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1. Zhang Y, Ficarro SB, Li S, Marto JA: Optimized Orbitrap HCD for quantitative analysis of phosphopeptides. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom; 2009 Aug;20(8):1425-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimized Orbitrap HCD for quantitative analysis of phosphopeptides.
  • The recent introduction of a multipole collision cell adjacent to an Orbitrap mass analyzer provides for higher energy collisionally activated dissociation (HCD) with efficient capture of fragment ions over a wide mass range.
  • Using this approach, we readily identify activated signaling pathways downstream of oncogenic mutants of Flt-3 kinase in a model system of human myeloid leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 19403316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1123
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphopeptides
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2. Dutra WO, Gollob KJ: Current concepts in immunoregulation and pathology of human Chagas disease. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2008 Jun;21(3):287-92
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Chagas Disease.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current concepts in immunoregulation and pathology of human Chagas disease.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chagas disease is a complex ailment caused by infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.
  • Years of studies have focused on the development of pathology in Chagas disease and recent studies have helped us understand the cellular mechanisms behind differential clinical evolution of Chagas disease.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: We discuss recent findings concerning the cellular immune response in human Chagas disease focusing on immunoregulation and the development of pathology.
  • We seek to put several findings into the context of a disease that initially controls an extreme and patent infection, and later progresses to a chronic phase marked by the presence (cardiac and digestive forms), or not (indeterminate form), of associated pathology.
  • SUMMARY: Several theories exist to explain differential clinical evolution of Chagas disease.
  • Rather, rather that a thoughtful analysis and assimilation of the best components of each system into a central theory that best fits the reality of human Chagas disease is desirable.
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Disease. Trypanosoma cruzi / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chagas Cardiomyopathy / immunology. Chagas Cardiomyopathy / pathology. Humans. Immunity, Cellular. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18448974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-7375
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R03 AI066044; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R03 AI066044-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 51
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS356153; NLM/ PMC3322114
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3. Hills CE, Bland R, Bennett J, Ronco PM, Squires PE: TGF-beta1 mediates glucose-evoked up-regulation of connexin-43 cell-to-cell communication in HCD-cells. Cell Physiol Biochem; 2009;24(3-4):177-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] TGF-beta1 mediates glucose-evoked up-regulation of connexin-43 cell-to-cell communication in HCD-cells.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the current study we examined if the multifunctional cytokine TGF-beta1 mediated glucose-evoked increases in connexin-43(Cx43)-mediated intercellular communication in cells of the human collecting duct (HCD).
  • METHODS: RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to confirm mRNA and protein expression of TGF-beta1 and Cx43 in HCD-cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High glucose evoked a TGF-beta1 mediated increase in Cx43 expression and gap-junction mediated cell-cell communication in HCD-cells.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19710532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9778
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Connexin 43; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Rhodamines; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 17466-45-4 / Phalloidine; 4158-89-8 / tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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4. Dutra WO, Menezes CA, Villani FN, da Costa GC, da Silveira AB, Reis Dd, Gollob KJ: Cellular and genetic mechanisms involved in the generation of protective and pathogenic immune responses in human Chagas disease. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz; 2009 Jul;104 Suppl 1:208-18
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Chagas Disease.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular and genetic mechanisms involved in the generation of protective and pathogenic immune responses in human Chagas disease.
  • Perhaps one of the most intriguing aspects of human Chagas disease is the complex network of events that underlie the generation of protective versus pathogenic immune responses during the chronic phase of the disease.
  • While most individuals do not develop patent disease, a large percentage may develop severe forms that eventually lead to death.
  • Although many efforts have been devoted to deciphering these mechanisms, there is still much to be learned before we can fully understand the pathogenesis of Chagas disease.
  • The involvement of three complex organisms, host, parasite and vector, is certainly one of the key aspects that calls for multidisciplinary approaches towards the understanding of Chagas disease.
  • We believe that now, one hundred years after the discovery of Chagas disease, it is imperative to continue with highly interactive research in order to elucidate the immune response associated with disease evolution, which will be essential in designing prophylactic or therapeutic interventions.

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  • (PMID = 19753476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-8060
  • [Journal-full-title] Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R03 AI066044; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R03 AI066044-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 1 R03 AI 066044-0181
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS356197; NLM/ PMC3285444
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5. Lee MT, Parwani A, Humphrey R, Hamilton RG, Myers DI, Detrick B: Gamma heavy chain disease in a patient with diabetes and chronic renal insufficiency: diagnostic assessment of the heavy chain fragment. J Clin Lab Anal; 2008;22(2):146-50
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  • [Title] Gamma heavy chain disease in a patient with diabetes and chronic renal insufficiency: diagnostic assessment of the heavy chain fragment.
  • Heavy chain diseases are rare B-cell disorders that are characterized by an overproduction of abnormal and structurally incomplete monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains and are devoid of light chains.
  • No serum abnormality was noted on serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP).
  • Serum and urine immunofixation demonstrated an IgG heavy chain protein devoid of any corresponding light chains.
  • Therefore, a urine IgG subclass determination was performed in-house and we identified a subclass 3 gamma chain.
  • In conclusion, we portray a patient with an underlying monoclonal gamma heavy chain disease (HCD) who presented with a complex medical history.
  • The evaluation of IgG subclasses in the context of a HCD may be limited by the capability of the test to recognize the particular IgG fragment.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Complications / complications. Heavy Chain Disease / complications. Immunoglobulin Fragments / analysis. Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Proteins / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains. Middle Aged. Urinalysis

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright ) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18348312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8013
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical laboratory analysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 3R01 AI042387-10S1
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulin Fragments; 0 / Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains
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6. Fiuza JA, Fujiwara RT, Gomes JA, Rocha MO, Chaves AT, de Araújo FF, Fares RC, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Martins-Filho OA, Cançado GG, Correa-Oliveira R: Profile of central and effector memory T cells in the progression of chronic human chagas disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis; 2009;3(9):e512

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Profile of central and effector memory T cells in the progression of chronic human chagas disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Chronic Chagas disease presents several different clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe cardiac and/or digestive clinical forms.
  • Specifically, memory T cells, which are basically classified as central and effector memory cells, might have a distinct migratory activity, role and function during the human Chagas disease.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the hypothesis that the disease severity in humans is correlated to the quality of immune responses against T. cruzi, we evaluated the memory profile of peripheral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes as well as its cytokine secretion before and after in vitro antigenic stimulation.
  • We evaluated cellular response from non-infected individuals (NI), patients with indeterminate (IND) or cardiac (CARD) clinical forms of Chagas disease.
  • The expression of CD45RA, CD45RO and CCR7 surface molecules was determined on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes; the pattern of intracellular cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-10) synthesized by naive and memory cells was determined by flow cytometry.
  • Furthermore, when we analyzed the profile of secreted cytokines, we observed that CARD patients presented a significantly higher percentage of CD8(+)CD45RA(high) IFN-gamma-producing cells in control cultures and after antigen pulsing with soluble epimastigote antigens.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on a correlation between the frequency of IFN-gamma producing CD8+ T cells in the T cell memory compartment and the chronic chagasic myocarditis, we propose that memory T cells can be involved in the induction of the development of the severe clinical forms of the Chagas disease by mechanisms modulated by IFN-gamma.

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  • (PMID = 19742301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-2735
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS neglected tropical diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Negl Trop Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2729721
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7. Yunokawa K, Hagiyama Y, Mochizuki Y, Tanaka N, Ochi M: Hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis associated with heavy-chain disease. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2007 Oct;7(4):459-62
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Meningitis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis associated with heavy-chain disease. Case report.
  • The authors present a case of concurrent hypertrophic spinal pachymeningitis (HSP) and heavy-chain disease (HCD).
  • Laminectomy was performed for thoracic HSP, and chemotherapy was administered for HCD.
  • Once the HCD was controlled by chemotherapy, the fever subsided and the hypertrophy was resolved.
  • No previous reports have supported a link between the two diseases.
  • Idiopathic HSP may be secondary to rare conditions such as HCD, and systemic examinations should be performed to the fullest extent possible to investigate the possibility of some underlying disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Dura Mater / pathology. Heavy Chain Disease / complications. Meningitis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy / diagnosis. Hypertrophy / etiology. Hypertrophy / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17933324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Hills CE, Bland R, Bennett J, Ronco PM, Squires PE: High glucose up-regulates ENaC and SGK1 expression in HCD-cells. Cell Physiol Biochem; 2006;18(6):337-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High glucose up-regulates ENaC and SGK1 expression in HCD-cells.
  • METHODS: Here we present RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry data confirming mRNA and protein expression of the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK1) and the alpha conducting subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in a model in vitro system of the human cortical collecting duct (HCD).
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cells, Cultured. Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism. Humans. Hyperglycemia / etiology. Hyperglycemia / metabolism. Hypertension / etiology. Ionomycin / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sodium / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / genetics. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17170520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-8987
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epithelial Sodium Channels; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 56092-81-0 / Ionomycin; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / serum-glucocorticoid regulated kinase; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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9. Chi H, Sun RX, Yang B, Song CQ, Wang LH, Liu C, Fu Y, Yuan ZF, Wang HP, He SM, Dong MQ: pNovo: de novo peptide sequencing and identification using HCD spectra. J Proteome Res; 2010 May 7;9(5):2713-24
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  • [Title] pNovo: de novo peptide sequencing and identification using HCD spectra.
  • De novo peptide sequencing has improved remarkably in the past decade as a result of better instruments and computational algorithms.
  • However, de novo sequencing can correctly interpret only approximately 30% of high- and medium-quality spectra generated by collision-induced dissociation (CID), which is much less than database search.
  • In this study, we show that higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) is of great help to de novo sequencing because it produces high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra without the low-mass cutoff associated with CID in ion trap instruments.
  • Besides, abundant internal and immonium ions in the HCD spectra can help differentiate similar peptide sequences.
  • Taking advantage of these characteristics, we developed an algorithm called pNovo for efficient de novo sequencing of peptides from HCD spectra. pNovo gave correct identifications to 80% or more of the HCD spectra identified by database search.
  • A distinct advantage of de novo sequencing is that deamidated peptides and peptides with amino acid mutations can be identified efficiently without extra cost in computation.
  • In summary, implementation of the HCD characteristics makes pNovo an excellent tool for de novo peptide sequencing from HCD spectra.

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  • (PMID = 20329752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Escherichia coli Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Proteins
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10. Mischerikow N, van Nierop P, Li KW, Bernstein HG, Smit AB, Heck AJ, Altelaar AF: Gaining efficiency by parallel quantification and identification of iTRAQ-labeled peptides using HCD and decision tree guided CID/ETD on an LTQ Orbitrap. Analyst; 2010 Oct;135(10):2643-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gaining efficiency by parallel quantification and identification of iTRAQ-labeled peptides using HCD and decision tree guided CID/ETD on an LTQ Orbitrap.
  • Namely, PQD and HCD facilitate iTRAQ analysis on these instrument types.
  • Here we report a method for iTRAQ-based relative quantification on the ETD enabled LTQ Orbitrap XL, which is based on parallel peptide quantification and peptide identification. iTRAQ reporter ion generation is performed by HCD, while CID and ETD provide peptide identification data in parallel in the LTQ ion trap.
  • Furthermore, the use of HCD solely for iTRAQ reporter ion read out significantly reduces the number of ions needed to obtain informative spectra, which significantly reduces the analysis time.
  • By applying our approach to the analysis of the synapse proteome from human brain biopsies, we demonstrate that it outperforms a latest generation MALDI TOF/TOF instrument, with improvements in both peptide and protein identification and quantification.
  • Conclusively, our work shows how HCD, CID and ETD can be beneficially combined to enable iTRAQ-based quantification on an ETD-enabled LTQ Orbitrap XL.

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  • (PMID = 20714520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5528
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides
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11. Dutra WO, Rocha MO, Teixeira MM: The clinical immunology of human Chagas disease. Trends Parasitol; 2005 Dec;21(12):581-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Chagas Disease.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The clinical immunology of human Chagas disease.
  • Human infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi leads to Chagas disease, which affects approximately 17 million people in Latin America.
  • In this article, we carry out a systematic review of the immunology in human Chagas disease, discussing recent findings in the context of a clinical perspective.
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Disease / immunology. Chagas Disease / pathology. Trypanosoma cruzi / pathogenicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chagas Cardiomyopathy / immunology. Chagas Cardiomyopathy / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16236550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-4922
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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12. Wu J, Warren P, Shakey Q, Sousa E, Hill A, Ryan TE, He T: Integrating titania enrichment, iTRAQ labeling, and Orbitrap CID-HCD for global identification and quantitative analysis of phosphopeptides. Proteomics; 2010 Jun;10(11):2224-34
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TITANIUM .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Integrating titania enrichment, iTRAQ labeling, and Orbitrap CID-HCD for global identification and quantitative analysis of phosphopeptides.
  • After further fractionation by strong-cation exchange, the peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, which collects CID and high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) spectra sequentially for peptide identification and quantitation.
  • Conditions were optimized for HCD normalized collision energy to balance the overall peptide identification and quantitation using the relative abundances of iTRAQ reporter ions.
  • Using this approach, we were able to identify 3557 distinct phosphopeptides from HeLa cell lysates, of which 2709 were also quantified from HCD scans.

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  • (PMID = 20340162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9861
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphopeptides; D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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13. Freedman AN, Slattery ML, Ballard-Barbash R, Willis G, Cann BJ, Pee D, Gail MH, Pfeiffer RM: Colorectal cancer risk prediction tool for men and women without known susceptibility. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15002

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e15002 Background: Given the high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC), and the availability of procedures that can detect disease and remove precancerous lesions, there is a need for a model that estimates the probability of developing CRC across various age intervals and risk factor profiles.

