Skin / cytology. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17244029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tubulin
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67. Elisei R, Vivaldi A, Agate L, Ciampi R, Molinaro E, Piampiani P, Romei C, Faviana P, Basolo F, Miccoli P, Capodanno A, Collecchi P, Pacini F, Pinchera A: All-trans-retinoic acid treatment inhibits the growth of retinoic acid receptor beta messenger ribonucleic acid expressing thyroid cancer cell lines but does not reinduce the expression of thyroid-specific genes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr;90(4):2403-11
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  • [Title] All-trans-retinoic acid treatment inhibits the growth of retinoic acid receptor beta messenger ribonucleic acid expressing thyroid cancer cell lines but does not reinduce the expression of thyroid-specific genes.
  • In the attempt to evaluate the possibility of using retinoic acid (RA) in the treatment of thyroid cancer refractory to conventional therapy, we studied the effect of all-trans-RA treatment on five human thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • We found that WRO and NPA, derived from follicular and poorly differentiated human thyroid carcinoma, respectively, showed a growth inhibition after 25 and 21 d of RA treatment.
  • In the NPA cell line, a delay of cell-cycle progression has also been observed.
  • The main difference between the all-trans-RA responding cells (WRO and NPA) and the nonresponding cells [ARO, FRO (derived from human anaplastic thyroid tumors) and TT (derived from human medullary thyroid tumor)] was the basal and all-trans-RA induced RA receptor (RAR)beta mRNA expression.
  • In conclusion we found that all-trans-RA treatment can determine a significant in vitro growth inhibition especially in differentiated thyroid tumor-derived cell lines but it seems unable to reinduce the expression of thyroid-specific genes and in particular to reinduce the ability to take up iodine.
  • In some cases, a delay of the cell-cycle progression also may be responsible for the growth inhibition.
  • The finding of a basal and RA-induced RARbeta mRNA expression only in cell lines responding to all-trans-RA suggests that the growth inhibition might be mediated by RARbeta.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 15623821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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68. Kazakov DV, Vittay G, Michal M, Calonje E: High-grade trichoblastic carcinosarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):62-4
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  • Here we present the second case of this tumor, which, in contrast to the original example, may be classified as a high-grade neoplasm.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm demonstrated a fenestrated growth pattern with a slightly myxoid matrix in the background.
  • The epithelial and stromal units frequently formed structures identical to follicular papillae associated with germs or "continuous germs" contiguous with "continuous papillae."
  • In foci, these stromal cells lost their follicular papillae-like arrangement and proliferated in a diffuse fashion and gradually blended with highly pleomorphic mononuclear spindle-shaped cells and bizarre multinucleated cells that grew in sheets in a highly vascular stroma.
  • We view the present case and that previously reported in 2004 as authentic carcinosarcomas, and not as metaplastic (sarcomatoid) basal cell carcinomas.
  • This conclusion is reached after analyzing the embryological development of the hair follicle, its normal histology and the morphology of cutaneous adnexal tumors with follicular differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Ear / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18212548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Koch P, Stenzinger A, Viard M, Märker D, Mayser P, Nilles M, Schreiner D, Steger K, Wimmer M: The novel protein PTPIP51 is expressed in human keratinocyte carcinomas and their surrounding stroma. J Cell Mol Med; 2008 Oct;12(5B):2083-95
