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Items 1 to 100 of about 1417
1. Adnani A, Chellaoui M, Chat L, Dafiri R: [Unusual appearance of axillary lipoblastoma of infancy]. J Radiol; 2005 Sep;86(9 Pt 1):1043-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Unusual appearance of axillary lipoblastoma of infancy].
  • The authors report a case of unusual lipoblastoma of the axillary region, composed of fatty components with multiple cystic areas presenting at birth, with recurrence 9 months after excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Lipoma / congenital. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16224347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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2. Ellsworth RE, Ellsworth DL, Neatrour DM, Deyarmin B, Lubert SM, Sarachine MJ, Brown P, Hooke JA, Shriver CD: Allelic imbalance in primary breast carcinomas and metastatic tumors of the axillary lymph nodes. Mol Cancer Res; 2005 Feb;3(2):71-7
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  • [Title] Allelic imbalance in primary breast carcinomas and metastatic tumors of the axillary lymph nodes.
  • Axillary lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor in predicting disease outcome in women with breast cancer.
  • DNA samples isolated from laser-microdissected primary breast and metastatic axillary lymph node tumors from 25 women with invasive breast cancer were amplified using 52 microsatellite markers defining 26 chromosomal regions commonly deleted in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15755873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Mathelin C, Salvador S, Guyonnet JL: [Axillary lymph node recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2007 May;36(3):253-9
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  • [Title] [Axillary lymph node recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about axillary recurrences after sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer.
  • METHODS: A Pubmed search for publications (in English or French) related to breast cancer, SLN and axillary recurrence was carried out from 1995 to 2006.
  • RESULTS: Under controlled conditions (notably after a learning curve concerning the multidisciplinary team), the SLN procedure proved to be a reliable method for evaluation of axillary nodal status in selected patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer.
  • When the SLN is free of cancer cells, the rate of axillary recurrence varies from 0% to 2% with a follow-up ranging from 14 to 57 months.
  • Recurrence after axillary lymph node dissection is similar.
  • When isolated cancer cells or micrometastases invaded the SLN, the rate of axillary recurrence remains low, but a complete axillary lymph node dissection must be performed to reduce this rate significantly.
  • The use of intraoperative miniaturized gamma cameras could contribute to the optimization of the SLN procedure and to reduce axillary recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17317037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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4. Namwongprom S, Boonyaprapa S, Ekmahachai M, Vilasdechanon N, Somwangprasert A, Sumitsawan S, Taya P: Breast lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancers with clinically-negative axillary nodes. Singapore Med J; 2005 Dec;46(12):688-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancers with clinically-negative axillary nodes.
  • INTRODUCTION: To analyse and determine the clinical value of lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node (SLN) localisation in woman undergoing surgery for breast cancer, and evaluate the predictive value of SLN versus axillary lymph node (ALN) status in these patients.
  • All patients underwent standard modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Gamma Cameras. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Technetium

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  • [CommentIn] Singapore Med J. 2006 Jun;47(6):560-1 [16752034.001]
  • (PMID = 16308641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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5. Swenson KK, Mahipal A, Nissen MJ, Tuttle TM, Heaton K, Lally RM, Spomer A, Lee MW: Axillary disease recurrence after sentinel lymph node dissection for breast carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Nov 1;104(9):1834-9
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  • [Title] Axillary disease recurrence after sentinel lymph node dissection for breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgical recommendation for early-stage breast carcinoma includes removal of the primary breast tumor and evaluation of the axillary lymph nodes on the ipsilateral side.
  • Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) is increasingly being used to evaluate axillary lymph nodes in clinically lymph node negative patients as an alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • Results from SLND are highly predictive of metastatic involvement in the axilla, and are associated with fewer side effects.
  • However, the greatest concern with SLND alone is the potential for a higher rate of axillary lymph node recurrence.
  • Consecutive breast carcinoma cases with SLND only for axillary surgery, from January 28, 1999 to December 31, 2003, were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 33 months (range, 2-73 mos), axillary lymph node recurrence occurred in 4 of 647 (0.62%) patients overall.
  • In these 4 patients, the axillary lymph node recurrences were isolated to the axillary lymph nodes and amenable to surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Data from the current study showed that axillary lymph node recurrence after SLND occurred very infrequently in early-stage breast carcinoma, and these results were comparable to other studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16161037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Khan A, Sabel MS, Nees A, Diehl KM, Cimmino VM, Kleer CG, Schott AF, Hayes DF, Chang AE, Newman LA: Comprehensive axillary evaluation in neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients with ultrasonography and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep;12(9):697-704
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  • [Title] Comprehensive axillary evaluation in neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients with ultrasonography and sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • We report the accuracy of comprehensive pre-neoadjuvant CTX and post-neoadjuvant CTX axillary staging via ultrasound imaging, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, and SLN biopsy.
  • METHODS: From 2001 to 2004, 91 neoadjuvant CTX patients at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center underwent axillary staging by ultrasonography, ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy, SLN biopsy, or a combination of these.
  • RESULTS: Axillary staging was pathologically negative by pre-neoadjuvant CTX SLN biopsy in 53 cases (58%); these patients had no further axillary surgery.
  • In 38 cases (42%), axillary metastases were confirmed at presentation by either ultrasound-guided FNA or SLN biopsy.
  • These 38 patients underwent completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after delivery of neoadjuvant CTX.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving neoadjuvant CTX can have accurate axillary nodal staging by ultrasound-guided FNA or SLN biopsy.
  • In cases of documented axillary metastasis at presentation, repeat axillary staging with SLN biopsy can document the post-neoadjuvant CTX nodal status.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results. Time Factors. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16079956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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7. Snoj M, Bracko M, Zagar I: Axillary recurrence rate in breast cancer patients with negative sentinel lymph node. Croat Med J; 2005 Jun;46(3):377-81
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence rate in breast cancer patients with negative sentinel lymph node.
  • AIM: To assess the axillary recurrence rate in operable breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla after negative sentinel lymph node in whom axillary lymph node dissection had not been performed.
  • METHODS: Fifty consecutive female operable breast cancer patients with negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in whom axillary lymph node dissection had not been performed were included in the study and prospectively followed, with median follow-up time of 32 months (range 10-50 months).
  • In only one of 50 patients with negative sentinel lymph node, axillary recurrence developed 26 months after surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Omitting axillary node dissection after negative sentinel node biopsy in operable breast cancer patients proved to be safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Slovenia / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15861515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9504
  • [Journal-full-title] Croatian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Croat. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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8. Takeyama H, Takahashi H, Tabei I, Fukuchi O, Nogi H, Kinoshita S, Uchida K, Morikawa T: Malignant neoplasm in the axilla of a male: suspected primary carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland. Breast Cancer; 2010 Apr;17(2):151-4
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  • [Title] Malignant neoplasm in the axilla of a male: suspected primary carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland.
  • A 58-year-old Japanese male patient visited our hospital for evaluation of an elastic hard mass, measuring 80 x 50 mm, in the right axillary area.
  • After chemotherapy, the patient underwent tumor resection with axillary lymph node dissection.
  • The tumor could have been an axillary lymph node metastasis from an occult breast carcinoma, or primary cancer arising in an accessory mammary gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19387775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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9. Chung A, Giuliano A: Axillary staging in the neoadjuvant setting. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Sep;17(9):2401-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Axillary staging in the neoadjuvant setting.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection has been the standard method of staging the axilla in the neoadjuvant setting.
  • Since the sentinel lymph node biopsy was introduced in the early 1990s, less invasive approaches to axillary staging in patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy have been proposed.
  • In this review, we discuss the effects of NAC, the imaging modalities that have been used to evaluate the axillary lymph nodes, and the role and timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the neoadjuvant setting.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 Dec;18 Suppl 3:S276; author reply S277 [21197585.001]
  • (PMID = 20229221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Voogd AC, Cranenbroek S, de Boer R, Roumen RM, Rutten HJ, van der Sangen MJ: Long-term prognosis of patients with axillary recurrence after axillary dissection for invasive breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Jun;31(5):485-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term prognosis of patients with axillary recurrence after axillary dissection for invasive breast cancer.
  • AIM: To investigate the long-term prognosis of patients with axillary recurrence after axillary dissection for invasive breast cancer and describe the long-term survivors.
  • METHODS: Between 1984 and 1994, 4669 patients with invasive breast cancer underwent axillary dissection in eight community hospitals in the south-eastern part of The Netherlands.
  • Using follow-up data of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, 59 patients with axillary recurrence were identified.
  • RESULTS: The median interval between treatment of the primary tumour and diagnosis of axillary recurrence was 2.6 years (range 0.3-10.7).
  • The median length of follow-up after diagnosis of axillary recurrence was 11.1 years (5.7-15.6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Axillary recurrence following axillary dissection is associated with a high rate of subsequent distant metastasis and poor overall prognosis but is not always a fatal event.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Registries. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15922883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. van der Ploeg IM, Tanis PJ, Valdés Olmos RA, Kroon BB, Rutgers EJ, Nieweg OE: Breast cancer patients with extra-axillary sentinel nodes only may be spared axillary lymph node dissection. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Nov;15(11):3239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast cancer patients with extra-axillary sentinel nodes only may be spared axillary lymph node dissection.
  • BACKGROUND: In breast cancer patients with only extra-axillary sentinel nodes, surgeons typically perform axillary node dissection.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate our approach to spare such patients further dissection based on the hypothesis that a sentinel node is not necessarily located in the axilla.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-two of the 1,949 patients had only extra-axillary drainage on their lymphoscintigrams.
  • A sentinel node was harvested from the axilla in 62 patients but not in the remaining 20 patients.
  • No axillary lymph nodes were removed in 4 of these 20 patients, suspicious palpable nodes were excised in another 4 patients, and node sampling was done in the remaining 12.
  • All sentinel nodes outside the axilla were removed.
  • No lymph node recurrences were detected in or outside the axilla in any of the 20 patients with a median follow-up time of 49 months.
  • CONCLUSION: 4% of the patients have only extra-axillary drainage on preoperative lymphoscintigrams.
  • It is worthwhile to explore the axilla since a sentinel node can be found in three-quarters.
  • In the remaining 1% without axillary sentinel nodes, axillary sampling seems unnecessary and the approach to refrain from axillary dissection appears valid.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid

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  • (PMID = 18773244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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12. Pai A, Gupta P, Raina S, Nadkarni MS, Parmar V, Badwe RA: Interpectoral approach to dissection of the axillary apex: an elegant and effective approach. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Sep 1;94(3):252-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interpectoral approach to dissection of the axillary apex: an elegant and effective approach.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary dissection is the gold standard for treatment of the axilla.
  • It provides important prognostic information, accurately stages the axilla, and has the lowest recurrence rate among all modalities.
  • In today's age of conservation surgery, the axilla is often addressed through a cosmetically acceptable small incision with limited access, thereby making clearance of the level III nodes difficult.
  • RESULTS: This method has been used in nearly 5,000 axillary dissections performed at our institute, with excellent results.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoplasm Staging. Pectoralis Muscles / innervation

