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1. Sanjuàn A, Vidal-Sicart S, Zanón G, Pahisa J, Velasco M, Fernández PL, Santamaría G, Farrús B, Muñoz M, Albanell J, Pons F, Vanrell JA: Clinical axillary recurrence after sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: a follow-up study of 220 patients. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2005 Aug;32(8):932-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical axillary recurrence after sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: a follow-up study of 220 patients.
  • One of them was found during the surgical excision of non-sentinel nodes, and the other presented as an axillary recurrence 17 months postoperatively (1.72% clinical false-negative rate).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / diagnostic imaging. Axilla / pathology. False Negative Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15791433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin; 0 / technetium Tc 99m nanocolloid
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2. Ando J, Kitamura T, Kuroki Y, Igarashi S: Preoperative diagnosis of the axillary arch with multidetector row computed tomography and the axillary arch in association with anatomical problems of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):3-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative diagnosis of the axillary arch with multidetector row computed tomography and the axillary arch in association with anatomical problems of sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the preoperative diagnosis of the axillary arch with multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) in patients who underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy.
  • METHODS: From 2003 to 2008, combined procedures with blue dye SLN biopsy and MDCT-assisted axillary node sampling were performed in 550 clinically axilla-negative patients with primary operable breast cancer.
  • We use MDCT for not only the diagnosis of the axillary arch, but also the planning and navigation of SLN biopsy.
  • RESULTS: The axillary arches were preoperatively diagnosed with MDCT in 59 patients (10.8%) as follows: a single ordinary axillary arch (n = 44), another anomalous muscle besides the ordinary axillary arch (n = 13), and other rare axillary arches (n = 2).
  • The SLN identification failure rate was 1.8% (9/491) for patients without the axillary arch and 5.1% (3/59) for patients with the axillary arch (chi-square test, P = 0.11).
  • Three patients with an axillary arch in whom a SLN could not be identified were observed in 13 patients who had another anomalous muscle besides the ordinary axillary arch (3/13, 23.1%).
  • In the examination of 56 patients with an axillary arch in whom a SLN was identified, variations of the SLN location and/or anomalous muscles covering a SLN were observed in 16 patients (28.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MDCT is useful for a diagnosis of the axillary arch.
  • The axillary arch should be kept in mind during SLN biopsy because this anomaly would be related to anatomical variations that affect SLN biopsy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Clinical Competence. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19585215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Ollila DW, Neuman HB, Sartor C, Carey LA, Klauber-Demore N: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with large breast cancers. Am J Surg; 2005 Sep;190(3):371-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy (LM/SL) accurately evaluates the axilla in patients with small breast cancers.
  • No patient progressed while receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, nor has there been an axillary recurrence (median 36 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: LM/SL performed prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with large breast cancers is an accurate method of axillary staging.
  • Axillary staging prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may have prognostic and therapeutic implications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16105521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Heuts EM, van der Ent FW, van der Pol HA, von Meyenfeldt MF, Voogd AC: Additional tracer injection to improve the technical success rate of lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 May;16(5):1156-63
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  • If additional tracer injection does not result in secondary SN visualization, gross nodal tumor involvement is often present and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is mandatory.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Injections. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19259741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin; 0 / technetium Tc 99m nanocolloid
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5. Irizarry-Rovira AR, Wolf A, Ramos-Vara JA: Cutaneous melanophoroma in a green iguana (Iguana iguana). Vet Clin Pathol; 2006 Mar;35(1):101-5
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  • An adult, male, green iguana (Iguana iguana) of unknown age was presented with a history of an enlarging, dark, skin mass in the right axillary region.
  • The mass was excised because neoplasia was suspected.
  • The cytologic, histologic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings of the neoplasm were consistent with those of melanophoroma, an uncommon neoplasm of reptiles.

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  • (PMID = 16511799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-6382
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Podkrajsek M, Music MM, Kadivec M, Zgajnar J, Besic N, Pogacnik A, Hocevar M: Role of ultrasound in the preoperative staging of patients with breast cancer. Eur Radiol; 2005 May;15(5):1044-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of axillary ultrasound (US) and US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to detect axillary LN metastases.
  • Between January 2001 and September 2003, axillary US was performed in 165 patients with cytologically or histologically proven breast cancer and clinically non-palpable axillary LNs.
  • Axillary US in a combination with US-FNAB is a valuable method in preoperative staging of patients with breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / diagnostic imaging. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 15856254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Kuijt GP, van de Poll-Franse LV, Voogd AC, Nieuwenhuijzen GA, Roumen RM: Survival after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer at least equivalent to after negative extensive axillary dissection. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Sep;33(7):832-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer at least equivalent to after negative extensive axillary dissection.
  • AIM: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) without completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is replacing ALND as the axillary staging procedure of choice in breast cancer patients with a clinically negative axilla even though it is unclear whether this influences patient survival.
  • Survival was compared between 880 SLNB-negative women (median follow-up 3.6years) without completion ALND and 1681 ALND-negative women (median follow-up 7.7years) with at least 10 axillary nodes removed.
  • This means that the SLNB only can safely replace ALND as the procedure of choice for axillary staging in breast cancer patients with a clinically negative axilla.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Netherlands / epidemiology. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17197151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Yamaguchi J, Ohtani H, Nakamura K, Shimokawa I, Kanematsu T: Prognostic impact of marginal adipose tissue invasion in ductal carcinoma of the breast. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Sep;130(3):382-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The frequency of axillary lymph node metastases was 40.7% in patients with ATI (99/243) and 11.3% in patients without ATI (7/62; P<.0001), and ATI was an independent factor influencing nodal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18701411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Pugliese MS, Stempel MM, Cody HS 3rd, Morrow M, Gemignani ML: Surgical management of the axilla: do intramammary nodes matter? Am J Surg; 2009 Oct;198(4):532-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of the axilla: do intramammary nodes matter?
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the appropriate surgical management of the axilla in intramammary node-positive patients undergoing sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy.
  • Intramammary node identification and pathologic findings were compared with the status of axilla.
  • Axillary disease was identified in 61% of intramammary node-positive patients.
  • No additional axillary disease was identified when axillary lymph node dissection was performed in intramammary node-positive patients with negative axillary SLN biopsy results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that completion axillary lymph node dissection may be based on the status of axillary SLN biopsies in clinically node negative patients when intramammary lymph node metastases are identified in the breast specimens.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Breast. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 19800463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Poletti P, Fenaroli P, Milesi A, Paludetti A, Mangiarotti S, Virotta G, Candiago E, Bettini A, Caremoli ER, Labianca R, Tondini C: Axillary recurrence in sentinel lymph node-negative breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol; 2008 Nov;19(11):1842-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Axillary recurrence in sentinel lymph node-negative breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was developed to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in the treatment of breast cancer.
  • SLNB is predictive of axillary node status.
  • Purpose of this study is to determine the rate of axillary recurrence in our series of unselected patients.
  • After a median follow-up of 38.8 months, 21 patients had distant metastases, four had axillary relapse, nine had an in-breast recurrence and two had both.
  • All patients with axillary recurrence received axillary dissection and systemic adjuvant therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Data from this series, the largest from a general hospital, showed that isolated axillary node recurrence after negative SLNB is rare (<1%) and comparable with those reported from referral cancer institutions.

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  • (PMID = 18550574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Godfrey GJ, Farghaly H: Lymph node metastasis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in the absence of widespread disease five years after diagnosis: a rare finding. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010;3(8):812-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm that accounts for less than 10 percent of all soft tissue sarcomas.
  • Five years later, he presented with an isolated 11.5 × 9.0 × 7.0 centimeter right axillary mass which was completely excised.

