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6. Salemis NS, Razou A: Coexistence of breast cancer metastases and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes--a rare association and review of the literature. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health; 2010 May;41(3):608-13
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  • [Title] Coexistence of breast cancer metastases and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes--a rare association and review of the literature.
  • The coexistence of metastatic breast cancer and tuberculosis in axillary lymph nodes is very rare.
  • We present the case of a 57-year-old woman with multifocal invasive ductal breast carcinoma in whom the resected axillary nodes were found to harbor both metastatic cancer and tuberculous lymphadenitis.
  • We conclude the possibility of coexistent latent tuberculosis should be kept in mind when granulomatous lesions are identified in axillary lymph nodes with metastatic breast cancer, especially in patients from endemic regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / microbiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / microbiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Latent Tuberculosis / complications. Tuberculosis, Lymph Node / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Granuloma. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20578549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-1562
  • [Journal-full-title] The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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7. Colleoni M, Rotmensz N, Maisonneuve P, Sonzogni A, Pruneri G, Casadio C, Luini A, Veronesi P, Intra M, Galimberti V, Torrisi R, Andrighetto S, Ghisini R, Goldhirsch A, Viale G: Prognostic role of the extent of peritumoral vascular invasion in operable breast cancer. Ann Oncol; 2007 Oct;18(10):1632-40
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  • BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of the degree of peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) in patients with no or limited involvement of the axillary nodes is unknown.
  • RESULTS: Patients with extensive PVI were more likely to be younger, to have larger tumors, high tumor grade, axillary-positive nodes, high Ki-67 expression and HER2/neu over-expression compared with patients having less PVI (P for trend, <0.0001).
  • In patients with node-negative disease a statistically significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS), risk of distant metastases and overall survival (OS) was observed at the multivariate analysis for extensive PVI versus no PVI (hazard ratios: 2.11, 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.34, P = 0.04 for DFS; 4.51, 95% CI, 1.96 to 10.4, P< 0.001 for distant metastases; 3.55, 95% CI, 1.24 to 10.1, P = 0.02 for OS).


8. Wright JL, Cordeiro PG, Ben-Porat L, Van Zee KJ, Hudis C, Beal K, McCormick B: Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation for stage II-III breast cancer: treatment intervals and clinical outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jan 1;70(1):43-50
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  • (1) definitive mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and immediate tissue expander placement, (2) tissue expansion during chemotherapy, (3) exchange of tissue expander for permanent implant, (4) radiation.
  • The 5-year rate for locoregional disease control was 100%, for distant metastasis-free survival 90%, and for overall survival 96%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation results in a median interval of 8 weeks from completion of chemotherapy to initiation of radiation and seems to be associated with acceptable 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Flaps. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tissue Expansion / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17855006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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9. Meades RT, Svensson WE, Frank JW, Gada V, Ralleigh G, Satchithananda K, Barrett N, Nijran KS: Carcinoma of the breast wire localisation post nuclear medicine sentinel lymph node imaging. Are radiologists receiving a significant dose? Eur Radiol; 2010 Mar;20(3):529-32
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  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the radiation dose received by the radiologist when performing wire localisation for axillary radio-isotope sentinel node imaging-guided biopsy in patients with impalpable breast cancers treated with breast-preserving excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma / secondary. Occupational Exposure / analysis. Radiology. Technetium / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Body Burden. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Radiometry. Radionuclide Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19763580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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10. Rageth CJ, Scholl B, Sarasin E, Saurenmann E: [Sentinel lymphonodectomy in breast cancer - our own experience. Part 2]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch; 2005 Apr;45(2):116-20
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  • RESULTS: Between July 1999 and May 2004, the authors performed 218 sentinel lymphonodectomies, 48 of them during the 24-month evaluation period with consecutive full axillary dissection.
  • Among the first 48 cases, 24 had histologically proven metastasis to one or more of the axillary lymph nodes.
  • The common recommendations, i.e. that sentinel lymphonodectomy without axillary clearance should not be offered before having completed one's own learning curve with the aid of experienced surgeons, are to be supported.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Switzerland

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  • (PMID = 15818054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8843
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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11. Ozmen V, Asoglu O, Karanlik H, Cabioglu N, Kecer M, Bakkaloglu H: Primary ovarian cancer presenting with axillary lymph node metastases: a report of two cases. Acta Chir Belg; 2007 Jan-Feb;107(1):75-7
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  • [Title] Primary ovarian cancer presenting with axillary lymph node metastases: a report of two cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node metastasis of primary ovarian cancer is rare.
  • CASE I: A 74-year-old woman presented with a 2 x 2 cm hard, mobile mass in the right axilla.
  • A right axillary lymph node dissection and low anterior resection of the rectum were performed.
  • Histopathologic examination showed ovarian epithelial serous papillary adenocarcinoma metastases to axillary lymph node and the rectum.
  • CASE 2: A 38-year-old woman presented with a 3 x 2 cm hard, mobile mass in the right axilla.
  • She was treated surgically and by systemic chemotherapy with a diagnosis of stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer two years previously.
  • A trucut biopsy was taken from the enlarged axillary lymph node, and histopathological examination revealed metastases of primary ovarian cancer.
  • Complete axillary lymph node dissection was performed and metastases of ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma were found in 11 of the 30 lymph nodes.
  • We report here two cases presenting with axillary metastases of ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17405606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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12. Land SR, Kopec JA, Julian TB, Brown AM, Anderson SJ, Krag DN, Christian NJ, Costantino JP, Wolmark N, Ganz PA: Patient-reported outcomes in sentinel node-negative adjuvant breast cancer patients receiving sentinel-node biopsy or axillary dissection: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project phase III protocol B-32. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Sep 01;28(25):3929-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patient-reported outcomes in sentinel node-negative adjuvant breast cancer patients receiving sentinel-node biopsy or axillary dissection: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project phase III protocol B-32.
  • PURPOSE: Sentinel lymph node resection (SNR) may reduce morbidity while providing the same clinical utility as conventional axillary dissection (AD).
  • The PRO substudy included all SN-negative participants enrolled May 2001 to February 2004 at community institutions in the United States (n = 749; 78% age > or = 50; 87% clinical tumor size < or = 2.0 cm; 84% lumpectomy; 87% white).
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Axilla / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Range of Motion, Articular. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20679600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01-CA-074137; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-69651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA012027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-69974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10-CA-12027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA22435; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA069651; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074137; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA069974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA022435; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037377
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940391
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13. László A, Ivaskevics K, Sápi Z: Malignant epithelioid ovarian schwannoma: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:360-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant epithelioid ovarian schwannoma: a case report.
  • The patient was registered to the hospital due to a painless solid tumor in her left axillary region.
  • Histologic examination of the excised tumor showed reticulum cell sarcoma.
  • Two years later, oophorectomy was performed due to a unilateral ovarian tumor.
  • The results of the histologic examination with different staining were particularly the same as those found in the axillary tumor, finally diagnosed as a malignant epithelioid schwannoma of the ovary.
  • 1) malignant schwannoma of the ovary is a very rare tumor, 2) the epithelioid type of the tumor may cause a differential diagnostic problem, and 3) clinical appearance of the metastasis was quite unusual, also resulting in difficulties in the appropriate diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16515623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Stranzl H, Ofner P, Peintinger F: Postoperative irradiation in breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Is there an impact of axillary extranodal tumor extension on locoregional and distant control? Strahlenther Onkol; 2006 Oct;182(10):583-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postoperative irradiation in breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Is there an impact of axillary extranodal tumor extension on locoregional and distant control?
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of extracapsular extension (ECE) on locoregional and distant control in breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes treated with postoperative irradiation.
  • Of the 274 patients presenting with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes, 91 (33.2%) showed ECE.
  • On multivariate analysis of metastases-free survival, the hazard ratios for ECE and histological grade 3 were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.316-5.581; p = 0.007) and 2.435 (95% CI, 1.008-5.885; p = 0.048), respectively.
  • The 3-year and 5-year metastases-free survival rates for patients with ECE were 78% and 66%, compared to 90% and 87% in patients without ECE (p = 0.0048).
  • CONCLUSION: Locoregional recurrence remains low in breast cancer patients (one to three positive axillary lymph nodes +/- ECE) treated with surgery, adequate axillary dissection, and tangential field irradiation only.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Postoperative Care / statistics & numerical data. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / statistics & numerical data. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Austria / epidemiology. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17013571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Wang ZS, Zhan N, Xiong CL, Li H: Primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the male breast: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(9):782-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The patient was a 20-year-old Chinese man who presented with a huge tumor just below the left nipple.
  • Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed a diagnosis of primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the male breast, without axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • We review the relevant literature on this rare malignant tumor.