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16900515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Miyamoto T, Adachi K, Fujishima M: Axillary apocrine carcinoma with Paget's disease and apocrine naevus. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Jul;34(5):e110-3
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  • [Title] Axillary apocrine carcinoma with Paget's disease and apocrine naevus.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignant sweat-gland neoplasm with apocrine differentiation.
  • We report a case of a 78-year-old man with a painless tumour of the left axilla.
  • The patient underwent radical excision of the left axilla with left axillary lymph-node resection.
  • Two years later, the patient noted enlargement of the right axilla, and PET showed increased FDG uptake.
  • On resection of this enlarging right axilla, an apocrine naevus was found.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands. Axilla. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19438526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Meinel LA, Abe H, Bergtholdt M, Ecanow J, Schmidt R, Newstead G: Multi-modality morphological correlation of axillary lymph nodes. Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg; 2010 Jul;5(4):343-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multi-modality morphological correlation of axillary lymph nodes.
  • PURPOSE: The goal of this study is to develop a computerized method that identifies a specific axillary lymph node (ALN) seen on ultrasound (US) with its most likely corresponding node on breast MRI (BMRI).
  • It is hoped that the combined multi-modality information would provide a more robust non-invasive method of staging the axilla than is currently available.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 20443149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 84F6U3J2R6 / gadodiamide; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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15. Susini T, Nori J, Olivieri S, Molino C, Marini G, Bianchi S, Vezzosi V, Livi L, Mascalchi M, Scarselli G: Predicting the status of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer: a multiparameter approach including axillary ultrasound scanning. Breast; 2009 Apr;18(2):103-8
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  • [Title] Predicting the status of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer: a multiparameter approach including axillary ultrasound scanning.
  • In a prospective study, we attempted to predict axillary metastases in 135 breast cancer patients by a preoperative multiparameter evaluation including axillary ultrasound scanning (US).
  • By multivariate analysis, the stronger independent predictors of lymph node metastases were suspicious axillary US (p<0.001), tumor location in the outer quadrants (p=0.001) and high Ki-67 index (>10%) (p=0.002).
  • A predictive model based on these variables, identified a high-risk group (20.0%) represented by women with suspicious axillary US, tumor in the outer quadrants and high Ki-67 index, with axillary metastases in 100%, whereas all patients with opposite features (8.1%) had uninvolved axillary lymph nodes.
  • This multiparameter evaluation including axillary US may be used to optimize the selection of breast cancer patients candidate to sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19285396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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16. Aydogan F, Ozben V, Atasoy D, Yilmaz MH, Halaç M, Celik V: Excision of axillary lymph node recurrences in breast cancer patients with axillary ROLL (A-ROLL). J Surg Oncol; 2010 Feb 1;101(2):141-4
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  • [Title] Excision of axillary lymph node recurrences in breast cancer patients with axillary ROLL (A-ROLL).
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Conventional surgical exploration to find clinically occult axillary lymph node recurrence of breast cancer can be challenging.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the place of our alternative technique, axillary-ROLL (A-ROLL), in previously treated breast cancer patients with nonpalpable axillary lymph node recurrences.
  • METHODS: Between March 2005 and May 2009, included in this retrospective study were four women (age, 42-51 years) without clinical evidence of distant metastasis who had treatment for breast cancer and were subsequently found to have suspicious axillary lymph node(s) detected by control ultrasonography (US) examination during follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A-ROLL technique has proved to be accurate and safe in the identification and excision of clinically occult axillary lymph node recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19937993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Gauthier T, Monteil J, Bourneton N, Jammet I, Tubiana N, Aubard Y: Contralateral axillary involvement in breast cancer recurrence: locoregional disease or metastasis? Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(6):694-6
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  • [Title] Contralateral axillary involvement in breast cancer recurrence: locoregional disease or metastasis?
  • We describe a case of right mammary homolateral recurrence with controlateral axillary invasion.
  • Lymphoscintigraphy of the right breast, after periareolar injection, revealed lymphatic drainage from the right breast into the left contralateral axillary lymph node.
  • Because of the changes in axillary drainage after mammary and axillary surgery observed by lymphoscintigraphy, contralateral axillary involvement could be considered as locoregional disease in the same way as homolateral lymph node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21319520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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18. Peres A, Delpech Y, Bricou A, Barranger E: [Sentinel node biopsy after multiple breast and axillary surgeries]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2010 Jun;38(6):415-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Sentinel node biopsy after multiple breast and axillary surgeries].
  • We report SN biopsy in a rare case of second ipsilateral subcutaneous recurrence in patient with previous left breast cancer initially treated by breast radiotherapy followed by mammectomy with axillary dissection and multiple mammoplasty.
  • Two axillary radioactive SNs were identified and removed without lymph node involvement at final histology.
  • To conclude, re-operative axillary dissection by SN biopsy after previous axillary and breast surgeries is technically feasible.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Mammaplasty. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Reoperation

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20576554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6682
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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19. Jiang J, He QQ, Yang XH, Liang Y, Fan LJ, Zhang Y, Guo MQ: Contribution of minute axillary lymph nodes to accurate staging for patients with breast cancer. Chin Med J (Engl); 2007 Oct 20;120(20):1762-5
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  • [Title] Contribution of minute axillary lymph nodes to accurate staging for patients with breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node metastasis is a very important metastatic pathway in breast cancer and its accurate detection is important for staging tumour and guiding therapy.
  • A modified method for conveniently detecting minute lymph node in specimens of axillary dissections in patients with breast cancer was used to analyze their influence on staging breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Lymph nodes in fresh, unfixed, specimens of axillary dissections from 127 cases of breast cancer were detected routinely.
  • Then the axillary fatty tissues were cut into 1 cm thick pieces, soaked in Carnoy's solution for 6 to 12 hours, taken out and put on a glass plate.
  • A further 879 lymph nodes up to 6 mm (781 < 3 mm, 6.9 +/- 5.3 per case, increasing mean to 26.5 +/- 9.7) were found from the axillary tissues after soaking in Carnoy's solution.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The accurate staging of axillary lymph node metastasis can be obtained routinely with number of axillary lymph nodes in most cases of breast cancer.
  • To avoid neglecting minute lymph nodes with metastases, small axillary nodes should be searched carefully in the cases of earlier breast cancer with no swollen axillary nodes.
  • Treatment with Carnoy's solution can expediently detect minute axillary nodes and improve the accurate staging of lymph nodes in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18028767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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20. Moore A, Hester M, Nam MW, Brill YM, McGrath P, Wright H, Weisinger K, Romond E, Samayoa LM: Distinct lymph nodal sonographic characteristics in breast cancer patients at high risk for axillary metastases correlate with the final axillary stage. Br J Radiol; 2008 Aug;81(968):630-6
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  • [Title] Distinct lymph nodal sonographic characteristics in breast cancer patients at high risk for axillary metastases correlate with the final axillary stage.
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical relevance, limitations and most common findings of axillary ultrasound and subsequent image-guided aspiration cytology in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients who are at high risk for axillary metastasis.
  • Following institutional review board approval and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliance, sonographic axillary surveys from 112 patients considered at high risk for axillary metastases were reviewed retrospectively for the following abnormal features: asymmetric cortical thickening/lobulations; loss or compression of the hyperechoic medullary region; absence of fatty hilum; abnormal lymph node shape; hypoechoic cortex; admixture of normal and abnormal appearing nodes; and increased peripheral blood flow.
  • Patients with abnormal ultrasound and positive cytology proceeded to complete axillary dissection.
  • In conclusion, nodal sonographic characteristics of patients at high risk for metastases are useful predictors of tumour burden in the axilla.
  • When combined with the results from aspiration cytology, these findings could modify the surgical approach to the axilla, eliminating the need for sentinel node mapping in a significant proportion of patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 18628332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Luini A, Gatti G, Ballardini B, Zurrida S, Galimberti V, Veronesi P, Vento AR, Monti S, Viale G, Paganelli G, Veronesi U: Development of axillary surgery in breast cancer. Ann Oncol; 2005 Feb;16(2):259-62
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  • [Title] Development of axillary surgery in breast cancer.
  • Axillary surgery is a critical part of the treatment of breast carcinoma: its importance is related to the staging of disease, prescription of adjuvant therapy and prognosis.
  • For years, complete axillary dissection has remained the standard approach to breast cancer lymphatic staging; its value is still high, but the development of sentinel-node biopsy has significantly changed the indication of the procedure.
  • We discuss the evolution of axillary surgery in breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15668280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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22. Gruber G, Menzi S, Forster A, Berclaz G, Altermatt HJ, Greiner RH: Sites of failure in breast cancer patients with extracapsular invasion of axillary lymph node metastases. No need for axillary irradiation?! Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Sep;181(9):574-9
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  • [Title] Sites of failure in breast cancer patients with extracapsular invasion of axillary lymph node metastases. No need for axillary irradiation?!
  • In this study it was evaluated, if ECS might be an indicator for axillary irradiation.
  • All patients were irradiated locally, 78 patients got periclavicular and 74 axillary irradiation (median total dose: 50.4 Gy).
  • The 5-year axillary relapse-free survival was 100% in ECS-negative and 90% in ECS-positive patients (p = 0.01), whereas corresponding values for periclavicular relapse-free survival (with ECS: 91% +/- 4%; without ECS: 94% +/- 3%; p = 0.77) and local relapse-free survival (with ECS: 86% +/- 4%; without ECS: 91% +/- 3%; p = 0.69) were not significantly different. chi(2)-tests revealed a high correlation of ECS with T-stage, number of positive lymph nodes and progesterone receptor status, comparisons with estrogen receptor, grade, or age were not significant.
  • Dividing the patients into those with one to three and those with four or more positive lymph nodes, ECS lost its significance for axillary failure.
  • CONCLUSION: ECS was accompanied by an enhanced axillary failure rate in univariate analysis, which was no longer true after adjusting for the number of positive lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / radiation effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16170484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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23. Hussein O, El-Nahhas W, El-Saed A, Denewer A: Video-assisted axillary surgery for cancer: non-randomized comparison with conventional techniques. Breast; 2007 Oct;16(5):513-9
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  • [Title] Video-assisted axillary surgery for cancer: non-randomized comparison with conventional techniques.
  • We present a controlled trial of endoscopic axillary surgery for breast cancer with mid-term oncologic results.
  • Fifty cases of axilloscopy for sentinel node biopsy, axillary sampling or full axillary dissection were included.
  • Full axillary dissection was performed with a three-port approach with gas insufflation without liposuction.
  • Endoscopic axillary dissection significantly lowered duration of drainage and operative blood loss.
  • One case developed axillary recurrence.
  • Endoscopically assisted axillary cancer surgery is technically feasible.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla / pathology. Endoscopy / methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Video-Assisted Surgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 17532217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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24. Jeruss JS, Winchester DJ, Sener SF, Brinkmann EM, Bilimoria MM, Barrera E Jr, Alwawi E, Nickolov A, Schermerhorn GM, Winchester DJ: Axillary recurrence after sentinel node biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Jan;12(1):34-40
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence after sentinel node biopsy.
  • This technique is accurate for surgical staging of axillary nodal disease.
  • We hypothesized that axillary recurrence after SNB is rare and that SNB may provide regional control in patients with microscopic nodal involvement.
  • Thirty (4.7%) of those sentinel node-negative patients underwent completion axillary dissection, whereas 592 (94%) patients were followed up with observation.
  • A total of 231 (27%) had positive sentinel nodes: 158 (68%) of these patients underwent completion axillary dissection, and 73 (32%) were managed with observation alone. Two (.32%) patients who were sentinel node negative had an axillary recurrence; one of these patients had undergone completion axillary dissection.
  • No patient in the observed sentinel node-positive group had an axillary recurrence (odds ratio, .37; P = .725).
  • CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of a median follow-up of 27.4 months, axillary recurrence after SNB is extraordinarily rare regardless of nodal involvement, thus indicating that this technique provides an accurate measure of axillary disease and may impart regional control for patients with node-positive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Databases, Factual. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15827776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Karanikolić A, Djordjević N, Filipovicz S, Pesić M, Milić D, Budjevac D, Djordjević I: Axillary recurrence after modified radical mastectomy. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2005;52(3):39-43
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence after modified radical mastectomy.
  • Optimal management for axillary recurrence is poorly understood.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for overall survival in the patients with axillary recurrence.
  • Axillary recurence was diganosed in 43 (3.92%) patients.
  • Most patients were presented with a localized, palpable axillary mass 30 (69.77%).
  • Cox multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for breast cancer-specific survival showed that node status HR 4.69 (1.50 to 14.72), tumor size HR 3.18 (0.90 to 11.26) and axillary radiotherapy HR 1.99 (0.69 to 5.75) had statistically significant effect on breast cancer mortality.
  • Log-rank (54.21 p < 0.001) analysis showed significant difference for overall survival among women with a axillary recurrence based on different cancer stages.
  • Tumor size and node status were the most important prognostic factors in women with axillary recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16812992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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26. Kim JY, Ross MI, Butler CE: Reconstruction following radical resection of recurrent metastatic axillary melanoma. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2006 Apr 15;117(5):1576-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reconstruction following radical resection of recurrent metastatic axillary melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Recurrent axillary metastasis following axillary lymphadenectomy for melanoma is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • Radical resection of such axillary recurrences with concomitant reconstruction may not only yield significant palliation of symptoms but also improve disease-free survival.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent axillary reexcision and reconstruction for metastatic melanoma between 1990 and 2000 was conducted at The University of Texas M. D.
  • Nine patients were identified who underwent flap reconstruction following radical excision of axillary recurrence after a previous lymphadenectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive resection of axillary recurrence following lymphadenectomy can palliate symptoms in select individuals and may result in long-term disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amputation. Arm / surgery. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Mesh. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16641728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Lim SM, Lam FL: Laparoscopic-assisted axillary dissection in breast cancer surgery. Am J Surg; 2005 Oct;190(4):641-3
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic-assisted axillary dissection in breast cancer surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Significant morbidity such as pain, paresthesia, and arm stiffness has often been associated with axillary dissection for breast cancer.
  • We report our experience of 30 patients with stage I and II invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast who underwent laparoscopic-assisted axillary dissection together with segmental mastectomy.
  • In all cases, initial exposure for axillary dissection was performed through the breast periareolar incision.
  • A 10-mm 30 degrees laparoscope was introduced through the breast incision to gain entry to the axilla.
  • A separate stab incision in the lower aspect of the axilla was used for introduction of the 5-mm Harmonic shears (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc, Cincinnati, OH).
  • Subsequent axillary dissection was performed laparoscopically, and the axillary content was removed through the breast incision.
  • Immediately postsurgery, all patients were able to fully mobilize the upper limb, facilitated by absence of an axillary scar.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic-assisted axillary dissection offers a safe and improved approach to the axilla, which can be incorporated into breast cancer surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16164939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Poletti P, Fenaroli P, Milesi A, Paludetti A, Mangiarotti S, Virotta G, Candiago E, Bettini A, Caremoli ER, Labianca R, Tondini C: Axillary recurrence in sentinel lymph node-negative breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol; 2008 Nov;19(11):1842-6
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence in sentinel lymph node-negative breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was developed to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in the treatment of breast cancer.
  • SLNB is predictive of axillary node status.
  • Purpose of this study is to determine the rate of axillary recurrence in our series of unselected patients.
  • After a median follow-up of 38.8 months, 21 patients had distant metastases, four had axillary relapse, nine had an in-breast recurrence and two had both.
  • All patients with axillary recurrence received axillary dissection and systemic adjuvant therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Data from this series, the largest from a general hospital, showed that isolated axillary node recurrence after negative SLNB is rare (<1%) and comparable with those reported from referral cancer institutions.