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  • (PMID = 21151396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993233
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Lymph node metastasis / Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor / S-100 / spindle cell neoplasm
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12. Meşină C, Paşalega M, Calotă F, Meşină MI, Vîlcea D, Persu B, Vasile I: [Sentinel nodes in patients with breast cancer]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2006 Jul-Aug;101(4):359-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Ganglionul santinelă în cancerul de sân.
  • The beginning of the paper emphasized the problems of the sentinel nodes definition, and then we discuss the dates related to the history and the importance of the sentinel nodes knowledge that consist in the avoidance of axillary lymph nodes dissection in patients with breast cancer N-.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiopharmaceuticals. Rhenium. Technetium Compounds

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  • (PMID = 17059146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m rhenium colloid; 7440-15-5 / Rhenium
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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13. Kebudi A, Işgör A, Atay M, Yetkin G, Yazici D, Yildiz A: The safety and accuracy of sentinel-node biopsy in early-stage invasive breast cancer--Turkish experience. J Invest Surg; 2005 May-Jun;18(3):129-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the correlation of sentinel lymph node (SLN) and axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis in early-stage invasive breast cancer in a single institution.
  • One hundred and fifteen patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer first underwent SLND followed by an appropriate surgical procedure (modified radical mastectomy, lumpectomy + axillary dissection, simple mastectomy + mammoplasty).
  • In 28 (24.3%) patients, metastases were found in both SLN and axillary dissections.
  • SLN metastasis was found in 13 (11.3%) patients, but no axillary metastasis was found.
  • Five patients in whom the sentinel node was not found were also negative for axillary metastasis.
  • As the studies progress in this direction, it might be possible to avoid axillary dissection in patients with early breast cancer in whom metastasis in SLN cannot be detected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium. Treatment Outcome. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16036784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1939
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Invest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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14. Nagashima T, Sakakibara M, Nakano S, Tanabe N, Nakamura R, Nakatani Y, Nagai Y, Koda K, Miyazaki M: Sentinel node micrometastasis and distant failure in breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer; 2006;13(2):186-91
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  • BACKGROUND: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy has rapidly replaced axillary lymph node dissection for clinically node-negative breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16755115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Cheng SH, Horng CF, Clarke JL, Tsou MH, Tsai SY, Chen CM, Jian JJ, Liu MC, West M, Huang AT, Prosnitz LR: Prognostic index score and clinical prediction model of local regional recurrence after mastectomy in breast cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Apr 1;64(5):1401-9
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  • RESULTS: With these models, patients can be divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups on the basis of axillary nodal status, estrogen receptor status, lymphovascular invasion, and age at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Bayes Theorem. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16472935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CMF regimen; FEC protocol
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16. Posther KE, McCall LM, Blumencranz PW, Burak WE Jr, Beitsch PD, Hansen NM, Morrow M, Wilke LG, Herndon JE 2nd, Hunt KK, Giuliano AE: Sentinel node skills verification and surgeon performance: data from a multicenter clinical trial for early-stage breast cancer. Ann Surg; 2005 Oct;242(4):593-9; discussion 599-602
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  • Based on previous reports and expert opinion, we predicted that 20 to 30 cases of SLND with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) would enable surgeons to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLN).

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  • (PMID = 16192820.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA076001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA76001-09
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1402354
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17. Vegran F, Boidot R, Oudin C, Riedinger JM, Lizard-Nacol S: Distinct expression of Survivin splice variants in breast carcinomas. Int J Oncol; 2005 Oct;27(4):1151-7
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  • Frequency of proapoptotic Survivin-2B was significantly higher in small tumour size (p=0.026) and was inversely associated with axillary node positive carcinomas (p=0.004).
  • [MeSH-major] Alternative Splicing. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16142334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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18. Wada N, Imoto S, Yamauchi C, Hasebe T, Ochiai A: Predictors of tumour involvement in remaining axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Feb;32(1):29-33
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  • [Title] Predictors of tumour involvement in remaining axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node.
  • One hundred eighty-five of these patients showed positive SLNs, and subsequently underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16269227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. King TA: Variations in axillary staging: much ado about nothing? Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;16(3):549-51
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  • [Title] Variations in axillary staging: much ado about nothing?
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [CommentOn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 Mar;16(3):562-70 [18998064.001]
  • (PMID = 19093154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Takei H, Suemasu K, Kurosumi M, Horii Y, Yoshida T, Ninomiya J, Yoshida M, Hagiwara Y, Kamimura M, Hayashi Y, Inoue K, Tabei T: Recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy with or without axillary lymph node dissection in patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(1):16-24
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  • [Title] Recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy with or without axillary lymph node dissection in patients with breast cancer.
  • All 1,704 cases were classified based upon presence or absence of a metastatic lymph node, treated with or without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • The regional node recurrences were subclassified as axillary, interpectoral, infraclavicular, supraclavicular, or parasternal.
  • In 1,062 cases with negative nodes treated without ALND and 459 cases with positive nodes treated with ALND, 11 (1.0%) and 15 (3.3%) recurred in regional nodes, respectively, and 4 (0.4%) and 2 (0.6%) recurred in axillary nodes, respectively.
  • Of 822 cases of invasive breast cancer with negative nodes treated with SLNB alone, 10 (1.4%) recurred in regional nodes, and 4 (0.5%) recurred in axillary nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The axillary recurrence rate was low in patients treated with SLNB alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17244989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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21. Han B, Nakamura M, Mori I, Nakamura Y, Kakudo K: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator system and breast cancer (Review). Oncol Rep; 2005 Jul;14(1):105-12
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  • Furthermore, uPA and PAI-1 may be new prognostic markers for axillary node-negative patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator

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  • (PMID = 15944776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PLAUR protein, human; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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22. Groheux D, Moretti JL, Giacchetti S, Hindié E, Teyton P, Cuvier C, Bousquet G, Misset JL, Boin C, Espié M: [PET/CT in breast cancer: an update]. Bull Cancer; 2009 Nov;96(11):1053-70
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  • [Transliterated title] Différents rôles de la TEP-TDM en sénologie : mise au point.
  • Notably, it cannot be used as a substitute to SLNB "sentinel lymph node biopsy" for axillary staging due to limited sensitivity for the detection of small metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Dideoxynucleosides. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Sodium Fluoride. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19758959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 18-fluoro-17-estradiol; 0 / Dideoxynucleosides; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 8ZYQ1474W7 / Sodium Fluoride; PG53R0DWDQ / alovudine
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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23. Ott OJ, Hildebrandt G, Pötter R, Hammer J, Lotter M, Resch A, Sauer R, Strnad V: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with multi-catheter brachytherapy: Local control, side effects and cosmetic outcome for 274 patients. Results of the German-Austrian multi-centre trial. Radiother Oncol; 2007 Mar;82(3):281-6
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  • Patients were eligible for APBI if they had histologically confirmed breast cancer, a tumour diameter 3cm, complete resection with clear margins 2mm, negative axillary lymph nodes or singular nodal micro-metastasis, no distant metastases, hormone receptor-positive tumours, and were >/= 35 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control