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  • (PMID = 27964384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Steindel M, Kramer Pacheco L, Scholl D, Soares M, de Moraes MH, Eger I, Kosmann C, Sincero TC, Stoco PH, Murta SM, de Carvalho-Pinto CJ, Grisard EC: Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from humans, vectors, and animal reservoirs following an outbreak of acute human Chagas disease in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis; 2008 Jan;60(1):25-32
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Chagas Disease.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from humans, vectors, and animal reservoirs following an outbreak of acute human Chagas disease in Santa Catarina State, Brazil.
  • During March 2005, 24 cases of acute human Chagas disease were detected in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, all of them related to the ingestion of Trypanosoma cruzi-contaminated sugar cane juice.
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Disease / epidemiology. Chagas Disease / parasitology. Disease Outbreaks. Trypanosoma cruzi / classification. Trypanosoma cruzi / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brazil / epidemiology. Disease Reservoirs / parasitology. Disease Vectors. Electrophoresis, Starch Gel. Enzymes / analysis. Genes, rRNA. Humans. Molecular Epidemiology. Opossums / parasitology. Protozoan Proteins / analysis. Triatoma / parasitology

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  • (PMID = 17889480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-8893
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzymes; 0 / Protozoan Proteins
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15. Ben Ammar A, Cheikh I, Jouini M, Belkahla N, Fadhel SF, Hager O, Maamouri N, Chaabouni H, Ben Safta Z, Haouet S: [Alpha heavy chain disease. A Tunisian case]. Tunis Med; 2006 Sep;84(9):581-4

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  • [Title] [Alpha heavy chain disease. A Tunisian case].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie des chaines lourdes alpha. A propos d'un cas tunisien.
  • Alpha heavy chain disease is a rare affection in the West and reported mainly in developing countries with the improvement of hygienic conditions, the disease become rare in Tunisia, the last case was reported in 1991.
  • The aim of the study is to report a new Tunisian case and to describe clinical, endoscopical and histological characteristics of the disease.
  • The diagnosis of alpha heavy chain disease was confirmed by histological examination of the resected intestine after surgery for intestinal obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17263208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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16. López-Anglada L, Puig N, Díez-Campelo M, Alonso-Ralero L, Barrena S, Aparicio MA, Gutiérrez NC, García-Sanz R: Monoclonal free light chains can be found in heavy chain diseases. Ann Clin Biochem; 2010 Nov;47(Pt 6):570-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Monoclonal free light chains can be found in heavy chain diseases.
  • Heavy chain diseases (HCDs) are rare B-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasias characterized by the production of a monoclonal component consisting of a truncated monoclonal Ig heavy chain without the associated light chain.
  • Among them, patients with gamma-HCD are so rare that no more than 150 cases can be found in the literature.
  • In this paper, we report one additional case: an 83-year-old man with a gamma-HCD, in whom a kappa light chain component was detected in the serum by using the serum free light-chain assessment and in addition monoclonal kappa cytoplasmic expression was detected in bone marrow plasma cells by flow cytometric analysis.
  • In the work-up of the patient, the underlying anatomopathological lymphoproliferative disease corresponded to a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, as it is stated in the current World Health Organization classification (2008), with both lymphadenopathic and bone marrow infiltration.
  • As in other cases, several autoimmune manifestations (antiphospholipidic syndrome and immune thrombocytopenia) were present during the course of the disease in this patient.
  • This case report illustrates a new case of gamma-HCD, in which serum free light-chain analysis and flow cytometry represented a valuable tool for diagnosis, a finding that could be very important for the future management of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Heavy Chain Disease / blood. Heavy Chain Disease / diagnosis. Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains / blood

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  • (PMID = 20930031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-1001
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains
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17. Wahner-Roedler DL, Kyle RA: Heavy chain diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol; 2005;18(4):729-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Heavy chain diseases.
  • Heavy chain diseases (HCDs) are rare B-cell lymphoplasma-cell proliferative disorders characterized by production of truncated monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chains without associated light chains.
  • HCDs involving the three main immunoglobulin classes have been described; alpha-HCD is the most common and has the most uniform presentation, gamma- and mu-HCDs have variable clinical presentations and histopathologic features.
  • HCDs can be thought of as variant types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: alpha-HCD presents as an extranodal marginal-zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymph-node tissue, gamma-HCD as lymphoplasmacytoid non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and mu-HCD as small lymphocytic non-Hodgkin lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Diagnosis of HCD requires documentation of a deleted immunoglobulin heavy chain without a bound light chain in the serum or urine.
  • Prognosis is variable, and no standardized effective treatment programs are available except for alpha-HCD, which in its early stage may respond to antibiotics.
  • [MeSH-major] Heavy Chain Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Laboratory Techniques. Humans. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / etiology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16026747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6926
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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18. Sathler-Avelar R, Vitelli-Avelar DM, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Martins-Filho OA: Innate immunity and regulatory T-cells in human Chagas disease: what must be understood? Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz; 2009 Jul;104 Suppl 1:246-51
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Chagas Disease.

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  • [Title] Innate immunity and regulatory T-cells in human Chagas disease: what must be understood?
  • This review summarises evidence in an attempt to elucidate 'what must be understood' to further clarify the role of innate immunity in the development/maintenance of clinical Chagas disease and the impact of etiological treatment on host immunity, highlighting the contributions of the innate immunity and regulatory T (Treg) cells.
  • Moreover, a balanced innate immune activation state, apart from Treg cells, may play a role in controlling the adverse events triggered by the massive antigen release induced by trypanosomicidal agents during Chagas disease etiological treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Disease / immunology. Host-Parasite Interactions / immunology. Immunity, Innate / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology. Trypanosoma cruzi / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Chronic Disease. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Macrophages / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19753480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-8060
  • [Journal-full-title] Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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19. Dias JC, Dias E, Martins-Filho OA, Vitelli-Avelar D, Correia D, Lages E, Prata A: Further evidence of spontaneous cure in human Chagas disease. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop; 2008 Sep-Oct;41(5):505-6
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  • [Title] Further evidence of spontaneous cure in human Chagas disease.
  • An acute case of Chagas disease was studied in 1944, with clinical and laboratory follow-up until 2007, in Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Disease
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Remission, Spontaneous

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  • [ErratumIn] Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2008 Nov-Dec;41(6):696. Filho, Olindo M [corrected to Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis]
  • (PMID = 19009195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-9849
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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20. Morita K, Kawamoto H, Takada H, Nakamura S, Ishii K, Okamoto Y: Unusual gamma heavy chain disease protein in a patient with splenic marginal-zone lymphoma. Ann Clin Biochem; 2006 Mar;43(Pt 2):161-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual gamma heavy chain disease protein in a patient with splenic marginal-zone lymphoma.
  • We conducted an electrophoretic analysis of monoclonal gamma-globulin found in the serum of a patient with splenic marginal-zone lymphoma.
  • This monoclonal protein showed electrophoretic mobility to the gamma region and reacted with anti-immunoglobulin (IgG) antiserum but not with anti-kappa or anti-lambda light chain antisera.
  • Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting of the monoclonal protein-rich gamma-globulin fraction extracted from the sliced gel revealed the presence of two types of abnormal IgG molecule, low- and high-molecular-weight IgG, neither of which reacted with anti-kappa or anti-lambda light chain antisera.
  • Additionally, an abnormal high-molecular-weight gamma heavy chain was identified by reducing SDS-PAGE.
  • These findings suggest that this monoclonal protein is composed only of gamma heavy chains of normal and larger size.
  • The presence of abnormal serum immunoglobulin composed of only gamma heavy chain has been known as a fundamental feature of gamma heavy chain disease (HCD).
  • However, the unique composition of monoclonal gamma-globulin makes our case distinct from typical gammaHCD, which is characterized by an abnormal truncated low-molecular-weight gamma heavy chain.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain / genetics. Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains / blood. Lymphoma, B-Cell / immunology. Splenic Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Heavy Chain Disease. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / blood. Middle Aged. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 16536920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CHA heavy chain disease protein, human; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains
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21. Ramasawmy R, Cunha-Neto E, Fae KC, Martello FG, Müller NG, Cavalcanti VL, Ianni B, Mady C, Kalil J, Goldberg AC: The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene polymorphism is associated with cardiomyopathy in human chagas disease. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Aug 1;43(3):305-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene polymorphism is associated with cardiomyopathy in human chagas disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Only a subset of individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC).
  • METHODS: We assessed CCL2 variants at position -2518A/G, which are known to influence transcriptional activity, by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment-length polymorphism in 245 individuals, all of whom were infected with T. cruzi.
  • Among patients with CCC, 5% were homozygous for the G allele, compared with 16% of the asymptomatic subjects (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-11; P = .001).
  • A similar trend was observed when individuals heterozygous for the G allele were compared with individuals homozygous for the G allele between the CCC and asymptomatic groups (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.97-7.2; P = .026).
  • The A allele seems to confer susceptibility to CCC (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9; P = .001).
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Cardiomyopathy / genetics. Chemokine CCL2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Gene Frequency. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16804844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CCL2
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22. Vitelli-Avelar DM, Sathler-Avelar R, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Pinto Dias JC, Gontijo ED, Faria AM, Elói-Santos SM, Martins-Filho OA: Strategy to assess the overall cytokine profile of circulating leukocytes and its association with distinct clinical forms of human Chagas disease. Scand J Immunol; 2008 Nov;68(5):516-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Strategy to assess the overall cytokine profile of circulating leukocytes and its association with distinct clinical forms of human Chagas disease.
  • Herein we have employed an alternative strategy to assess the cytokine patterns of circulating leukocytes and correlate dominant cytokine profiles with indeterminate-IND and cardiac-CARD clinical forms of Chagas disease.
  • Altogether, these findings shed some light into the complex cytokine network underlying the immunopathogenesis of Chagas disease and provide putative immunological biomarkers of disease severity and therapeutic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Cardiomyopathy / immunology. Chagas Disease / immunology. Cytokines / blood. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology. Trypanosoma cruzi / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18803607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Protozoan; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Nitroimidazoles; 0 / Trypanocidal Agents; YC42NRJ1ZD / benzonidazole
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23. Moreno M, D'ávila DA, Silva MN, Galvão LM, Macedo AM, Chiari E, Gontijo ED, Zingales B: Trypanosoma cruzi benznidazole susceptibility in vitro does not predict the therapeutic outcome of human Chagas disease. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz; 2010 Nov;105(7):918-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trypanosoma cruzi benznidazole susceptibility in vitro does not predict the therapeutic outcome of human Chagas disease.
  • Therapeutic failure of benznidazole (BZ) is widely documented in Chagas disease and has been primarily associated with variations in the drug susceptibility of Trypanosoma cruzi strains.
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Disease / drug therapy. Nitroimidazoles / therapeutic use. Trypanocidal Agents / therapeutic use. Trypanosoma cruzi / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 21120364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-8060
  • [Journal-full-title] Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitroimidazoles; 0 / Trypanocidal Agents; YC42NRJ1ZD / benzonidazole
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24. Kim IY, Hwang IK, Choi JW, Yoo KY, Kim YN, Yi SS, Won MH, Lee IS, Yoon YS, Seong JK: Effects of high cholesterol diet on newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Jun;71(6):753-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study, we observed and compared the effects of a high cholesterol diet (HCD) on cell proliferation and differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of C57BL/6N (B6, susceptible strain) and C3H/HeN (C3H, resistant strain) mice.
  • Ki67 (a marker for cell proliferation) positive cells) were significantly decreased in HCD-fed B6 mice compared to those in B6 (49.7%) and C3H mice fed a low cholesterol diet (LCD).
  • In addition, doublecortin (DCX, a marker for cell differentiation or neuroblasts)-immunoreactive cells in HCD-fed B6 mice were significantly decreased compared to those in LCD-fed B6 and C3H mice.
  • These results suggest that B6 strains are sensitive to HCD, which impairs cell proliferation and differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 19578283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / doublecortin protein
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25. Kaser E, Shaw J, Marven M, Swinburne L, Boyle F: Communication about high-cost drugs in oncology--the patient view. Ann Oncol; 2010 Sep;21(9):1910-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Studies indicate that many oncologists find it difficult to discuss high-cost drugs (HCDs) with patients whom they believe are unable to afford treatment, thereby limiting treatment choices.
  • We sought to identify the information needs and communication preferences of women with breast cancer regarding HCDs.
  • Forty-seven subjects participated in telephone interviews on the basis of a structured questionnaire regarding personal experience with HCD discussions and information preferences.
  • RESULTS: Participants considered an out-of-pocket cost of $50/week to be a HCD.
  • Only 28% had previously discussed HCD treatment with their oncologist; however, 96% of participants wanted to discuss an expensive drug as an option, even if they were unlikely able to afford it.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast cancer have a strong desire to be active participants in their cancer treatment and wish to be fully informed of potential treatment options, including HCDs.
  • Nondisclosure of information, including HCDs, can result in patient dissatisfaction.

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  • (PMID = 20332139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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26. Elmore SA, Peddada SD: Points to consider on the statistical analysis of rodent cancer bioassay data when incorporating historical control data. Toxicol Pathol; 2009 Aug;37(5):672-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Researchers routinely use historical control data (HCD) when analyzing rodent carcinogenicity data obtained in a particular study.
  • Although the concurrent control group is considered to be the most relevant group to compare with the dose groups, the HCD provides a broader perspective to assist in understanding the significance of the current study.
  • The HCD is used to provide information about the incidences of spontaneous tumors and malignant systemic disorders such as lymphoma and leukemia.
  • This article presents some possible ways of incorporating the HCD when analyzing data from a rodent cancer bioassay.
  • The boxplot is presented as an exploratory tool that describes the current data in the context of the distribution of the HCD.
  • The various options for the statistical analysis of HCD presented here do not necessarily represent standard practice.

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  • [Cites] Exp Toxicol Pathol. 1999 Nov;51(6):523-36 [10661811.001]
  • [Cites] Biometrics. 1982 Jun;38(2):457-62 [7115873.001]
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  • [Cites] Toxicol Pathol. 2005;33(2):283-91 [15902972.001]
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  • (PMID = 19516052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-1601
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES101744; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA ES101744-08; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / Z01 ES101744-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS403035; NLM/ PMC4041607
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27. Sasidharan K, Dutta S, Narang A: Validity of New Ballard Score until 7th day of postnatal life in moderately preterm neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed; 2009 Jan;94(1):F39-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Validity of New Ballard Score until 7th day of postnatal life in moderately preterm neonates.
  • OBJECTIVE: The New Ballard Score (NBS) has been evaluated only until 96 h of age.