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  • (PMID = 18550574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Axelsson CK, Mouridsen HT, Düring M, Møller S: Axillary staging during surgery for breast cancer. Br J Surg; 2007 Mar;94(3):304-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Axillary staging during surgery for breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node status remains the single most important prognostic parameter in patients with breast cancer.
  • In approximately half of operations sentinel lymph node biopsy cannot be employed and axillary dissection is indicated.
  • RESULTS: The number of axillary lymph nodes retrieved was an independent and strong predictor of node positivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Denmark. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17262756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Mroczkowski P, Eder F, Effenberger O, Halloul Z: Endovascular treatment of tumor-induced axillary artery hemorrhage. Vasa; 2007 Feb;36(1):50-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endovascular treatment of tumor-induced axillary artery hemorrhage.
  • Hemorrhage caused by tumor invasion of the axillary artery is a rare, but serious complication.
  • A 70-year-old female with a history of inflammatory breast cancer was diagnosed with hypovolemic shock caused by arterial bleeding into the left axilla.
  • The bleeding site was localized in the proximal part of the axillary artery.
  • [MeSH-major] Alloys. Angioplasty, Balloon. Axillary Artery. Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / therapy. Hemorrhage / therapy. Stents
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Shock / etiology. Shock / radiography. Shock / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17323299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1526
  • [Journal-full-title] VASA. Zeitschrift für Gefässkrankheiten
  • [ISO-abbreviation] VASA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alloys; 52013-44-2 / nitinol
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31. Kim HJ, Son BH, Park EW, Lim WS, Seo JY, Jang MA, Ku BK, Ahn SH: Axillary recurrence after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Mar;114(2):301-5
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has almost totally replaced axillary lymph node dissection as the first-line axillary procedure for node-negative breast cancer.
  • In this study, we assessed axillary recurrence and risk factors in breast cancer patients 40 months after negative SLNB.
  • Of the 720 patients negative on SLNB, 174 underwent further axillary dissection, 253 underwent node sampling, and 293 received SLNB only.
  • At a median follow-up of 40 months (range 24-49 months), recurrence in the axilla was observed in three patients, all of whom had undergone SLNB only; two of these patients also had recurrences in internal mammary lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSION: The axillary recurrence rate was low in patients negative on SLNB.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radionuclide Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18389366.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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32. Kuijt GP, Voogd AC, van de Poll-Franse LV, Scheijmans LJ, van Beek MW, Roumen RM: The prognostic significance of axillary lymph-node micrometastases in breast cancer patients. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Jun;31(5):500-5
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  • [Title] The prognostic significance of axillary lymph-node micrometastases in breast cancer patients.
  • AIMS: We analysed the results of regional community practice to determine the prognosis of axillary lymph-node micrometastases in women with breast cancer.
  • We compared three subgroups: patients without axillary involvement (the pN0 group), patients with axillary micrometastasis (< or = 2 mm, the pN1a group), and patients with a macro metastasis in only one lymph node (> 2 mm, the pN1 group).
  • CONCLUSION: This outcome data of nearly 25 years of community practice show that breast cancer patients with axillary lymph node micrometastasis have a significantly worse survival rate than those without independent of age or tumour size.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15922886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Millet A, Fuster CA, Lluch A, Dirbas F: Axillary surgery in breast cancer patients. Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Aug;9(8):513-20
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  • [Title] Axillary surgery in breast cancer patients.
  • Surgeons have routinely removed ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes from women with breast cancer for over 100 years.
  • Recognising that the therapeutic benefit of removing normal nodes may be low, alternatives to the routine level I/II axillary lymph node dissection have been sought.
  • Because of its high accuracy and relatively low morbidity, this technique is now widely used to identify women with histologically involved nodes prior to the formal axillary node dissection.
  • Specifically, SLNB has allowed surgeons to avoid a formal axillary lymph node biopsy in women with histologically uninvolved sentinel nodes, while identifying women with involved sentinel nodes who derive the most benefit from a completion axillary node dissection.
  • Despite the increasing use of SLNB for initial management of the axilla in women with breast cancer, important questions remain regarding patient selection criteria and optimal surgical methods for performing the biopsy.
  • This article discusses the evolution of axillary node surgery for women with breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / pathology. Axilla / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / physiopathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17720654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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34. Kuru B, Bozgul M: The impact of axillary lymph nodes removed in staging of node-positive breast carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Dec 1;66(5):1328-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of axillary lymph nodes removed in staging of node-positive breast carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Number of positive lymph nodes in the axilla and pathologic lymph node status (pN) have a great impact on staging according to the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system of breast carcinoma.
  • Our aim was to define whether the total number of removed axillary lymph nodes influences the pN and thus the staging.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 798 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with T1-3 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes who underwent modified radical mastectomy between 1999 and 2005 in our hospital were reviewed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with axillary node-positive breast carcinoma, staging is highly influenced by total number of removed nodes.
  • Levels I-III axillary dissection with more than 20 axillary lymph nodes removed could lead to more effective adjuvant chemotherapy and increases substantially the proportion of patients to receive radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16997505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Cavalli LR: Molecular markers of breast axillary lymph node metastasis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2009 Jul;9(5):441-54
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  • [Title] Molecular markers of breast axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • In breast cancer, axillary lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic variables and a crucial component to the staging system.
  • Methods based on genome-wide microarray analyses have been used to identify molecular markers with respect to the development of axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Medical Oncology / methods. Medical Oncology / trends. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19580429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 195
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36. Konkin DE, Tyldesley S, Kennecke H, Speers CH, Olivotto IA, Davis N: Management and outcomes of isolated axillary node recurrence in breast cancer. Arch Surg; 2006 Sep;141(9):867-72; discussion 872-4
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  • [Title] Management and outcomes of isolated axillary node recurrence in breast cancer.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Management strategies affect the outcome of axillary recurrence in breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS: Two hundred twenty women diagnosed with stage 0 through III breast cancer between 1989 and 2003 who subsequently developed an isolated axillary relapse.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall survival rate and disease-free survival rate according to treatment strategy of the axillary recurrence.
  • RESULTS: Among 19 789 women diagnosed with stage 0 through III breast cancer during the study era, 220 had an isolated axillary recurrence (Kaplan-Meier 5-year isolated axillary relapse rate, 1.0%).
  • The median interval between primary breast cancer diagnosis and axillary recurrence was 2.2 years (range,1.8 months to 11.9 years).
  • Median follow-up time after axillary recurrence was 5.4 years.
  • Treatment for the axillary recurrence included lymph node biopsy (47.3%), complete axillary dissection (25.9%), axillary radiation (65.0%), chemotherapy (24.1%), and hormonal therapy (68.2%).
  • The 5-year Kaplan-Meier overall survival rate estimate after axillary recurrence was 49.3% (95% confidence interval, 42.0-56.3).
  • Median survival time from the isolated axillary recurrence was 4.9 years (range, 2.0 months to 15.1 years).
  • Other factors associated with improved overall survival rate were an interval from diagnosis to relapse greater than 2.5 years (P = .003), no initial axillary radiation (P < .001), asymptomatic presentation of the recurrence (P = .05), and subsequent systemic treatment (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The 5-year isolated axillary recurrence rate of women treated for breast cancer was 1.0%.
  • Multimodality management at the time of recurrence, including axillary surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy, significantly improved overall and disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16983030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Shewale S, Duncan R, Murphy D, Ronghe M: Axillary fossa tumours in children: rare and easily missed. Acta Orthop Belg; 2009 Feb;75(1):126-8
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  • [Title] Axillary fossa tumours in children: rare and easily missed.
  • Each child had several hospital visits before being accurately diagnosed with a soft-tissue sarcoma in the axillary fossa.
  • In children with unusual upper limb neurological symptoms, it is essential to have a high index of suspicion, and examine the arm including the axilla, thoroughly, and refer them early for a specialist opinion.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Range of Motion, Articular. Shoulder Joint / physiopathology. Shoulder Joint / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19358411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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38. Sun JY, Ning LS: [Axillary skip metastases in breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 May;30(5):352-5
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  • [Title] [Axillary skip metastases in breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics and the prognostic factors of breast cancer patients with skip metastases in the axilla.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 1502 breast cancer patients who underwent complete axillary lymph node dissection were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that the tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, extracapsular invasion of the lymph nodes and skip metastases in the axilla were significantly correlated with survival rate.
  • CONCLUSION: Skip metastasis in the axilla cannot be accurately predicted by clinicopathologic factors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18953834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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39. Mortellaro VE, Marshall J, Singer L, Hochwald SN, Chang M, Copeland EM, Grobmyer SR: Magnetic resonance imaging for axillary staging in patients with breast cancer. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2009 Aug;30(2):309-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging for axillary staging in patients with breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the utility of MRI for assessing axillary lymph node status in patients with breast cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive series of patients who underwent breast MR before surgical management of breast cancer with axillary sampling between 2005 and 2007 were identified.
  • Data were analyzed in the context of final breast pathology, sentinel lymph node status, and axillary nodal status.
  • All SLN + patients (n = 15) had completion axillary dissection.
  • Presence of any axillary lymph node with no fatty hilum and the number of nodes with no fatty hilum on MR significantly correlated with pathologic node positivity (P = 0.04); while kinetics, node number, and node size did not correlate.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast MR may be useful in the assessment of axillary nodes in patients with breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Contrast Media. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19466713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 84F6U3J2R6 / gadodiamide; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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40. Greenberg CC, Bafford AC, Golshan M: Is axillary dissection needed in node-positive breast cancer? Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2008 Feb;8(2):195-8
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  • [Title] Is axillary dissection needed in node-positive breast cancer?
  • The standard of care in the management of the axilla for a woman with breast cancer was traditionally a level I and II axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Needs Assessment. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18279060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Maury G, Guillot B, Bessis D, Cribier B, Girard C: [Unusual axillary apocrine carcinoma of the skin: histological diagnostic difficulties]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Aug-Sep;137(8-9):555-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Unusual axillary apocrine carcinoma of the skin: histological diagnostic difficulties].
  • BACKGROUND: Apocrine carcinoma of the skin (ACS) is a rare adnexal neoplasm presenting as an indurated slow-growing dermal or subcutaneous plaque that often occurs in the axilla.
  • OBSERVATION: A 64-year-old man presented with a slowly growing left axillary mass, which he had noticed for 2 years, without any other functional or clinical symptoms.
  • DISCUSSION: A 100 cases of ACS have been reported in the literature with the main site being the axillary area.
  • The differential diagnostic between axillary ACS and metastasis of lobular breast carcinoma has been discussed recently.
  • CONCLUSION: We report a new case of axillary ACS histologically mimicking lobular breast carcinoma metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20804902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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42. Intra M, Trifirò G, Galimberti V, Gentilini O, Rotmensz N, Veronesi P: Second axillary sentinel node biopsy for ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence. Br J Surg; 2007 Oct;94(10):1216-9
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  • [Title] Second axillary sentinel node biopsy for ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard procedure for axillary staging in patients with primary operable breast cancer and uninvolved axillary nodes.
  • If axillary nodes remain clinically uninvolved after a previous negative SLNB the question remains whether second SLNB is a suitable option.
  • Of these, 65 women with clinically negative axillary nodes were offered a second SLNB; 57 had received adjuvant radiotherapy after BCS.
  • RESULTS: In 63 women, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy showed an axillary sentinel node (identification rate 97 per cent).
  • In five, this was associated with extra-axillary migration.
  • At a median follow-up of 45.9 months, no axillary recurrence had occurred in the women who had not had axillary dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17583891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Al-Hussaini MA, Al-Masad JK, Awidi AA: Carcinoma of breast co-existing with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of axillary lymph nodes. Saudi Med J; 2008 Jan;29(1):138-41
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of breast co-existing with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of axillary lymph nodes.
  • The co-existence of breast carcinoma and lymphoma in the axillary lymph nodes, without a history of previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy is rarely described.
  • Examination of the axillary lymph nodes as axillary clearance showed concomitant small lymphocytic lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, with no evidence of metastatic mammary carcinoma deposits.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18176690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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44. Wetzig NR, Gill PG, Ung O, Collins J, Kollias J, Gillett D, Gebski V, Greig C, Ray A, Stockler M, RACS SNAC Group: Participation in the RACS sentinel node biopsy versus axillary clearance trial. ANZ J Surg; 2005 Mar;75(3):98-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Participation in the RACS sentinel node biopsy versus axillary clearance trial.
  • BACKGROUND: The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) SNAC trial is a randomized controlled trial of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) versus axillary clearance (AC).
  • CONCLUSION: Sentinel node biopsy may become the standard of care for managing small breast cancers, but a significant number of patients will still require or choose axillary dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Choice Behavior. Female. Humans. Mammography. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Participation. Patient Selection