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  • PTPIP51 shows a tissue-specific expression pattern and is associated with cellular differentiation and apoptosis in some mammalian tissues, especially in human follicular and interfollicular epidermis.
  • PTPIP51 protein is expressed in all suprabasal layers of normal epidermis, whereas the basal layer contains PTPIP51 mRNA only but lacks the protein.
  • OBJECTIVES: The expression of PTPIP51 was investigated in keratinocyte carcinomas, that is human basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) as well as Bowen's disease (BD) and keratoacanthomas (KAs) on a transcriptional (mRNA) and translational (immunohistochemical) level.
  • RESULTS: PTPIP51-expression was detected in BCCs and SCCs of the skin, as well as in KAs and BD.
  • Both types of keratinocyte carcinoma revealed a specific localization pattern of PTPIP51 in malignant keratinocytes.
  • Whereas PTPIP51-positive cells of BCC were found to form two cluster types with a different subcellular localization of the protein, i.e. cytoplasmic and nuclear or predominantly membranous, investigation of SCC revealed a meshwork-like appearance of PTPIP51-positive malignant keratinocytes, created by a mainly membranous localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Mitochondrial Proteins / metabolism. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Stromal Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19012732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1582-1838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular and molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / FAM82A2 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4506173
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70. Campbell RM, Barrall D, Wilkel C, Robinson-Bostom L, Dufresne RG Jr: Post-Mohs micrographic surgical margin tissue evaluation with permanent histopathologic sections. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Jun;31(6):655-8; discussion 658
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  • BACKGROUND: Incomplete resection of nonmelanoma skin cancer is associated with a relatively high rate of recurrent tumors.
  • Mohs micrographic surgery provides microscopic evaluation of tumor margins to ensure complete excision of nonmelanoma skin cancers at high risk of recurrence.
  • OBJECTIVE: This purpose of this study is to confirm the histologic accuracy of Mohs excision of facial skin cancers by evaluating an additional layer of tissue with permanent histopathologic sections after Mohs excision.
  • RESULTS: Two excisions of nodular basal cell cancer were determined by the pathologist to have positive tumor involvement on post-Mohs permanent tissue.
  • On additional review, one specimen was interpreted to be more consistent with follicular epithelium, and the second was verified as a focus of nodular basal cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / surgery. Postoperative Period. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Dermatol Surg. 2006 Mar;32(3):463 [16640701.001]
  • (PMID = 15996415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Depianto D, Kerns ML, Dlugosz AA, Coulombe PA: Keratin 17 promotes epithelial proliferation and tumor growth by polarizing the immune response in skin. Nat Genet; 2010 Oct;42(10):910-4
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  • [Title] Keratin 17 promotes epithelial proliferation and tumor growth by polarizing the immune response in skin.
  • Basaloid skin tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and basaloid follicular hamartoma, are associated with aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and, in the case of BCC, an expanding set of genetic variants including keratin 5 (encoded by KRT5), an intermediate filament-forming protein.
  • We here show that genetic ablation of keratin 17 (Krt17) protein, which is induced in basaloid skin tumors and co-polymerizes with Krt5 in vivo, delays basaloid follicular hamartoma tumor initiation and growth in mice with constitutive Hh signaling in epidermis.
  • Our findings establish an immunomodulatory role for Krt17 in Hh driven basaloid skin tumors that could impact additional tumor settings, psoriasis and wound repair.