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  • [ErratumIn] Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2010 Dec;95(12):1071
  • (PMID = 19103779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2052
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Medvedev IN, Gromnatskiĭ NI: [The influence of hypocaloric diet on thrombocyte rheology in patients with metabolic syndrome]. Klin Med (Mosk); 2006;84(3):49-52
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Metabolic Syndrome.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of hypocaloric diet (HCD) on intravascular thrombocyte activity (ITA) dynamics in patients with arterial hypertension (AH), androidal type of obesity, and glucose tolerance disorder.
  • The patients' condition was being corrected using HCD during 24 weeks.
  • The use of HCD in patients suffering from AH with metabolic syndrome favored lowering of the blood lipid spectrum shifts, suppression of peroxidation syndrome, and improvement of plasmatic and thrombocyte parameters.
  • HCD lowered ITA, which was especially prominent by the end of the 24th week, but the control values were not reached.
  • HCD in not effective enough as a sole method of correcting metabolic processes and ITA in patients suffering from AH with MS.

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  • (PMID = 16758924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia meditsina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Med (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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29. Mozes T, Meiri G, Ben-Amity G, Sabbagh M, Weizman A: Reboxetine as an optional treatment for hyperkinetic conduct disorder: a prospective open-label trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol; 2005 Apr;15(2):259-69
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  • [Title] Reboxetine as an optional treatment for hyperkinetic conduct disorder: a prospective open-label trial.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hyperkinetic conduct disorder (HCD) has been identified as a common psychiatric diagnosis among children and adolescents.
  • This disorder affects many life aspects of both child and family.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), reboxetine, in treating children with HCD and its influence on associated symptoms, such as aggressiveness, impulsivity, anxiety, and depression.
  • METHODS: Fifteen children, 5-14 years of age, diagnosed with HCD, participated in a 12- week, prospective, open-label trial with reboxetine (4-8 mg/d).
  • RESULTS: There was a significant symptomatic improvement for HCD symptoms and associated symptoms.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that reboxetine may be effective in the treatment of HCD and associated symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Conduct Disorder / drug therapy. Hyperkinesis / drug therapy. Morpholines / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006 Dec;16(6):803-4 [17201625.001]
  • (PMID = 15910210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Morpholines; 947S0YZ36I / reboxetine
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30. Lisboa BC, Machado Tda R, Pimenta DC, Han SW: Cloning and characterization of an alternative splicing transcript of the gene coding for human cytidine deaminase. Biochem Cell Biol; 2007 Feb;85(1):96-102

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cloning and characterization of an alternative splicing transcript of the gene coding for human cytidine deaminase.
  • Human cytidine deaminase (HCD) catalyzes the deamination of cytidine or deoxycytidine to uridine or deoxyuridine, respectively.
  • The genomic sequence of HCD is formed by 31 kb with 4 exons and several alternative splicing signals, but an alternative form of HCD has yet to be reported.
  • Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a small form of HCD, HSCD, and it is likely to be a product of alternative splicing of HCD.
  • The alignment of DNA sequences shows that the HSCD matches HCD in 2 parts, except for a deletion of 170 bp.
  • Based on the HCD genome organization, exons 1 and 4 should be joined and all sequences of introns and exons 2 and 3 should be deleted by splicing.
  • The deletion and shift of the reading frame caused a loss of HCD activity, which was confirmed by enzyme assay and also with NIH3T3 cells modified to express HSCD and challenged against cytosine arabinoside.
  • In this work we describe the identification and characterization of HSCD, which is the product of alternative splicing of the HCD gene.

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  • (PMID = 17464349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0829-8211
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5CSZ8459RP / Cytidine; EC 3.5.4.5 / Cytidine Deaminase
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31. Hu WM, Luo HS, Ding XW, Wang L: Expression of C-kit messenger ribonucleic acid and C-kit protein in the gallbladders in guinea pigs of high cholesterol diet. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Aug;54(8):1651-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the expression of c-kit mRNA and c-kit protein in the gallbladders in guinea pigs of high cholesterol diet (HCD).
  • The gallbladder samples from 16 guinea pigs of HCD and from 16 guinea pigs of standard diet (StD) were used for this study.
  • Expression of c-kit mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and expression of c-kit protein was detected by Western blot analysis.
  • Serum total cholesterol (TC) (39 +/- 6 vs. 109 +/- 20 mg/dl), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (24 +/- 4 vs. 71 +/- 10 mg/dl), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (2.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 7.0 +/- 1.6 mg/dl), and triglyceride (TG) (58 +/- 8 vs. 118 +/- 23 mg/dl) concentrations were significantly higher in the HCD group than in the StD group of guinea pigs (P < 0.001, respectively).
  • Decreased expression of c-kit mRNA was demonstrated in the HCD group compared with the StD group.
  • The ratio of c-kit mRNA and GAPDH was 0.56 +/- 0.09 in controls and 0.50 +/- 0.07 in the HCD group (P = 0.033).
  • C-kit protein expression significantly declined in the HCD group.
  • The mean value of optical density was 129 +/- 25 in the StD group and 103 +/- 19 in the HCD group (P = 0.0009).
  • The data indicate that the expression of c-kit mRNA and c-kit protein significantly decreased in the gallbladders in guinea pigs of HCD.

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  • (PMID = 18987972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Cholesterol, HDL; 0 / Cholesterol, LDL; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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32. Yaoita H, Yoshinari K, Maehara K, Sando M, Watanabe K, Maruyama Y: Different effects of a high-cholesterol diet on ischemic cardiac dysfunction and remodeling induced by coronary stenosis and coronary occlusion. J Am Coll Cardiol; 2005 Jun 21;45(12):2078-87
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  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess whether and how the high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-related worsening of heart failure differs between coronary stenosis (CS)-induced myocardial ischemia and coronary occlusion-induced myocardial infarction (MI).
  • BACKGROUND: An HCD, a risk factor for coronary artery disease, also worsens ischemic heart failure.
  • METHODS: In rats fed a normal chow diet or HCD, CS or MI was created surgically, and we assessed left ventricular (LV) function by echocardiography and myocardial inflammation by histopathology.
  • By itself, HCD greatly augmented such CS-induced myocardial abnormalities without modulating the CS severity.
  • Such detrimental effects of HCD were ameliorated by supplying a cofactor of endothelial NO synthase-tetrahydrobiopterin.
  • In contrast, MI-induced heart failure was not aggravated by HCD.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The CS-induced ischemic myocardium seems to be more susceptible to the pro-inflammatory effect of HCD than infarcted myocardium, leading to aggravation of LV dysfunction and remodeling via modification of the coronary circulation downstream of the epicardial CS site, partly through impairment of endothelial NO.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Endothelium, Vascular / enzymology. Male. Nitric Oxide Synthase / metabolism. Oxygen Consumption. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Ventricular Remodeling

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  • (PMID = 15963412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-1097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase
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33. Petnehazy T, Stokes KY, Wood KC, Russell J, Granger DN: Role of blood cell-associated AT1 receptors in the microvascular responses to hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol; 2006 Feb;26(2):313-8
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  • C57Bl/6 mice were placed on a normal (ND) or high-cholesterol (HCD) diet for 2 weeks.
  • AT1a-R bone marrow chimeras that express AT1a-R on the vessel wall but not blood cells and AT1a-R knockouts were placed on HCD.
  • Platelet and leukocyte adhesion and leukocyte emigration were significantly increased in HCD mice versus ND.
  • Leukocyte recruitment was significantly reduced in the HCD-AT1a-R bone marrow chimera group, whereas platelet adhesion remained at HCD levels.
  • However, in HCD-AT1a-R knockout mice, platelet and leukocyte adhesion were reduced to ND levels.

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  • [CommentIn] Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Feb;26(2):240-1 [16424361.001]
  • (PMID = 16254200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4636
  • [Journal-full-title] Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL26441
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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34. Pejnovic N, Vratimos A, Lee SH, Popadic D, Takeda K, Akira S, Chan WL: Increased atherosclerotic lesions and Th17 in interleukin-18 deficient apolipoprotein E-knockout mice fed high-fat diet. Mol Immunol; 2009 Nov;47(1):37-45
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  • Recent reports show T helper 17 (Th17) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases formerly categorized as Th1-mediated disorders.
  • Interleukin-18 (IL-18) induces Th1 cells to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) which is proatherogenic, while cholesterol causes atherosclerosis and stimulates intact rat aortae to produce prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a strong regulator of IL-23 that expands Th17.
  • IL-18(+/+)ApoE(-/-) and IL-18(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice aged 5 weeks were fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and control littermates of IL-18(-/-)ApoE(-/-) low-cholesterol diet (LCD) for 12 weeks.
  • We found that serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in IL-18(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice on HCD and they also had significantly increased atherosclerosis compared with 18(+/+)ApoE(-/-) mice or IL-18(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice on LCD.
  • This study suggests that in IL-18 deficiency, cholesterol in HCD synergize mechanistically with homocysteine to accelerate atherosclerosis via the alternative IL-23/Th17 pathway, demonstrating a new role for Th17 in atherosclerosis.

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  • (PMID = 19201478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9142
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / British Heart Foundation / / ; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins E; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Interleukin-17; 0 / Interleukin-18; 0 / Interleukin-23; 0LVT1QZ0BA / Homocysteine; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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35. Amin KA, Abd El-Twab TM: Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon. Int J Clin Exp Med; 2009;2(3):254-65

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  • To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130-190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36).
  • Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks.
  • Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels.
  • These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy.

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  • (PMID = 19918318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-5901
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2773611
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hypercholesterolemia / cinnamon / homocystein / nitric oxide / oxidative stress atorvastatin
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36. Yurtcu M, Gunel E, Sahin TK, Sivrikaya A: Effects of fasting and preoperative feeding in children. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Oct 21;15(39):4919-22
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  • They were divided into eight groups that each contained 10 children who were fed normal liquid food (NLF) and a high-calorie diet (HCD) 2, 3, 4 and 5 h before surgery, in two doses at 6-h intervals.
  • NLF was given to four groups and HCD to the other four.
  • RESULTS: Blood glucose levels in all patients fed NLF and HCD were high, except in patients in the HCD-4 group.
  • There was a significant increase in the blood cortisol levels in the NLF-2 (14.4 +/- 5.7), HCD-2 (13.2 +/- 6.0), NLF-3 (10.9 +/- 6.4), and HCD-5 (6.8 +/- 5.7) groups (P < 0.05).

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  • (PMID = 19842222.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Prealbumin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2764969
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37. Sudhahar V, Ashok Kumar S, Varalakshmi P, Sujatha V: Protective effect of lupeol and lupeol linoleate in hypercholesterolemia associated renal damage. Mol Cell Biochem; 2008 Oct;317(1-2):11-20
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  • Hypercholesterolemia was induced in male Wistar rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) comprising normal rat chow supplemented with 4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid for 30 days.
  • Lupeol and lupeol linoleate were supplemented (50 mg/kg body wt/day) to HCD fed rats during the last 15 days.
  • Increased levels of renal total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids, along with altered serum biochemical parameters of tissue injury indices and elevated activities of renal marker enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase) were noted in HCD fed rats.
  • Renal lysosomal acid hydrolase activities (ACP, beta-Glu, beta-Gal, NAG and Cat-D) and acute phase proteins like C-Reactive protein and fibrinogen were significantly increased in HCD fed rats, which further indicates the heightening of inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercholesterolemia / complications. Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy. Kidney Diseases / complications. Kidney Diseases / drug therapy. Protective Agents / therapeutic use. Triterpenes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18563536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Pentacyclic Triterpenes; 0 / Protective Agents; 0 / Triterpenes; 0 / lupeol linoleate; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; O268W13H3O / lupeol
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38. Richardson JE, Ash JS: The effects of hands-free communication device systems: communication changes in hospital organizations. J Am Med Inform Assoc; 2010 Jan-Feb;17(1):91-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects that hands-free communication device (HCD) systems have on healthcare organizations from multiple user perspectives.
  • (1) Communication access-the perception that HCD systems provide fast and efficient communication that supports workflow;.
  • (2) Control-social and technical considerations associated with use of an HCD system;.
  • (3) Training-processes that should be used to improve use of the HCD system;.
  • (4) Organizational change-changes to organizational design and behavior caused by HCD system implementation; and (5) Environment and infrastructure-HCD system use within the context of physical workspaces.
  • CONCLUSION: HCD systems improve communication access but users experience challenges integrating the system into workflow.
  • Effective HCD use depends on how well organizations train users, adapt to changes brought about by HCD systems, and integrate HCD systems into physical surroundings.

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  • (PMID = 20064808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-974X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Med Inform Assoc
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / T15 LM007088; United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / 2-T15-LM007088
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2995638
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39. McAlister GC, Phanstiel D, Wenger CD, Lee MV, Coon JJ: Analysis of tandem mass spectra by FTMS for improved large-scale proteomics with superior protein quantification. Anal Chem; 2010 Jan 1;82(1):316-22
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  • Multiple nanoLC-MS/MS experiments on both an older generation quadrupole linear ion trap-orbitrap hybrid (QLT-orbitrap) and the dcQLT-orbitrap, using both resonant-excitation CAD and beam-type CAD (HCD), were performed.
  • Resulting from various technological advances (e.g., a stacked ring ion guide AP inlet, a dual cell QLT), the dcQLT-orbitrap exhibited increased duty cycle (approximately 1.5-2 times) and sensitivity for both CAD (ion trap detection) and HCD (orbitrap detection) methods.
  • As compared to the older system, the dcQLT-orbitrap produced significantly more unique peptide identifications for both methods (approximately 30% improvement for CAD and approximately 115% improvement for HCD).
  • The sizable improvement of the HCD method on the dcQLT-orbitrap system outperforms the current standard method of CAD with ion trap detection for large-scale analysis.
  • Finally, we demonstrate that the increased HCD performance translates to a direct and substantial improvement in protein quantitation precision using isobaric tags.