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  • [Cites] Histopathology. 1999 Oct;35(4):319-27 [10564386.001]
  • [Cites] Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1995 Jun;35(6):364-8 [7566378.001]
  • (PMID = 17713733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Ruibal A, Sánchez Salmón A: Reduced clinicopathological influence of hormone-dependence on breast carcinomas in women older than 70 years. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jan-Mar;23(1):58-62
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  • Tumor size, axillary involvement, distant metastasis, histological grade, ploidy and S-phase were taken into account.
  • In the younger subgroup, negativity for ER was associated with larger tumor size, higher S-phase fraction, lymph node involvement, histological grade 3 and lower pS2 values.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cathepsin D / metabolism. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. S Phase. Trefoil Factor-1. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18409153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / TFF1 protein, human; 0 / Trefoil Factor-1; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.4.23.5 / Cathepsin D
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17. Veys I, Durbecq V, Majjaj S, Schobbens JC, Noterman D, Sirtaine N, Martinez MD, Hertens D, Feoli F, Bourgeois P, Nogaret JM, Larsimont D: Eighteen months clinical experience with the GeneSearch breast lymph node assay. Am J Surg; 2009 Aug;198(2):203-9
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  • BACKGROUND: The accuracy of a molecular reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assay for metastases detection in axillary sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) has recently been validated in our institution and adopted as an intraoperative test for breast cancer patient management.
  • The molecular assay was positive in 13/14 patients with SLNs and nonsentinel lymph node (axillary lymph node [ALN])-positive histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Keratin-19 / genetics. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Uteroglobin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mammaglobin A. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. RNA / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 19249740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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18. Laser J, Cangiarella J, Singh B, Melamed J, Chiriboga L, Yee H, Darvishian F: Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: role of endothelial lymphatic marker D2-40. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2008;38(2):99-104
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  • Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) of breast cancer is an independent adverse prognosticator that is associated with increased regional and distant tumor recurrence.
  • We identified 78 patients with invasive lobular carcinoma with known axillary status, who were studied between 2003 and 2006.
  • Eleven of 12 patients (92%) with LVI identified by routine histology had axillary nodal metastasis compared to 14 of 19 patients (74%) with LVI identified by D2-40 antibody.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18469353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-8080
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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19. Khakpour N, Zager JS, Yen T, Stephens T, Kuerer HM, Singletary ES, Ross MI, Hunt KK, Babiera GV: The role of ultrasound in the surgical management of patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Breast J; 2006 May-Jun;12(3):212-5
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  • US and MMG size of suspicious abnormalities, pathologic tumor size, and findings of axillary US and surgical axillary evaluation were analyzed.
  • The median size difference of US versus pathologic tumor size and MMG versus pathologic tumor size was 1.0 and 2.0 cm, respectively.
  • Correlation coefficients for US versus pathologic tumor size and MMG versus pathologic tumor size were 0.53 and -0.09, respectively.
  • The negative and positive predictive values of axillary US to predict nodal disease were 93% and 27%, respectively.
  • However, the low positive predictive value of US for evaluating metastases to axillary lymph nodes does not justify the routine use of this modality for axillary evaluation in patients with DCIS.

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  • (PMID = 16684318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Kinoshita T, Takasugi M, Iwamoto E, Akashi-Tanaka S, Fukutomi T, Terui S: Sentinel lymph node biopsy examination for breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Am J Surg; 2006 Feb;191(2):225-9
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy examination for breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy examination for breast cancer patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have been investigated under the administration of a radiocolloid imaging agent injected intradermally over a tumor.
  • In addition, conditions that may affect SLN biopsy detection and false-negative rates with respect to clinical tumor response and clinical nodal status before NAC were analyzed.
  • The patients then underwent SLN biopsy examination, which involved a combination of intradermal injection over the tumor of radiocolloid and a subareolar injection of blue dye.
  • This was followed by standard level I/II axillary lymph node dissection.
  • In 69 of 72 patients (95.8%) the SLN accurately predicted the axillary status.
  • The SLN identification rate tended to be higher, although not statistically significantly, among patients who had clinically negative axillary lymph nodes before NAC (97.6%; 41 of 42).
  • This is in comparison with patients who had a positive axillary lymph node before NAC (88.6%; 31 of 35).
  • The SLN biopsy examination accurately predicted metastatic disease in the axilla of patients with tumor response after NAC and clinical nodal status before NAC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. False Negative Reactions. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / cytology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg. 2007 Jul;194(1):135-6 [17560926.001]
  • (PMID = 16442950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Zhao J, Ni H, Ma Y, Dong L, Dai J, Zhao F, Yan X, Lu B, Xu H, Guo Y: TIP30/CC3 expression in breast carcinoma: relation to metastasis, clinicopathologic parameters, and P53 expression. Hum Pathol; 2007 Feb;38(2):293-8
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  • [Title] TIP30/CC3 expression in breast carcinoma: relation to metastasis, clinicopathologic parameters, and P53 expression.
  • Metastasis is the most frequent cause of death in patients with breast cancer.
  • Tip30/CC3 gene is a putative metastasis suppressor gene, which was first identified by a differential display analysis of messenger RNA from the highly metastatic human variant small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) versus less metastatic classic SCLC cell lines.
  • Tumor tissues were stained immunohistochemically with anti-TIP30/CC3 antibody.
  • We demonstrated that the expression of TIP30/CC3 was inversely associated with axillary lymph node metastasis (P = .0008) and vascular invasion (P = .0016).
  • Expression of TIP30/CC3 was not correlated with tumor grade, estrogen, progesterone, and P53 expression.
  • These data supported the theory that the expression of TIP30/CC3 had a suppressive function on tumor metastasis.
  • In summary, the decrease in expression of TIP30/CC3 is related to metastasis and may represent a new prognosticator in breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetyltransferases / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA Interference. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 17097132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.3.1.- / Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.48 / HTATIP2 protein, human
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22. Rescigno J, Zampell JC, Axelrod D: Patterns of axillary surgical care for breast cancer in the era of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;16(3):687-96
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  • [Title] Patterns of axillary surgical care for breast cancer in the era of sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Population-based overall patterns of surgical management of the axilla in women with operable breast cancer during the era of adoption of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) were studied.
  • METHODS: Women with operable breast carcinoma residing in 14 geographic areas of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries (1998-2004, n=239,661) were assessed for axillary surgical patterns of care.
  • Use of no axillary surgery decreased from 14 to 6.6%.
  • In pathologic node-negative women, use of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) decreased from 94 to 36%.
  • Independent factors most associated with failure to receive SLNB included diagnosis year (2000: 62%; 2004: 29%), surgery (mastectomy: 64%; breast-conserving surgery: 36%), tumor size (T3: 71%; T2: 56%; T1: 40%), age (>or= 70 years: 50%; <70 years: 45%), grade (high: 42%; low: 38%), urbanity (non-large metropolitan area: 49%; large metropolitan area: 42%), and, by quartile, poverty (highest: 47%; lowest: 35%), and white-collar employment (lowest: 56%; highest: 47%).
  • Patients with smaller, lower-grade tumors, and those with smaller size of nodal metastasis, lack of extracapsular extension, age >or= 70 years, increased linguistic isolation, African-American or Hispanic race/ethnicity, and white-collar employment were less likely to undergo completion ALND.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Management of the axilla changed dramatically during the period of rapid adoption of SLNB.
  • [MeSH-minor] African Americans. Aged. Axilla. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hispanic Americans. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Registries. Risk Factors. SEER Program. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19101768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Backus J, Laughlin T, Wang Y, Belly R, White R, Baden J, Justus Min C, Mannie A, Tafra L, Atkins D, Verbanac KM: Identification and characterization of optimal gene expression markers for detection of breast cancer metastasis. J Mol Diagn; 2005 Aug;7(3):327-36
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  • [Title] Identification and characterization of optimal gene expression markers for detection of breast cancer metastasis.
  • Sentinel lymph node (SLN) status is highly predictive of overall axillary lymph node involvement in breast cancer.
  • Historically, SLN-positive patients have undergone axillary lymph node dissection in a second surgery.
  • Rapid molecular methods may lead to improved intraoperative diagnosis of SLN metastasis.
  • In this study, we used a genome-wide gene expression analysis of breast and other tissues to identify seven putative markers for detecting breast cancer metastasis.
  • We assessed the utility of these markers for identifying clinically actionable metastases in lymph nodes through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of SLNs from 254 breast cancer patients.
  • The optimal two-gene combination, mammaglobin and cytokeratin 19, detected clinically actionable metastasis in breast SLNs with 90% sensitivity and 94% specificity.
  • This study represents the first comprehensive demonstration of the utility of gene expression markers for detecting clinically actionable breast metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 1998 Aug;16(8):2632-40 [9704713.001]
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  • (PMID = 16049304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1578
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1867547
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24. McMahon K, Medoro L, Kennedy D: Breast magnetic resonance imaging: an essential role in malignant axillary lymphadenopathy of unknown origin. Australas Radiol; 2005 Oct;49(5):382-9
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  • [Title] Breast magnetic resonance imaging: an essential role in malignant axillary lymphadenopathy of unknown origin.
  • Between January 2000 and March 2004, 18 patients, who presented with axillary lymphadenopathy, most likely due to "occult" breast cancer, were examined with MRI of the breast.
  • The use of MRI enables a preoperative diagnosis to be made in a high percentage of patients and may allow retrospective targeted ultrasound localization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Axilla. Contrast Media. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16174176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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25. Kunkler IH: Radiotherapy of the regional lymph nodes: shooting at the sheriff? Breast; 2009 Oct;18 Suppl 3:S112-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However the clinical evidence suggests that the risk of regional recurrence is lower in patients with early breast cancer whose axilla has been irradiated compared to no axillary treatment.
  • A policy of level III clearance and only irradiating the axilla for residual disease and a selective policy of axillary irradiation in node positive patients after sentinel node biopsy or lower axillary node sample is recommended.
  • Irradiation of the medial supraclavicular fossa after axillary dissection is suggested where there are four or more nodes involved on axillary dissection.
  • The benefits of RNI need to be carefully balanced against the risks of cardiotoxicity, pneumonitis, lymphoedema, brachial plexopathy and secondary malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Irradiation. Lymphatic Metastasis / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19914529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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26. Veras E, Srodon M, Neijstrom ES, Ronnett BM: Metastatic HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas presenting with thromboembolic events (Trousseau Syndrome): clinicopathologic characteristics of 2 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):134-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas presenting with thromboembolic events (Trousseau Syndrome): clinicopathologic characteristics of 2 cases.
  • Two cases of systemic thromboembolism (Trousseau syndrome) associated with metastatic human papillomavirus (HPV)-related endocervical adenocarcinomas are reported.
  • Lymph node biopsy revealed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma with focal signet ring cell differentiation.
  • Imaging studies demonstrated metastatic disease without a defined primary site.
  • Autopsy examination revealed widespread metastatic adenocarcinoma with a 2 cm cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • The second patient, age 43, presented with left internal jugular vein thrombosis, acute thrombophlebitis, and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy.
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy with biopsies and left oophorectomy revealed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma with signet ring cell differentiation involving peritoneum, ovary, cervix, and bladder without a defined primary site.
  • HPV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the lymph node metastasis in the first case and in the cervical and ovarian tumor specimens in the second case.
  • These features more commonly suggest metastatic adenocarcinoma of upper gastrointestinal tract origin but the presence of HPV DNA within the tumors establishes them as cervical in origin.