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  • [CommentIn] ANZ J Surg. 2005 Mar;75(3):94 [15777379.001]
  • (PMID = 15777382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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45. Ando J, Kitamura T, Kuroki Y, Igarashi S: Preoperative diagnosis of the axillary arch with multidetector row computed tomography and the axillary arch in association with anatomical problems of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):3-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative diagnosis of the axillary arch with multidetector row computed tomography and the axillary arch in association with anatomical problems of sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the preoperative diagnosis of the axillary arch with multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) in patients who underwent sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy.
  • METHODS: From 2003 to 2008, combined procedures with blue dye SLN biopsy and MDCT-assisted axillary node sampling were performed in 550 clinically axilla-negative patients with primary operable breast cancer.
  • We use MDCT for not only the diagnosis of the axillary arch, but also the planning and navigation of SLN biopsy.
  • RESULTS: The axillary arches were preoperatively diagnosed with MDCT in 59 patients (10.8%) as follows: a single ordinary axillary arch (n = 44), another anomalous muscle besides the ordinary axillary arch (n = 13), and other rare axillary arches (n = 2).
  • The SLN identification failure rate was 1.8% (9/491) for patients without the axillary arch and 5.1% (3/59) for patients with the axillary arch (chi-square test, P = 0.11).
  • Three patients with an axillary arch in whom a SLN could not be identified were observed in 13 patients who had another anomalous muscle besides the ordinary axillary arch (3/13, 23.1%).
  • In the examination of 56 patients with an axillary arch in whom a SLN was identified, variations of the SLN location and/or anomalous muscles covering a SLN were observed in 16 patients (28.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MDCT is useful for a diagnosis of the axillary arch.
  • The axillary arch should be kept in mind during SLN biopsy because this anomaly would be related to anatomical variations that affect SLN biopsy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Clinical Competence. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19585215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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46. Somasundaram SK, Balasubramanian RK, Aref F, Karim S, Vashisht R: A rare and unusual case of bilateral, axillary, metachronous apocrine carcinoma. Int Surg; 2007 Nov-Dec;92(6):335-8
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  • [Title] A rare and unusual case of bilateral, axillary, metachronous apocrine carcinoma.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is a rare sweat gland neoplasm with very few cases reported in the published literature.
  • We report a case of primary axillary apocrine carcinoma with later recurrences in both axillae.
  • A 55-year-old man was clinically diagnosed with hydradenitis suppurativa in the right axilla, and after excision of lesion, histology showed metastatic adenocarcinoma of probable breast origin.
  • However, no primary focus was found after extensive work-up except for metastatic lymph nodes in the ipsilateral axilla treated with axillary clearance.
  • After 4 years, the patient developed metastatic lymph nodes in the contralateral axilla and had surgery.
  • He had a further recurrence in the right axilla and was treated with surgery and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18402127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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47. Katz A, Niemierko A, Gage I, Evans S, Shaffer M, Fleury T, Smith FP, Petrucci PE, Flax R, Drogula C, Magnant C: Can axillary dissection be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis? J Surg Oncol; 2006 Jun 1;93(7):550-8
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  • [Title] Can axillary dissection be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis?
  • No subgroup was identified that did not have a significant rate of nonSLN involvement on completion axillary dissection, except those who had a large number of negative SLNs (> or =3) and small size of the largest SLN metastasis (<10 mm).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A definitive answer to the question of who needs a completion axillary dissection awaits the results of ongoing trials.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy / statistics & numerical data. Mastectomy, Segmental / statistics & numerical data. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. ROC Curve. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] J Surg Oncol. 2006 Jun 1;93(7):517-8 [16705727.001]
  • (PMID = 16705723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA50628
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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48. Palesty JA, Foster JM, Hurd TC, Watroba N, Rezaishiraz H, Edge SB: Axillary recurrence in women with a negative sentinel lymph node and no axillary dissection in breast cancer. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Feb 1;93(2):129-32
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence in women with a negative sentinel lymph node and no axillary dissection in breast cancer.
  • SLNB accurately determines axillary lymph node status with a low false negative rate.
  • There remains concern that omitting axillary dissection may lead to recurrence in the axilla, and impact long term survival.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of axillary lymph node recurrence in patients who had a negative sentinel lymph node and did not undergo axillary node dissection.
  • RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 33 months, 15 of 335 (4.5%) women who had negative SLNBs and who did not undergo completion axillary dissection developed a cancer recurrence.
  • Only two patients (0.6%) had an axillary recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rate of axillary recurrence following a negative sentinel node biopsy is the same or less than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) alone.
  • Concerns that omitting completion axillary dissection following a negative SLNB will increase the rate of axillary recurrence appear unfounded.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Combined Modality Therapy. Data Collection. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy / statistics & numerical data. Mastectomy, Segmental / statistics & numerical data. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16425295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Kilbride KE, Lee MC, Nees AV, Cimmino VM, Diehl KM, Sabel MS, Hayes DF, Schott AF, Kleer CG, Chang AE, Newman LA: Axillary staging prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: predictors of recurrence. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Nov;15(11):3252-8
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  • [Title] Axillary staging prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: predictors of recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND: The value of axillary staging prior to delivery of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NEO) for breast cancer is controversial.
  • Our goal was to analyze the prognostic and therapeutic impact of axillary staging on recurrence.
  • Patients with node-positive disease before NEO underwent a post-NEO axillary lymph node dissection at time of definitive breast surgery.
  • The axilla was negative in 45 (28.6%) patients.
  • Of the 112 initially node-positive patients, 36 (31.6%) had no residual axillary disease post NEO.
  • CONCLUSION: Our experience suggests that comprehensive axillary staging with ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and sentinel lymph node biopsy prior to NEO is both prognostically and therapeutically important in predicting those patients at higher risk of recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 18784961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA154224
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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50. Chagpar AB, Scoggins CR, Martin RC 2nd, Sahoo S, Carlson DJ, Laidley AL, El-Eid SE, McGlothin TQ, McMasters KM, University of Louisville Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Study: Factors determining adequacy of axillary node dissection in breast cancer patients. Breast J; 2007 May-Jun;13(3):233-7
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  • [Title] Factors determining adequacy of axillary node dissection in breast cancer patients.
  • With increased focus on quality assurance, a complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has been defined as the removal of 10 or more lymph nodes (LN).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Professional-Patient Relations. Prospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • (PMID = 17461896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Hayes SB, Freedman GM, Li T, Anderson PR, Ross E: Does axillary boost increase lymphedema compared with supraclavicular radiation alone after breast conservation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Dec 1;72(5):1449-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does axillary boost increase lymphedema compared with supraclavicular radiation alone after breast conservation?
  • A total of 2,169 patients (84%) received radiation to the breast (B), 226 (8.8%) to the breast and supraclavicular LNs (B+SC), and 184 (7.1%) to the breast, supraclavicular LNs, and a posterior axillary boost (B+SC+PAB).
  • The decision to boost the axilla must be weighed against the increased risk of LE that it imposes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / pathology. Clavicle. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009 Aug 1;74(5):1627 [19616750.001]
  • (PMID = 19028274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Maffuz A, Barroso-Bravo S, Nájera I, Zarco G, Alvarado-Cabrero I, Rodríguez-Cuevas SA: Tumor size as predictor of microinvasion, invasion, and axillary metastasis in ductal carcinoma in situ. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun;25(2):223-7
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  • [Title] Tumor size as predictor of microinvasion, invasion, and axillary metastasis in ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • It has been proposed that DCIS with palpable lump > or = 2.5 cm can be associated with microinvasion or invasive carcinoma and risk of axillary metastasis.
  • In addition, axillary metastasis incidence had a direct relationship with tumor size. (0% in 2.5-3.5-cm tumor size, 14% for 3.6-4.5 cm, and 28% in DCIS between 4.6 and 6.0 cm).
  • The present study shows high incidence of microinvasion and invasion in DCIS diagnosed in tumors > or = 2.5 cm and supports the importance of axillary evaluation in patients with tumors >3.5 cm by means of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16918134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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53. Dauphine C, Nemtsev D, Rosing D, Vargas HI: Axillary recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer. Am Surg; 2010 Oct;76(10):1127-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Axillary recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is routinely performed as an axillary staging procedure for breast cancer.
  • Although the reported false-negative rate approaches 10 per cent, this does not always lead to axillary recurrence.
  • We previously reported an axillary recurrence rate of 1 per cent at a median follow-up of 2 years.
  • Our objective is to determine the rate of axillary recurrence with longer follow-up.
  • One (0.7%) out of 139 patients had an axillary recurrence after a median follow-up of 52 months.
  • No patient who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy or with ITCs had axillary recurrence.
  • Our study demonstrates that axillary recurrence after SLNB remains a rare event after a median follow-up of 52 months, despite including potentially higher risk scenarios such as where neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used and ITCs are found.
  • Therefore, axillary lymph node dissection can safely be avoided in patients where SLNB is negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 21105626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Straver ME, Rutgers EJ, Russell NS, Oldenburg HS, Rodenhuis S, Wesseling J, Vincent A, Peeters MT: Towards rational axillary treatment in relation to neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Sep;45(13):2284-92
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  • [Title] Towards rational axillary treatment in relation to neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer.
  • AIMS: The purpose of this study is to analyse nodal staging and axillary response in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to explore venues to safely spare patients axillary clearance whenever it could be avoided.
  • In patients with proven metastasis we analysed the axillary response after NAC.
  • The SNB was negative in 53 patients, thus in these patients axillary clearance could be avoided.
  • All 274 patients with proven axillary metastases at diagnosis underwent axillary clearance after NAC.
  • Twenty percent of the cytology-positive patients (50/252) had an axillary pathological complete remission (pCR) and 68% of the SNB-positive patients (15/22) had no lymph node (LN) metastasis after NAC.
  • Subgroups with a high axillary pCR rate were patients with triple-negative tumours (57%) and human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumours (68%) who had a pCR of the primary tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Twenty percent of the patients with proven metastasis by cytology prior to NAC have an axillary pCR.
  • The axillary pCR rate is very high in certain subgroups.
  • Identification of these patients, could result in more axilla-conserving therapies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Ultrasonography, Interventional