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  • (PMID = 19938823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6882
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / 5T32HG002760; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM080148-02; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM080148-03S2; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM080148-03; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P01 GM081629-02S10001; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P01GM081629; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P01 GM081629-020001; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM080148-01A1; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01GM080148; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / T32 HG002760; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM080148; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM008349; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM081629-020001; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P01 GM081629; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM081629-01A10001; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 5T32GM08349; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM081629-02S10001; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P01 GM081629-01A10001
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS159134; NLM/ PMC2800853
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40. Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Nozako M, Hazekawa M, Aoyama Y, Ogata A, Harada K, Fujioka M, Abe K, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M: High-cholesterol feeding aggravates cerebral infarction via decreasing the CB1 receptor. Neurosci Lett; 2007 Mar 6;414(2):183-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLESTEROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mice were divided into the following three groups: normal diet (ND), caloric restriction (CR) and high-cholesterol-enriched diet (HCD), and were kept for 6 weeks.
  • Serum cholesterol significantly increased in the HCD group in comparison with both the ND and CR groups.
  • However, brain cholesterol decreased in the HCD group.
  • Then, the expression level of CB1 receptor significantly decreased in the HCD group, while that of the CR group clearly increased in comparison with the ND group in intact mice.
  • In MCA-occluded mice, The HCD group produced the most severe cerebral infarction, while cerebral infarction was significantly decreased in the CR group.

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  • (PMID = 17208374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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41. Ibrahim MH, Steinbüchel A: High-cell-density cyclic fed-batch fermentation of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-accumulating thermophile, Chelatococcus sp. strain MW10. Appl Environ Microbiol; 2010 Dec;76(23):7890-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Different fermentation strategies were employed for the cultivation of a new poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-accumulating thermophilic bacterium, Chelatococcus sp. strain MW10, with the aim of achieving high-cell-density (HCD) growth and high poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [poly(3HB)] productivity.
  • At the end of CFBF (265 h), an HCD of up to 115.0 ± 4.3 g cell dry weight/liter was achieved.

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  • (PMID = 20889784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5336
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied and environmental microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Hydroxybutyrates; 0 / Polyesters; 26063-00-3 / poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2988602
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42. Tu KC, Long T, Svenningsen SL, Wingreen NS, Bassler BL: Negative feedback loops involving small regulatory RNAs precisely control the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing response. Mol Cell; 2010 Feb 26;37(4):567-79
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  • We identify and characterize two Vibrio harveyi negative feedback loops that facilitate precise transitions between low-cell-density (LCD) and high-cell-density (HCD) states.
  • Disrupting feedback increases the concentration of AIs required for cells to transit from LCD to HCD QS modes.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20188674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4164
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM065859; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5R01AI054442; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI054442; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM065859-07; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 5R01GM065859
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / LuxO protein, Vibrio harveyi; 0 / RNA, Bacterial; 0 / Repressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS185026; NLM/ PMC2844700
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43. Jin HO, An S, Lee HC, Woo SH, Seo SK, Choe TB, Yoo DH, Lee SB, Um HD, Lee SJ, Park MJ, Kim JI, Hong SI, Rhee CH, Park IC: Hypoxic condition- and high cell density-induced expression of Redd1 is regulated by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and Sp1 through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Cell Signal; 2007 Jul;19(7):1393-403
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  • In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression of Redd1 in response to hypoxia (1% O(2)), hypoxia-mimetic agent, cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) and high cell density (HCD) requires coactivation of HIF-1alpha and Sp1.
  • CoCl(2) and HCD induced the activation of HIF-1alpha and Sp1 in HeLa cells, and siRNAs targeting HIF-1alpha and Sp1 abrogated Redd1 expression.
  • Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) by LY294002 and by a dominant-negative PI3K mutant reduced the expression of Redd1 and activation of HIF-1alpha and Sp1 by CoCl(2) and HCD.
  • Also, suppression of Akt activation blocked the expression of Redd1 and the activation of HIF-1alpha and Sp1 by CoCl(2) and HCD.
  • These results demonstrate that hypoxic condition-and HCD-induced expression of Redd1 is mediated by coactivation of Sp1 and HIF-1alpha downstream of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

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  • (PMID = 17307335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0898-6568
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular signalling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Signal.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DDIT4 protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sp1 Transcription Factor; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
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44. Segu ZM, Mechref Y: Characterizing protein glycosylation sites through higher-energy C-trap dissociation. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom; 2010 May 15;24(9):1217-25
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • It is shown here that glycopeptide ions can be fragmented efficiently using the higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) feature of a linear ion trap orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbitrap).
  • The combination of the very informative collision-induced dissociation spectra acquired in the linear ion trap with the distinct features of HCD offers very useful information aiding in the characterization of the glycosylation sites of glycoproteins.
  • The HCD activation energy needed to obtain optimum Y1 ions was studied in terms of glycan structure and charge state, and size and structure of the peptide backbone.
  • The latter appeared to be primarily dictating the needed HCD energy.
  • The distinct Y1 ion formation in HCD facilitated an easy assignment of such an ion and its subsequent isolation and dissociation through multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry.
  • The resulting MS(3) spectrum of the Y1 ion facilitates database searching and de novo sequencing thus prompting the subsequent identification of the peptide backbone and associated glycosylation sites.
  • Moreover, fragment ions formed by HCD are detected in the Orbitrap, thus overcoming the 1/3 cut-off limitation that is commonly associated with ion trap mass spectrometers.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20391591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0231
  • [Journal-full-title] Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Glycopeptides; EC 3.4.21.4 / Trypsin; V956696549 / Acetylglucosamine
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45. Thomson J, Schofield P, Mileshkin L, Agalianos E, Savulescu J, Zalcberg J, Jefford M: Do oncologists discuss expensive anti-cancer drugs with their patients? Ann Oncol; 2006 Apr;17(4):702-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We sought the views and practices of Australian medical oncologists regarding discussion of high cost drugs (HCDs).
  • Three clinical scenarios described HCDs associated with either improved overall survival, encouraging response rate in a treatment-refractory cancer, or a scenario with improved treatment tolerability.
  • Participants were asked about their discussion and prescription of HCDs.
  • Forty-eight percent had previously prescribed a HCD.
  • In the three scenarios, respondents would generally prescribe the drug if it were subsidised, however, between 28% and 41% (depending on the scenario) would not mention the HCD if it were not subsidised.
  • Major reasons for not mentioning the HCD were concerns that discussion would 'worry the patient' or that the doctor would 'feel bad'.

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  • (PMID = 16418309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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46. Bertolino CA, Caputo G, Barolo C, Viscardi G, Coluccia S: Novel heptamethine cyanine dyes with large Stoke's shift for biological applications in the near infrared. J Fluoresc; 2006 Mar;16(2):221-5
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  • A series of novel functionalized, water-soluble, pH-unsensitive, highly photostable heptamethine cyanine dyes (HCDs) has been synthesized.
  • Synthesis and characterization of a special HCD with large Stokes' shift (>100 nm), bioconjugation to IgG and effect of pH upon the new structure are presented.

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  • (PMID = 16652229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of fluorescence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fluoresc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbocyanines; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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47. Deaciuc IV, Song Z, Peng X, Barve SS, Song M, He Q, Knudsen TB, Singh AV, McClain CJ: Genome-wide transcriptome expression in the liver of a mouse model of high carbohydrate diet-induced liver steatosis and its significance for the disease. Hepatol Int; 2008 Mar;2(1):39-49
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  • [Title] Genome-wide transcriptome expression in the liver of a mouse model of high carbohydrate diet-induced liver steatosis and its significance for the disease.
  • PURPOSE: To perform a large-scale gene profiling of the liver in a mouse model of fatty liver induced by high carbohydrate (sucrose) diet (HCD) to gain a deeper insight into potential mechanisms of diet-induced hepatic steatosis.
  • METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice were fed either a purified, control diet or a HCD for 16 weeks.
  • HCD feeding led to marked liver steatosis without inflammation or necrosis.
  • RESULTS: A number of genes (471) underwent significant expression changes in HCD- as compared to standard diet-fed mice (n = 5/group; P < 0.01).
  • They reveal novel aspects of the disease and allow identification of candidate genes that may underlie the initiation of hepatic steatosis and progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HCD-fed laboratory animals provide a model of early non-alcoholic fatty liver disease resembling the disease in humans.
  • The genome wide gene profiling of the liver reveals the complexity of the disease, unravels novel aspects of HCD-induced hepatic steatosis, and helps elucidate its nature and mechanisms.

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  • (PMID = 19669278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716868
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48. Torres MR, Francischetti EA, Genelhu V, Sanjuliani AF: Effect of a high-calcium energy-reduced diet on abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese Brazilian subjects. Int J Clin Pract; 2010 Jul;64(8):1076-83
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  • AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate, during energy restriction, the effects of a high-calcium diet (HCD) on measures of abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilian obese subjects of multiethnic origin.
  • Fifty obese subjects of both sexes, aged 22-55 years, with stable body weight and a low calcium intake were randomised into the following outpatient dietary regimens: (i) a low-calcium diet (LCD; < 500 mg/day) or (ii) a HCD [1200-1300 mg/day, supplemented with non-fat powdered milk (60 g/day)].
  • Insulin was significantly reduced only in the HCD group.
  • Subjects on the HCD compared with those on the LCD exhibited a greater reduction in waist circumference (p = 0.002), waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.04) and mean blood pressure (p = 0.03).
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage. Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control. Diet, Reducing. Metabolic Diseases / prevention & control. Obesity, Abdominal / diet therapy

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  • (PMID = 20642707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-1241
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Calcium, Dietary; 0 / Leptin
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49. Khan JA, Cao M, Kang BY, Liu Y, Mehta JL, Hermonat PL: AAV/hSTAT3-gene delivery lowers aortic inflammatory cell infiltration in LDLR KO mice on high cholesterol. Atherosclerosis; 2010 Nov;213(1):59-66
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  • Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder of arteries.
  • To investigate the contribution of STAT3 in regulating atherogenesis, we delivered full-length wild type human (h) STAT3 gene by adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8) via tail vein into low density lipoprotein knockout (LDLR KO) mice which were then fed high cholesterol diet (HCD).
  • Compared to neomycin resistance (Neo) gene delivery-HCD, hSTAT3 delivery-HCD treatment did not result in significant changes in high plasma cholesterol levels.
  • Moreover, measurements of inflammation/monocyte/macrophage (Mo/MФ) burden, including CD68, ITGAM, EMR-1 and nitrotyrosine were reduced in hSTAT3-HCD-treated animals, while foxp3 (Tregs) and SOCS1 expression were increased.

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20727521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1484
  • [Journal-full-title] Atherosclerosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Atherosclerosis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Foxp3 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, LDL; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Stat3 protein, mouse; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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50. Suh MH, Yoo SH, Chang PS, Lee HG: Antioxidative activity of microencapsulated gamma-oryzanol on high cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem; 2005 Dec 14;53(25):9747-50
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  • [Title] Antioxidative activity of microencapsulated gamma-oryzanol on high cholesterol-fed rats.
  • The effectiveness of microencapsulated gamma-oryzanol (M-gamma-OZ) was evaluated as an antioxidant in Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • Lard containing 100 ppm of gamma-OZ (HCD III) or 100 ppm of M-gamma-OZ (HCD IV) was heated in an oven for 7 days, and the heat-treated lard as an ingredient in a high cholesterol diet (HCD) formulation was tested for analyzing in vivo cholesterol and lipid profiles.
  • The HCDs containing fresh lard (HCD I) and heat-treated lard (HCD II) were fed to the rats for 4 weeks as control groups A and B, respectively, in this experiment.
  • The liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values of group C (fed with HCD III) and group D (with HCD IV) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of negative control, group B.
  • The levels of serum total cholesterol and lipoproteins, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein were also affected by heat-induced lipid oxidation.The M-gamma-OZ evidently decreased LDL-cholesterol content and increased HDL-cholesterol in blood samples of tested rats.
  • These results suggested that the M-gamma-OZ was not only effective in inhibiting the hypercholesterolemia of serum and liver but also reduced the oxidation degree of lipids and cholesterol.
  • Therefore, this microencapsulation can be a good potential technique to protect the antioxidant activity of gamma-OZ from heat-induced lipid oxidation.

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  • (PMID = 16332125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Ketocholesterols; 0 / Lipoproteins; 0 / Phenylpropionates; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; O7676FE78M / 7-ketocholesterol; SST9XCL51M / gamma-oryzanol
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51. Shimizu T, Nakai K, Morimoto Y, Ishihara M, Oishi H, Kikuchi M, Arai H: Simple rabbit model of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 Aug;49(8):327-32; discussion 332
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  • Four-week-old male Japanese white rabbits (n = 19) were fed the high cholesterol diet (HCD).
  • The animals were divided into three groups: (i) 1% HCD group (n = 8), (ii) 2% HCD group (n = 8), and (iii) normal diet group (control, n = 3).
  • The HCD groups were divided into two subgroups: (a) balloon injury (BI) group (1% HCD, n = 5; 2% HCD, n = 4), and (b) non-BI group (1% HCD, n = 3; 2% HCD, n = 4).
  • Twelve-week-old male Japanese white rabbits (n = 8) were fed the 1% HCD.
  • This study indicates that the simplest conditions for inducing the rabbit atherosclerosis model are 1% HCD, non-BI, and early start of HCD.
  • [MeSH-major] Atherosclerosis / pathology. Disease Models, Animal
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aorta / injuries. Aorta / pathology. Catheterization / adverse effects. Cholesterol, Dietary / metabolism. Cholesterol, Dietary / toxicity. Disease Progression. Food, Formulated / toxicity. Lipid Metabolism / physiology. Macrophages / physiology. Male. Rabbits. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tunica Intima / injuries. Tunica Intima / pathology. Tunica Intima / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19706997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary
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52. Yang DJ, Chang YY, Hsu CL, Liu CW, Lin YL, Lin YH, Liu KC, Chen YC: Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of polyphenol-rich longan (Dimocarpus longans Lour.) flower water extract in hypercaloric-dietary rats. J Agric Food Chem; 2010 Feb 10;58(3):2020-7
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  • (2) hypercaloric diet and pure water (HCD + NDW);.
  • (3) HCD and 1.25% (w/v) LFWE (HCD + 1.25% LFWE);.
  • (4) HCD and 2.5% (w/v) LFWE (HCD + 2.5% LFWE) for 9 weeks.
  • Body weight, size of epididymal fat, serum triglyceride level and atherogenic index, and hepatic lipids were decreased (p < 0.05) in HCD rats by drinking 2.5% LFWE which may result from downregulated (p < 0.05) pancreatic lipase activity, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expressions, as well as upregulated (p < 0.05) LDL receptor (LDLR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) gene expressions, and also increased (p < 0.05) fecal triglyceride excretions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Flowers / chemistry. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Lipid Metabolism / drug effects. Male. PPAR alpha / genetics. PPAR alpha / metabolism. Polyphenols. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Triglycerides / blood