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  • (PMID = 20871598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-1718
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA160255; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR044232-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123530-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA123530; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009110; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA123530; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR44232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA123530-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA110618; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR044232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087837; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087837; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR044232-14
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gli2 protein; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / KRT1-17 protein, mouse; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS231459; NLM/ PMC2947596
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72. Bornstein MM, Filippi A, Altermatt HJ, Lambrecht JT, Buser D: [The odontogenic keratocyst--odontogenic cyst or benign tumor?]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed; 2005;115(2):110-28
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  • The odontogenic keratocyst is the third most common cyst of the jaws, after the follicular and radicular cyst.
  • Multiple odontogenic keratocysts are a well-recognized feature of the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
  • This led to the tentative suggestion that the keratocyst might be a benign cystic neoplasm rather than simply an odontogenic cyst.

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  • (PMID = 15771334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-2855
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Monatsschrift fur Zahnmedizin = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie = Rivista mensile svizzera di odontologia e stomatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed
  • [Language] FRE; GER
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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73. Kavanagh DO, McIlroy M, Myers E, Bane F, Crotty TB, McDermott E, Hill AD, Young LS: The role of oestrogen receptor {alpha} in human thyroid cancer: contributions from coregulatory proteins and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):255-64
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  • Oestrogen induced cell proliferation in the follicular thyroid cancer (FTC)-133 cells, but not in the anaplastic 8305C cell line.
  • Knockdown of the coactivator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 inhibited FTC-133 basal, but not oestrogen induced, cell proliferation.
  • Oestrogen also increased protein expression of SRC-1 and the ER target gene cyclin D1 in the FTC-133 cell line.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Estrogen Receptor alpha / physiology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / mortality. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Co-Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Co-Repressor Proteins / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / physiology. Survival Analysis. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Trans-Activators / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20032008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Co-Repressor Proteins; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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74. Yang SH, Andl T, Grachtchouk V, Wang A, Liu J, Syu LJ, Ferris J, Wang TS, Glick AB, Millar SE, Dlugosz AA: Pathological responses to oncogenic Hedgehog signaling in skin are dependent on canonical Wnt/beta3-catenin signaling. Nat Genet; 2008 Sep;40(9):1130-5
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  • [Title] Pathological responses to oncogenic Hedgehog signaling in skin are dependent on canonical Wnt/beta3-catenin signaling.
  • Constitutive Hedgehog (Hh) signaling underlies several human tumors, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and basaloid follicular hamartoma in skin.
  • We also detected canonical Wnt/ beta-catenin signaling in epithelial buds and hamartomas from mice expressing an oncogene, M2SMO, leading to constitutive Hh signaling in skin.

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  • (PMID = 19165927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1061-4036
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01-AR47709; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR045973-09; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE015342-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087837-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA087837-09; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR047709-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE015342-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30-CA46592; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM007863-19; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD007505-02; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD007505-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087837-09; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007863-19; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR045973-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-109015; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32-GM07863; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR047709; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD007505; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01-AR45973; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007863; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01-DE015342; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR047709-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-109015; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR045973; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR045973-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA087837; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32-HD007505; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR045973-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA87837; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE015342
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS91012; NLM/ PMC2688690
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75. Lee DA, Grossman ME, Schneiderman P, Celebi JT: Genetics of skin appendage neoplasms and related syndromes. J Med Genet; 2005 Nov;42(11):811-9
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  • [Title] Genetics of skin appendage neoplasms and related syndromes.
  • This article reviews the clinical and genetic aspects of inherited syndromes that are characterised by skin appendage neoplasms, including Cowden syndrome, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, generalised basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome, Bazex syndrome, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, familial cylindromatosis, multiple familial trichoepitheliomas, and Muir-Torre syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 16272260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-6244
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Genet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K08 AR050273
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 95
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1735949
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76. Hoffmann S, Wunderlich A, Lingelbach S, Musholt PB, Musholt TJ, von Wasielewski R, Zielke A: Expression and secretion of endostatin in thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Dec;15(12):3601-8
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  • The aim of this study was to evaluate endostatin expression in archival TC specimens and its secretion following stimulation with thyrotropin (TSH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in TC cell lines.
  • In vitro, six differentiated (FTC133, FTC236, HTC, HTC-TSHr, XTC, and TPC1) and three anaplastic (C643, Hth74, Kat4.0) TC cell lines were evaluated for basal as well as TSH (1-100 mU/ml) and EGF stimulated (1-100 ng/ml) endostatin.
  • In vitro, basal endostatin secretion varied between 33 +/- 5 pg/ml (FTC236) and 549 +/- 65 pg/ml (TPC1) and was doubled in FTC, when the "primary" (FTC133) was compared with the metastasis (FTC236).
  • Some cell lines showed TSH-induced (e.g., 60% in XTC) or EGF-induced (e.g., 120% in TPC1) upregulation of endostatin secretion, while others did not, despite documented receptor expression.
  • In vitro, endostatin secretion of some cell lines is regulated by TSH and EGF, however the individual differences deserve further functional studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Endostatins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Paraffin Embedding. Thyrotropin / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18818971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Endostatins; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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77. Burrows N, Resch J, Cowen RL, von Wasielewski R, Hoang-Vu C, West CM, Williams KJ, Brabant G: Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):61-72
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  • We evaluated the regulation of HIF-1 alpha and target gene expression in primary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid carcinoma cell lines (BcPAP, WRO, FTC-133 and 8505c).
  • High basal and hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 alpha in FTC-133 cells that harbour a phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) mutation was reduced by introduction of wild-type PTEN.
  • Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway using LY294002 inhibited HIF-1 alpha and HIF-1 alpha targets in all cell lines, including those with B-RAF mutations (BcPAP and 8505c).