55. Snider HC Jr, Rubin E, Henson R: Axillary ultrasonography to detect recurrence after sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;13(4):501-7
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  • [Title] Axillary ultrasonography to detect recurrence after sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer.
  • Initial reports of follow-up show lower axillary recurrence rates than expected.
  • We performed axillary ultrasonography to determine whether occult recurrences could be detected.
  • METHODS: In a community hospital setting, 289 patients who had SNB for breast cancer in a single surgeon's practice underwent axillary examination by the surgeon followed by axillary ultrasonography by a dedicated breast radiologist.
  • No evidence of axillary recurrence was found in any patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Axillary ultrasonography did not detect occult metastases in any patient and is not recommended for routine follow-up after SNB.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16511672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Santamaría G, Velasco M, Farré X, Vanrell JA, Cardesa A, Fernández PL: Power Doppler sonography of invasive breast carcinoma: does tumor vascularization contribute to prediction of axillary status? Radiology; 2005 Feb;234(2):374-80
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  • [Title] Power Doppler sonography of invasive breast carcinoma: does tumor vascularization contribute to prediction of axillary status?
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively compare unenhanced power Doppler sonographic findings of arterial vascularization of invasive breast carcinoma with histopathologic and immunohistochemical parameters and to determine whether tumor arterial vascularization contributes to prediction of axillary node status.
  • Lumpectomy or mastectomy with full axillary nodal dissection was performed.
  • Sonographic tumor size and number of tumor arteries were correlated with axillary nodal status by means of logistic regression analysis.
  • Multivariate analysis showed an independent relationship between probability of axillary metastasis, number of tumor arteries (P = .016), and sonographic tumor size (P = .035).
  • A predictive model of axillary status was developed.
  • The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine 0.2324 as the score to classify axillary nodal status.
  • CONCLUSION: The number of arteries in invasive breast carcinoma detected with unenhanced power Doppler sonography and sonographic tumor size are independent predictors of axillary nodal status; these variables could contribute to reliable prediction of absence of axillary involvement on the basis of a mathematic model.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pasteurellaceae. Prospective Studies. ROC Curve. Regression Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2004.
  • (PMID = 15601892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Neuman H, Carey LA, Ollila DW, Livasy C, Calvo BF, Meyer AA, Kim HJ, Meyers MO, Dees EC, Collichio FA, Sartor CI, Moore DT, Sawyer LR, Frank J, Klauber-DeMore N: Axillary lymph node count is lower after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Am J Surg; 2006 Jun;191(6):827-9
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  • [Title] Axillary lymph node count is lower after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Retrieval of fewer than 10 lymph nodes at axillary dissection (ALND) for breast cancer can represent anatomic variation or inadequate dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / prevention & control. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg. 2006 Jun;191(6):830-1 [16720160.001]
  • (PMID = 16720159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 58223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K-08-CA083753; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01RR00046
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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58. Tuttle TM: Sentinel lymph node biopsy. Preferred method of axillary staging for breast cancer. Minerva Ginecol; 2005 Jun;57(3):293-303
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy. Preferred method of axillary staging for breast cancer.
  • Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has replaced routine axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for most breast cancer patients with clinically normal lymph nodes.
  • Axillary recurrence is rare for patients without SLN metastases who do not undergo further axillary surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16166937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4784
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva ginecologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Ginecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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59. Hoehne F, Chen S, Mabry H, Giuliano AE: An update on prognosis in breast cancer patients with extensive axillary disease. Breast J; 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):76-80
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  • [Title] An update on prognosis in breast cancer patients with extensive axillary disease.
  • All patients with breast cancer treated at our institution between July 1991 and December 2005 with at least 10 positive axillary LN were identified.
  • In our study, patients with at least 10 positive axillary LN had a 5-year survival of 71.9% which may be due to the improvements in local and systemic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18086270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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60. Martelli G, Boracchi P, De Palo M, Pilotti S, Oriana S, Zucali R, Daidone MG, De Palo G: A randomized trial comparing axillary dissection to no axillary dissection in older patients with T1N0 breast cancer: results after 5 years of follow-up. Ann Surg; 2005 Jul;242(1):1-6; discussion 7-9
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  • [Title] A randomized trial comparing axillary dissection to no axillary dissection in older patients with T1N0 breast cancer: results after 5 years of follow-up.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Axillary dissection, an invasive procedure that may adversely affect quality of life, used to obtain prognostic information in breast cancer, is being supplanted by sentinel node biopsy.
  • In older women with early breast cancer and no palpable axillary nodes, it may be safe to give no axillary treatment.
  • We addressed this issue in a randomized trial comparing axillary dissection with no axillary dissection in older patients with T1N0 breast cancer.
  • METHODS: From 1996 to 2000, 219 women, 65 to 80 years of age, with early breast cancer and clinically negative axillary nodes were randomized to conservative breast surgery with or without axillary dissection.
  • The primary endpoints were axillary events in the no axillary dissection arm, comparison of overall mortality (by log rank test), breast cancer mortality, and breast events (by Gray test).
  • Only 2 patients in the no axillary dissection arm (8 and 40 months after surgery) developed overt axillary involvement during follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Older patients with T1N0 breast cancer can be treated by conservative breast surgery and no axillary dissection without adversely affecting breast cancer mortality or overall survival.
  • The very low cumulative incidence of axillary events suggests that even sentinel node biopsy is unnecessary in these patients.
  • Axillary dissection should be reserved for the small proportion of patients who later develop overt axillary disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Confidence Intervals. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Poisson Distribution. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


61. Khakpour N, Hunt KK, Kuerer HM, Yi M, Meric-Bernstam F, Ross MI, Lucci A: Sentinel lymph node dissection provides axillary control equal to complete axillary node dissection in breast cancer patients with lobular histology and a negative sentinel node. Am J Surg; 2005 Oct;190(4):598-601
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node dissection provides axillary control equal to complete axillary node dissection in breast cancer patients with lobular histology and a negative sentinel node.
  • As sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) is rapidly replacing axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in the management of patients with early-stage breast cancer, we sought to evaluate the safety of SLND in providing axillary control in breast cancer patients with lobular histology and a negative sentinel node.
  • At a median follow-up of 48 months in the ALND group and 26 months in the SLND group (range 6 to 80 months), none of the 202 patients in the SLND group had experienced an axillary recurrence, while 2 (5.4%) of the 37 patients who underwent ALND had experienced an axillary recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SLND provided axillary control equivalent to that of ALND for patients with lobular breast cancer.
  • SLND alone appears to be adequate axillary management of patients with lobular breast cancer and a negative sentinel node.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16164930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Honoki K, Morita K, Kasai T, Fujii H, Kido A, Tsukamoto S, Nonomura A, Tanaka Y: Hibernoma of the axillary region: a rare benign adipocytic tumor. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(1):e7

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  • [Title] Hibernoma of the axillary region: a rare benign adipocytic tumor.
  • However, unlike lipomas, MRI findings sometimes mislead clinicians to diagnose a malignant neoplasm.
  • We describe a 63-year-old male with an axillary hibernoma involving the brachial neurovascular bundles and mimicking a well-differentiated liposarcoma, from which it should be distinguished.