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  • (PMID = 20088600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5118
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Hypolipidemic Agents; 0 / PPAR alpha; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Polyphenols; 0 / Triglycerides
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53. Savitski MM, Fischer F, Mathieson T, Sweetman G, Lang M, Bantscheff M: Targeted data acquisition for improved reproducibility and robustness of proteomic mass spectrometry assays. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom; 2010 Oct;21(10):1668-79
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  • We also show that a combination of higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) with collisional induced dissociation (CID) outperformed pulsed-Q-dissociation (PQD) on the OrbitrapXL.
  • With the CID/HCD based targeted data acquisition approach 10% more quantifiable target proteins were identified and a 2-fold increase in quantification precision was achieved.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20171116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1123
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; EC 2.7.- / Phosphotransferases; EC 3.4.21.4 / Trypsin
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54. Dayon L, Pasquarello C, Hoogland C, Sanchez JC, Scherl A: Combining low- and high-energy tandem mass spectra for optimized peptide quantification with isobaric tags. J Proteomics; 2010 Feb 10;73(4):769-77

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  • To date, tandem mass spectrometric analysis of isobarically-labeled peptides with hybrid ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ-OT) instruments has been mainly carried out with higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) or pulsed q dissociation (PQD).
  • HCD provides good fragmentation of the reporter-ions, but peptide sequence-ion recovery is generally poor compared to collision-induced dissociation (CID).
  • Herein, we describe an approach where CID and HCD spectra are combined.
  • Tandem mass tags (TMTs) were used to label digests of human plasma and LC-MS/MS was performed with an LTQ-OT instrument.
  • Different HCD collision energies were tested.
  • The benefits to use CID and HCD with respect to HCD alone were demonstrated in terms of number of identifications, subsequent number of quantifiable proteins, and quantification accuracy.
  • A program was developed to merge the peptide sequence-ion m/z range from CID spectra and the reporter-ion m/z range from HCD spectra, and alternatively to separate both spectral data into different files.

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  • (PMID = 19903544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-7737
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2,4,5 trimethylthiazoline; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Thiazoles
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55. Yao R, Cheng X, Liao YH, Chen Y, Xie JJ, Yu X, Ding YJ, Tang TT: Molecular mechanisms of felodipine suppressing atherosclerosis in high-cholesterol-diet apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol; 2008 Feb;51(2):188-95
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  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential effects and molecular mechanisms of the CCB felodipine on the process of atherosclerosis in high-cholesterol-diet (HCD) apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE KO) mice.
  • Adult male ApoE KO mice were given a normal diet (ND) or HCD and were randomized to no treatment or felodipine (5 mg / kg per day for 12 weeks).
  • The ApoE KO mice with HCD were associated with a marked increase in plasma lipid levels, atherosclerotic lesion area, and the expressions of NADPH oxidase subunits (p47 and Rac-1), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in nucleus, phosphor-inhibitors of kappaB (p-IkappaB), tumor necrosis-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1).
  • These changes were suppressed in mice that were treated with felodipine (5 mg/kg per day for 12 weeks) concomitant with HCD administration, with no significant change in systolic blood pressure and plasma lipid levels.

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  • (PMID = 18287887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0160-2446
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins E; 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Lipids; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1; EC 1.6.3.1 / NADPH Oxidase; OL961R6O2C / Felodipine
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56. Sudhahar V, Ashokkumar S, Varalakshmi P: Effect of lupeol and lupeol linoleate on lipemic--hepatocellular aberrations in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Mol Nutr Food Res; 2006 Dec;50(12):1212-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLESTEROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hypercholesterolaemia was induced in male Wistar rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) containing normal rat chow supplemented with 4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid, for 30 days.
  • An apparent increase in the expression of Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase mRNA was seen in HCD fed rats.
  • The activities of hepatic marker enzymes, which serve as indices of cellular injury, were altered in HCD fed rats.
  • Also, an increased (P >0.001) faecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids were observed in lupeol and lupeol linoleate group when compared with HCD fed group.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercholesterolemia / complications. Liver Diseases / etiology. Liver Diseases / prevention & control. Triterpenes / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bile Acids and Salts / analysis. Cholesterol / analysis. Cholesterol, Dietary / administration & dosage. Dietary Supplements. Feces / chemistry. Lipids / analysis. Liver / chemistry. Liver / enzymology. Male. Pentacyclic Triterpenes. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sterol O-Acyltransferase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17103376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1613-4125
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular nutrition & food research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Nutr Food Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Pentacyclic Triterpenes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Triterpenes; 0 / lupeol linoleate; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 2.3.1.26 / Sterol O-Acyltransferase; O268W13H3O / lupeol
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57. Cheong SH, Kim MY, Sok DE, Hwang SY, Kim JH, Kim HR, Lee JH, Kim YB, Kim MR: Spirulina prevents atherosclerosis by reducing hypercholesterolemia in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo); 2010;56(1):34-40
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLESTEROL .

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  • The animal had hypercholesterolemia induced by being fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) containing 0.5% cholesterol for 4 wk, and then fed a HCD supplemented with 1 or 5% spirulina (SP1 or SP5) for an additional 8 wk.
  • Spirulina supplementation lowered intimal surface of the aorta by 32.2 to 48.3%, compared to HCD.
  • After 8 wk, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remarkably decreased by 26.4% in SP1 and 41.2% in SP5, compared to HCD.
  • On the other hand, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was markedly increased in SP1 and SP5 compared with that in the HCD group from 2 to 8 wk.
  • Spirulina may, therefore, be beneficial in preventing atherosclerosis and reducing risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aorta. Cholesterol / blood. Disease Models, Animal. Phytotherapy. Rabbits. Triglycerides / blood

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  • (PMID = 20354344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-7742
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nutritional science and vitaminology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticholesteremic Agents; 0 / Plant Preparations; 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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58. Xie W, Du L: High-cholesterol diets impair short-term retention of memory in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, but not acquisition of memory nor retention of memory in prediabetic mice. Life Sci; 2005 Jun 17;77(5):481-95
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Memory.

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  • Whether high-cholesterol diets (HCD) induce a high incidence of memory deficits in diabetes requires to be established; if so, whether they induce impairments of memory acquired in the pre-diabetic stage as well as in the diabetic stage also needs to be elucidated, and part of the related mechanisms involved in this dysfunction should be determined.
  • The mice were grouped into: normal mice fed normal diets (NN), diabetic mice fed normal diets (DN), normal mice fed HCD (NH), and diabetic mice fed HCD (DH).
  • These results indicate that HCD impair the diabetic retention of memory, but neither the diabetic acquisition of memory nor the pre-diabetic retention of memory in diabetic mice in a short term.
  • Controlled HCD may be a strategy to prevent the loss of memory in diabetic individuals after they have acquired new information.

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  • (PMID = 15904667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3205
  • [Journal-full-title] Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; EC 3.1.1.7 / Acetylcholinesterase
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59. Orlov SN, Tremblay J, Hamet P: NKCC1 and hypertension: a novel therapeutic target involved in the regulation of vascular tone and renal function. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens; 2010 Mar;19(2):163-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - High Blood Pressure.

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  • RECENT FINDINGS: High-ceiling diuretics (HCDs), known potent inhibitors of NKCC1, renal-specific NKCC2 and four isoforms of K+, Cl(-) cotransporters decrease [Cl(-)]i, hyperpolarize vascular smooth muscle cells and suppress myogenic tone and contractions evoked by modest depolarization, phenylephrine, angiotensin II and uridine triphosphate.
  • These actions are absent in NKCC1(-/-) mice, indicating that HCDs interact with NKCC1 rather than with other potential targets.
  • NKCC1 deficiency causes approximately three-fold elevation in plasma renin concentrations and attenuates HCD-induced renin production.
  • In addition to HCDs, NKCC1 is also inhibited by extracellular HCO3(-) in the range corresponding to its concentration in ischemic extracellular fluids.
  • In addition to BP regulation, the decreased baseline activity of this carrier or its suppression by chronic treatment with HCDs may lead to inhibition of myogenic tone and progression of end-stage renal disease.

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  • (PMID = 20061948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6543
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP-81392
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SLC12A2 protein, human; 0 / Slc12a2 protein, mouse; 0 / Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters; 0 / Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 2
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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60. Stoletov K, Fang L, Choi SH, Hartvigsen K, Hansen LF, Hall C, Pattison J, Juliano J, Miller ER, Almazan F, Crosier P, Witztum JL, Klemke RL, Miller YI: Vascular lipid accumulation, lipoprotein oxidation, and macrophage lipid uptake in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. Circ Res; 2009 Apr 24;104(8):952-60
ZFIN. ZFIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Extreme hyperlipidemia induced in mice and rabbits enables modeling many aspects of human atherosclerosis, but microscopic examination of plaques is possible only postmortem.
  • Here we report that feeding adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) resulted in hypercholesterolemia, remarkable lipoprotein oxidation, and fatty streak formation in the arteries.
  • Feeding an HCD supplemented with a fluorescent cholesteryl ester to optically transparent fli1:EGFP zebrafish larvae in which endothelial cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP), and using confocal microscopy enabled monitoring vascular lipid accumulation and the endothelial cell layer disorganization and thickening in a live animal.
  • The HCD feeding also increased leakage of a fluorescent dextran from the blood vessels.
  • Administering ezetimibe significantly diminished the HCD-induced endothelial cell layer thickening and improved its barrier function.
  • Feeding HCD to lyz:DsRed2 larvae in which macrophages and granulocytes express DsRed resulted in the accumulation of fluorescent myeloid cells in the vascular wall.
  • Using a fluorogenic substrate for phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), we observed an increased vascular PLA(2) activity in live HCD-fed larvae compared to control larvae.
  • Furthermore, by transplanting genetically modified murine cells into HCD-fed larvae, we demonstrated that toll-like receptor-4 was required for efficient in vivo lipid uptake by macrophages.

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  • (PMID = 19265037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4571
  • [Journal-full-title] Circulation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Circ. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL093767-01A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL093767-01A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01HL081862; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01HL088093; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL081862-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL081862-04; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL081862; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL093767
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticholesteremic Agents; 0 / Azetidines; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Lipoproteins; 0 / Luminescent Proteins; 0 / Tlr4 protein, mouse; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4; 0 / enhanced green fluorescent protein; 0 / fluorescent protein 583; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.1.1.4 / Phospholipases A2; EOR26LQQ24 / Ezetimibe
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS177557; NLM/ PMC2834250
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61. Wang Y, Liu R, Chen L, Wang Y, Liang Y, Wu X, Li B, Wu J, Liang Y, Wang X, Zhang C, Wang Q, Hong X, Dong H: Nicotiana tabacum TTG1 contributes to ParA1-induced signalling and cell death in leaf trichomes. J Cell Sci; 2009 Aug 1;122(Pt 15):2673-85
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Here we report a role of leaf trichomes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hypersensitive cell death (HCD) induced by ParA1, an elicitin protein from a plant-pathogenic oomycete.
  • Reactive oxygen species are a group of intracellular signals that are crucial for HCD to develop and for cells to undergo cell death subsequent to chromatin condensation, a hallmark of HCD.
  • These events were impaired when the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was inhibited by catalase or a NADPH-oxidase inhibitor applied to trichomes, suggesting the importance of H(2)O(2) in the pathway of HCD signal transduction from the trichomes to mesophylls.
  • The ParA1-NtTTG1 interaction and the HCD pathway were also abrogated when NtTTG1 was silenced in the trichomes.
  • These observations suggest that NtTTG1 plays an essential role in HCD signal transduction from leaf trichomes to mesophylls.

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  • (PMID = 19596794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9533
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cell science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Oxidants; 0 / Plant Proteins; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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62. Nagaraj N, D'Souza RC, Cox J, Olsen JV, Mann M: Feasibility of large-scale phosphoproteomics with higher energy collisional dissociation fragmentation. J Proteome Res; 2010 Dec 3;9(12):6786-94
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Here we investigate if the improved sensitivity of higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) on an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos instrument allows a "high-high" strategy.
  • A high resolution MS scan was followed by up to 10 HCD MS/MS scans, and we achieved cycle times of about 3 s making the method compatible with chromatographic time scales.
  • Unexpectedly, the HCD approach mapped up to 16,000 total phosphorylation sites in one day's measuring time--the same or better than the standard high-low strategy.
  • We conclude that HCD in the new configuration is now a viable method for large-scale phosphoproteome analysis alongside collisional induced dissociation, (CID) and electron capture/transfer dissociation (ECD/ETD).

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  • [ErratumIn] J Proteome Res. 2012 Jun 1;11(6):3506-8
  • (PMID = 20873877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Phosphopeptides; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Proteome
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63. Köcher T, Pichler P, Schutzbier M, Stingl C, Kaul A, Teucher N, Hasenfuss G, Penninger JM, Mechtler K: High precision quantitative proteomics using iTRAQ on an LTQ Orbitrap: a new mass spectrometric method combining the benefits of all. J Proteome Res; 2009 Oct;8(10):4743-52
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, application of iTRAQ methodology using ion traps and hybrid mass spectrometers containing an ion trap such as the LTQ-Orbitrap was not possible until the development of pulsed Q dissociation (PQD) and higher energy C-trap dissociation (HCD).
  • We developed an analytical strategy combining the advantages of CID and HCD, allowing sensitive and accurate protein identification and quantitation at the same time.
  • In a direct comparison, the novel method outperformed PQD and HCD regarding its limit of detection, the number of identified peptides and the analytical precision of quantitation.