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  • [CommentIn] Radiother Oncol. 2009 Jan;90(1):161 [17963907.001]
  • (PMID = 17126940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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24. Rivers A, Hansen N: Axillary management after sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients. Surg Clin North Am; 2007 Apr;87(2):365-77, ix
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  • [Title] Axillary management after sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients.
  • According to the available data, sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is proving to be an accurate staging technique with less post-surgical morbidity than standard axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • Despite this, ALND remains the standard of care in breast cancer patients with clinically palpable axillary lymph nodes that are suspicious for metastatic disease.
  • Although controversial, many clinicians believe that axillary metastases will precede systemic spread of disease.
  • Therefore, axillary clearance of clinically palpable nodes could potentially quell the progression of metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Forecasting. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17498532.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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25. Schrenk P, Tausch C, Wayand W: Lymphatic mapping in patients with primary or recurrent breast cancer following previous axillary surgery. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;34(8):851-6
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  • [Title] Lymphatic mapping in patients with primary or recurrent breast cancer following previous axillary surgery.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility of lymphatic mapping in breast cancer patients after previous axillary surgery and to identify parameters associated with mapping failure.
  • METHODS: Lymphatic mapping using peritumoural injection of blue dye and a radiocolloid was attempted in 30 patients with primary (n=7) or recurrent (n=23) breast cancer and a history of previous axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel node biopsy.
  • The lymph nodes were removed from the ipsilateral axilla (n=13), the internal mammary chain (n=2), both the internal mammary nodes and the axilla (n=2), the interpectoral space (n=1) and the contralateral axilla (n=1).
  • Axillary lymph node dissection was done in 13 of 15 patients but found no positive nodes (false negative rate=0).
  • CONCLUSION: Lymphatic mapping following prior axillary surgery was accurate but associated with a low identification rate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Colloids. Coloring Agents / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18162358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Colloids; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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26. Huang CJ, Hou MF, Lin SD, Chuang HY, Huang MY, Fu OY, Lian SL: Comparison of local recurrence and distant metastases between breast cancer patients after postmastectomy radiotherapy with and without immediate TRAM flap reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2006 Oct;118(5):1079-86; discussion 1087-8
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  • The mean radiation dose to the chest wall or entire TRAM flap, axillary area, and lower neck was 50 Gy (range, 48 to 54 Gy).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Mammaplasty. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 17016170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Taxoids; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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27. Ruhland B, Dittmer C, Thill M, Diedrich K, Fischer D: Metastasized hemangiopericytoma of the breast: a rare case. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Sep;280(3):491-4
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  • She underwent a mastectomy with an axillary lymph node sampling (stage pT3 pN0 cM0), as adjuvant therapy was not mandatory.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19169699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Sasaki Y, Minamiya Y, Takahashi N, Nakagawa T, Katayose Y, Ito A, Saito H, Motoyama S, Ogawa J: REG1A expression is an independent factor predictive of poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Nov;15(11):3244-51
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  • Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses revealed REG1A (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.93 to 11.29; P = .0005) and axillary lymph node status (hazard ratio, 4.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 11.29; P = .0003) to be independent factors affecting the 10-year disease-specific survival rate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18781363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lithostathine; 0 / REG1A protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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29. Inaji H, Egawa C, Komoike Y, Motomura K, Nishiyama K, Kataoka TR, Koyama H: Function-preserving surgery for breast cancer. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Oct;11(5):344-50
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  • There is much evidence that sentinel node biopsy is an accurate method of screening for axillary nodal status in patients with early breast cancer.
  • Clearly, the avoidance of axillary dissection improves quality of life.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Cryosurgery / methods. Evidence-Based Medicine. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Laser Therapy. Lymph Node Excision. Microwaves / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Quality of Life. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17058131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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30. Garoufali A, Kyriakou F, Kountourakis P, Yioti I, Malliou S, Nikaki A, Kardara E, Frangos I, Koumna S, Baziotis N, Scorilas A, Ardavanis A: Extracellular domain of HER2: a useful marker for the initial workup and follow-up of HER2-positive breast cancer. J BUON; 2008 Jul-Sep;13(3):409-13
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  • However, in advanced-disease patients a positive correlation of ECD-HER2 with IHC (p=0.002), disease grade (p=0.034) and level II axillary node involvement (p=0.011) was noted, as well as a significant negative correlation with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) (p=0.035 and p=0.011, respectively).
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / blood. Breast Diseases / pathology. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18979558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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31. Sautter-Bihl ML, Souchon R, Budach W, Sedlmayer F, Feyer P, Harms W, Haase W, Dunst J, Wenz F, Sauer R: DEGRO practical guidelines for radiotherapy of breast cancer II. Postmastectomy radiotherapy, irradiation of regional lymphatics, and treatment of locally advanced disease. Strahlenther Onkol; 2008 Jul;184(7):347-53
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  • RESULTS: PMRT significantly reduces local recurrence rates in patients with T3/T4 tumors and/or positive axillary lymph nodes (12.9% with and 40.6% without PMRT in patients with four or more positive nodes).
  • CONCLUSION: There is common consensus that PMRT is mandatory for patients with T3/T4 tumors and/or four or more positive axillary nodes and should be considered for patients with one to three involved nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 19016032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Pugliese MS, Karam AK, Hsu M, Stempel MM, Patil SM, Ho AY, Traina TA, Van Zee KJ, Cody HS 3rd, Morrow M, Gemignani ML: Predictors of completion axillary lymph node dissection in patients with immunohistochemical metastases to the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Apr;17(4):1063-8
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  • [Title] Predictors of completion axillary lymph node dissection in patients with immunohistochemical metastases to the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with immunohistochemistry (IHC)-determined metastases to the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is controversial.
  • No axillary recurrences were observed in this series with a median follow-up of 6.4 years.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20033325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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33. Ahn JH, Son EJ, Kim JA, Youk JH, Kim EK, Kwak JY, Ryu YH, Jeong J: The role of ultrasonography and FDG-PET in axillary lymph node staging of breast cancer. Acta Radiol; 2010 Oct;51(8):859-65
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  • [Title] The role of ultrasonography and FDG-PET in axillary lymph node staging of breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The presence of axillary lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor and an essential part of staging and prognosis of breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To elucidate the usefulness and accuracy of ultrasonography (US), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan, and combined analysis for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer.
  • If an axillary lymph node had a length to width ratio <or=1.5 or cortical thickening >or=3 mm or compression of the hilum on US, focal hot uptake (maximal standardized uptake value, SUVmax >or=2.0) in the ipsilateral axilla on FDG-PET, it was considered to be a metastatic lymph node.
  • Each imaging finding was compared with a pathologic report regarding the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis, the number of metastatic lymph nodes, and the T stage of the breast mass.
  • RESULTS: Pathologically confirmed axillary lymph node metastasis was noted in 73 cases (29.2%).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined evaluation of US and FDG-PET was a sensitive and accurate method for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20670083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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34. Pérez-Michel LM, González-Lizarraga M, Ornelas-Aguirre JM: [Recurrence of breast cancer in women residing in northwestern Mexico]. Cir Cir; 2009 May-Jun;77(3):179-85
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  • [Transliterated title] Recurrencia de cáncer de mama en mujeres del Noroeste de México.
  • We analyzed age, tumor stage, axillary lymph node status, type of tumor, histological grade, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and protein HER2, treatment used and death.
  • There was a higher frequency of recurrence in those cases where diagnosis was stage III of the disease (48%; OR = 3.54; p = 0.0001), axillary lymph node metastases (21%; OR = 1.12; p = 0.05), ER positive (19%; OR = 0.64; p = 0.07) and HER2 protein (28%; OR = 1.53; p = 0.08).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the late stage of breast cancer, HER2-positive expression in women with ER positive, axillary node involvement and metastases is associated with a higher frequency of recurrence and death.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology


35. Sakurai K, Enomoto K, Amano S: [Long-term results of surgical therapy for phyllodes tumor of the breast]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2784-5
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  • Twenty-one cases were performed local excision with at least 1 cm surgical margin, and seven cases were performed muscle preserving mastectomy without axillary lymph nodes dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21224712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Smidt ML, Janssen CM, Kuster DM, Bruggink ED, Strobbe LJ: Axillary recurrence after a negative sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer: incidence and clinical significance. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Jan;12(1):29-33
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence after a negative sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer: incidence and clinical significance.
  • Undetected tumor-positive nodes of clinical importance are those that lead to axillary recurrence.
  • After a median follow-up of 26 months, axillary recurrence was detected in 2 of 439 patients 4 and 27 months after the SLNB.
  • Axillary recurrence occurred in eight patients after a median of 21 months.
  • The axillary recurrence rate in the literature is .25%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Axillary recurrences after a negative SLNB occur, but at a much lower rate than would be expected on the basis of historical figures and the false-negative SLN findings.
  • The natural history of axillary relapse after negative SLNB resembles the locoregional recurrence of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Cohort Studies. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2005 Jan;12(1):9 [15827771.001]
  • (PMID = 15827775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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37. Heusinger K, Löhberg C, Lux MP, Papadopoulos T, Imhoff K, Schulz-Wendtland R, Beckmann MW, Fasching PA: Assessment of breast cancer tumor size depends on method, histopathology and tumor size itself*. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Nov;94(1):17-23
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  • PURPOSE: Mammography (MG), breast (BU) and axillary ultrasound (AU), and clinical examination (CE) are commonly used for clinical staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ultrasonography, Mammary
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Linear Models. Mammography. Middle Aged. Palpation. Prospective Studies. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity