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  • (PMID = 19188822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Bull JM, Strebel FR, Jenkins GN, Deng W, Rowe RW: The importance of schedule in whole body thermochemotherapy. Int J Hyperthermia; 2008 Mar;24(2):171-81
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  • Differently timed combinations of a) cisplatin with FR-WB-TT, b) gemcitabine with FR-WB-TT, and c) cisplatin with gemcitabine were examined for anti-tumor efficacy and toxicity.
  • RESULTS: The greatest primary tumor and axillary metastasis growth delay and lowest toxicity was induced with administration of cisplatin 24 h prior to gemcitabine and cisplatin 24 h prior to simultaneous gemcitabine and FR-WB-TT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The relative timing of agents in multiple modality treatments is critically important in achieving tumor control or cures, and in reducing toxicity.
  • Optimizing the relative timing of multiple agents in thermochemotherapy allows use of lower drug doses to achieve maximal anti-tumor efficacy and minimal toxicity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 18283593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0265-6736
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Hyperthermia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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28. Grabau D: Breast cancer patients with micrometastases only: is a basis provided for tailored treatment? Surg Oncol; 2008 Sep;17(3):211-7
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  • If only a micrometastasis is found in a sentinel lymph node, an axillary lymph node dissection may be considered to be overtreatment and perhaps could be avoided.
  • The goal was to determine if studies to date have been able to define a population of breast cancer patients with micrometastases where the size of the metastasis could indicate whether an axillary lymph node dissection should be undertaken.
  • Tailored systemic therapy is also impossible due to lack of a precisely defined target for a feasible therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18501593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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29. Vanzulli SI, Soldati R, Meiss R, Colombo L, Molinolo AA, Lanari C: Estrogen or antiprogestin treatment induces complete regression of pulmonary and axillary metastases in an experimental model of breast cancer progression. Carcinogenesis; 2005 Jun;26(6):1055-63
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  • [Title] Estrogen or antiprogestin treatment induces complete regression of pulmonary and axillary metastases in an experimental model of breast cancer progression.
  • In this paper we demonstrate, using the C7-2-HI metastatic transplantable ductal mammary tumor, that endocrine therapy can induce complete regression of spontaneous lymph node and lung metastases in a mouse model of breast cancer progression.
  • This tumor expresses high levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and shows a high incidence of early axillary lymph nodes and lung metastases; using this model we had previously shown complete tumor regression of subcutaneous implants.
  • Interestingly, although the metastases showed a more differentiated histology as compared with the primary growth, they underwent complete regression when treated with estrogens or antiprogestins.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Female. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mitosis / drug effects. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15774491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cdkn1a protein, mouse; 0 / Cdkn1b protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Progestins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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30. Cox C, White L, Allred N, Meyers M, Dickson D, Dupont E, Cantor A, Ly Q, Dessureault S, King J, Nicosia S, Vrcel V, Diaz N: Survival outcomes in node-negative breast cancer patients evaluated with complete axillary node dissection versus sentinel lymph node biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 May;13(5):708-11
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  • [Title] Survival outcomes in node-negative breast cancer patients evaluated with complete axillary node dissection versus sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the survival outcomes of node-negative patients who received an SLN biopsy with historical control data of node-negative patients who received routine complete axillary lymph node dissection (CALND) in the pre-SLN biopsy era.
  • SLN biopsy alone should replace CALND as the primary tool for axillary staging of breast cancer in node-negative patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16538416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Keam B, Im SA, Kim HJ, Oh DY, Kim JH, Lee SH, Chie EK, Han W, Kim DW, Cho N, Moon WK, Kim TY, Park IA, Noh DY, Heo DS, Ha SW, Bang YJ: Clinical significance of axillary nodal ratio in stage II/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Jul;116(1):153-60
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of axillary nodal ratio in stage II/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may modify the yield of involved axillary lymph nodes.
  • The patients received three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by curative surgery, either breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection, and received three additional cycles of docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy as adjuvant.
  • CONCLUSION: Axillary nodal ratios have an independent prognostic value in stage II/III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 18787948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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37. Reed J, Rosman M, Verbanac KM, Mannie A, Cheng Z, Tafra L: Prognostic implications of isolated tumor cells and micrometastases in sentinel nodes of patients with invasive breast cancer: 10-year analysis of patients enrolled in the prospective East Carolina University/Anne Arundel Medical Center Sentinel Node Multicenter Study. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Mar;208(3):333-40
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  • [Title] Prognostic implications of isolated tumor cells and micrometastases in sentinel nodes of patients with invasive breast cancer: 10-year analysis of patients enrolled in the prospective East Carolina University/Anne Arundel Medical Center Sentinel Node Multicenter Study.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a more sensitive and accurate nodal staging procedure than axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • Because of increased pathologic evaluation in the sentinel node era, more nodal micrometastases (MIC) (> 0.2 mm to 2 mm) and isolated tumor cells (ITC; < or = 0.2 mm) have been identified.
  • We present the 10-year analysis of our prospective SLN study, focusing on regional axillary node status and distant metastases in patients with nodal ITC and MIC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. United States