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  • (PMID = 19808899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C7820/A8696
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Chromones; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Morpholines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 154447-36-6 / 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 3G0H8C9362 / Cobalt; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases; EVS87XF13W / cobaltous chloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2828807
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78. Zedek DC, Smith ET Jr, Hitchcock MG, Feldman SR, Shelton BJ, White WL: Cutaneous lupus erythematosus simulating squamous neoplasia: the clinicopathologic conundrum and histopathologic pitfalls. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Jun;56(6):1013-20
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  • BACKGROUND: The clinical distribution and character of cutaneous lupus erythematosus lesions can simulate squamous neoplasms, leading physicians to submit a shave biopsy specimen with a differential diagnosis of squamous neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: The criteria of perifollicular inflammation, follicular plugging, vacuolar interface change, compact orthokeratosis, and acrosyringeal inflammation were significantly more common in the lupus cases than in the keratoses/carcinomas controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Dermatitis / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermis / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Keratosis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged


79. Tellechea O, Reis JP: Trichogerminoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):480-3
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  • A case of distinctive benign follicular neoplasm previously reported under the designation of trichogerminoma is described.
  • This neoplasm and the other tumors with hair germ differentiation such as trichoblastoma and panfolliculoma seem to represent the same spectrum of hair follicle neoplasms only distinguishable by their degree of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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80. Bogner PN, Su LD, Fullen DR: Cluster designation 5 staining of normal and non-lymphoid neoplastic skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):50-4
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  • [Title] Cluster designation 5 staining of normal and non-lymphoid neoplastic skin.
  • METHODS: A variety of eccrine, apocrine, follicular, epithelial, and pagetoid lesions were selected and stained with an anti-CD5 monoclonal antibody (Novocastra Labs, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, clone 4C7) by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Within normal skin, CD5 labeled lymphocytes, apocrine glands, deep dermal eccrine glands, and smooth muscle (weak).
  • The majority of benign and malignant apocrine lesions demonstrated strong focal (36%, n=11)-to-diffuse (64%, n=16) staining.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma demonstrated focal staining of deeper ductal structures (71%, n=7), whereas desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma showed only rare positive cells.
  • Pagetoid Bowen's disease (n=6), intraepidermal sebaceous carcinoma (n=3), nor melanoma in situ (n=6) showed any CD5 staining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical staining for CD5 is extremely useful in the differential diagnosis of pagetoid epidermal lesions and will mark mammary and extramammary Paget's disease, but not pagetoid Bowen's disease, melanoma in situ, or sebaceous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD5 / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Staining and Labeling
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Count. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15660655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD5
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81. Kantrow SM, Ivan D, Williams MD, Prieto VG, Lazar AJ: Metastasizing adenocarcinoma and multiple neoplastic proliferations arising in a nevus sebaceus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Oct;29(5):462-6
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  • Nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn is a hamartoma of multiple skin structures.
  • Many neoplasms have been reported to arise in association with nevus sebaceus, most commonly trichoblastoma/basal cell carcinoma and syringocystadenoma papilliferum.
  • On histologic evaluation, the epidermis showed changes reminiscent of tumor of the follicular infundibulum as well as basaloid proliferations resembling superficial trichoblastoma.
  • Other portions demonstrated a high-grade neoplasm with prominent nuclear atypia and a solid pattern of growth resembling high-grade breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Nevus / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism


82. Kim YW, Do IG, Park YK: Expression of the GLUT1 glucose transporter, p63 and p53 in thyroid carcinomas. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(11):759-65
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  • We studied GLUT1, p53, and p63 immunoexpression in a total of 86 cases of various thyroid carcinoma types to determine the biological significance of GLUT1 and p63 expression in thyroid carcinomas.
  • GLUT1 was detected in six cases of anaplastic carcinoma and in one case of poorly differentiated carcinoma with membranous staining. p63 was detected in five cases of anaplastic carcinoma, in one case of poorly differentiated carcinoma, and in five cases of papillary carcinoma with nuclear positivity. p53 was detected in six cases of anaplastic carcinoma, in one case of poorly differentiated carcinoma, and in one case of follicular carcinoma with nuclear positivity.
  • Five of seven cases of anaplastic carcinoma expressed all three of these markers.
  • These data strongly suggest that in anaplastic carcinomas, impairment of p53-mediated repression results in increased GLUT1 and p63 expression, and that this probably reflects the differential regulation of hypoxia-responsive pathways and basal/stem cell regulatory pathways.