38. Krishnamurthy S, Cristofanilli M, Singh B, Reuben J, Gao H, Cohen EN, Andreopoulou E, Hall CS, Lodhi A, Jackson S, Lucci A: Detection of minimal residual disease in blood and bone marrow in early stage breast cancer. Cancer; 2010 Jul 15;116(14):3330-7
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  • There was no significant correlation between the occurrence of CTCs or DTCs with tumor classification (T1 vs T2), tumor histologic grade, positive ER status, positive PR status, or positive HER2 status, and axillary LN status.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Prognosis


39. Stańczyk M, Dziekiewicz M, Maruszyński M, Olszewski WL: [The role of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer surgery]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Aug;19(110):245-8
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  • Mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection remains the routine surgical treatment of breast cancer in Poland.
  • Lymph edema of the upper extremity is one of the major long-term complications of axillary dissection.
  • Axillary lymph node status is the most valuable prognostic indicator and decision factor on adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy for breast cancer patients.
  • Level I and II axillary lymph node dissection provides prognostic information, maintains local control in the axilla and determines the need for adjuvant systemic treatment, but it is also associated with 30% rate of lymph edema.
  • Multiple studies confirm that sentinel lymphadenectomy accurately stages cancer advancement and is associated with less morbidity than axillary dissection.
  • In our opinion sentinel node biopsy may be accepted as an alternative staging procedure for the axilla in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16245445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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40. Lehman CD, DeMartini W, Anderson BO, Edge SB: Indications for breast MRI in the patient with newly diagnosed breast cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Feb;7(2):193-201
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  • In addition, the guidelines indicate that breast MRI may be used for patients with axillary nodal adenocarcinoma to identify the primary malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Axilla. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Sensitivity and Specificity. Surgery, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 19200417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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41. Cheung TT, Suen DT, Kwong A: Is sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy feasible in Chinese patients with invasive breast cancers? ANZ J Surg; 2009 Oct;79(10):719-23
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  • SLNB was followed by standard axillary dissection in all patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hong Kong / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends

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  • (PMID = 19878167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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42. Le Bouedec G, Gauthier T, Gimbergues P, Dauplat J: [Axillary recurrence after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer]. Presse Med; 2008 Nov;37(11):1685-7
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  • [Title] [Axillary recurrence after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 18775635.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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43. Aydin C, Unalp HR, Baloğlu A, Inci AG, Yiğit S, Yavuzcan A: Axillary lymph node metastasis from serous ovarian cancer: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Feb;279(2):203-7
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  • [Title] Axillary lymph node metastasis from serous ovarian cancer: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Renal and cerebral metastases of ovarian cancer have been previously reported, but axillary lymph node metastasis is quite rare.
  • Axillary lymph node metastasis usually occurs in the advanced stage.
  • Axillary lymph node metastasis was detected in the postoperative 32 months.
  • CONCLUSION: As tumors in axillary lymph nodes are found in patients with an ovarian carcinoma, the treatment is also so important too.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Omentum / surgery. Ovariectomy

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  • (PMID = 18470522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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44. Vinh-Hung V, Burzykowski T, Van de Steene J, Voordeckers M, Lamote J, Storme G: Statistical interaction in the survival analysis of early breast cancer using registry data: role of breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy. Tumori; 2005 Jan-Feb;91(1):9-14
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, aged 40-69 years, with non-metastasized T1-T2 breast carcinoma, in whom axillary lymph node dissection was performed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Belgium / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. SEER Program. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15849998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Morimoto Y, Imai S, Matsumoto T, Kunisue M, Kawasaki S, Yamaguchi K, Okabe M, Kawamoto K, Ito T, Ogasawara K: [A case of Stage IV non-operated advanced breast cancer with local recurrence thirteen years after initial therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Oct;34(10):1693-5
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  • After the interruption of hormonal therapies, the serum levels of tumor markers had been elevated, and she had a right axillary local recurrence and a right ovarian metastasis detected by a FDG-PET/CT in February 2006.
  • The right axillary local recurrence lesion was then resected, and she has since been treated with hormonal therapy of aromatase inhibitor (AI).
  • The serum levels of tumor markers have been remarkably reduced, and FDG-PET/CT has showed the disappearance of the right axillary local recurrence, and the decrease of FDG accumulation of the right ovarian metastases in February 2007.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17940393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. Deliĭski T: [Stage migration after biopsy of internal mammary sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patient]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2005;(2):26-7
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  • Intraopperative only an internal mammary sentinel lymph node is discovered with gamma probe and no sentinel lymph nodes neither in the axilla nor in parasternal chain.
  • Further treatment is based on N3 status which is different from the treatment of patients with N0 axillary status.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18681144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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47. Somlo G, Chu P, Frankel P, Ye W, Groshen S, Doroshow JH, Danenberg K, Danenberg P: Molecular profiling including epidermal growth factor receptor and p21 expression in high-risk breast cancer patients as indicators of outcome. Ann Oncol; 2008 Nov;19(11):1853-9
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  • RESULTS: Eighty percent of patients presented with locally advanced, or > or =10 axillary nodal metastasis, and 20% with inflammatory breast cancer.
  • The median age was 46 years (26-62 years) and the median number of involved axillary lymph nodes was 12 (0-42).
  • Multivariate Cox stepwise analysis resulted in a simple model for RFS consisting only of p21 expression, EGFR expression assessed by RT-PCR, and number of axillary nodal metastases.


48. Schoppmann SF, Fenzl A, Schindl M, Bachleitner-Hofmann T, Nagy K, Gnant M, Horvat R, Jakesz R, Birner P: Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha correlates with VEGF-C expression and lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Sep;99(2):135-41
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  • In breast cancer, lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) by tumor cells and subsequent metastasis to axillary lymph nodes is a critical point in progression of the disease with severe therapeutical and prognostic implications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16555123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / VEGFC protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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49. Papanastassiou I, Ioannou M, Magoulas D, Lalos S, Athanassiou AE, Ziras N, Thanopoulou E, Demertzis N: Chemoembolization facilitates limb salvage surgery in stage III soft tissue sarcoma. J BUON; 2009 Jul-Sep;14(3):507-10
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  • A 26 year-old male was referred to our unit because of a stage III soft tissue sarcoma in the shoulder girdle-axillary area and reduced forearm-distal arm strength.
  • Imaging studies revealed that the tumor encompassed the axillary artery and brachial plexus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19810146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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50. Buchholz TA, Woodward WA, Duan Z, Fang S, Oh JL, Tereffe W, Strom EA, Perkins GH, Yu TK, Hunt KK, Meric-Bernstam F, Hortobagyi GN, Giordano SH: Radiation use and long-term survival in breast cancer patients with T1, T2 primary tumors and one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):1022-7
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  • [Title] Radiation use and long-term survival in breast cancer patients with T1, T2 primary tumors and one to three positive axillary lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy / mortality. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prognosis. Registries / statistics & numerical data. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Texas / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18234447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS662517; NLM/ PMC5001849
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51. Heuts EM, van der Ent FW, Hulsewé KW, Heeren PA, Hoofwijk AG: Incidence of axillary recurrence in 344 sentinel node negative breast cancer patients after intermediate follow-up. A prospective study into the accuracy of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer patients. Acta Chir Belg; 2007 Jun;107(3):279-83
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  • [Title] Incidence of axillary recurrence in 344 sentinel node negative breast cancer patients after intermediate follow-up. A prospective study into the accuracy of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer patients.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been validated in the treatment of breast carcinoma and is considered to stage the axilla adequately in this disease.
  • We evaluated the results of SLNB with respect to loco-regional failures in the axilla in SN-negative patients with invasive breast carcinoma and analysed their causal factors.
  • Out of the 656 patients, 344 patients with a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy did not undergo axillary dissection and were followed up clinically.
  • In 3 patients (0.9%) axillary recurrences developed.
  • All three patients subsequently underwent a completion axillary dissection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • The low rate of clinical axillary recurrence after an intermediate follow up period suggests that a negative SN biopsy accurately reflects the nodal stage in patients with breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Netherlands. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 17685253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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52. Gradishar WJ, Wedam SB, Jahanzeb M, Erban J, Limentani SA, Tsai KT, Olsen SR, Swain SM: Neoadjuvant docetaxel followed by adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in patients with stage III breast cancer. Ann Oncol; 2005 Aug;16(8):1297-304
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  • RESULTS: After four cycles of neoadjuvant docetaxel, the clinical response rate within the breast was 59% (95% CI 42% to 73%) and overall (breast and axilla) was 49% (95% CI 38% to 72%) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population.
  • At the time of surgery, 10% (n=4) of patients had a pathologic complete response (pCR) in the breast, 27% (n=11) had a pCR within the axillary lymph nodes, and 7% (n=3) had a pCR in the breast and axilla (95% CI 2% to 21%).