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  • (PMID = 21139952.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994483
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adipocytic tumor / brown fat / hibernoma
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63. Javid S, Segara D, Lotfi P, Raza S, Golshan M: Can breast MRI predict axillary lymph node metastasis in women undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Jul;17(7):1841-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Can breast MRI predict axillary lymph node metastasis in women undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node status provides important staging information.
  • We sought to evaluate the predictive value of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting axillary lymph node metastases prior to initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and in detecting residual lymph node metastases after NAC in women found to be node positive prior to NAC.
  • METHODS: Women underwent breast MRI with axillary evaluation prior to initiation of NAC and again after completion of NAC.
  • Pathologic confirmation of lymph node status was confirmed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), image-guided axillary fine-needle aspiration (FNA)/core biopsy, or axillary lymph node dissection.
  • We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of MRI in detecting axillary node involvement.
  • Sensitivity of MRI in detecting axillary node involvement prior to NAC was 64.7% and specificity was 100%, with positive and negative predictive values of MRI of 100% and 77.8%, respectively.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of MRI to identify residual pathologic axillary lymph node disease following NAC were 85.7% and 89%, respectively, while the positive and negative predictive values were 92% and 80.9%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast MRI has moderate sensitivity and high specificity for predicting axillary lymph node status prior to NAC.
  • The accuracy of MRI is not adequate to obviate either the need for staging by sentinel node biopsy or the need for completion axillary dissection in women determined to be node positive prior to NAC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20143266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Zhang Y, Ma QY, Dang CX, Moureau-Zabotto M, Chen WK: Quantitative molecular diagnosis of axillary drainage fluid for prediction of locoregional failure in patients with one to three positive axillary nodes after mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Feb 1;64(2):505-11
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  • [Title] Quantitative molecular diagnosis of axillary drainage fluid for prediction of locoregional failure in patients with one to three positive axillary nodes after mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: A quantitative multiple-marker reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for sensitive detection of cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid was developed to examine whether the presence of cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid can be used as a predictor of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients with breast cancer who had T1/2 primary tumors and one to three positive axillary lymph nodes treated with modified radical mastectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Axillary drainage fluid was collected from 126 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast who were treated with modified radical mastectomy and were found to have one to three positive axillary nodes.
  • Cancer cells in axillary drainage fluid were detected by RT-PCR assay using primers specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) together with numerous clinicopathologic and treatment-related factors and were analyzed for their impact on LRR.
  • RESULTS: A total of 38 patients suffered LRR during follow-up and the multimarker RT-PCR assays for CEA and CK-19 in the axillary drainage fluid both were positive in 34 patients (27.0%), of which 29 patients had LRR.
  • In univariate analysis, the 5-year LRR-free survival showed higher rates in patients with PCR-negative findings in axillary drainage fluid (p<0.0001), age>or=40 years old (p<0.0001), tumor size<2.5 cm (p<0.0001), negative lymph-vascular space invasion (p=0.026), and T1 status (<0.0001); in multivariate analysis, PCR-positive findings together with age and tumor size were found to be independent predictors of LRR (all p<0.05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16257133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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65. Schwartz GF, Tannebaum JE, Jernigan AM, Palazzo JP: Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. Cancer; 2010 Mar 1;116(5):1243-51
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  • [Title] Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: The timing and accuracy of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients who are receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer are controversial.
  • Thirty-nine women (49.4%) had clinical evidence of axillary metastasis (N1-N2) at the time of diagnosis.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 98.7% of patients (in 1 patient, SLNB failed to capture 1 proven axillary metastasis), and 29 patients underwent full axillary lymph node dissection.
  • One false-negative SLNB was reported in the group of 23 patients who underwent full axillary dissection after a negative SLNB.
  • No patient had a subsequent axillary recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SLNB after NACT was feasible in virtually all patients and accurately selected patients who required complete level I and II axillary dissection.
  • NACT frequently downstaged the axilla, converting patients with N1-N2 lymph node status to N0 status and also avoiding full axillary dissection in these patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20087958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Rubin DI, Shuster EA: Axillary pain as a heralding sign of neoplasm involving the upper thoracic root. Neurology; 2006 Jun 13;66(11):1760-2

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  • [Title] Axillary pain as a heralding sign of neoplasm involving the upper thoracic root.
  • The authors report four patients with upper thoracic radiculopathies presenting with axilla pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Shoulder Pain / etiology. Spinal Nerve Roots / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16769959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Takehisa M, Nagao T, Yoshida M, Hirose T, Kajikawa A, Sasa M, Tangoku A: Lower axillary dissection in breast cancer surgery may be candidate for cases with early breast cancer. J Med Invest; 2005 Feb;52(1-2):74-9
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  • [Title] Lower axillary dissection in breast cancer surgery may be candidate for cases with early breast cancer.
  • Lower axillary lymph node dissection (lower parts of both the level I and II elements below the second intracostobrachial nerve) and level I and II lymph node dissection were performed on breast cancer patients (n = 54), and the results with the two methods were compared in terms of the status of detected lymph node metastases.
  • And, the occurrence of operated arm swelling wasn't recognized when a side effect was examined with the case (n = 28) that only lower axillary dissection was carried out in case of an operation for breast cancer.
  • Accordingly, it was surmised that lower axillary dissection provides accurate pN information for Stage I, N0 cases.
  • These results indicate that lower axillary dissection has the potential to become an effective, standard surgical procedure for breast cancer patients whose preoperative disease stage is Stage I.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15751276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Le Bouëdec G, Gimbergues P, Feillel V, Penault-Llorca F, Dauplat J: [In situ mammary duct carcinoma with microinvasion. Which axillary lymph node exploration?]. Presse Med; 2005 Feb 12;34(3):208-12
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  • [Title] [In situ mammary duct carcinoma with microinvasion. Which axillary lymph node exploration?].
  • OBJECTIVE: Specify the role of axillary lymph node removal in micro-invasive in situ duct carcinomas (DCIS-MI) of the breast with a series of 107 consecutive cases.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection was systematically complete and was preceded by the search for the sentinel node in 10 patients using the isotope method.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrary to those exhibiting pure DCIS, DCIS-MI patients require surgical exploration of the armpit, the most appropriate modalities of which are currently debated: classical axillary lymph node dissection or search for the sentinel lymph node; the selective lymphadenectomy procedure is not yet a consensually validated technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15798531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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69. Coroş MF, Stolnicu S, Georgescu R, Roşca A, Sorlea S, Dobre A, Podeanu D, Pălăsan A, Man C, Turcan C: [Axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer. Anatomo-clinical correlation and surgical approach]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2009 Sep-Oct;104(5):557-64
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  • [Title] [Axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer. Anatomo-clinical correlation and surgical approach].
  • AIM: To establish the incidence of the axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer and some anatomo-clinical correlations useful for surgical act orientation.
  • From the total amount of patients who underwent surgery, only 56.44% had axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • The patients in the forth decade of life had more frequently axillary lymph node involvement, and also those from rural habitat (65.88%).
  • There are a lot of locally advanced cases without axillary lymph node metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Axillary lymph node status is strongly correlated with the tumor dimension and the elapsed time between diagnosis and treatment.
  • The numerous cases of axillary lymphadenectomy without lymph node metastases (43.55%), even in locally advanced cases, advocate for a wider application of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy, to avoid the pathology associated with those axillary dissections.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Axilla. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19943554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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70. Stranzl H, Ofner P, Peintinger F: Postoperative irradiation in breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Is there an impact of axillary extranodal tumor extension on locoregional and distant control? Strahlenther Onkol; 2006 Oct;182(10):583-8
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  • [Title] Postoperative irradiation in breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Is there an impact of axillary extranodal tumor extension on locoregional and distant control?
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of extracapsular extension (ECE) on locoregional and distant control in breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes treated with postoperative irradiation.
  • Of the 274 patients presenting with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes, 91 (33.2%) showed ECE.
  • CONCLUSION: Locoregional recurrence remains low in breast cancer patients (one to three positive axillary lymph nodes +/- ECE) treated with surgery, adequate axillary dissection, and tangential field irradiation only.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Postoperative Care / statistics & numerical data. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / statistics & numerical data. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Austria / epidemiology. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17013571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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71. Zavagno G, Carcoforo P, Franchini Z, Renier M, Barutta L, De Salvo GL, Maravegias K, Capitanio G, Nitti D, Lise M: Axillary recurrence after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy without axillary dissection: a study on 479 breast cancer patients. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep;31(7):715-20
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy without axillary dissection: a study on 479 breast cancer patients.
  • AIMS: To determine the axillary recurrence rate in breast cancer patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) who did not undergo further axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and to establish whether this conservative axillary approach leads to an increased recourse to diagnostic axillary biopsy during the follow-up period because of the clinical suspicion of nodal recurrence.
  • METHODS: In 479 patients, operated on for early breast cancer between 1998 and 2002 in five institutions, SLN biopsy was negative and no further axillary surgery was performed.
  • At a median follow-up of 35.8 months, no clinical axillary recurrence was found.
  • No patient underwent surgical axillary biopsy for suspicious clinical or ultrasonographic findings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that SLN biopsy without ALND in SLN-negative patients with early breast cancer is not followed by clinically evident axillary recurrence in the short-term.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Case-Control Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16005176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Ahn JH, Son EJ, Kim JA, Youk JH, Kim EK, Kwak JY, Ryu YH, Jeong J: The role of ultrasonography and FDG-PET in axillary lymph node staging of breast cancer. Acta Radiol; 2010 Oct;51(8):859-65
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  • [Title] The role of ultrasonography and FDG-PET in axillary lymph node staging of breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The presence of axillary lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor and an essential part of staging and prognosis of breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To elucidate the usefulness and accuracy of ultrasonography (US), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan, and combined analysis for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer.
  • If an axillary lymph node had a length to width ratio <or=1.5 or cortical thickening >or=3 mm or compression of the hilum on US, focal hot uptake (maximal standardized uptake value, SUVmax >or=2.0) in the ipsilateral axilla on FDG-PET, it was considered to be a metastatic lymph node.
  • Each imaging finding was compared with a pathologic report regarding the presence of axillary lymph node metastasis, the number of metastatic lymph nodes, and the T stage of the breast mass.
  • RESULTS: Pathologically confirmed axillary lymph node metastasis was noted in 73 cases (29.2%).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined evaluation of US and FDG-PET was a sensitive and accurate method for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20670083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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73. Kell MR, Burke JP, Barry M, Morrow M: Outcome of axillary staging in early breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Apr;120(2):441-447
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  • [Title] Outcome of axillary staging in early breast cancer: a meta-analysis.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is associated with significant morbidity, whilst sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has the potential to minimize complications in the management of breast cancer.
  • The overall rate of axillary lymph node positivity for those with no clinically palpable nodes was 28.8% for ALND and 27.6% for SNB (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.86-1.17, P = 0.956), though there was a trend for superior detection of metastatic disease with SNB when this was compared with ALND alone (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.95-1.57, P = 0.122).
  • SNB is at least equivalent to ALND in detecting metastatic disease in the axilla.
  • SNB is the optimum approach in terms of morbidity for the assessment of axillary metastasis in clinically node negative breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 20063121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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74. Rayhanabad J, Yegiyants S, Putchakayala K, Haig P, Romero L, Difronzo LA: Axillary recurrence is low in patients with breast cancer who do not undergo completion axillary lymph node dissection for micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes. Am Surg; 2010 Oct;76(10):1088-91
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence is low in patients with breast cancer who do not undergo completion axillary lymph node dissection for micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Completion axillary lymph node dissection (CLND) is presently the standard of care after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB).
  • We hypothesize that the incidence of axillary recurrence in patients who do not undergo CLND for micrometastases is low, and CLND is not necessary for locoregional control.
  • Axillary recurrence in this group was 1.6 per cent.
  • We conclude the incidence of axillary recurrence in patients with micrometastases detected by SLN biopsy who do not undergo CLND is low.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21105616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Britton PD, Goud A, Godward S, Barter S, Freeman A, Gaskarth M, Rajan P, Sinnatamby R, Slattery J, Provenzano E, O'Donovan M, Pinder S, Benson JR, Forouhi P, Wishart GC: Use of ultrasound-guided axillary node core biopsy in staging of early breast cancer. Eur Radiol; 2009 Mar;19(3):561-9
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  • [Title] Use of ultrasound-guided axillary node core biopsy in staging of early breast cancer.
  • Patients with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer underwent axillary ultrasound (US) where lymph node size and morphology were noted.
  • Patients with benign CBs proceeded to sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, whereas those with malignancy underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • One hundred and twenty-one patients (87%) underwent axillary node CB.
  • CB of axillary lymph nodes can diagnose a substantial number of patients with lymph node metastases, allowing these patients to proceed directly to ALND, avoiding unnecessary SLN biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / pathology. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18797874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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76. Gullett NP, Rizzo M, Johnstone PA: National surgical patterns of care for primary surgery and axillary staging of phyllodes tumors. Breast J; 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):41-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] National surgical patterns of care for primary surgery and axillary staging of phyllodes tumors.
  • We reviewed national surgical patterns of care of axillary LN sampling for PT using the Surveillance Epidemiology & End Results (SEER) registry.
  • Of all PT patients, 9.0% of patients underwent axillary sampling of 10 LN or more.
  • When assessing axillary sampling rate by tumor size, smaller lesions were less likely to undergo sampling than larger lesions (19.3% for lesions <2 cm, 20.5% for lesions 2-4.9 cm, 27.9% for 5-9.9 cm); although this was nonsignificant.
  • In spite of the lack of supporting data for LN examination axillary staging continues to be performed for many cases of PT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. SEER Program