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  • (PMID = 19663507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Serum Albumin, Bovine
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64. Krampe B, Swiderek H, Al-Rubeai M: Transcriptome and proteome analysis of antibody-producing mouse myeloma NS0 cells cultivated at different cell densities in perfusion culture. Biotechnol Appl Biochem; 2008 Jul;50(Pt 3):133-41
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Transcriptome and proteome analyses of cells at three different densities revealed 53 genes and 47 proteins as having significantly altered expression levels at HCD (high cell density).
  • Additionally, subunits of proteasome complex were highly expressed at HCD.
  • Microarray, real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and Western-blot analyses demonstrated a consistent trend of decrease in IgG heavy-chain level with increasing cell density.
  • HSP60, which inhibits apoptosis by complexing with pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax and Bak, was repressed at HCD.
  • Overall, the data suggested that the balance among several factors involved in energy metabolism might be essential for fine-tuning the cell choice between survival and apoptosis, leaning towards the side of apoptosis at HCD.
  • The results provide significant information for cell-engineering strategies and solutions to problems that prevail in HCD culture.


65. Dhingra S, Bansal MP: Attenuation of LDL receptor gene expression by selenium deficiency during hypercholesterolemia. Mol Cell Biochem; 2006 Jan;282(1-2):75-82
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SELENIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Animals were fed Se adequate (0.2 ppm) and deficient (0.02 ppm) control diet as well as high cholesterol (2%) diet (HCD) for 1 and 2 months.
  • LDL-R activity and mRNA expression decreased significantly on HCD feeding in both Se deficient and adequate diet fed rats after 2 months.
  • After 2 months LDL-R activity and expression decreased in both the Se deficient groups and in Se adequate HCD fed group in comparison to 1 month data.
  • But after 4 month there was no significant difference observed in LDL-R activity and mRNA expression in selenium deficiency as well as on HCD feeding.

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  • (PMID = 16317514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Lipoproteins, LDL; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LDL; 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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66. Li JZ, Lei Y, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Ye J, Xia X, Pan X, Li P: Control of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake and storage in hepatocytes by Cideb. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2010 May;1801(5):577-86
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cideb-null mice and wild-type mice were treated with normal diet (ND) or high cholesterol diet (HCD) for one month.
  • Cideb-null mice had lower levels of plasma cholesterol and LDL when fed with both ND and HCD and increased rate of cholesterol absorption.
  • Therefore, Cideb could serve as an important therapeutical target for the treatment of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Cideb protein, mouse; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / SREBP cleavage-activating protein; 0 / Srebf2 protein, mouse; 0 / Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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67. Liu F, Liu H, Jia Q, Wu X, Guo X, Zhang S, Song F, Dong H: The Internal Glycine-Rich Motif and Cysteine Suppress Several Effects of the HpaG(Xooc) Protein in Plants. Phytopathology; 2006 Oct;96(10):1052-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • ABSTRACT HpaG(Xooc), produced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, is a member of harpin group of proteins that stimulate plant growth, hypersensitive cell death (HCD), and pathogen defense.
  • When applied to tobacco plants, C47T and MG were 1.2- and 1.7-fold stronger, respectively, than HpaG(Xooc) in inducing HCD, which occurred consistently with expression of the marker genes hin1 and hsr203.

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  • (PMID = 18943492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-949X
  • [Journal-full-title] Phytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Fang L, Harkewicz R, Hartvigsen K, Wiesner P, Choi SH, Almazan F, Pattison J, Deer E, Sayaphupha T, Dennis EA, Witztum JL, Tsimikas S, Miller YI: Oxidized cholesteryl esters and phospholipids in zebrafish larvae fed a high cholesterol diet: macrophage binding and activation. J Biol Chem; 2010 Oct 15;285(42):32343-51
ZFIN. ZFIN .

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  • This model utilizes optically transparent zebrafish larvae, fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD), to monitor processes of vascular inflammation in live animals.
  • Because lipoprotein oxidation is an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis, in this study, we characterized the oxidized lipid milieu in HCD-fed zebrafish larvae.
  • Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that feeding an HCD for only 2 weeks resulted in up to 70-fold increases in specific oxidized cholesteryl esters, identical to those present in human minimally oxidized LDL and in murine atherosclerotic lesions.
  • Moreover, lipoproteins isolated from homogenates of HCD-fed larvae induced cell spreading as well as ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK phosphorylation in murine macrophages.
  • Removal of apoB-containing lipoproteins from the zebrafish homogenates with an anti-human LDL antibody, as well as reducing lipid hydroperoxides with ebselen, resulted in inhibition of macrophage activation.
  • Using biotinylated homogenates of HCD-fed larvae, we demonstrated that their components bound to murine macrophages, and this binding was effectively competed by minimally oxidized LDL but not by native LDL.
  • These data provide evidence that molecular lipid determinants of proatherogenic macrophage phenotypes are present in large quantities in hypercholesterolemic zebrafish larvae and support the use of the HCD-fed zebrafish as a valuable model to study early events of atherogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 20710028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM069338; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL088093; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL081862; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL093767; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA23100; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL088093; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U54 GM069338; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA023100; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL081862; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL093767
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol Esters; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Phospholipids
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2952235
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69. Pandey AK, Ger MJ, Huang HE, Yip MK, Zeng J, Feng TY: Expression of the hypersensitive response-assisting protein in Arabidopsis results in harpin-dependent hypersensitive cell death in response to Erwinia carotovora. Plant Mol Biol; 2005 Nov;59(5):771-80
Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .

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  • Active defense mechanisms of plants against pathogens often include a rapid plant cell death known as the hypersensitive cell death (HCD).
  • Hypersensitive response-assisting protein (HRAP) isolated from sweet pepper intensifies the harpin(Pss)-mediated HCD.
  • Here we demonstrate that constitutive expression of the hrap gene in Arabidopsis results in an enhanced disease resistance towards soft rot pathogen, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora.
  • This resistance was due to the induction of HCD since different HCD markers viz.
  • One of the elicitor harpin proteins, HrpN, from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora was able to induce a stronger HCD in hrap-Arabidopsis than non-transgenic controls.
  • The hrpN(-) mutant did not induce disease resistance or HCD markers in hrap-Arabidopsis.
  • These results imply that the disease resistance of hrap-Arabidopsis against a virulent pathogen is harpin dependent.
  • [MeSH-major] Arabidopsis / cytology. Arabidopsis / microbiology. Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism. Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins / metabolism. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Plant. Pectobacterium carotovorum / physiology. Plant Diseases / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 16270229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-4412
  • [Journal-full-title] Plant molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plant Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arabidopsis Proteins; 0 / Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins; 0 / harpin protein, Erwinia amylovora; 0 / hypersensitive response-assisting protein, Arabidopsis; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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70. Sukhareva GV, Tsaregorodtseva TM, Petrakov AV, Nilova TV, Sil'vestrova SIu, Lazebnik LB: [Hepatic lesion in patients with hepatocerebral dystrophy]. Ter Arkh; 2006;78(2):52-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Wilson Disease.

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  • AIM: To study hepatic affection in hepatocerebral dystrophy (HCD) regarding clinical course and duration of the disease.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The records on 63 HCD patients were studied retrospectively as to early clinical symptoms, onset dynamics, biochemical tests for hepatic function, morphological changes of the liver, immune and cytokine status, markers of hepatotropic viruses.
  • RESULTS: Six variants of HCD course were identified: hepatic (24 patients), endocrine (17 patients), neurological (12 patients), psychoemotional (5 patients), hemolytic (3 patients), renal (1 patient).
  • Markers of viral hepatitides B, C, G, TT were detected primarily in patients with a hepatic variant of HCD.
  • CONCLUSION: Hepatic lesions in HCD are different.
  • Clinical, biochemical, morphological activity and immune status affections were most severe in patients with hepatic and endocrine variants of HCD, being the least severe in neurological, psychoemotional and hemolytic variants.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers / blood. Cytokines / blood. Disease Progression. Fatty Liver / blood. Fatty Liver / etiology. Fatty Liver / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoglobulins / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Time Factors. Transaminases / blood

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  • (PMID = 16613099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-3660
  • [Journal-full-title] Terapevticheskiĭ arkhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ter. Arkh.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Immunoglobulins; EC 2.6.1.- / Transaminases
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71. Hubácek JA, Bobková D, Bohuslavová R, Poledne R: Differences in expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase between PHHC and Wistar rats. Folia Biol (Praha); 2008;54(1):18-23
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLESTEROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The animals were fed standard laboratory diet (CD) or control diet containing 5% fat and 2% cholesterol (HCD) for two weeks.
  • Although the basal cholesterolemia in PHHC was similar to controls (1.80 +/- 0.48 and 1.52 +/- 0.39 mmol/l, respectively), it rose in rats fed on HCD to 9.81 +/- 1.65 mmol/l in PHHC rats and only to 2.19 +/- 0.41 mmol/l in controls.
  • In controls on HCD, cyp7A1 gene expression increased almost 4-fold immediately on the first day and achieved up to approximately 20-multiple basal expression in the end of the feeding period.
  • Compared to the controls, after switching to HCD the cyp7A1 gene expression in PHHC rats did not change dramatically.

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  • (PMID = 18226361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5500
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia biologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Biol. (Praha)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipoproteins; 0 / Nucleic Acids; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 1.14.13.17 / Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase
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72. Kumar SA, Sudhahar V, Varalakshmi P: Protective role of eicosapentaenoate-lipoate (EPA-LA) derivative in combating oxidative hepatocellular injury in hypercholesterolemic atherogenesis. Atherosclerosis; 2006 Nov;189(1):115-22
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • HCD) for 30 days, among which, three groups of rats were also treated with either EPA (35 mg/kg body weight/day, oral gavage), LA (20 mg/kg body weight/day, oral gavage) or EPA-LA derivative (50 mg/kg body weight/day, oral gavage) commencing from 16th day of the experimental period.
  • Abnormal increases in the levels of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, as well as depressed antioxidants status, were observed in hepatic tissue of HCD fed rats.
  • HCD induced abnormal elevation in the activities of hepatic lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and was accompanied by increased hepatic cholesterol level and altered fatty changes in the histology of liver.
  • However, the combined derivative EPA-LA almost ameliorated the hypercholesterolemic-oxidative changes in the HCD fed rats.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cholesterol / metabolism. Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxyguanosine / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16458314.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9150
  • [Journal-full-title] Atherosclerosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Atherosclerosis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / eicosapentaenoate-lipoate; 73Y7P0K73Y / Thioctic Acid; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; AAN7QOV9EA / Eicosapentaenoic Acid; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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73. Chang K, Francis SA, Aikawa E, Figueiredo JL, Kohler RH, McCarthy JR, Weissleder R, Plutzky J, Jaffer FA: Pioglitazone suppresses inflammation in vivo in murine carotid atherosclerosis: novel detection by dual-target fluorescence molecular imaging. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol; 2010 Oct;30(10):1933-9
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

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  • To assess PIO's effects on plaque inflammation, nondiabetic apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice receiving a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) were administered an MMP-activatable fluorescence imaging agent and a spectrally distinct Mac-avid fluorescent nanoparticle.
  • These mice were then randomized to HCD or HCD plus 0.012% PIO for 8 weeks, followed by a second intravital fluorescence microscopy study of the same carotid plaque.
  • In the HCD group, in vivo MMP and Mac target-to-background ratios increased similarly (P<0.01 versus baseline).
  • In contrast, PIO reduced MMP and Mac target-to-background ratios (P<0.01) versus HCD.

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  • (PMID = 20689078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4636
  • [Journal-full-title] Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / UO1 HL080731; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / U01 HL080731; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL048743; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL 048743; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL007604
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Apolipoproteins E; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 3.4.24.- / Mmp9 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS237080; NLM/ PMC3030475
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74. Wiersma H, Nijstad N, de Boer JF, Out R, Hogewerf W, Van Berkel TJ, Kuipers F, Tietge UJ: Lack of Abcg1 results in decreased plasma HDL cholesterol levels and increased biliary cholesterol secretion in mice fed a high cholesterol diet. Atherosclerosis; 2009 Sep;206(1):141-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLESTEROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of Abcg1 deficiency on plasma HDL, liver cholesterol metabolism and biliary cholesterol secretion under conditions of feeding either chow or a 1% cholesterol diet (HCD) or treatment with the LXR agonist T0901317.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Abcg1 expression specifically in hepatocytes is induced by both HCD (p<0.01) and T0901317 (p<0.001).
  • HCD or T0901317 treatment resulted in significantly lower plasma HDL cholesterol levels in Abcg1 knockout mice compared with controls (p<0.05) consistent with a role of Abcg1 in cholesterol efflux towards HDL.
  • Biliary cholesterol secretion was 47% higher in Abcg1(-/-) mice on HCD (p<0.05) and not different in the chow and the T0901317 groups.

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  • (PMID = 19339012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1484
  • [Journal-full-title] Atherosclerosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Atherosclerosis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Cholesterol, HDL; 0 / Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated; 0 / Lipoproteins; 0 / Orphan Nuclear Receptors; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / TO-901317; 0 / liver X receptor; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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75. Demir O, Murat N, Soner BC, Demir T, Bal E, Can E, Gidener S, Esen AA: Acute effects of hypercholesterolemic diet on erectile responses in rats. Urol Int; 2010;85(1):112-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of a high cholesterol diet (HCD) on erectile and endothelial functions in Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups as control and HCD groups.
  • To examine the effect of HCD on erectile function, electric cavernous nerve stimulation (CNS) at 20 Hz with a pulse duration of 1 ms for 1 min at 5 V was performed.
  • RESULTS: In the HCD group total cholesterol levels were significantly higher than in the control group (148.1 +/- 18.9 vs. 55.7 +/- 8.1 mg/dl, p = 0.002).
  • The detumescence time was significantly decreased after HCD compared to the control diet (19.3 +/- 3.6 vs. 78.6 +/- 12.8 s, p < 0.001).
  • The decreases in the HCD group were also significant in terms of ICP (53.4 +/- 4.5 vs. 35.6 +/- 5.5 mm Hg; p < 0.05), ICP/MAP (55.9 +/- 3.9 vs. 38.2 +/- 5.2%; p < 0.05) and AUC (1,404 +/- 197.1 vs. 2,250 +/- 253.7, p < 0.05) values.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that erectile functions were significantly damaged early in HCD rats.
  • However, endothelial functions, evaluated in the thoracic aorta, were not affected simultaneously with erectile functions in rats fed a low concentration of HCD.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcholine / pharmacology. Animals. Aorta, Thoracic / drug effects. Aorta, Thoracic / physiopathology. Cholesterol, Dietary. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Electric Stimulation. Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects. Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Time Factors. Vasodilation / drug effects. Vasodilator Agents / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20224261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; N9YNS0M02X / Acetylcholine
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76. Hayashi T, Matsui-Hirai H, Fukatsu A, Sumi D, Kano-Hayashi H, Rani P JA, Iguchi A: Selective iNOS inhibitor, ONO1714 successfully retards the development of high-cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis by novel mechanism. Atherosclerosis; 2006 Aug;187(2):316-24
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  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven groups of male rabbits were fed a 0.5% high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 8 weeks.
  • Gp1-HCD was fed HCD only; Gp2-O17 was fed HCD with ONO1714, an iNOS inhibitor; Gp3-AG was fed HCD with amino-guanidine (AG), an iNOS inhibitor; Gp4-AR was fed HCD with l-arginine; Gp5-AR-O17 was fed HCD with l-arginine with ONO1714; Gp6-LNA was fed HCD with l-NAME (a NOS inhibitor); and Gp7-LN-O17 was fed HCD with l-NAME plus ONO1714.
  • ONO1714 decreased atherosclerosis by about 70% (area occupied by lesions: 3.0+/-0.4% in Gp2-O17 versus 10.3+/-1.6% in Gp1-HCD) and also decreased atherosclerosis in Gp7-LN-O17.