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  • (PMID = 19317993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Dunnwald LK, Gralow JR, Ellis GK, Livingston RB, Linden HM, Lawton TJ, Barlow WE, Schubert EK, Mankoff DA: Residual tumor uptake of [99mTc]-sestamibi after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma predicts survival. Cancer; 2005 Feb 15;103(4):680-8
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  • [Title] Residual tumor uptake of [99mTc]-sestamibi after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma predicts survival.
  • BACKGROUND: Studies utilizing serial [99mTc]-sestamibi (MIBI) scintimammography have reported accurate prediction of tumor response in patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma (LABC) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The affected breast was imaged within 10 minutes after injection to reflect early uptake, which the authors have shown to be related to tumor blood flow.
  • Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared with posttherapy primary MIBI uptake and with other established prognostic factors for neoadjuvantly treated LABC, namely, primary tumor pathologic response and posttherapy axillary lymph node status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High primary breast tumor MIBI uptake after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predicted poor survival, suggesting serial MIBI imaging may provide a useful quantitative surrogate end point for neoadjuvant chemotherapy trials.
  • Given the association between MIBI uptake and tumor blood flow, this prognostic capability may be related to retained tumor vascularity after treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Scintillation Counting

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15637688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42045; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA72064
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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39. Burnell M, Levine MN, Chapman JA, Bramwell V, Gelmon K, Walley B, Vandenberg T, Chalchal H, Albain KS, Perez EA, Rugo H, Pritchard K, O'Brien P, Shepherd LE: Cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and Fluorouracil versus dose-dense epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by Paclitaxel versus Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by Paclitaxel in node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan 01;28(1):77-82
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  • METHODS After lumpectomy or mastectomy, women 60 years of age or younger with axillary node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive CEF, EC/T, or AC/T for 6 months.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19901117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799234
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40. Yuste García P, Villarejo Campos P, Menéndez Rubio JM, García Garciá A, Pérez Viejo E, Gambí Pisonero D, Martinez Pueyo JI, Cruz Vigo F: Marjolin's ulcer arising from a laparostomy scar. Int Surg; 2006 Jul-Aug;91(4):207-10
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  • Marjolin's ulcer is the malignant transformation of a scar, usually as a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Ten months later, axillary lymphadenectomy was performed because of lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Chronic Disease. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatitis / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16967681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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41. Boughey JC, Moriarty JP, Degnim AC, Gregg MS, Egginton JS, Long KH: Cost modeling of preoperative axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration to guide surgery for invasive breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Apr;17(4):953-8
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  • [Title] Cost modeling of preoperative axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration to guide surgery for invasive breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Preoperative axillary lymph node ultrasound (US) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy can identify a proportion of node-positive patients and avoid sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery and direct surgical treatment.
  • Most (63%) of the simulations resulted in cost saving with axillary US/FNA.
  • US/FNA approach was similar in costs or cost saving relative to the standard of care for all tumor stages.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The additional cost of performing axillary US with possible FNA in every patient is balanced, on average, by the savings from avoiding SLN in cases where metastasis can be documented preoperatively.
  • Routine use of preoperative axillary US with FNA to guide surgical planning can decrease the overall cost of patient care for invasive breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20127185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090628-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628-10
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS215639; NLM/ PMC2908087
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42. Fedko MG, Scow JS, Shah SS, Reynolds C, Degnim AC, Jakub JW, Boughey JC: Pure tubular carcinoma and axillary nodal metastases. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17 Suppl 3:338-42
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  • [Title] Pure tubular carcinoma and axillary nodal metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Pure tubular carcinoma of the breast is a rare subtype with a low incidence of axillary lymph node metastases.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with pure tubular carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We identified patients diagnosed with tubular carcinoma from 1987 to 2009 from our institution's tumor registry.
  • Pathology slides were reviewed, and pure tubular carcinoma was defined as ≥ 90% tubule formation, low nuclear grade, and rare to no mitoses.
  • Medical records were reviewed for clinicopathologic data including tumor size, number of positive and negative axillary lymph nodes, treatment, and recurrence.
  • Median tumor size was 0.8 (range 0.1-1.8) cm.
  • Five patients (5.4%) had positive lymph nodes, and two patients (2.2%) had isolated tumor cells.
  • All patients with lymph node metastases had tumors >0.8 cm in size.
  • At 5.2 years' follow-up, no patients have developed recurrence or metastases, or have died from breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Axillary lymph node metastases are not common in small pure tubular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20853056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Almasri NM, Al Hamad M: Immunohistochemical evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast carcinoma in Jordan. Breast Cancer Res; 2005;7(5):R598-604
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  • Our aims in this study are to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu overexpression in BC in Jordan, and to compare the expression of these with other prognostic parameters for BC such as histological type, histological grade, tumor size, patients' age, and number of lymph node metastases.
  • Immunohistochemical findings were correlated with age, tumor size, grade and axillary lymph node status.
  • Her-2 positive cases tended to have higher rates of axillary metastases, but this did not reach statistical significance.
  • ER and PR positive cases were seen in older patients with smaller tumor sizes.
  • Her-2 overexpression was associated with young age at presentation, larger tumor size, and was inversely related to ER and PR expression.
  • This group appears to represent an aggressive form of BC presenting at a young age with large primary tumors and a high rate of four or more axillary lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Genes, erbB-2. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Jordan. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Receptor, ErbB-2. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16168103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1242123
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44. Santos SC, Cavalli IJ, Ribeiro EM, Urban CA, Lima RS, Bleggi-Torres LF, Rone JD, Haddad BR, Cavalli LR: Patterns of DNA copy number changes in sentinel lymph node breast cancer metastases. Cytogenet Genome Res; 2008;122(1):16-21
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  • [Title] Patterns of DNA copy number changes in sentinel lymph node breast cancer metastases.
  • The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is considered to be the first axillary node that contains malignant cells in metastatic breast tumors, and its positivity is currently used in clinical practice as an indication for axillary lymph node dissection.
  • Therefore, accurate evaluation of the SLN for the presence of breast metastatic cells is essential.
  • The main aim of our study is to characterize the genomic changes present in the SLN metastatic samples with the ultimate goal of improving the predictive value of SLN evaluation.
  • Twenty paired samples of SLN metastases and their corresponding primary breast tumors (PBT) were investigated for DNA copy number changes using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).
  • In the PBT group, alterations on chromosomes 1, 16, and 20 were the most frequent, whereas chromosomes 1, 6, and 19 were the ones with the highest number of changes in the SLN metastatic group.
  • Our findings indicate the presence of significant DNA copy number changes in the SLN metastatic lesions that could be used in the future as additional markers to improve the predictive value of SLN biopsy procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Lymphatic Metastasis / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18931481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-859X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytogenetic and genome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytogenet. Genome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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45. Kahn HJ, Hanna WM, Chapman JA, Trudeau ME, Lickley HL, Mobbs BG, Murray D, Pritchard KI, Sawka CA, McCready DR, Marks A: Biological significance of occult micrometastases in histologically negative axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients using the recent American Joint Committee on Cancer breast cancer staging system. Breast J; 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):294-301
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  • [Title] Biological significance of occult micrometastases in histologically negative axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients using the recent American Joint Committee on Cancer breast cancer staging system.
  • The biological significance of occult metastases in axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer patients is controversial.
  • Blocks of the axillary lymph nodes were assessed for occult micrometastases by examination of an additional hematoxylin-eosin-stained slide and by immunohistochemical staining using an antibody to low molecular weight keratin.
  • Occult metastases were classified according to the sixth edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual.
  • Cytokeratin-positive tumor cells were identified in the lymph nodes in 29 of 214 cases (14%).
  • Two cases had isolated tumor cells and no cluster larger than 0.2 mm [pN0(i+)], whereas 27 of 214 (13%) had micrometastases (larger than 0.2 mm and <or=2.0 mm] (pN1mi).
  • This study, in which 95% of patients did not receive adjuvant systemic therapy, suggests that breast cancer patients with occult micrometastases in axillary lymph nodes have a similar prognosis to those with no micrometastases.
  • This information is important with regard to the practice of sentinel node biopsy and subsequent axillary node dissection and to the decision to administer adjuvant therapy based on detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Manuals as Topic. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Breast J. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):291-3 [16848837.001]
  • (PMID = 16848838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Perhavec A, Perme MP, Hocevar M, Besić N, Zgajnar J: Ljubljana nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jan;119(2):357-66
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  • [Title] Ljubljana nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node.
  • Several tools for predicting the likelihood of non-sentinel lymph node (non-SLN) involvement in SLN positive breast cancer patients have been created so far.The aim of our study was to create and validate different nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-SLN involvement that would be applicable in different institutions and that would also include the results of the preoperative US examination of the axilla.
  • From January 2000 to January 2009, 534 breast cancer patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) due to metastatic SLN at our institution.
  • In all three nomograms, US examination of the axilla was a powerful independent variable.
  • Other variables included(different in different nomograms) were tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, metastasis size in SLN, number of negative and number of positive SLNs.
  • Three nomograms for predicting the likelihood of non-SLN metastases including the results of the preoperative US examination of the axilla were created at our institution.
  • The validation results seem promising and omission of completion ALND might be considered in patients with the probability of having non-SLN metastases of 10% or less.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Likelihood Functions. Nomograms. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Reproducibility of Results. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19787449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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47. Ma L, Zhang XH, Xing LX, Li YH, Wang XL, Wang YJ: [Relationship of ezrin protein expression to the carcinogenesis and prognosis of infitrating breast ductal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;30(4):279-83
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  • The strong ezrin protein expression in the infiltrating ductal carcinoma was positively correlated with axillary lymph node metastasis, histological differentiation grade, TNM stage and CD44v6 expression, but negatively correlated with the expression of E-cadherin (P < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Cadherins / metabolism. Epithelium / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18788632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / ezrin
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48. Vijan SS, Hamilton S, Chen B, Reynolds C, Boughey JC, Degnim AC: Intramammary lymph nodes: patterns of discovery and clinical significance. Surgery; 2009 May;145(5):495-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: We sought to determine how often axillary node metastases were present in patients with intramammary lymph node (IMLN) metastasis and if the method of IMLN discovery impacts likelihood of axillary node metastasis.
  • Patterns of discovery and their correlation with axillary disease were evaluated using Fisher's exact test.
  • Thirty-two patients (34%) harbored cancer in IMLNs with additional axillary node involvement present in 22 (69%).
  • Metastasis was more frequent in the IMLNs detected by imaging (10/23, 43%) than in IMLNs detected incidentally (22/70, 31%, P = NS).
  • Patients with positive IMLNs were more likely to have axillary disease than patients with negative IMLNs (69% versus 18%, P < .0001).
  • If breast cancer is identified in an IMLN, additional axillary lymph node disease is common, regardless of the method of detection of the IMLN.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Cohort Studies. Databases, Factual. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy