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  • (PMID = 17029809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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83. Katona TM, Billings SD, Montironi R, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L: Expression of OCT4 transcription factor in cutaneous neoplasia. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Dec;15(4):359-62
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  • The OCT4 transcription factor is a marker of pluripotency and is present in embryonic stem cells, primordial germ cells, and several neoplasms including seminoma, dysgerminoma, and embryonal carcinoma.
  • Recently, immunohistochemical expression of OCT4 protein has been described in the cells within the basal layer of normal human and canine epidermis.
  • We have examined a series of basal cell carcinomas and adnexal tumors of related histogenesis, in an effort to corroborate the above findings and to assess for expression of OCT4 protein in neoplasia of the infundibulo-apocrine-sebaceous unit.
  • We analyzed OCT4 expression in 115 cutaneous specimens including 26 basal cell carcinomas, 12 benign follicular tumors (10 trichoepitheliomas and 2 trichoblastomas), 10 benign apocrine tumors, 12 sebaceous hyperplasia lesions, 10 sebaceous adenomas, 4 sebaceous carcinomas, 13 nevi sebacei of Jadassohn, 8 squamous cell carcinomas (including one spindle-cell squamous cell carcinoma), 8 compound melanocytic nevi, 5 Merkel cell carcinomas, 3 pilar cysts, 1 scar, 2 nonspecific, mild superficial perivascular dermatitis specimens, and 1 non-scarring alopecia.
  • All 115 specimens examined were negative for OCT4 expression as was adjacent or overlying epidermis and follicular epithelium including the bulge region.
  • In contrast to previous studies, our data indicate that the OCT4 expression is not retained in cutaneous neoplasms derived from basal epidermis or related adnexal neoplasms, including lesions of the scalp.

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  • (PMID = 18091376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human
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84. Antonelli A, Ferrari SM, Fallahi P, Frascerra S, Piaggi S, Gelmini S, Lupi C, Minuto M, Berti P, Benvenga S, Basolo F, Orlando C, Miccoli P: Dysregulation of secretion of CXC alpha-chemokine CXCL10 in papillary thyroid cancer: modulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Dec;16(4):1299-311
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Furthermore, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) activators thiazolidinediones (TZDs) modulate CXCL10 secretion in normal thyroid follicular cells (TFC), and inhibit PTC growth.
  • Furthermore, the effect of PPARgamma activation by TZDs, on CXCL10 secretion and proliferation in these cell types was studied.
  • In primary cultures of TFC and PTCs CXCL10 production was absent under basal conditions; a similar dose-dependent secretion of CXCL10 was induced by IFNgamma in both cell types.
  • The stimulation with IFNgamma+TNFalpha induced a synergistic CXCL10 release in both cell types; however, a secretion more than ten times higher was induced in PTCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Chemokine CXCL10 / metabolism. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Interferon-gamma / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19755523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CXCL10; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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85. Kamat G, Yelikar B, Shettar S, Karigoudar MH: Pigmented trichoblastoma with sebaceous hyperplasia. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2009 Sep-Oct;75(5):506-8