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  • (PMID = 19141133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Zakaria S, Pantvaidya G, Reynolds CA, Grant CS, Sterioff S, Donohue JH, Farley DR, Hoskin TL, Degnim AC: Sentinel node positive breast cancer patients who do not undergo axillary dissection: are they different? Surgery; 2008 May;143(5):641-7
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  • [Title] Sentinel node positive breast cancer patients who do not undergo axillary dissection: are they different?
  • BACKGROUND: Little data address outcome in patients with sentinel lymph node (SN) metastases without completion axillary lymph node dissection (CALND).
  • The metastasis size of the sentinel node was smaller compared to patients who underwent axillary dissection (1.7 vs 6.4 mm, P < .0001).
  • During a median follow-up of 30 months, there were no axillary recurrences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that patients who have a positive sentinel node biopsy and do not undergo CALND have a lower risk profile for axillary disease.
  • In this lower risk subset, axillary treatment may not be necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18436012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS); YKM8PY2Z55 / Hematoxylin
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78. Penault-Llorca F, Mishellany F: [Micrometastatic disease and residual axillary disease. Breast cancer as an example Alct]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Nov;10(6-7):338-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Micrometastatic disease and residual axillary disease. Breast cancer as an example Alct].
  • The knowledge of the axillary involvement is a major prognosis factor for breast cancer and an important parameter for treatment decision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16973394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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79. Balu-Maestro C, Chapellier C, Carrier P, Darcourt J, Ettore F, Raoust I: [Role of imaging in the evaluation of axillary nodes and metastatic disease from breast carcinoma]. J Radiol; 2005 Nov;86(11):1649-57
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  • [Title] [Role of imaging in the evaluation of axillary nodes and metastatic disease from breast carcinoma].
  • Ultrasound examination of nodes upstream of the sentinel node allows determination of the utility of this node and the indications for axillary resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16269978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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80. Islam S, Cole CV, Hoffman GR, Brennan PA: Bilateral axillary metastasis from a primary ethmoidal squamous cell carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Apr;120(4):353-5
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  • [Title] Bilateral axillary metastasis from a primary ethmoidal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We present a rare case of bilateral axillary nodal metastasis that developed in a patient previously treated for a primary ethmoidal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • To our knowledge, there have only been five case reports in the English literature, accounting for a total of 10 patients, which documented a clinically apparent metastasis to axillary lymph nodes from various head and neck malignancies.
  • Significantly however, the simultaneous ipsilateral and contralateral lymphatic spread of disease from a tumour in the para-nasal sinus, so as to involve bi-axillary nodes, has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Ethmoid Sinus. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16553967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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81. van Rijk MC, Nieweg OE, Valdés Olmos RA, Rutgers EJ, Hoefnagel CA, Kroon BB: Non-axillary breast cancer recurrences after sentinel node biopsy. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Dec 15;92(4):292-8
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  • [Title] Non-axillary breast cancer recurrences after sentinel node biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The primary lymphatic pathway of patients with breast cancer is toward the axilla, but lymph drainage is also possible towards the internal mammary chain and the supraclavicular fossa.
  • Patients with a lymph node recurrence outside the axilla were identified and their lymphatic mapping procedures were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Four of the 803 patients (0.5%) developed regional lymph node recurrences outside the axilla.
  • One or two of these patients also had an axillary recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of nodal recurrences outside the axilla is low.
  • Although all extra-axillary sentinel nodes were pursued, some of these recurrences concern missed sentinel nodes that harbor metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mastectomy, Segmental

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16299804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Erb KM, Shapiro-Wright HM, Julian TB: Axillary recurrences following positive sentinel lymph node biopsy with individual tumor cells or micrometastases and no axillary dissection. Breast Dis; 2010;31(2):83-90
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrences following positive sentinel lymph node biopsy with individual tumor cells or micrometastases and no axillary dissection.
  • The increased use of sentinel lymph node (SLN) excision for staging the axilla in women with breast cancer has benefited women by lowering morbidity and at the same time has raised issues related to the extent of treatment needed to the nodal basin.
  • Very low rates (0-3.7%) of axillary recurrence have been reported in selected patients with micrometastases tumor in sentinel nodes who have not had a completion axillary node dissection (ALND).
  • There appears to be a low risk for axillary recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 21368370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA69974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA14599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA69651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA012027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA12027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA069651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA069974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037377
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS663710; NLM/ PMC4342113
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83. Wang X, Zhao Y, Cao X: Clinical benefits of mastectomy on treatment of occult breast carcinoma presenting axillary metastases. Breast J; 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1):32-7
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  • [Title] Clinical benefits of mastectomy on treatment of occult breast carcinoma presenting axillary metastases.
  • Occult breast carcinoma presenting axillary metastases is uncommon and accounts for less than 1% of newly diagnosed breast carcinoma.
  • All these patients had a palpable axillary nodule, no dominant breast mass, and no abnormal mammograms and breast ultrasonograph.
  • Histological examination of axillary mass revealed metastasis from breast.
  • Once the diagnosis of occult breast carcinoma is clarified, an axillary dissection and the local treatment of breast should be carried out.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Axilla. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mammography / methods. Mastectomy / methods. Mastectomy / mortality. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods

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  • (PMID = 20465598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Hirche C, Murawa D, Mohr Z, Kneif S, Hünerbein M: ICG fluorescence-guided sentinel node biopsy for axillary nodal staging in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jun;121(2):373-8
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  • [Title] ICG fluorescence-guided sentinel node biopsy for axillary nodal staging in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a selective approach to axillary staging of breast cancer with reduced morbidity.
  • All patients underwent either planned axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) with SLN biopsy or selective SLN biopsy to determine need for ALND.
  • Clinical feasibility, detection rate, sensitivity, and axillary recurrence after isolated SLN biopsy were analyzed.
  • After a median follow-up of 4.7 years none of the patients presented with axillary recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Coloring Agents. Indocyanine Green. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20140704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
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85. Samoilova E, Davis JT, Hinson J, Brill YM, Cibull ML, McGrath P, Romond E, Moore A, Samayoa LM: Size of sentinel node tumor deposits and extent of axillary lymph node involvement: which breast cancer patients may benefit from less aggressive axillary dissections? Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug;14(8):2221-7
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  • [Title] Size of sentinel node tumor deposits and extent of axillary lymph node involvement: which breast cancer patients may benefit from less aggressive axillary dissections?
  • On the basis of these observations, the object of this study is to identify a subset of patients who might benefit from a less aggressive axillary dissection, without compromising staging or local disease control.
  • We reviewed known clinicopathologic variables associated with a higher risk for axillary metastasis in 467 patients who underwent sentinel node mapping at our institution.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients at low risk for extensive axillary nonsentinel node involvement may benefit from a more conservative surgical approach to their axillae, perhaps limited to sentinel node biopsy only or to axillary procedures restricted to the group of axillary nodes in close proximity to those designated as sentinel nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / pathology. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 Nov;14(11):3040-2 [17879118.001]
  • (PMID = 17549569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Narui K, Ishikawa T, Kito A, Shimizu D, Chishima T, Momiyama N, Ichikawa Y, Sasaki T, Nozawa A, Inayama Y, Shimada H, Endo I: Observational study of blue dye-assisted four-node sampling for axillary staging in early breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Aug;36(8):731-6
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  • [Title] Observational study of blue dye-assisted four-node sampling for axillary staging in early breast cancer.
  • We previously reported blue dye-assisted four-node axillary sampling (4NAS/dye) to be a suitable method for detecting sentinel nodes (SNs) without RIs.
  • Lymphatic mapping was performed by injection of patent blue, and axillary sampling was performed until 4 SNs were detected.
  • Patients with metastatic SNs underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) at levels I and II, while SN-negative patients did not undergo further axillary procedures.
  • After a median follow-up period of 54 months, only 1 patient (0.5%) in the SNB group developed axillary recurrence.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Coloring Agents. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20609549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Rosaniline Dyes; 129-17-9 / patent blue violet
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87. Gill G, SNAC Trial Group of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) and NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre: Sentinel-lymph-node-based management or routine axillary clearance? One-year outcomes of sentinel node biopsy versus axillary clearance (SNAC): a randomized controlled surgical trial. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Feb;16(2):266-75
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  • [Title] Sentinel-lymph-node-based management or routine axillary clearance? One-year outcomes of sentinel node biopsy versus axillary clearance (SNAC): a randomized controlled surgical trial.
  • One thousand eighty-eight women were randomly allocated to sentinel-lymph-node biopsy followed by axillary clearance if the sentinel node was positive or not detected (SNBM) or routine axillary clearance (RAC, sentinel-lymph-node biopsy followed immediately by axillary clearance).
  • Secondary endpoints were the proportions of women with at least 15% increase in arm volume or early axillary morbidity, and average scores for arm symptoms, dysfunctions, and disabilities assessed at 6 and 12 months by patients with the SNAC Study-Specific Scales and other quality-of-life instruments.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Morbidity. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19050973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Gillett D; Molland G; Harbour C; Ross B; Simon R; Cregan P; Cheung D; Spillane A; Pooley M; Gillett D; Molland G; Simon R; Ross B; Collins J; Mann B; Murphy C; Miller J; Henderson M; Moore S; Kitchen P; Mitchell G; Mann B; Wetzig N; Wilkinson D; Bennet I; Wetzig N; Wilkinson D; Pyke C; D'Arcy J; Donovan M; Creighton L; DeVianna D; Wetzig N; Pyke C; Gill G; Kollias J; Bochner M; Kennedy R; Gill G; Kollias J; Bochner M; Humeniuk V; Walsh D; Humeniuk V; Walsh D; Oliver D; Hastrich D; Oliver D; Ng A; Poole G; Harman R; Cacala S; Juhasz E; Wilson C; Kumar P; Rhind B; Campbell I
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88. Noguchi M: Avoidance of axillary lymph node dissection in selected patients with node-positive breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Feb;34(2):129-34
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  • [Title] Avoidance of axillary lymph node dissection in selected patients with node-positive breast cancer.
  • It is not clear whether SLN biopsy is appropriate for axillary staging in patients with initially clinically positive nodes (N1) that become clinically node-negative (N0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of data from randomised trials, the long-term impact of SLN biopsy alone on axillary recurrence and survival rate in patients with SLN micrometastases as well as those with ITC-positive SLN remains uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision / standards. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Japan. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17498911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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89. Jegaraj A, Kadambari D, Srinivasan K, Siddaraju N: Imprint cytology of axillary lymph nodes in breast carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5):685-91
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  • [Title] Imprint cytology of axillary lymph nodes in breast carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of imprint cytology (IC) in detecting residual axillary metastasis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in order to check its feasibility on sentinel nodes in the posttherapy setting in patients with breast carcinoma STUDY DESIGN: Thirty women on NACT for locally advanced breast cancer were subjected to total mastectomy with axillary node dissection.
  • CONCLUSION: IC is a sensitive, specific and accurate method of detecting axillary metastasis in patients with down-staged tumors following chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytodiagnosis. Cytological Techniques. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 20968156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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90. Meşină C, Vasile I, Vîlcea ID, Vere CC, Georgescu CV, Ghiluşi M, Paşalega M, Pârvănescu H, Calotă F, Mogoantă SS: Axillary and perianal leiomyosarcoma: report of two cases. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2010;51(2):379-85
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  • [Title] Axillary and perianal leiomyosarcoma: report of two cases.
  • To make a correct identification of soft tissue leiomyosarcoma, immunostaining with several smooth muscle differentiation markers (actin, calponin and desmin), and negative staining results with S100 (to rule out Schwann cell neoplasm), c-kit and CD34 (to rule out gastrointestinal stromal tumors) is needed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla / pathology. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20495760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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91. Loya A, Guray M, Hennessy BT, Middleton LP, Buchholz TA, Valero V, Sahin AA: Prognostic significance of occult axillary lymph node metastases after chemotherapy-induced pathologic complete response of cytologically proven axillary lymph node metastases from breast cancer. Cancer; 2009 Apr 15;115(8):1605-12
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of occult axillary lymph node metastases after chemotherapy-induced pathologic complete response of cytologically proven axillary lymph node metastases from breast cancer.
  • Pathologic complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph node metastases predicted an excellent probability of long-term disease-free and overall survival.
  • METHODS: Fifty-one patients with LABC and cytologically involved axillary lymph nodes that converted to negative after preoperative chemotherapy were identified from 2 prospective clinical trials.
  • RESULTS: Occult axillary lymph node metastases were identified in 8 of 51 (16%) patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Persistent occult axillary lymph node metastases were not uncommon in patients with axillary lymph node-positive LABC who experienced a pCR in involved lymph nodes after preoperative chemotherapy.
  • However, such occult metastases did not adversely affect the good prognosis associated with axillary lymph node pCR.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cytodiagnosis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19197997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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92. Patani NR, Dwek MV, Douek M: Predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer: a systematic review. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 May;33(4):409-19
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer: a systematic review.
  • AIMS: To review the established and emerging techniques in axillary lymph node prediction and explore their potential impact on clinical practice.
  • To reliably identify patients in whom axillary lymph node surgery, including SLNB, can be safely omitted.
  • METHODS: Searches of PubMed were made using the search terms "axilla" (or "axillary"), "lymph", "node" and "predictor" (or "prediction").
  • FINDINGS: There are numerous studies in which the predictive utility of biomarkers as determinants of axillary lymph node status have been investigated.
  • Few of these have specifically addressed the attributes of the primary tumour which could offer much potential for the prediction of tumour metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Currently, no single marker is sufficiently accurate to obviate the need for formal axillary staging using SLNB or axillary clearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Genetic Markers. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17125963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A5731
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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93. Schrenk P, Tausch C, Wayand W: Lymphatic mapping in patients with primary or recurrent breast cancer following previous axillary surgery. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;34(8):851-6
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  • [Title] Lymphatic mapping in patients with primary or recurrent breast cancer following previous axillary surgery.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility of lymphatic mapping in breast cancer patients after previous axillary surgery and to identify parameters associated with mapping failure.
  • METHODS: Lymphatic mapping using peritumoural injection of blue dye and a radiocolloid was attempted in 30 patients with primary (n=7) or recurrent (n=23) breast cancer and a history of previous axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel node biopsy.
  • The lymph nodes were removed from the ipsilateral axilla (n=13), the internal mammary chain (n=2), both the internal mammary nodes and the axilla (n=2), the interpectoral space (n=1) and the contralateral axilla (n=1).
  • Axillary lymph node dissection was done in 13 of 15 patients but found no positive nodes (false negative rate=0).
  • CONCLUSION: Lymphatic mapping following prior axillary surgery was accurate but associated with a low identification rate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Colloids. Coloring Agents / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18162358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Colloids; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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94. Popli MB, Sahoo M, Mehrotra N, Choudhury M, Kumar A, Pathania OP, Thomas S: Preoperative ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology for axillary staging in breast carcinoma. Australas Radiol; 2006 Apr;50(2):122-6
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  • [Title] Preoperative ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology for axillary staging in breast carcinoma.
  • Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is considered to be the single most important prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer.
  • It can be assessed by various radiological, pathological and surgical techniques, the most accurate being histological examination of lymph nodes after axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • Thirty patients with FNAC-proven breast cancer, planned for definitive surgery with axillary clearance, were included in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [ErratumIn] Australas Radiol. 2006 Oct;50(5):512
  • (PMID = 16635029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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95. Lale Atahan I, Yildiz F, Ozyigit G, Sari S, Gurkaynak M, Selek U, Hayran M: Percent positive axillary lymph node metastasis predicts survival in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. Acta Oncol; 2008;47(2):232-8
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  • [Title] Percent positive axillary lymph node metastasis predicts survival in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the impact of percent positive axillary nodal involvement on the therapeutic outcomes in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer receiving postmastectomy radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Lymphatic irradiation was applied for more than three metastatic axillary lymph nodes, incomplete axillary dissection (<10 lymph nodes), extracapsular extension or perinodal fat tissue invasion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Axilla / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17924207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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96. Marinho VF, Zagury MS, Caldeira LG, Gobbi H: Relationship between histologic features of primary breast carcinomas and axillary lymph node micrometastases: Detection and prognostic significance. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Dec;14(4):426-31
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  • [Title] Relationship between histologic features of primary breast carcinomas and axillary lymph node micrometastases: Detection and prognostic significance.
  • The incidence and prognostic significance of micrometastases (Mic-Met) in axillary lymph nodes (LNs) is still controversial.
  • We compared Mic-Met detection of invasive mammary carcinomas (IMCs) in axillary LNs using second review of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained slides and immunohistochemistry (IHC) relating them with features of the primary tumor, and determining their influence on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS).
  • We studied 188 cases of IMCs with no axillary metastases in the initial reports.

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  • (PMID = 17122640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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97. Aziz D, Gardner S, Pritchard K, Paszat L, Holloway CM: Selective application of axillary node dissection in elderly women with early breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):652-9
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  • [Title] Selective application of axillary node dissection in elderly women with early breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Routine use of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has been questioned in elderly women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. SEER Program. Survival Analysis. United States

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  • (PMID = 17151795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Garami Z, Benkó K, Kósa C, Fülöp B, Lukács G: [The effect of mammographic screening on tumor size, axillary node status and the degree of histologic anaplasia]. Magy Seb; 2006 Oct;59(5):383-7
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  • [Title] [The effect of mammographic screening on tumor size, axillary node status and the degree of histologic anaplasia].
  • Of the histopathological data of 633 patients operated with primary breast tumor at the 1st Surgical Clinic of the Debrecen Medical University between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2004, the authors analyzed tumor diameter, axillary node status and the degree of histologic anaplasia and compared them with the data of mammographic screening.
  • 72.7% of the "screened" patients and 56.2% of the "unscreened" patients were found to be axillary node-negative.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anaplasia / diagnosis. Axilla. Female. Humans. Hungary / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17201347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar sebészet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Seb
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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99. Güth U, Wight E, Langer I, Schötzau A, Dieterich H, Herberich L, Holzgreve W, Singer G: Breast cancer sagittal/horizontal plane location influences axillary lymph node involvement. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;32(3):287-91
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  • [Title] Breast cancer sagittal/horizontal plane location influences axillary lymph node involvement.
  • AIM: To assess the influence of tumour location on axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI) and prognosis in breast cancer by evaluating the significance of the sagittal/horizontal alignment.
  • Clinicians should be aware that tumours lying posteriorly may be at increased risk of occult spread outside axillary lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16466903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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100. Sakakibara M, Nagashima T, Kadowaki M, Onai Y, Fujimori T, Yokomizo J, Suzuki H, Fushimi K, Nakatani Y, Miyazaki M: Clinical significance of axillary microresiduals after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with cytologically proven metastases. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Sep;16(9):2470-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical significance of axillary microresiduals after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with cytologically proven metastases.
  • The pCR status of cytologically proven axillary metastases (ALN-pCR) offers a more powerful prognostic predictor than pCR of the main tumor.
  • This study evaluated the clinical significance of residual micrometastases and discusses screening methods after NAC in patients with cytologically proven axillary metastases.
  • METHODS: Eighty patients with a diagnosis of cytologically proven axillary metastases received NAC.
  • These data showed the clinical significance of microresidual metastases >0.2 mm after NAC in patients with cytologically proven axillary metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2010 Mar;17(3):933-4; author reply 935 [19830493.001]
  • (PMID = 19588201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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