49. Douglas-Jones AG, Woods V: Molecular assessment of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer management. Histopathology; 2009 Jul;55(1):107-13
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  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is becoming accepted as standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer.
  • World Health Organization (WHO) re-classification of axillary metastases into macrometastases, micrometastases and individual tumour cells has highlighted the issues of sampling and further histological examination of the initially negative SLNB.
  • Molecular detection of metastatic breast cancer cells in lymph nodes is now available as a commercial kit for intraoperative use and can resolve the sampling issue.
  • Semiquantitative assessment of axillary lymph node tumour burden can now be made using two separate technologies (histology and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction).
  • The clinical implications of low metastatic axillary lymph node tumour burden are not clear, and future trials need to include molecular data.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Keratin-19 / genetics. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mammaglobin A. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Uteroglobin / genetics. Uteroglobin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19469912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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50. Sadat U: Breast lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancers with clinically-negative axillary nodes. Singapore Med J; 2006 Jun;47(6):560-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancers with clinically-negative axillary nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Gamma Cameras. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Technetium

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  • [CommentOn] Singapore Med J. 2005 Dec;46(12):688-92 [16308641.001]
  • (PMID = 16752034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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51. Goyal A, Newcombe RG, Mansel RE, Axillary Lymphatic Mapping Against Nodal Axillary Clearance (ALMANAC) Trialists Group: Clinical relevance of multiple sentinel nodes in patients with breast cancer. Br J Surg; 2005 Apr;92(4):438-42
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  • BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate removal of axillary nodes may not be justified as it may potentially worsen the morbidity of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) procedure.
  • SNB was followed by standard axillary treatment at the same operation in all patients.
  • For 99.6 per cent of node-positive tumours, metastasis was detected within the first four sentinel nodes removed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Coloring Agents. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Rosaniline Dyes. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin

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  • (PMID = 15672428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Rosaniline Dyes; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin; 0 / technetium Tc 99m nanocolloid; 129-17-9 / patent blue violet
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52. Hess KR, Varadhachary GR, Taylor SH, Wei W, Raber MN, Lenzi R, Abbruzzese JL: Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Apr 1;106(7):1624-33
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  • [Title] Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Unique metastatic patterns cited in the literature often arise from anecdotal clinical observations and autopsy reports.
  • The authors analyzed clinical data from a large number of patients with histologically confirmed, distant-stage adenocarcinoma to evaluate metastatic patterns.
  • METHODS: Tumor registry data were collected between 1994-1996 on 11 primary tumor sites and 15 metastatic sites from 4399 patients.
  • The primary and metastatic sites were cross-tabulated in various ways to identify patterns, and the authors developed algorithms by using multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict the locations of primary tumors based on metastatic patterns.
  • RESULTS: Three primary tumors had single, dominant metastatic sites: ovary to abdominal cavity (91%), prostate to bone (90%), and pancreas to liver (85%).
  • The liver was the dominant metastatic site for gastrointestinal (GI) primary tumors (71% of patients), whereas bone and lung metastases were noted most frequently in non-GI primary tumors (43% and 29%, respectively).
  • In a study of combinations of liver, abdominal cavity, and bone metastases, 86% of prostate primary tumors had only bone metastases, 80% of ovarian primary tumors had only abdominal cavity metastases, and 74% of pancreas primary tumors had only liver metastases.
  • A single organ was the dominant source of metastases in 7 sites: axillary lymph node from the breast (97%), intestinal lymph node from the colon (84%), thoracic lymph node from the lung (66%), brain from the lung (64%), mediastinal lymph node from the lung (62%), supraclavicular lymph node from the breast (51%), and adrenal gland from the lung (51%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Algorithms. Neoplasm Metastasis. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16518827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Vieira CC, Mercado CL, Cangiarella JF, Moy L, Toth HK, Guth AA: Microinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ: clinical presentation, imaging features, pathologic findings, and outcome. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Jan;73(1):102-7
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  • Nodal metastasis was present in one case with axillary lymph node dissection.
  • Despite its potential for nodal metastasis (5% in our series), mean follow-up at 36 months was good with no evidence of local or systemic recurrence at follow-up.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19026501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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54. Kinoshita S, Uchida K, Kyoda S, Shioya H, Takeyama H, Morikawa T: Impact of fine-needle aspiration on long-term survival rate and axillary lymph node micrometastasis in patients with early breast cancer. Breast J; 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):216-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of fine-needle aspiration on long-term survival rate and axillary lymph node micrometastasis in patients with early breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Case-Control Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Preoperative Care. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17319873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Inoue T, Misago N, Narisawa Y: Metastatic myxoid melanoma with partial regression of the primary lesion. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jun;34(6):508-12
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  • [Title] Metastatic myxoid melanoma with partial regression of the primary lesion.
  • Myxoid melanoma is a rare variant of malignant melanoma.
  • The diagnostic problems are obviously increased when it presents as amelanotic metastasis in a lymph node.
  • An 82-year-old woman presented a subcutaneous mass in the right axilla.
  • The right axillary lymph nodes and the pigmented lesion were resected.
  • In the lymph nodes, proliferation of tumor cells with an abundant mucous substrate was noted.
  • However, we found melanin granules in the tumor cells observed under electron microscopy.
  • In the pigmented lesion of the right forearm, there were small clusters of tumor cells with melanin granules, suggesting malignant melanoma.
  • In the present case, myxoid metastasis occurred with the partial spontaneous disappearance of the primary nonmyxoid malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Mucus / metabolism. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Melanins / metabolism. Melanosomes / metabolism. Melanosomes / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17518782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanins
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56. Fujii T, Yanagita Y, Fujisawa T, Hirakata T, Iijima M, Kuwano H: Implication of extracapsular invasion of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer: prediction of nonsentinel lymph node metastasis. World J Surg; 2010 Mar;34(3):544-8
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  • [Title] Implication of extracapsular invasion of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer: prediction of nonsentinel lymph node metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Accurate intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases enables the selection of patients who require axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • However, many patients with positive SLN do not show metastasis to other axillary lymph nodes.
  • In this study, we investigated the factors that may determine the likelihood of additional positive nodes in the axilla when metastasis is found in the SLN.
  • Eleven (23.9%) of these 46 cases had additional metastasis in nonsentinel lymph nodes (NSLN).
  • RESULTS: All cases of positive nodes in NSLN in our series had extracapsular invasion (ECI) at the metastatic SLNs.
  • Furthermore, the absence of ECI of SLN was significantly associated with the absence of metastasis in the NSLN (P < 0.001).
  • As contributing factors, the absence of lymphatic invasion at the primary tumor, primary tumor size (<2 cm) and foci size in the metastatic SLN fell short of reaching statistical significance.
  • Other factors, including histological type, pathological grade, estrogen receptor status, HER2 status, and age, were not significantly associated with metastatic involvement of NSLN.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the presence of ECI at metastatic SLNs is a strong predictor for residual disease in the axilla.
  • These findings imply the possibility that ALND might be foregone in the treatment of patients with breast cancer without ECI at metastatic SLNs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Tumor Burden