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  • (PMID = 16325187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9150
  • [Journal-full-title] Atherosclerosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Atherosclerosis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 7-chloro-3-imino-5-methyl-2-azabicyclo(4.1.0)heptane; 0 / Amidines; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP; V55S2QJN2X / NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
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77. Durak H, Comunoglu NU, Comunoglu C, Guven A, Cam M, Dervisoglu S, Eren B: Specificity and sensitivity of differentiation antigens in superficial soft tissue tumors: comparison of SMA, calponin, H-caldesmon, C-kit, PLAP and HPL. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2010;111(8):432-8
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  • We examined the expression pattern of smooth muscle actin (SMA), h-caldesmon (HCD), calponin (CALP), placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) and human placental lactogen (HPL) in benign and malignant spindle cell superficial soft tissue tumors in order to determine the role of these markers in differential diagnosis.
  • Archival tissue from 38 patients with superficial smooth muscle cell and so-called fibrohistiocytic tumors (8 benign fibrous histiocytomas (BFHs), 6 dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFPT), 9 malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs), 9 leiomyomas (LMs) and 6 leiomyosarcomas (LMSs)) were immunostained with antibodies against SMA, HCD, CALP, PLAP and HPL. smooth muscle cell (SMC) tumors showed significantly high immunopositivity for HCD than that of so-called fibrohistiocytic tumors (p is less than or equal to 0.05) but 1/3 of DFPT and MFH cases and half of BFH cases also showed HCD immunopositivity; thus, this difference is debatable and not highly discriminative as expected.
  • In conclusion, HCD and PLAP can be used as ancillary immunomarkers in differential diagnosis of SMC tumors (Tab. 2, Fig. 7, Ref. 37).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Differentiation / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Alkaline Phosphatase / analysis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. GPI-Linked Proteins / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Isoenzymes / analysis. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Placental Lactogen / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 21033622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / calponin; 9035-54-5 / Placental Lactogen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / alkaline phosphatase, placental
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78. Zhang Y, Dong XL, Leung PC, Che CT, Wong MS: Fructus ligustri lucidi extract improves calcium balance and modulates the calciotropic hormone level and vitamin D-dependent gene expression in aged ovariectomized rats. Menopause; 2008 May-Jun;15(3):558-65
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  • DESIGN: Aged OVX rats were orally administered an ethanol extract of FLL and its vehicle and fed with diets containing different levels of calcium [low calcium diet (LCD), 0.1% Ca; medium calcium diet (MCD), 0.6% Ca; and high calcium diet (HCD), 1.2% Ca] for 12 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Significant reductions in urinary and fecal calcium excretion were found in the FLL-treated animals, resulting in a significant induction of calcium retention in rats fed with the MCD and HCD.
  • FLL treatment significantly increased the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 level and slightly decreased the serum parathyroid hormone level in OVX rats fed with the MCD and HCD.
  • FLL treatment significantly up-regulated duodenal vitamin D receptor and calcium transport protein 1 mRNA expression in rats fed with the HCD.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Ovariectomy. Phosphorus / metabolism. Rats

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  • (PMID = 18327153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-3714
  • [Journal-full-title] Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Menopause
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium, Dietary; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 1C6V77QF41 / Cholecalciferol; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus
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79. Derave W, Jones G, Hespel P, Harris RC: Creatine supplementation augments skeletal muscle carnosine content in senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8). Rejuvenation Res; 2008 Jun;11(3):641-7
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  • The histidine-containing dipeptides (HCD) carnosine and anserine are found in high concentrations in mammalian skeletal muscle.
  • The present study aimed to systematically explore age-related changes in skeletal muscles HCD content in a murine model of accelerated aging.
  • Additionally, we investigated the effect of lifelong creatine supplementation on muscle HCD content and contractile fatiguability.
  • At week 10, 25, and 60, tibialis anterior muscles were dissected and analysed for HCD and taurine content by HPLC.
  • From the present study, we can conclude that skeletal muscle tissue exhibits a significant decline in HCD content at old age.

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  • (PMID = 18593282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-1684
  • [Journal-full-title] Rejuvenation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rejuvenation Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11P2JDE17B / beta-Alanine; 1EQV5MLY3D / Taurine; 8HO6PVN24W / Carnosine; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; HDQ4N37UGV / Anserine
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80. Olsen JV, Macek B, Lange O, Makarov A, Horning S, Mann M: Higher-energy C-trap dissociation for peptide modification analysis. Nat Methods; 2007 Sep;4(9):709-12
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  • Here we show that in the linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbitrap) peptide ions can be efficiently fragmented by high-accuracy and full-mass-range tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) via higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD).
  • Immonium ions generated via HCD pinpoint modifications such as phosphotyrosine with very high confidence.
  • Additionally we show that an added octopole collision cell facilitates de novo sequencing.

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  • (PMID = 17721543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-7091
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments
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81. Kim MY, Cheong SH, Lee JH, Kim MJ, Sok DE, Kim MR: Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. J Med Food; 2010 Apr;13(2):420-6
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  • After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks.
  • Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values.
  • Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group.

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  • (PMID = 20210608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7600
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal food
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Food
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Enzymes; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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82. Spasovski G, Gelev S, Masin-Spasovska J, Selim G, Sikole A, Vanholder R: Improvement of bone and mineral parameters related to adynamic bone disease by diminishing dialysate calcium. Bone; 2007 Oct;41(4):698-703
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

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  • [Title] Improvement of bone and mineral parameters related to adynamic bone disease by diminishing dialysate calcium.
  • BACKGROUND: The existence of adynamic bone disease (ABD) as most prevalent form of renal osteodystrophy in recent years and its reduced ability to handle an exogenous calcium load has implied a higher risk for vascular and soft-tissue calcifications.
  • This randomized, prospective study aimed to compare the effects of LCD and high calcium dialysate (HCD) on the evolution of bone and mineral parameters related to ABD in dialysis patients.
  • METHODS: 52 out of 60 patients with predialysis intact PTH<100 pg/ml completed this study and were equally distributed over LCD (1.25 mmol/l) or HCD (1.75 mmol/l) treatment.
  • Hypotension occurred in 16% and 17% and cramps in 6% and 8% of the dialysis sessions, in the HCD and LCD group, respectively.
  • The groups did not differ in the mean tCa before dialysis, but this parameter was significantly higher in the HCD group vs. LCD at the end of dialysis (2.59+/-0.18 vs. 2.44+/-0.19 mmol/l; p<0.01).
  • The patients of the HCD group also had a significantly higher mean iCa both before (1.08+/-0.05 vs. 1.04+/-0.06 mmol/l; p=0.02) and at the end of dialysis (1.18+/-0.04 vs. 1.48+/-0.04 mmol/l; p<0.01).
  • The bone markers in the HCD group did not change.
  • At the end of the study all bone parameters in the LCD group were significantly higher than in the HCD group.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density / drug effects. Bone Diseases / physiopathology. Calcium / pharmacology. Dialysis Solutions / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17643363.001).
  • [ISSN] 8756-3282
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Dialysis Solutions; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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83. Stroubini T, Perrea D, Perelas A, Liapi C, Dontas I, Trapali M, Katsilambros N, Galanopoulou P: Effect of sibutramine on regional fat pads and leptin levels in rats fed with three isocaloric diets. Eur Cytokine Netw; 2008 Sep;19(3):149-55
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SIBUTRAMINE .

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  • METHODS: Three groups of male Wistar rats (n = 63) were fed with a high fat diet (HFD), a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) or a high protein diet (HPD) for 13 weeks.
  • S at 10 mg/kg decreased food intake in the HFD and epididymal fat in the HCD group.
  • S also reduced perirenal fat in the HCD and HPD groups.
  • Leptin levels were higher in rats fed with either the HFD or the HPD compared to those fed with the HCD.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a preferential effect of S on perirenal visceral fat and support the view that body fat loss is greater when its administration is accompanied by a HCD diet.

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  • (PMID = 18775804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1952-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] European cytokine network
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Cytokine Netw.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Appetite Depressants; 0 / Cyclobutanes; 0 / Dietary Carbohydrates; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Dietary Proteins; 0 / Leptin; WV5EC51866 / sibutramine
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84. Sudhahar V, Kumar SA, Varalakshmi P: Role of lupeol and lupeol linoleate on lipemic-oxidative stress in experimental hypercholesterolemia. Life Sci; 2006 Feb 16;78(12):1329-35
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  • Epidemiological studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and the blood cholesterol level.
  • HCD) for 30 days.
  • A significant increase (p<0.05) in plasma total cholesterol (4.22 fold) and triglycerides (1.7 fold) was observed in HCD fed rats, along with elevated LDL (3.56 fold) and VLDL (1.99 fold) cholesterol and decreased HDL cholesterol (34.14%).
  • The significant increase (p<0.05) in lipid peroxidation (LPO) was paralleled by significantly diminished (p<0.05) activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) and decreased (p<0.05) concentration of antioxidant molecules (GSH, Vit C and Vit E) in cardiac tissue and hemolysate of HCD fed rats.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cholesterol / blood. Cholesterol, LDL / blood. Cholesterol, VLDL / blood. Disease Models, Animal. Heart / drug effects. Lipids / blood. Male. Myocardium / metabolism. Pentacyclic Triterpenes. Phytotherapy. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Triglycerides / blood

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  • (PMID = 16216277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3205
  • [Journal-full-title] Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, LDL; 0 / Cholesterol, VLDL; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Pentacyclic Triterpenes; 0 / Triglycerides; 0 / Triterpenes; 0 / lupeol linoleate; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; O268W13H3O / lupeol
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85. Maisnar V, Tichy M, Stulik J, Urban P, Adam Z, Kadlckova E, Vavrova J, Palicka V, Jebavy L, Kodet R, Buchler T, Hajek R: Capillary immunotyping electrophoresis and high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis for the detection of mu-heavy chain disease. Clin Chim Acta; 2008 Mar;389(1-2):171-3
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  • [Title] Capillary immunotyping electrophoresis and high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis for the detection of mu-heavy chain disease.
  • Heavy chain disease with monoclonal incomplete mu-heavy chains (mu-HCD) is a rare disorder usually associated with an underlying lymphoproliferative malignancy.
  • Laboratory diagnosis of patients with mu-HCD is usually challenging and the monoclonal protein is not detected by electrophoresis in up to 75% of mu-HCD cases.
  • We describe a patient with multiple malignancies in whom we detected and characterized monoclonal mu-heavy chains using immunofixation electrophoresis, capillary zone electrophoresis with immunotyping, and high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis.
  • The high resolution 2D electrophoresis enabled us to determine the molecular weight of the mu-heavy chains.
  • [MeSH-major] Electrophoresis, Capillary / methods. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional / methods. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / analysis. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18036562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
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86. Kim SK, Park IK, Park BH, Park W, Lee HS, Kim TH, Jun JB, Bae SC, Yoo DH, Uhm WS: A case report: isolated a heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy in a patient with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin change syndrome. Int J Clin Pract Suppl; 2005 Apr;(147):26-30
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  • [Title] A case report: isolated a heavy chain monoclonal gammopathy in a patient with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy and skin change syndrome.
  • In this case, the M-band on serum protein electrophoresis and isolated IgA heavy chain on serum immunofixation electrophoresis were demonstrated, but there was no abnormal light chain.
  • We suggest that this case may be associated with a pattern of abnormal secretion of monoclonal protein or a coincidence of a heavy chain disease in POEMS syndrome, even though the latter possibility may be very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Heavy Chain Disease / diagnosis. POEMS Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15875614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-504X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Pract Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains
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87. Vaanholt LM, Jonas I, Doornbos M, Schubert KA, Nyakas C, Garland T Jr, Visser GH, van Dijk G: Metabolic and behavioral responses to high-fat feeding in mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity. Int J Obes (Lond); 2008 Oct;32(10):1566-75
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  • METHODS: Male and female mice selectively bred for a high level of wheel running behavior over 30 generations and nonselected controls (background strain Hsd:ICR) were maintained on a standard lab chow high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) or on an HFD (60% fat).
  • In addition, they had an elevated daily energy expenditure (DEE), increased spontaneous cage activity ( approximately 700% relative to controls) and higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) on the HFD compared with feeding the HCD.
  • On HCD, adiponectin levels were higher in selected male, but not female, mice relative to controls.