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  • (PMID = 15905305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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53. Görner M, Just M, Gerull S: [Early-stage breast cancer - strategies for adjuvant systemic therapy]. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir; 2008 Aug;40(4):230-8
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  • Decisions regarding adjuvant treatment modalities are becoming increasingly complex and demand individualised risk assessments based not only on clinicopathological criteria such as tumour size and axillary lymph node status but also on molecular predictors of the biological behaviour of the cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Staging. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18716990.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-1819
  • [Journal-full-title] Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, plastische Chirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Handchirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mikrochirurgie der Peripheren Nerven und Gefässe : Organ der Vereinigung der Deutschen Plastischen Chirurgen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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54. Güth U, Wight E, Langer I, Schötzau A, Dieterich H, Herberich L, Holzgreve W, Singer G: Breast cancer sagittal/horizontal plane location influences axillary lymph node involvement. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;32(3):287-91
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  • [Title] Breast cancer sagittal/horizontal plane location influences axillary lymph node involvement.
  • AIM: To assess the influence of tumour location on axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI) and prognosis in breast cancer by evaluating the significance of the sagittal/horizontal alignment.
  • Clinicians should be aware that tumours lying posteriorly may be at increased risk of occult spread outside axillary lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16466903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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55. Rodríguez-Vázquez M, García-Arpa M, González-García J: Juvenile mycosis fungoides treated with bexarotene and PUVA. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Jan;46(1):99-102
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  • There were multiple, > 1 cm, freely mobile, axillary and inguinal nodes.
  • The biopsy of one left axillary adenopathy was compatible with mycosis fungoides (Fig. 3).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17214731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Tetrahydronaphthalenes; A61RXM4375 / bexarotene
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56. Fan Y, Guan Y, Zhao WH, Li Q, Xu BH: [Clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of breast cancer with estrogen- and progesterone-receptor negative and HER-2 overexpression]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Dec;30(12):917-20
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  • Axillary lymph node metastasis was found in 54 cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19173993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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57. Krag DN: Current status of axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol; 2010 Jul;8(7):471-3
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  • [Title] Current status of axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 20864913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical advances in hematology & oncology : H&O
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074137
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Adams S, Chakravarthy AB, Donach M, Spicer D, Lymberis S, Singh B, Bauer JA, Hochman T, Goldberg JD, Muggia F, Schneider RJ, Pietenpol JA, Formenti SC: Preoperative concurrent paclitaxel-radiation in locally advanced breast cancer: pathologic response correlates with five-year overall survival. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Dec;124(3):723-32
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  • Daily radiotherapy was delivered to breast, axillary, and supraclavicular lymph nodes during weeks 2-7 of paclitaxel treatment, at 1.8 Gy per fraction to a total dose of 45 Gy with a tumor boost of 14 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction.

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  • (PMID = 20878462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES00267; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES000267; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105436; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000096; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016087; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA138106; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009385; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA138106; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA105436; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA070856; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P30 CA016037-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA070856; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009385; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23CA125205P50; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA125205; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA68485
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS467890; NLM/ PMC3655407
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59. Clavel S, Roy I, Carrier JF, Rousseau P, Fortin MA: Adjuvant regional irradiation after breast-conserving therapy for early stage breast cancer: a survey of canadian radiation oncologists. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2010 Feb;22(1):39-45
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  • Regarding the decision to combine regional nodal irradiation with irradiation of the breast, the number of positive nodes after axillary dissection (1-3 vs > or =4) was a crucial determinant.
  • Similarly, the same nodal ratio of 50% was the main factor for inclusion of the axillary nodal region in the radiation field.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Lymphatic Irradiation. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Surveys and Questionnaires. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19945833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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60. Schwartz GF, Tannebaum JE, Jernigan AM, Palazzo JP: Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. Cancer; 2010 Mar 1;116(5):1243-51
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  • [Title] Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: The timing and accuracy of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients who are receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer are controversial.
  • Thirty-nine women (49.4%) had clinical evidence of axillary metastasis (N1-N2) at the time of diagnosis.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 98.7% of patients (in 1 patient, SLNB failed to capture 1 proven axillary metastasis), and 29 patients underwent full axillary lymph node dissection.
  • One false-negative SLNB was reported in the group of 23 patients who underwent full axillary dissection after a negative SLNB.
  • No patient had a subsequent axillary recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SLNB after NACT was feasible in virtually all patients and accurately selected patients who required complete level I and II axillary dissection.
  • NACT frequently downstaged the axilla, converting patients with N1-N2 lymph node status to N0 status and also avoiding full axillary dissection in these patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20087958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Luini A, Gatti G, Ballardini B, Zurrida S, Galimberti V, Veronesi P, Vento AR, Monti S, Viale G, Paganelli G, Veronesi U: Development of axillary surgery in breast cancer. Ann Oncol; 2005 Feb;16(2):259-62
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  • [Title] Development of axillary surgery in breast cancer.
  • Axillary surgery is a critical part of the treatment of breast carcinoma: its importance is related to the staging of disease, prescription of adjuvant therapy and prognosis.
  • For years, complete axillary dissection has remained the standard approach to breast cancer lymphatic staging; its value is still high, but the development of sentinel-node biopsy has significantly changed the indication of the procedure.
  • We discuss the evolution of axillary surgery in breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15668280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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62. Akahane T, Chiba T, Yano H, Hashimoto Y: [A patient with advanced recurrent breast cancer who firmly resisted hair loss and was then treated by combination therapy with high-dose toremifene and capecitabine]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Mar;34(3):435-8
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  • It was confirmed that the cancer had metastasized to the right axillary lymph nodes and the skin of the right breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17353638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 7NFE54O27T / Toremifene; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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63. Ruibal A, Garrido Pumar M, Arias JI: [Preoperative serum CA15.3 and CEA levels and clinical-biological parameters in breast tumors]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 May-Jun;25(3):180-3
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  • [Transliterated title] Concentraciones séricas preoperatorias de antígeno carbohidrato 15.3 y antígeno carcinoembrionario y características clínico-biológicas tisulares de los carcinomas mamarios.
  • Tumor size, axillary involvement (N), distant metastasis (M), histological grade (HG) and cellular S-phase (SP) were taken into account.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results led us to the following: In patients having IDC of the breast, preoperative serum CA15.3 levels are associated with greater tumor size and distant metastasis, while pre-treatment CEA serum levels are associated moreover with axillary involvement; we have not observed any correlation between serum levels of both antigens and the hormonal status of the tumor; these results had physiopathological interest but reduced clinical value in pretreatment breast carcinomas due to their low sensitivity of both markers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Cathepsin D / analysis. Cytosol / chemistry. Female. Humans. Hyaluronic Acid / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tumor Burden. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16762272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / TFF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.4.23.5 / Cathepsin D
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64. Sikov WM, Dizon DS, Strenger R, Legare RD, Theall KP, Graves TA, Gass JS, Kennedy TA, Fenton MA: Frequent pathologic complete responses in aggressive stages II to III breast cancers with every-4-week carboplatin and weekly paclitaxel with or without trastuzumab: a Brown University Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct 1;27(28):4693-700
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  • The primary end point was the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate, defined as the absence of invasive disease in the breast and axillary nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fever / chemically induced. Humans. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Neoplasm Staging. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19720916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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65. Jung J, Park H, Park J, Kim H: Accuracy of preoperative ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology for axillary staging in breast cancer. ANZ J Surg; 2010 Apr;80(4):271-5
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  • [Title] Accuracy of preoperative ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology for axillary staging in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology (US-FNAC) for detecting axillary metastases, and to assess how often sentinel node biopsy could be avoided.
  • METHODS: Axillary ultrasound, as a part of routine preoperative staging, was performed in 189 patients with histologically proven breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the ultrasound alone of axillary LNs for metastatic breast cancer were 54, 91, 75 and 81%, retrospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative axillary ultrasound in combination with US-FNAC provides a simple, minimally invasive and reliable approach to the initial determination of the axillary LN status.
  • Those who are US-FNAC positive can be referred for axillary LN dissection without sentinel LN biopsy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / instrumentation. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Period. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Interventional. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 20575955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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66. Bouquier J, Clément D, Morel O, Lousquy R, Malartic C, Barranger E: [Sentinel lymph node biopsy under local anaesthesia: how to avoid the disadvantages of intraoperative examination?]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2008 Jan;36(1):79-84
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  • [Transliterated title] Le prélèvement du ganglion sentinelle sous anesthésie locale ou comment s'affranchir des limites de l'analyse histologique peropératoire.
  • All of these limits are responsible for secondary re-interventions to complete axillary lymph node dissection.
  • They proposed the detection of the sentinel lymph node under local anaesthesia and to wait for the definitive histological analysis before carrying out lumpectomy and axillary lymphadenectomy if necessary under general anaesthesia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Intraoperative Period. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18191603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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67. Ionta MT, Atzori F, Deidda MC, Pusceddu V, Palmeri S, Frau B, Murgia M, Barca M, Minerba L, Massidda B: Long-term outcomes in stage IIIB breast cancer patients who achieved less than a pathological complete response (&lt;pCR) after primary chemotherapy. Oncologist; 2009 Nov;14(11):1051-60
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  • After definitive surgery, pathological residual disease remained in 40 (69%) patients in both the breast and axilla, in 14 (24%) patients in only the breast, and in four (7%) patients in only the axilla.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-eight (78%) of 74 patients achieved <pCR and 16 (22%) had pCR both in the breast and axilla.
  • Patients with four or more axillary nodes involved had a significantly worse 10-year DFS rate (28.9% versus 62.7%; p = .036).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