57. Güth U, Wight E, Langer I, Schötzau A, Dieterich H, Herberich L, Holzgreve W, Singer G: Breast cancer sagittal/horizontal plane location influences axillary lymph node involvement. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;32(3):287-91
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  • [Title] Breast cancer sagittal/horizontal plane location influences axillary lymph node involvement.
  • AIM: To assess the influence of tumour location on axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI) and prognosis in breast cancer by evaluating the significance of the sagittal/horizontal alignment.
  • Both groups were matched according to age, time of diagnosis, tumour size, grade, hormonal receptor status and tumour site within the frontal plane.
  • Histologic evidence of skin involvement, excluding tumours fulfilling the criteria for pT4b, was defined as inclusion criteria and reference plane for superficial tumour location.
  • Clinicians should be aware that tumours lying posteriorly may be at increased risk of occult spread outside axillary lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16466903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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58. Gruber G, Menzi S, Forster A, Berclaz G, Altermatt HJ, Greiner RH: Sites of failure in breast cancer patients with extracapsular invasion of axillary lymph node metastases. No need for axillary irradiation?! Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Sep;181(9):574-9
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  • [Title] Sites of failure in breast cancer patients with extracapsular invasion of axillary lymph node metastases. No need for axillary irradiation?!
  • In this study it was evaluated, if ECS might be an indicator for axillary irradiation.
  • All patients were irradiated locally, 78 patients got periclavicular and 74 axillary irradiation (median total dose: 50.4 Gy).
  • The 5-year axillary relapse-free survival was 100% in ECS-negative and 90% in ECS-positive patients (p = 0.01), whereas corresponding values for periclavicular relapse-free survival (with ECS: 91% +/- 4%; without ECS: 94% +/- 3%; p = 0.77) and local relapse-free survival (with ECS: 86% +/- 4%; without ECS: 91% +/- 3%; p = 0.69) were not significantly different. chi(2)-tests revealed a high correlation of ECS with T-stage, number of positive lymph nodes and progesterone receptor status, comparisons with estrogen receptor, grade, or age were not significant.
  • Dividing the patients into those with one to three and those with four or more positive lymph nodes, ECS lost its significance for axillary failure.
  • CONCLUSION: ECS was accompanied by an enhanced axillary failure rate in univariate analysis, which was no longer true after adjusting for the number of positive lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymph Nodes / radiation effects. Lymphatic Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / radiation effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16170484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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59. Okamoto T, Yamazaki K, Kanbe M, Kodama H, Omi Y, Kawamata A, Suzuki R, Igari Y, Tanaka R, Iihara M, Ito Y, Sawada T, Nishikawa T, Maki M, Kusakabe K, Mitsuhashi N, Obara T: Probability of axillary lymph node metastasis when sentinel lymph node biopsy is negative in women with clinically node negative breast cancer: a Bayesian approach. Breast Cancer; 2005;12(3):203-10
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  • [Title] Probability of axillary lymph node metastasis when sentinel lymph node biopsy is negative in women with clinically node negative breast cancer: a Bayesian approach.
  • BACKGROUND: Although sentinel lymph node biopsy(SLNB)is highly accurate in predicting axillary nodal status in patients with breast cancer, it has been shown that the procedure is associated with a few false negative results.
  • The risk of leaving metastatic nodes behind in the axillary basin when SLNB is negative should be estimated for an individual patient if SLNB is performed to avoid conventional axillary lymph node dissection(ALND).
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 512 women with T1-3N0M0 breast cancer was conducted to derive a prevalence of nodal metastasis by T category as a pre-test(i.e., before SLNB)probability and to examine potential confounders on the relationship between T category and axillary nodal involvement.
  • Probability of nodal metastasis when SLNB was negative was estimated by means of Bayes' theorem which incorporated the pre-test probability and sensitivity and specificity of SLNB.
  • RESULTS: Axillary nodal metastasis was observed in 6.1% of T1a-b, 25.1% of T1c, 28.7% of T2, 35.0% of T3 tumors.
  • The risk may be higher when the tumor involves the upper outer quadrant of the breast, while it may be lower for an underweight woman.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The probability of axillary lymph node metastasis when SLNB is negative can be estimated using a Bayesian approach.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Bayes Theorem. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16110290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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60. Nakayama H, Wada N, Masudo Y, Rino Y: Axillary lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(4):311-5
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  • [Title] Axillary lymph node metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of a case.
  • We report a case of axillary lymph node metastasis (LNM) from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in a 21-year-old man.
  • The patient presented with bilateral cervical and right axillary lymphadenopathy, and computed tomography (CT) showed a primary tumor of the thyroid and gross lymphadenopathy from the neck to the right axilla.
  • The resection of the primary thyroid tumor and all the node metastases was curative.
  • Pathological examination confirmed that the resected lesions were PTC and nodal metastases from the primary tumor.
  • Six years after the operation, cervical, upper mediastinal, and axillary lymph node recurrence developed and multiple lung metastases were found on a CT scan.
  • Axillary LNM from PTC is unusual and seems to be associated with a poor prognosis.
  • Thus, comprehensive treatment strategies are needed to improve the outcome of patients with PTC who present with axillary LNM.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17387564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Haid A, Knauer M, Köberle-Wührer R, Ammann K, Koller L, Eiter H, Lang A, Wenzl E: Medium-term follow-up data after sentinel node biopsy alone for breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec;32(10):1180-5
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  • AIMS: In patients with early breast cancer sentinel node biopsy (SNB) proved to be an accurate procedure for axillary staging with significantly reduced morbidity.
  • 180 patients had SNB alone (group 1), while 118 subsequently underwent axillary dissection (AD; group 2).
  • In ten patients AD was omitted despite the tumor burden in the SN.
  • One patient in group 1 developed axillary and simultaneous supraclavicular lymph node recurrence.
  • Five patients in group 1 and 15 patients in group 2 developed distant metastases.
  • All patients with SN tumor infiltration not subjected to AD are alive and well.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Axillary recurrence is rare after sentinel node biopsy alone.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16750344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Meretoja TJ, Joensuu H, Heikkilä PS, Leidenius MH: Safety of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer patients who receive a second radioisotope injection after visualization failure in lymphoscintigraphy. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Nov 1;102(6):649-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A failure to visualize axillary sentinel nodes in lymphoscintigraphy may lead to an unsuccessful sentinel node biopsy (SNB) and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • We investigated the axillary recurrence rate after tumor-negative SNB in breast cancer patients who received a second tracer injection after axillary visualization failure in lymphoscintigraphy.
  • METHODS: Altogether 1,309 breast cancer patients who underwent a tumor-negative SNB without an ALND were included.
  • RESULTS: No isolated cancer recurrences were diagnosed in the ipsilateral axilla among patients who received two radioisotope injections.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Additional radiocolloid tracer injection after axillary non-visualization in lymphoscintigraphy is safe and does not increase axillary recurrence risk after tumor-negative SNB.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Injections / adverse effects. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Retreatment. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 20976732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioisotopes
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63. Freedman GM, Anderson P, Li T, Ross E, Swaby R, Goldstein L: Identifying breast cancer patients most likely to benefit from aromatase inhibitor therapy after adjuvant radiation and tamoxifen. Cancer; 2006 Dec 1;107(11):2552-8
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  • METHODS: In all, 471 women were treated with breast-conserving surgery, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiation.
  • The 10-year risk of locoregional recurrence was 2.5%, the 10-year risk of CBC was 3.6%, and the 10-year risk of distant metastasis was 4.4%.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2007 May 1;109(9):1927-8; author reply 1928 [17354227.001]