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  • (PMID = 18725891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5497
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of obesity (2005)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Obes (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / Dietary Carbohydrates; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Thyronines; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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88. Al-Zaid NS, Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Juggi JS: Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet enhances cardiac tolerance to global ischaemia. Acta Cardiol; 2007 Aug;62(4):381-9
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  • Previously, we have shown that a low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) reduces the risk factors for heart disease in obese patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats weighing 190-250 g were divided into normal diet (ND), LCKD and high carbohydrate diet (HCD) groups consisting of six animals in each group.
  • Changes in body weight, ultrastructure of the cardiac muscles and the cardio-protective effects of the LCKD group as compared to the ND and HCD groups were investigated in rats following global ischaemic injury.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Weight. Coronary Circulation. Disease Models, Animal. Male. Mitochondria, Heart / metabolism. Mitochondria, Heart / pathology. Mitochondria, Heart / ultrastructure. Myocardial Contraction. Myocardial Ischemia / metabolism. Myocardial Ischemia / physiopathology. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Time Factors. Vascular Resistance. Ventricular Pressure

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  • (PMID = 17824299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5385
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cardiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cardiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Carbohydrates; 0 / Ketone Bodies
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89. Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ, Kotyla T, Sundram K, Kritchevsky D: Different palm oil preparations reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation compared to coconut oil in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J Nutr Biochem; 2005 Oct;16(10):633-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks at which time they were bled after an overnight fast and segregated into four groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations.
  • Group 1 continued on the HCD, Group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RPO in place of coconut oil, Group 3 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBD-PO in place of coconut oil and Group 4 was fed the HCD with 10% reconstituted RBD-PO for an additional 10 weeks.
  • The plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations were higher in the coconut oil-fed hamsters compared to the hamsters fed the RPO (60%), RBD-PO (42%) and the reconstituted RBD-PO (49%), while for plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations, the coconut oil-fed hamsters were significantly higher than only the RPO-fed hamsters (21%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cholesterol, HDL / blood. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Cricetinae. Fatty Acids / analysis. Feces / chemistry. Lipid Peroxides / blood. Mesocricetus. Sterols / analysis. Vitamin E / analysis. Vitamin E / blood. alpha-Tocopherol / blood. gamma-Tocopherol / blood

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  • (PMID = 16081272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0955-2863
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 00734
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, HDL; 0 / Dietary Fats, Unsaturated; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Lipid Peroxides; 0 / Plant Oils; 0 / Sterols; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; 8001-31-8 / coconut oil; 8002-75-3 / palm oil; 8EF1Z1238F / gamma-Tocopherol; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; H4N855PNZ1 / alpha-Tocopherol
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90. Arce M, Michopoulos V, Shepard KN, Ha QC, Wilson ME: Diet choice, cortisol reactivity, and emotional feeding in socially housed rhesus monkeys. Physiol Behav; 2010 Nov 2;101(4):446-55
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .

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  • The consumption of high caloric diets (HCDs) is thought to provide comfort in the face of unrelenting psychosocial stress.
  • Using social subordination in female rhesus monkeys as a model of continual exposure to daily stressors in women, we tested the hypothesis that subordinate females would consume significantly more calories from a HCD compared to dominant females, and this pattern of food intake would be associated with reduced cortisol release and reduced frequency of anxiety-like behaviors.
  • Food intake, parameters of cortisol secretion, and socio-emotional behavior were assessed for 3 weeks during a no choice phase when only a low caloric diet (LCD) was available and during a choice condition when both a LCD and HCD were available.
  • While all animals preferred the HCD, subordinate females consumed significantly more of the HCD than did dominant females.
  • Furthermore, consumption of HCDs may be a metabolic stressor that synergizes with the psychosocial stress of subordination to further increase the consumption of these diets.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20670639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-507X
  • [Journal-full-title] Physiology & behavior
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Physiol. Behav.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / F31 MH085445; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD046501; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / R25 RR024504; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / T32 MH073525; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51 RR000165; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM000680; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / T32-MH073525; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / R25 RR024505; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD46501; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR024505; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00165
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS225338; NLM/ PMC2949469
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91. Casado-Vela J, Muries B, Carvajal M, Iloro I, Elortza F, Martínez-Ballesta MC: Analysis of root plasma membrane aquaporins from Brassica oleracea: post-translational modifications, de novo sequencing and detection of isoforms by high resolution mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res; 2010 Jul 2;9(7):3479-94
The Arabidopsis Information Resource. Linked Gene Data (subscription/membership/fee required).

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of root plasma membrane aquaporins from Brassica oleracea: post-translational modifications, de novo sequencing and detection of isoforms by high resolution mass spectrometry.
  • In this study, we combined three endoproteases (trypsin, Glu-C and Lys-C) with HPLC-MS/MS analysis and two types of peptide fragmentations, CID (collision induced dissociation) and HCD (higher-energy C-trap dissociation), to identify PIP isoforms and PTMs from broccoli roots.
  • After de novo sequencing analysis, eight peptides showing homology to Arabidopsis thaliana PIPs were identified.

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  • (PMID = 20462273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aquaporins; 0 / Plant Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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92. Herebian D, Lamshöft M, Mayatepek E, Spiekerkoetter U: Identification of NTBC metabolites in urine from patients with hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 using two different mass spectrometric platforms: triple stage quadrupole and LTQ-Orbitrap. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom; 2010 Mar;24(6):791-800
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  • The objective of our work was to identify known and unknown metabolites of the drug NTBC (2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione) in urine from patients during the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1) disease, a severe inborn error of tyrosine metabolism.
  • These identifications were based on their characteristics of chromatographic retention times, protonated molecular ions, elemental compositions, product ions (using CID and higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) techniques) and synthesized references.
  • The applied MS strategy, based on two different MS platforms (LC/MS/MS and FTMS), allowed the rapid identification analysis of the drug metabolites from human extracts and could be used for pharmaceutical research and drug development.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20187082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0231
  • [Journal-full-title] Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclohexanones; 0 / Nitrobenzoates; 104206-65-7 / nitisinone; 3FPU23BG52 / Toluene
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93. Dayon L, Turck N, Kienle S, Schulz-Knappe P, Hochstrasser DF, Scherl A, Sanchez JC: Isobaric tagging-based selection and quantitation of cerebrospinal fluid tryptic peptides with reporter calibration curves. Anal Chem; 2010 Feb 1;82(3):848-58
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  • Under collision-induced dissociation (CID) or higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD), the release of the reporter fragments from the TMT-labeled peptide standards provided an internal calibration curve to assess the concentration of these peptides in the CSF.

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  • (PMID = 20058875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6882
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / PARK7 protein, human; 0 / Peptides; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100B protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTP1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione S-Transferase pi; EC 3.4.21.4 / Trypsin
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94. Robich MP, Chu LM, Chaudray M, Nezafat R, Han Y, Clements RT, Laham RJ, Manning WJ, Coady MA, Sellke FW: Anti-angiogenic effect of high-dose resveratrol in a swine model of metabolic syndrome. Surgery; 2010 Aug;148(2):453-62
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  • METHODS: Yorkshire swine were fed a normal diet (Control, n = 7), hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD, n = 7), or hypercholesterolemic diet with supplemental resveratrol (100 mg/kg/day orally, HCD-R; n = 7) beginning 1 month prior to surgery.
  • RESULTS: HCD-R animals had lower body mass index (P < .001), total cholesterol (P < .001), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; P < .001), blood glucose levels (P < .001), and systolic blood pressure (P = .03) than HCD animals.
  • Staining for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 demonstrated higher capillary density in the Control group (versus HCD and HCD-R; P = .02).
  • Immunoblotting demonstrated decreased expression of the pro-angiogenic protein vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin (P = .002) and an increase in anti-angiogenic proteins angiostatin (P = .001) and thrombospondin (P = .02) in the HCD and HCD-R groups.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20570307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL076130-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01HL46716; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL046716; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32-HL0074; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL085647; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL069024; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL046716-18A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL069024-08; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL076130; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01HL85647; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL076130-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL085647-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL046716-18A1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB008743; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01HL69024; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL069024-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Stilbenes; 0 / cadherin 5; 86090-08-6 / Angiostatins; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS211745; NLM/ PMC2907484
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95. Nihalani BR, Jani UD, Vasavada AR, Auffarth GU: Cataract surgery in relative anterior microphthalmos. Ophthalmology; 2005 Aug;112(8):1360-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Relative anterior microphthalmos is defined as horizontal corneal diameter (HCD) < or =11 mm, anterior chamber depth (ACD) < or =2.2 mm, and axial length (AL) >20 mm, with no other morphologic malformation.
  • METHODS: Patients were examined preoperatively for HCD, ACD, and AL.
  • Group I (normal eyes; n = 84) had HCD >11 mm, ACD >2.2 mm, and AL >20 mm.
  • Group II (eyes with small corneal diameter; n = 84) had HCD < or =11 mm, ACD >2.2 mm, and AL >20 mm.
  • The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was determined.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of RAM was 6% (84 of 1400 eyes; 95%CI, 0.048-0.074).
  • Intraoperatively, RAM was associated with overall surgical difficulty because of less working space in 59 eyes (70.24%; OR, 63.7; 95% CI, 18.3-221; P<0.001) compared with control groups I and II; uveal trauma in 12 (14.28%); Descemet's detachment in 5 (5.95%); and posterior capsule rupture in 2 (2.38%).
  • Postoperatively, RAM was associated with transient corneal edema in 63 eyes (75%; OR, 9.0; 95% CI, 4.4-18.0; P<0.001; OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.7-10.5; P<0.001) on the first postoperative day.

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  • [CommentIn] Ophthalmology. 2006 Apr;113(4):718 [16581441.001]
  • (PMID = 15964630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Hussain SA: Effect of melatonin on cholesterol absorption in rats. J Pineal Res; 2007 Apr;42(3):267-71
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MELATONIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This study evaluated the influence of melatonin on cholesterol absorption in rats fed on high cholesterol diet (HCD).
  • HCD induced a remarkable increase in hepatic and plasma total cholesterol, plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and an elevation in triacylglyceride (TG) levels in plasma and in the liver.
  • Melatonin suspension (10 mg/kg), specially prepared for this purpose, cholestyramine (230 mg/kg) and ezetimibe (145 microg/kg) were administered orally to the rats fed HCD for 30 days.
  • Melatonin significantly reduced cholesterol absorption in rats fed on HCD and caused significant decreases in total cholesterol, TG, VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol in the plasma and contents of cholesterol and TG in the liver.

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  • (PMID = 17349025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0742-3098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pineal research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pineal Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticholesteremic Agents; 0 / Azetidines; 11041-12-6 / Cholestyramine Resin; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EOR26LQQ24 / Ezetimibe; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
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97. Villani FN, Rocha MO, Nunes Mdo C, Antonelli LR, Magalhães LM, dos Santos JS, Gollob KJ, Dutra WO: Trypanosoma cruzi-induced activation of functionally distinct αβ and γδ CD4- CD8- T cells in individuals with polar forms of Chagas' disease. Infect Immun; 2010 Oct;78(10):4421-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trypanosoma cruzi-induced activation of functionally distinct αβ and γδ CD4- CD8- T cells in individuals with polar forms of Chagas' disease.
  • CD4(-) CD8(-) (double-negative [DN]) T cells have recently been shown to display important immunological functions in human diseases.
  • We also demonstrated a correlation between DN T cells and the expression of gamma interferon in the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi experimental infection.
  • In this work, we sought to investigate whether αβ or γδ DN T cells display distinct immunoregulatory potentials in patients with polar forms of human Chagas' disease.
  • Our data showed that in vitro infection with T. cruzi leads to expansion of DN T cells in patients with the indeterminate and severe cardiac clinical forms of the disease.
  • However, while αβ DN T cells primarily produce inflammatory cytokines in both forms of the disease, γδ DN T cells display a marked, significant increase in antigen-specific IL-10 expression in indeterminate patients relative to cardiac patients.
  • Finally, higher frequencies of the IL-10-producing γδ DN T cells were correlated with improved clinical measures of cardiac function in the patients, suggesting a protective role for these cells in Chagas' disease.
  • Taken together, these data show distinct functional characteristics for αβ and γδ DN T cells associated with distinct morbidity rates and clinical forms in human Chagas' disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Chagas Disease / immunology. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta / immunology. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta / immunology. Trypanosoma cruzi / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20696836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5522
  • [Journal-full-title] Infection and immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Immun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R03 AI066044; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R03 AI066044-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2950361
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98. Chenni A, Yahia DA, Boukortt FO, Prost J, Lacaille-Dubois MA, Bouchenak M: Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. J Ethnopharmacol; 2007 Jan 19;109(2):207-13
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Antioxidants.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The present study was designed to explore the possible antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (0.5% in the diet) in rats fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet (HCD).
  • The results indicated that the HCD-Ai versus HCD treatment led to many changes in biochemical parameters.

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  • (PMID = 16949233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Enzymes; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Lipoproteins; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
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99. Zhang Y, Dong XL, Leung PC, Wong MS: Differential mRNA expression profiles in proximal tibia of aged rats in response to ovariectomy and low-Ca diet. Bone; 2009 Jan;44(1):46-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Aged (11 months old) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy or sham-operation and fed with diets containing different dietary Ca content (LCD, 0.1% Ca or HCD, 1.2% Ca) for 12 weeks.
  • Ovariectomy increased serum N-telopeptides of bone type I collagen (NTx) levels in aged rats fed with HCD (P<0.05).
  • In addition, ovariectomy reduced BMD and predicted bone strength of tibial proximal metaphysis in aged rats fed with either LCD or HCD.

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  • (PMID = 18848653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2763
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Calcium, Dietary; 0 / Osteoprotegerin; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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100. Chang NW, Wu CT, Wang SY, Pei RJ, Lin CF: Alpinia pricei Hayata rhizome extracts have suppressive and preventive potencies against hypercholesterolemia. Food Chem Toxicol; 2010 Aug-Sep;48(8-9):2350-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Syrian hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 2 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia (>250 mg/dl).
  • To evaluate the potency of APE in suppressing hypercholesterolemia, hamsters were then fed HCD plus a high dose (500 mg/kg body weight) or a low dose (250 mg/kg body weight) of APE, or only HCD for another 4 weeks.
  • We found that hypercholesterolemic hamsters fed a high dose of APE had lower serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, lower atherogenic indices (LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios), and lower hepatic protein expression of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) than hamsters fed a HCD diet.
  • In addition, we also determined the preventive effects of APE on hamsters fed a HCD for 6 weeks.
  • The hypocholesterolemic effects were also found in hamsters co-fed a high dose of APE and HCD for 6weeks.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cholesterol, LDL / blood. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Cricetinae. Lipids / blood. Lipoproteins / blood. Liver / enzymology. Male. Mesocricetus. PPAR gamma / biosynthesis. Plant Extracts / chemistry. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Rhizome / chemistry. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20561946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticholesteremic Agents; 0 / Cholesterol, LDL; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Lipoproteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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