68. Pervez S, Khan MN, Nasir MI: Comparative predictive value of three prognostic markers--S-phase fraction, PCNA and Mitotic count on axillary lymph node metastasis in carcinoma breast. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2007 Jan-Mar;19(1):3-5
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  • [Title] Comparative predictive value of three prognostic markers--S-phase fraction, PCNA and Mitotic count on axillary lymph node metastasis in carcinoma breast.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node metastasis is the single most important prognostic factor in carcinoma of the breast.
  • Atotal of 112 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast with axillary LN sampling were selected.
  • RESULT: It was observed that the number of axillary LN metastases was increased with higher SPF (p value: 0.008).
  • However no significant difference was found between the results of various categories of PCNA on axillary LN metastases (p value: 0.182) and mitotic count with axillary lymph node metastases (p value: 0.324).
  • CONCLUSION: It was concluded that mitotic count and / PCNA alone cannot be used in predicting axillary LN metastases.
  • SPF was found to be a more reliable marker compared to PCNAreactivity and conventional mitotic count in predicting axillary LN metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / pathology. Biomarkers. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Pakistan. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17867469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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69. Straver ME, Meijnen P, van Tienhoven G, van de Velde CJ, Mansel RE, Bogaerts J, Duez N, Cataliotti L, Klinkenbijl JH, Westenberg HA, van der Mijle H, Snoj M, Hurkmans C, Rutgers EJ: Sentinel node identification rate and nodal involvement in the EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS trial. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Jul;17(7):1854-61
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  • BACKGROUND: The randomized EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS trial investigates whether breast cancer patients with a tumor-positive sentinel node biopsy (SNB) are best treated with an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) or axillary radiotherapy (ART).
  • The SNB results of 65% of the patients (n = 1,220) were negative and the patients underwent no further axillary treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20300966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA011488; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2U10 CA11488-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA011488-38
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2889289
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70. Fodor J, Mózsa E, Zaka Z, Polgár C, Major T: [Local relapse in young (&lt; or = 40 years) women with breast cancer after mastectomy or breast conserving surgery: 15-year results]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(3):203, 205-8
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  • METHODS: 148 young (< or = 40 years) women with early invasive breast cancer underwent axillary dissection and mastectomy (n = 92) or BCS (n = 56) between January 1983 and December 1997.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hungary / epidemiology. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 16249814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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71. Domènech A, Benitez A, Bajén MT, Pla MJ, Gil M, Martín-Comín J: Patients with breast cancer and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy without additional axillary lymph node dissection: a follow-up study of up to 5 years. Oncology; 2007;72(1-2):27-32
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  • [Title] Patients with breast cancer and negative sentinel lymph node biopsy without additional axillary lymph node dissection: a follow-up study of up to 5 years.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the rate of axillary recurrences and survival in patients operated on for breast cancer who had not undergone an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) because of a negative sentinel node biopsy.
  • Rate of axillary recurrences, presence of distant metastases and survival (Kaplan-Meier method) were studied.
  • (1) Only 1/95 patients studied developed nodal extra-axillary recurrence together with distant metastases. (2) The results obtained support the selective sentinel node biopsy as an accurate technique in the axillary stratification of patients with breast cancer, offering in the cases of negative sentinel node biopsy a safe axillary control after a 5-year follow-up.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17998787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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72. Andersson J, Larsson L, Klaar S, Holmberg L, Nilsson J, Inganäs M, Carlsson G, Ohd J, Rudenstam CM, Gustavsson B, Bergh J: Worse survival for TP53 (p53)-mutated breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant CMF. Ann Oncol; 2005 May;16(5):743-8
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  • Sequence analyses of the whole TP53 coding region was performed in 376 patients operated on for primary breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastases between 1984 and 1989 (median follow-up time 84 months).