  • (PMID = 17061250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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64. Naguib SF: Oncoplastic resection of retroareolar breast cancer: central quadrantectomy and reconstruction by local skin-glandular flap. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Dec;18(4):334-47
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  • The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result.
  • All patients underwent central quadrantectomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection.
  • Positive axillary nodes were found in 10 / 23 patients (43.5%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nipples / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18301457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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65. Di Tommaso L, Arizzi C, Rahal D, Destro A, Roncalli M, Alloisio M, Orefice S, Rubino A, Morenghi E, Masci G, Santoro A, Del Prato I, Sacco R: Anatomic location of breast cancer micrometastasis in sentinel lymph node predicts axillary status. Ann Surg; 2006 May;243(5):706-7; author reply 706-7
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  • [Title] Anatomic location of breast cancer micrometastasis in sentinel lymph node predicts axillary status.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16633007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Vrdoljak DV, Knezevic F, Ramljak V: The relation between tumor marker Ca 15-3 and metastases in interpectoral lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Saudi Med J; 2006 Apr;27(4):460-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relation between tumor marker Ca 15-3 and metastases in interpectoral lymph nodes in breast cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: We aimed at analyzing the metastatic involvement in interpectoral (Rotter's) lymph nodes (RLN) in relation to tumor marker CA 15-3.
  • Levels of the serum tumor marker CA 15-3 was determined prior to surgery.
  • RESULTS: Rotter's lymph nodes were identified in 66.2% of the patients, with metastatic involvement revealed in 18.6% of the RLNs.
  • Metastatic involvement of RLNs in patients with negative axillary lymph nodes was 2.8% and positive in 34.6%.
  • Elevated serum levels of tumor marker CA 15-3 had 22 (12.4%) patients.
  • Of 33 Rotter's node-positive patients, 27.3% had elevated serum levels of tumor marker CA 15-3 and in Rotter's node-negative patients only 9% had elevated serum levels of tumor marker CA 15-3, with the level statistically significantly higher in Rotter's positive patients compared to those with negative (or absent) RLNs (chi2=8.22, p=0.004).
  • CONCLUSION: Tumor marker CA 15-3 is more frequently elevated in patients with positive RLNs.
  • Elevated values of tumor marker CA 15-3 could be warning for possible positive interpectoral nodes.
  • The removal of the RLNs may be beneficial for patients with (massive) axillary nodal involvement.
  • For axillary node negative patients, sentinel node biopsy could avoid the unnecessary removal of the RLNs.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / secondary. Mucin-1 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16598320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucin-1
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67. Yakushiji S, Ando M, Yonemori K, Kohno T, Shimizu C, Katsumata N, Fujiwara Y: Cancer of unknown primary site: review of consecutive cases at the National Cancer Center Hospital of Japan. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec;11(6):421-5
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  • [Title] Cancer of unknown primary site: review of consecutive cases at the National Cancer Center Hospital of Japan.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 86 (38 male/48 female) patients with a diagnosis of CUP (exclusive of female patients with adenocarcinoma involving the axillary lymph nodes alone and patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervical lymph nodes) who were referred to the National Cancer Center Hospital between April 1996 and October 2002.
  • The histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 61 patients (71%), poorly differentiated carcinoma in 18 patients (21%), and squamous cell carcinoma in 4 patients (5%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cancer Care Facilities. Female. Humans. Japan. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17180509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Dillon MF, McDermott EW, Quinn CM, O'Doherty A, O'Higgins N, Hill AD: Predictors of invasive disease in breast cancer when core biopsy demonstrates DCIS only. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Jun 1;93(7):559-63
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ductal carcinoma in-situ on core biopsy does not preclude invasive disease within the excision specimen, resulting in the need for further axillary surgery.
  • RESULTS: Patients (93) with a preoperative diagnosis of DCIS on core biopsy were identified.
  • CONCLUSION: Mammographic features and tumor size can help predict invasion in patients who have DCIS on core biopsy.
  • Patients who have features other than calcification on mammography or have tumor size > or =5 cm should be considered for a sentinel node biopsy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy / methods. Breast Diseases / radiography. Calcinosis / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16705731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Doting MH, Stiekema HM, de Vries J, Lemstra C, Hoekstra HJ, Vrieling M, Rietman L, Jager PL: Immediate dynamic lymphoscintigraphy delivers no additional value to lymphoscintigraphy 3 hr after tracer injection in sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients. J Surg Oncol; 2007 May 1;95(6):469-75
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  • Non-axillary sentinel lymph nodes were identified by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in 28 procedures (17%) and improved staging in three patients (5%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Injections. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17192946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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70. Engel J, Lebeau A, Sauer H, Hölzel D: Are we wasting our time with the sentinel technique? Fifteen reasons to stop axilla dissection. Breast; 2006 Jun;15(3):452-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Are we wasting our time with the sentinel technique? Fifteen reasons to stop axilla dissection.
  • Nowadays, breast-conserving therapy is widely used, but axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and the sentinel technique are still common.
  • Can the patient also be spared such axillary surgery?
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16054813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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71. Lemos S, Dias M, Gonçalo M, Pinto E, Fernandes G, Oliveira C: Detection of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients using ultrasound and colour Doppler combined with fine needle aspiration cytology. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(2):165-6
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  • [Title] Detection of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients using ultrasound and colour Doppler combined with fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and colour Doppler combined with fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology for the detection of non-palpable axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients.
  • Forty patients with operable breast cancer (T1/T2), invasive carcinoma, not submitted to neo-adjuvant therapy, underwent axillary ultrasonography and colour Doppler preoperatively.
  • FNA cytology was performed on axillary lymph nodes presenting ultrasonographic and/or Doppler suspicious features.
  • A total of 542 lymph nodes were surgically removed from the 40 patients; 19 were metastatic lymph nodes.
  • Ultrasound-guided FNA detected metastases in six out of 11 histologically node-positive patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Diseases / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 15857022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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72. Setyono-Han B, Stürzebecher J, Schmalix WA, Muehlenweg B, Sieuwerts AM, Timmermans M, Magdolen V, Schmitt M, Klijn JG, Foekens JA: Suppression of rat breast cancer metastasis and reduction of primary tumour growth by the small synthetic urokinase inhibitor WX-UK1. Thromb Haemost; 2005 Apr;93(4):779-86
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  • [Title] Suppression of rat breast cancer metastasis and reduction of primary tumour growth by the small synthetic urokinase inhibitor WX-UK1.
  • The serine protease uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) and its receptor uPAR (CD87) are often elevated in malignant tumours, hence, inhibition of this tumour-associated plasminogen activation system provides an attractive target for therapeutic strategies.
  • The anti-tumour and anti-metastatic (number of lung foci and weight of the axillary lymph nodes) properties were studied by subcutaneous administration of WX-UK1 to Brown Norwegian (BN) rats carrying orthotopically transplanted BN472 rat breast tumours.
  • Chronical administration of the L-enantiomer of WXUK1 impaired primary tumour growth and metastasis of BN472 rat breast cancer in a dose-dependent manner.
  • In conclusion, our results provide evidence that WX-UK1 as a single agent inhibits breast tumour growth and metastasis in vivo, and thus is a promising candidate drug to treat human cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Transplantation. Phenylalanine / analogs & derivatives. Phenylalanine / therapeutic use. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Rats. Rats, Inbred BN. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics. Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator