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  • Microscopy of tumour revealed nodular tumour spanning the entire dermis with collection of mesenchymal cells resembling follicular papilla.
  • There is a need for differentiation of this tumor which is benign, from other pigmented tumors having basaloid arrangement of cells such as basal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 19736433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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86. Tamura T, Mitsumori K, Totsuka Y, Wakabayashi K, Kido R, Kasai H, Nasu M, Hirose M: Absence of in vivo genotoxic potential and tumor initiation activity of kojic acid in the rat thyroid. Toxicology; 2006 May 15;222(3):213-24
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  • Rats given four times by s.c. injection of N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine (DHPN; 700 mg/kg bw) during the initiation period followed by administration of 0.1% SDM and rats given diet containing 2% KA for the initial 8 weeks or for the entire 31 weeks of the experiment, or basal diet alone were provided as controls.
  • In the two-stage thyroid tumorigenesis model, neither adenomas nor carcinomas were induced in the groups given 0, 0.02, 0.2 or 2% KA followed by 0.1% SDM administration, and incidences and multiplicities of focal follicular cell hyperplasias did not demonstrate any significant intergroup differences at the end of administration and recovery periods.
  • In contrast, incidences and multiplicities of focal follicular cell hyperplasias, adenomas and carcinomas were all significantly increased in the DHPN + 0.1% SDM group.
  • Although the incidences and multiplicities of focal follicular cell hyperplasias in the group given 2% KA for 31 weeks were greater than those in the 2% KA + 0.1% SDM group and an adenoma was observed in a rat at the end of the recovery period, no development of carcinomas was evident at either time point.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemically induced. Adenoma / pathology. Animals. Carcinoma / chemically induced. Carcinoma / pathology. DNA Adducts / metabolism. Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxyguanosine / metabolism. Hyperplasia / chemically induced. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. KOJIC ACID .
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  • (PMID = 16603304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-483X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / DNA Adducts; 0 / Pyrones; 6K23F1TT52 / kojic acid; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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87. Carvalho J, Fullen D, Lowe L, Su L, Ma L: The expression of CD23 in cutaneous non-lymphoid neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):693-8
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  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of CD23 was performed in a total of 131 cases of apocrine, eccrine, follicular and other cutaneous non-lymphoid tumors.
  • CD23 staining was seen in 42% (8/19) of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), while no staining was observed in tumor cells of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, morpheaform basal cell carcinoma and syringoma.
  • In comparison, pagetoid Bowen's disease, melanoma in situ and sebaceous carcinoma exhibited negative staining.
  • In addition, CD23 reacted diffusely with cutaneous mucinous eccrine carcinoma in a manner similar to breast or colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptors, IgE / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17696916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, IgE
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88. Terenzi V, Indrizzi E, Buonaccorsi S, Leonardi A, Pellacchia V, Fini G: Nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn. J Craniofac Surg; 2006 Nov;17(6):1234-9
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  • The nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn (SNJ) is a hamartomatous disorder of the skin and its adnexa pertaining to the group of "organoid nevi,'' most frequently involving the face and scalp.
  • It has been largely demonstrated in literature that most of the lesions that have been interpreted as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are actually examples of primitive follicular induction or trichoblastomas, not authentic BCCs.
  • No signs of malignant degeneration or residual pathology have been found.

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  • (PMID = 17119437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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89. Ackerman AB: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome versus generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):603; author reply 604
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  • [Title] Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome versus generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / pathology. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


90. MacGregor JL, Campanelli C, Friedman PC, Desciak E: Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma occurring within a field of multiple tumors of the follicular infundibulum. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Nov;34(11):1567-70
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

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  • [Title] Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma occurring within a field of multiple tumors of the follicular infundibulum.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18823351.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Ackerman AB: Hereditary basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome. Cutis; 2007 Feb;79(2):154; author reply 155-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hereditary basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Humans. Syndrome

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  • [CommentOn] Cutis. 2006 Jul;78(1):42-6 [16903320.001]
  • (PMID = 17388219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Walder EJ: Comment on "Follicular stem cell carcinoma: histologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and clinical characterization in 30 dogs". Vet Pathol; 2005 Jan;42(1):107-8

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  • [Title] Comment on "Follicular stem cell carcinoma: histologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and clinical characterization in 30 dogs".
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Dog Diseases / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Vet Pathol. 2003 Jul;40(4):433-44 [12824515.001]
  • (PMID = 15657283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Law AM, Rutland BM, Horenstein MG: Pathologic quiz case: an 84-year-old woman with a skin cyst containing Ziehl-Neelsen-positive structures. Basal cell carcinoma associated with a vellus hair cyst. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Mar;129(3):e75-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic quiz case: an 84-year-old woman with a skin cyst containing Ziehl-Neelsen-positive structures. Basal cell carcinoma associated with a vellus hair cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15737060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Saxena A, Shapiro M, Kasper DA, Fitzpatrick JE, Mellette JR Jr: Basaloid follicular hamartoma: a cautionary tale and review of the literature. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Sep;33(9):1130-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basaloid follicular hamartoma: a cautionary tale and review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Dermabrasion. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Mohs Surgery. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17760608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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