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  • (PMID = 15802278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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73. Kang T, Yi M, Hunt KK, Mittendorf EA, Babiera GV, Kuerer H, Bedrosian I, Hwang RF, Lucci A, Meric-Bernstam F: Does blue dye contribute to success of sentinel node mapping for breast cancer? Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17 Suppl 3:280-5
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  • Blue dye was used significantly more frequently in patients with lower axillary counts, higher body mass index (BMI), African-American race, and higher T stage, and in patients not undergoing skin-sparing mastectomy.
  • None of these four had significant counts detected in the axilla intraoperatively.
  • In patients with adequate radioactive counts in the axilla, blue dye is unlikely to improve the success of sentinel node mapping.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Coloring Agents. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20853047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Rosaniline Dyes; 39N9K8S2A4 / iso-sulfan blue
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS660951; NLM/ PMC4341979
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74. Valero V 3rd, Kong AL, Hunt KK, Yi M, Hwang RF, Meric-Bernstam F, Bedrosian I, Ross MI, Babiera GV, Litton JK, Mittendorf EA: Sentinel lymph node dissection is technically feasible in older breast cancer patients. Clin Breast Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;10(6):477-82
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  • Breast cancer patients 70 years and older with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes should be offered SLND, as the presence of lymph node metastasis may alter adjuvant therapy recommendations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21147692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0666
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Fields RC, Aft RL, Gillanders WE, Eberlein TJ, Margenthaler JA: Treatment and outcomes of patients with primary breast sarcoma. Am J Surg; 2008 Oct;196(4):559-61
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  • Six patients underwent axillary staging; none were positive.
  • Axillary staging is not indicated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18723152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Bossuyt V, Fadare O, Martel M, Ocal IT, Burtness B, Moinfar F, Leibl S, Tavassoli FA: Remarkably high frequency of EGFR expression in breast carcinomas with squamous differentiation. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Oct;13(4):319-27
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  • Sentinel or full axillary lymph node dissection was performed in 28 patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / chemistry. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / chemistry. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / chemistry. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / chemistry. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Surg Pathol. 2006 Jul;14(3):268; author reply 269 [16959717.001]
  • (PMID = 16273187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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77. Vahtsevanos K, Ntomouchtsis A, Andreadis C, Patrikidou A, Karakinaris G, Mangoudi D, Papanastasiou G, Antoniades K: Distant bone metastases from carcinoma of the lip: a report of four cases. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Feb;36(2):180-5
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  • Four patients (2.14%) showed distant bone metastases, one with concurrent axillary node metastasis.
  • Metastasis to bone and axillary lymph nodes is exceptionally rare and can be attributed to either inadequate initial management or aggressive tumour behaviour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17223312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0901-5027
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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78. Prati R, Minami CA, Gornbein JA, Debruhl N, Chung D, Chang HR: Accuracy of clinical evaluation of locally advanced breast cancer in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cancer; 2009 Mar 15;115(6):1194-202
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  • Axillary lymph node assessment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated high specificity but low sensitivity by PET and PE.
  • PET and PE both correctly predicted positive axillary lymph nodes but not negative lymph nodes.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 19156919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA093736-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA093736; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 93,736-01A; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA093736-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS89260; NLM/ PMC2761029
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79. Zhang Y, Ma QY, Dang CX, Moureau-Zabotto M, Chen WK: Quantitative molecular diagnosis of axillary drainage fluid for prediction of locoregional failure in patients with one to three positive axillary nodes after mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Feb 1;64(2):505-11
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  • [Title] Quantitative molecular diagnosis of axillary drainage fluid for prediction of locoregional failure in patients with one to three positive axillary nodes after mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: A quantitative multiple-marker reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for sensitive detection of cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid was developed to examine whether the presence of cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid can be used as a predictor of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients with breast cancer who had T1/2 primary tumors and one to three positive axillary lymph nodes treated with modified radical mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Axillary drainage fluid was collected from 126 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast who were treated with modified radical mastectomy and were found to have one to three positive axillary nodes.
  • Cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid were detected by RT-PCR assay using primers specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) together with numerous clinicopathologic and treatment-related factors and were analyzed for their impact on LRR.
  • RESULTS: A total of 38 patients suffered LRR during follow-up and the multimarker RT-PCR assays for CEA and CK-19 in the axillary drainage fluid both were positive in 34 patients (27.0%), of which 29 patients had LRR.
  • In univariate analysis, the 5-year LRR-free survival showed higher rates in patients with PCR-negative findings in axillary drainage fluid (p<0.0001), age>or=40 years old (p<0.0001), tumor size<2.5 cm (p<0.0001), negative lymph-vascular space invasion (p=0.026), and T1 status (<0.0001); in multivariate analysis, PCR-positive findings together with age and tumor size were found to be independent predictors of LRR (all p<0.05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16257133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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80. Karri V, Armenio A, Pereira J: Axillary reconstruction with a musculoglandulocutaneous island flap. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 May;115(6):1797-8
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  • [Title] Axillary reconstruction with a musculoglandulocutaneous island flap.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 15861113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Hogan BV, Peter MB, Shenoy H, Horgan K, Shaaban A: Intramammary lymph node metastasis predicts poorer survival in breast cancer patients. Surg Oncol; 2010 Mar;19(1):11-6
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  • Sixty seven percent of patients with intramammary node metastasis had further axillary metastases.
  • One patient had an intramammary node metastasis but uninvolved axillary sentinel node.
  • She presented 19 months later with an axillary nodal recurrence.
  • Pre-operative detection of intramammary lymph node metastasis is helpful to guide breast and axillary surgeries.
  • Intramammary lymph node metastasis predicts strongly for axillary metastatic disease and axillary node clearance is recommended.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast. Databases, Factual. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19171479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3320
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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82. Horan G, Rafique A, Wishart GC, Wilson CB: Clip placement during axillary clearance: defining the radiotherapy target. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2006 Nov;18(9):721-2
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  • [Title] Clip placement during axillary clearance: defining the radiotherapy target.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Surgical Instruments
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 17100162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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83. Nieder C, Astner ST, Andratschke NH, Adam M: Disease presentation and outcome in very young patients with brain metastases from breast cancer. Tumori; 2008 Sep-Oct;94(5):691-3
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  • RESULTS: In patients with information available, tumors were poorly differentiated and metastatic to the axillary lymph nodes at primary diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiosurgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


84. Cheng NC, Tang YB, Liang CW, Chien HF: Myxoid solitary fibrous tumour of the axilla. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2006;59(1):86-9
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  • [Title] Myxoid solitary fibrous tumour of the axilla.
  • Mostly occurring in pleura, solitary fibrous tumour is an unusual soft tissue neoplasm.
  • The patient presented with a large, movable, nontender mass at the right axilla.
  • During surgery, the mass was found to be closely associated with the axillary vein.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Neoplasms, Fibrous Tissue / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16482794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-6815
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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85. Stadnik TW, Everaert H, Makkat S, Sacré R, Lamote J, Bourgain C: Breast imaging. Preoperative breast cancer staging: comparison of USPIO-enhanced MR imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDC) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for axillary lymph node staging--initial findings. Eur Radiol; 2006 Oct;16(10):2153-60
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  • [Title] Breast imaging. Preoperative breast cancer staging: comparison of USPIO-enhanced MR imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDC) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for axillary lymph node staging--initial findings.
  • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) injection and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for preoperative axillary lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer were evaluated using histopathologic findings as the reference standard.
  • USPIO-enhanced MR and FDG-PET were performed in ten patients with breast cancer who were scheduled for surgery and axillary node resection.
  • The histopathologic axillary staging was negative for nodal malignancy in five patients and positive in the remaining five patients.
  • If these results are confirmed, the combination of USPIO MR with FDG-PET has the potential to identify the patient candidates for axillary dissection versus sentinel node lymphadenectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Bayes Theorem. Contrast Media. Dextrans. Female. Ferrosoferric Oxide. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Iron. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnostic imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetite Nanoparticles. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oxides. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16670863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Dextrans; 0 / Magnetite Nanoparticles; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; G6N3J05W84 / ferumoxides; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
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86. Marinho VF, Metze K, Sanches FS, Rocha GF, Gobbi H: Lymph vascular invasion in invasive mammary carcinomas identified by the endothelial lymphatic marker D2-40 is associated with other indicators of poor prognosis. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:64
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  • METHODS: We selected 123 cases of invasive mammary carcinomas stratified into three subgroups according to axillary lymph node status: macrometastases, micrometastases, and lymph node negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Immunoglobulin G. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Blood Vessels / chemistry. Blood Vessels / pathology. Endothelial Cells / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18307818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / oncofetal antigens
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2294134
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87. Sahin FI, Yilmaz Z, Yagmurdur MC, Atac FB, Ozdemir BH, Karakayali H, Demirhan B, Haberal M: Clinical findings and HER-2/neu gene amplification status of breast carcinoma patients. Pathol Oncol Res; 2006;12(4):211-5
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  • The study group was derived from the archival materials of 48 invasive intraductal breast cancer patients who had undergone partial mastectomy/ axillary dissection.
  • Ratios of axillary metastatic lymph nodes to dissected total lymph nodes were 17%, 23% and 83% in groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively (P=0.003).
  • The number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes, and the ratio of microscopic metastatic lymph nodes were highest in group 3 (P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively).
  • Our results show that HER-2/neu signal ratio increases with lymphovascular invasion, an extensive intraductal component, irregular growth pattern and axillary metastasis in clinically T1-2N0M0 invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17189983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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88. Zavagno G, Del Bianco P, Koussis H, Artioli G, Carraro P, De Salvo GL, Mencarelli R, Belardinelli V, Marconato G, Nitti D: Clinical impact of false-negative sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jun;34(6):620-5
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  • AIMS: To evaluate the incidence of false-negative (FN) sentinel lymph node (SLN) cases, their correlation with a series of clinico-pathologic parameters and their impact on adjuvant treatment indications and on clinical axillary relapse in the setting of a multicentric clinical trial comparing SLN biopsy with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • The indications for adjuvant treatments were evaluated by considering both the FN nodal stages, as indicated by the SLN, and the true positive axillary status, as indicated by completion ALND.
  • The occurrence of clinically evident axillary recurrences was evaluated in the two arms.
  • Of the clinico-pathologic parameters tested, only a tumour size < or = 2 cm and the presence of a single metastatic axillary node was significantly associated with a risk of FN (p = 0.033 and p = 0.018, respectively).
  • At 56 months, no clinically evident axillary nodal recurrences were present in the ALND arm patients, whereas one case of axillary recurrence was detected in the SLN arm patients.
  • However, the clinical impact of FN in terms of axillary recurrence at 56 months was minimal.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Disease-Free Survival. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17764888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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89. Nottage MK, Kopciuk KA, Tzontcheva A, Andrulis IL, Bull SB, Blackstein ME: Analysis of incidence and prognostic factors for ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence and its impact on disease-specific survival of women with node-negative breast cancer: a prospective cohort study. Breast Cancer Res; 2006;8(4):R44
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  • All had undergone a resection of the primary breast cancer with clear margins, an axillary lymph node dissection with a minimum of four sampled nodes, and breast-conserving surgery (of any type).

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  • (PMID = 16859523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / 55118-1; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 55118-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1779479
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90. Derkx F, Maaskant-Braat AJ, van der Sangen MJ, Nieuwenhuijzen GA, van de Poll-Franse LV, Roumen RM, Voogd AC: Staging and management of axillary lymph nodes in patients with local recurrence in the breast or chest wall after a previous negative sentinel node procedure. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jul;36(7):646-51
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  • [Title] Staging and management of axillary lymph nodes in patients with local recurrence in the breast or chest wall after a previous negative sentinel node procedure.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate axillary staging and management in patients with local recurrence (LR) after a previous negative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB).
  • RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were treated with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), followed by axillary radiotherapy in 9 cases.
  • In 26 of these 37 patients no positive axillary lymph nodes were found.
  • Nineteen patients received no treatment of the axilla at all.
  • Overall, positive lymph nodes were detected in 13 of the 50 patients who underwent axillary staging, either by SNB or ALND.
  • During this follow-up period one patient developed an axillary recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of guidelines for staging and management of the axilla at time of LR of breast or chest wall, many different strategies are being used.
  • Considering the high rate of positive axillary lymph nodes in these patients, repeat surgical staging is appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Thoracic Wall / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Netherlands. Registries. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20537838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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91. Turcotte S, Forget MA, Beauseigle D, Nassif E, Lapointe R: Prostate-derived Ets transcription factor overexpression is associated with nodal metastasis and hormone receptor positivity in invasive breast cancer. Neoplasia; 2007 Oct;9(10):788-96
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  • High PDEF expression was associated with hormone receptor positivity (P < .001), moderate to good differentiation (less than grade III, P = .01), and dissemination to axillary lymph nodes (P = .002).
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Factors. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17971898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DKK1 protein, human; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / SPDEF protein, human; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2040205
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Dikkopf-1 (DKK1) / Prostate-derived Ets transcription factor (PDEF) / breast cancer / expression profile / tumor biomarkers
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92. Pavlidis N, Fizazi K: Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP). Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2009 Mar;69(3):271-8
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  • These sub-sets are: the poorly differentiated carcinomas involving the mediastinal-retroperitoneal nodes, peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinomatosis in females, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, isolated axillary node adenocarcinomas in females or cervical nodal involvement by a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18977667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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93. Takehisa M, Nagao T, Yoshida M, Hirose T, Kajikawa A, Sasa M, Tangoku A: Lower axillary dissection in breast cancer surgery may be candidate for cases with early breast cancer. J Med Invest; 2005 Feb;52(1-2):74-9
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  • [Title] Lower axillary dissection in breast cancer surgery may be candidate for cases with early breast cancer.
  • Lower axillary lymph node dissection (lower parts of both the level I and II elements below the second intracostobrachial nerve) and level I and II lymph node dissection were performed on breast cancer patients (n = 54), and the results with the two methods were compared in terms of the status of detected lymph node metastases.
  • And, the occurrence of operated arm swelling wasn't recognized when a side effect was examined with the case (n = 28) that only lower axillary dissection was carried out in case of an operation for breast cancer.
  • Accordingly, it was surmised that lower axillary dissection provides accurate pN information for Stage I, N0 cases.
  • These results indicate that lower axillary dissection has the potential to become an effective, standard surgical procedure for breast cancer patients whose preoperative disease stage is Stage I.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15751276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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94. Krishnamurthy S: Current applications and future prospects of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of locoregional lymph nodes in the management of breast cancer. Cancer; 2009 Dec 25;117(6):451-62
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  • Patients undergo either sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy or complete axillary lymph node dissection, based on whether the axillary lymph node status is determined to be negative or positive in the initial staging process.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19813277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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95. Markićević M, Petrović A, Kanjer K, Nesković-Konstantinović Z, Nikolić-Vukosavujević D: Estrogen-regulated cut-off values of pS2 and cathepsin D expression in breast carcinomas. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2008;617:341-8
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  • Statistically significant direct correlations were observed between CD expression and axillary node status and between pS2 expression and histologic grade, while the expression of both proteins was related to both ER and PR status.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Menopause. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18497057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / TFF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.4.23.5 / Cathepsin D
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96. Nogami M, Nakamoto Y, Sakamoto S, Fukushima K, Okada T, Saga T, Higashi T, Senda M, Matsui T, Sugimura K: Diagnostic performance of CT, PET, side-by-side, and fused image interpretations for restaging of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ann Nucl Med; 2007 Jun;21(4):189-96
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  • CT alone, PET alone, side-by-side reading, and fused images were interpreted separately and visually using a five-point grading scale for the following eight regions: cervical, supraclavicular, axillary, mediastinal, para-aortic to iliac, mesenteric, inguinal, and extra-nodal.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


97. Hamamoto Y, Kataoka M, Semba T, Uwatsu K, Sugawara Y, Inoue T, Sakai S, Aono S, Takahashi T, Oda S: Supraclavicular failure after breast-conserving therapy in patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes when prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation is omitted. Jpn J Radiol; 2009 Jun;27(5):213-7
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  • [Title] Supraclavicular failure after breast-conserving therapy in patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes when prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation is omitted.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of supraclavicular metastasis as the initial failure and the failure patterns in patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes (PALNs) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) without prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation were investigated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Clavicle. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19554414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-1071
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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98. Li J, Rudas M, Kemmner W, Warnick P, Fischer J, Gnant M, Schlag PM, Bembenek A: The location of small tumor deposits in the SLN predicts Non-SLN macrometastases in breast cancer patients. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;34(8):857-62
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  • This finding may simplify the decision for axillary treatment in patients with small tumor deposits in the SLN.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Risk Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Surg Oncol. 2009 Aug;35(8):897-8 [19124217.001]
  • (PMID = 17764886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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99. Maráz R, Boross G, Svébis M, Gyánti R, Vizhányó R, Hajnal L, Markó L, Szucs M, Ambrózay E, Lorincz M: [Response rates following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast preserving treatment in patients with locally advanced breast cancer]. Magy Seb; 2005 Aug;58(4):225-32
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  • If mastectomy and axillary block dissection has to be carried out they are easier to perform.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16261868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar sebészet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Seb
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; CEF regimen
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100. Tan JT, Bagnell M, Morgan JW, Wong JH, Roy-Chowdhury S, Lum SS: The identification and treatment of isolated tumor cells reflect disparities in the delivery of breast cancer care. Am J Surg; 2009 Oct;198(4):508-10
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  • The identification of isolated tumor cells (ITCs) in axillary lymph nodes of patients with breast cancer requires diagnosis of early stage disease, appropriate implementation of sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection, and pathologic analysis of the SLN with serial sectioning and immunohistochemical staining.
  • The proportions of patients in SES quintiles (1 = lowest, 5 = highest), race/ethnicity groups, and hospital surgical volume tertiles (low, 1-241 cases/y; medium, 242-491 cases/y; high, >or=492 cases/y) were compared for use of SLN dissection, identification of ITCs, and treatment of ITCs with additional axillary surgery or chemotherapy.
  • There were no differences in the use of additional axillary surgery among different groups with ITCs, but chemotherapy was given more frequently to Hispanic women (P = .002) and those in higher-volume hospitals (P = .01).
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19800457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N02-PC-15105; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U58DP000807-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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