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  • (PMID = 15841327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6245
  • [Journal-full-title] Thrombosis and haemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thromb. Haemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / PLAUR protein, human; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0 / Plaur protein, rat; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator; 47E5O17Y3R / Phenylalanine; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; UJ925Q0P3B / WX-UK1
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73. Aziz D, Gardner S, Pritchard K, Paszat L, Holloway CM: Selective application of axillary node dissection in elderly women with early breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):652-9
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  • [Title] Selective application of axillary node dissection in elderly women with early breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Routine use of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has been questioned in elderly women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. SEER Program. Survival Analysis. United States

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  • (PMID = 17151795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. DiRusso SM: Clinical significance of differences in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: nomograms for predicting nonsentinel axillary lymph node metastasis. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Jul;209(1):152; author reply 152
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of differences in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: nomograms for predicting nonsentinel axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Reproducibility of Results. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [CommentOn] J Am Coll Surg. 2009 Feb;208(2):229-35 [19228534.001]
  • (PMID = 19651082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Yoshitani S, Hosokawa K, Yokoi M, Kinami S, Omote K, Ueda N, Nakano Y, Kosaka T: [A case of anal canal carcinoma with systemic lymph node metastases successfully treated by bevacizumab+mFOLFOX6 therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2229-31
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  • [Title] [A case of anal canal carcinoma with systemic lymph node metastases successfully treated by bevacizumab+mFOLFOX6 therapy].
  • We describe our experience with a patient who had unresectable anal signet-ring cell carcinoma with extensive metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs, and bones.
  • He was a man in his fifties, who visited a local doctor with the chief complaints of swelling in the axillary and inguinal regions.
  • A search for the primary tumor was performed, and anal canal carcinoma with pagetoid spread was detected in the perianal region.
  • During the 8th course, tumor markers decreased to the normal range, and CR was diagnosed.
  • In conclusion, Bev+mFOLFOX6 therapy achieved 6 months of CR in our patient who had anal signet-ring cell carcinoma with systemic metastases, which seemed likely to have a very poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / drug therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20037379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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76. Hikino H, Yamada T, Johbara K, Obayashi N, Ozaki N: Potential role of chemo-radiation with oral capecitabine in a breast cancer patient with central nervous system relapse. Breast; 2006 Feb;15(1):97-9
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  • A 54-year-old woman underwent mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection for infiltrating ductal carcinoma with multiple lymph node involvement.
  • After 1 year and 5 months, the patient suffered her first recurrence, developing multiple brain and meningeal metastases.
  • We suggest that capecitabine contributed to the favorable clinical course in this patient and believe that, as an oral agent, this drug may benefit patients with CNS metastases of breast cancer by allowing home-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16005228.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; AC protocol
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77. Liu YH, Xu FP, Liao N, Li L, Zhang GC, Zhuang HG, Mei P, Xu J, Zhu XL, Luo XL, Kuang LJ: Efficacy of intraoperative GeneSearch Breast Lymph Node (BLN) Assay for breast cancer metastasis detection in sentinel lymph node in Chinese patients. Cancer Sci; 2010 Aug;101(8):1920-4
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  • [Title] Efficacy of intraoperative GeneSearch Breast Lymph Node (BLN) Assay for breast cancer metastasis detection in sentinel lymph node in Chinese patients.
  • Full axillary lymph node (ALN) dissections were performed on some patients after a SLN biopsy.
  • The BLN assay detected about 25% more metastases than imprint cytology.
  • Moreover, the BLN assay correctly identified most of the additional non-sentinel ALNs metastases (P = 0.005).
  • Our results from a large series of Chinese patients with breast cancer indicate that the BLN assay may be a viable alternative for the standard intraoperative procedures used for metastases detection, especially in early stage breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Sci. 2010 Nov;101(11):2501; author reply 2502 [20950374.001]
  • (PMID = 20557308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00869674
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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78. Madsen EV, van Dalen J, van Gorp J, Borel Rinkes IH, van Dalen T: Strategies for optimizing pathologic staging of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Virchows Arch; 2008 Jul;453(1):17-24
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  • The dimensions of 20 consecutive axillary SLNs in patients with cT1-2N0 breast cancer were measured.
  • When applying the pathology guidelines, the calculated probability to detect a micrometastasis was 18% for a 200-microm micrometastasis and 69% for a 2.0-mm metastasis in a median sized SLN.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18563440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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79. Pugliese M, Stempel M, Patil S, Hsu M, Ho A, Traina T, Morrow M, Cody H 3rd, Gemignani ML: The clinical impact and outcomes of immunohistochemistry-only metastasis in breast cancer. Am J Surg; 2010 Sep;200(3):368-73
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  • [Title] The clinical impact and outcomes of immunohistochemistry-only metastasis in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Modern surgical and pathological techniques can detect small-volume axillary metastases in breast cancer with unknown clinical significance.
  • METHODS: A retrospective database review from 1996 through 2004 identified all patients with immunohistochemical (IHC)-only sentinel node (IHC-SN) metastases and compared them with negative controls (Neg-SN).
  • In 123 IHC-SN patients treated with axillary dissection (axillary lymph node dissection), 16% had positive non-SLNs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IHC-only sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases were associated with worse prognostic features and higher rates of systemic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis


80. Jakić-Razumović J, Corić M, Vrbanec D, Babić D, Hlupić L, Belev B: [The value of searching for additional prognostic factors in combination with Nottingham Prognostic Index in breast carcinoma patients]. Lijec Vjesn; 2005 Jan-Feb;127(1-2):3-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • One of prognostic factors known as Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), which is combination of known prognostic factors such as tumor size, grade and axillary node status, is recently in usage in some European countries in clinical practice in prediction of breast carcinoma patients' survival.
  • The following data for each patient were collected: age, tumor size, histological grade, axillary lymph node status, overall survival, estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) receptor expression as well as expression of bcl-2, Ki-67, nm23, HER-2/neu, and p53.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Survival Rate


81. Zhang HM, Xuan LX, Gao JD, Zhang BN, Zhao P: [Clinical characteristics comparison between triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Apr 1;47(7):506-10
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  • The clinical characteristics, recurrence, metastasis and survival were compared between the two groups.
  • Of all the cases, 58 occurred local recurrence or metastasis and 51 died, it was 19 and 12 in TN group.
  • Compared with the NTN group, the TN patient tended to be younger and the tumor mass larger (P=0.015 and 0.011).
  • However, axillary lymph nodes metastasis occurred more often in NTN patients than in TN patients (P=0.001).
  • The rate of local recurrence and metastasis in TN group was significantly higher than in NTN group (P=0.005 and 0.025), and TN cases were more likely to develop lung metastasis than NTN patients (P<0.01).
  • Tumor size, lymph node status and triple-negative were the most important factors influencing the prognosis on multivariate Cox regression analysis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Young Adult


82. Escalona S, Blasco JA, Reza MM, Andradas E, Gómez N: A systematic review of FDG-PET in breast cancer. Med Oncol; 2010 Mar;27(1):114-29
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  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of FDG-PET in breast cancer in the diagnostic of primary tumours, lymph node staging, the detection of recurrent disease/metastases, and the assessment of chemotherapy treatment.
  • In lymph gland staging, FDG-PET does not appear to be accurate enough to detect occult axillary metastases or micrometastases (sensitivity 20 and 50%, respectively); sentinel node biopsy is required for confirmation.
  • In the detection of bone metastases, FDG-PET should be complemented with other tests such as bone gammagraphy or SPECT.
  • Due to the high number of false positives returned, it cannot replace axillary dissection in axillary lymph gland staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 19277913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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83. Al Sayed AD, El Weshi AN, Tulbah AM, Rahal MM, Ezzat AA: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast clinical presentation, treatment results and prognostic factors. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(2):188-95
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  • The median tumor size was 9 cm (range, 3-18).
  • Modified radical mastectomy performed in 11 patients and 15 underwent axillary node dissection.
  • Tumor size correlated significantly with EFS.
  • MCB is an aggressive form of breast cancer associated with poor outcome, high incidence of local recurrence and pulmonary metastases.
  • Tumor size has an important impact on outcome.
  • The best treatment approach is yet to be defined.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16546865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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84. Cai QQ, Huang HQ, Lin TX, Jiang WQ: [Detection and clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jul;24(7):837-41
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  • [Title] [Detection and clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Recently, immunocytochemistry and immunomagnetic enrichment have been used in detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs).
  • This study was designed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of modified immunomagnetic enrichment of tumor cells in combination with fluorescent immunocytochemistry in detecting CTCs in peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: The sensitivity of immunomagnetic enrichment with fluorescent immunocytochemistry was so high that 1 tumor cell in 1x10(7) peripheral blood mononuclear cells could be detected.
  • The presence of CTCs was correlated positively with clinical stage (P<0.001) and axillary lymph node status (P<0.005), and irrelevant with other prognostic factors (P>0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Modified immunomagnetic enrichment of tumor cells in combination with fluorescent immunocytochemistry is a time-saving, easily-performed, sensitive and specific method for detecting CTCs in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients.
  • The presence of CTCs in peripheral blood correlates positively with clinical stage and axillary lymph node status of breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunomagnetic Separation. Keratin-18 / blood. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16004811.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Keratin-8
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85. Schrenk P, Konstantiniuk P, Wölfl S, Bogner S, Roka S, Pöstlberger S, Selim U, Urbania A, Gebhard B, Rudas M, Tausch Ch: Intraoperative frozen section examination of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer. Rozhl Chir; 2005 May;84(5):217-22
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  • Permanent histological examination revealed a metastatic SN in 282 of 1813 patients. (incorrect negative rate 15.6%).
  • CONCLUSION: Incorrect negative results of FS examination are seen in 15% of patients and require a secondary axillary lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Frozen Sections. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mammaplasty. Mastectomy

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  • (PMID = 16045116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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86. Wang Y, Dan HJ, Fan JH, Wen SB: Evaluation of the correlation between colour power Doppler flow imaging and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer. J Int Med Res; 2010 May-Jun;38(3):1077-83
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  • The relationship between tumour angiogenesis and axillary lymph node (LN) metastasis was also analysed.
  • Breast tumour angiogenesis was closely correlated with axillary LN metastasis.
  • Higher blood flow was related to elevated VEGF protein levels and an increased risk of axillary node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Regional Blood Flow. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 20819445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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87. Leissner P, Verjat T, Bachelot T, Paye M, Krause A, Puisieux A, Mougin B: Prognostic significance of urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA expression in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:216
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  • METHODS: The study included a retrospective series of 87 patients with hormone-receptor positive and axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer.
  • Metastasis-free Survival (MFS) and Breast Cancer specific Survival (BCS) were significantly shorter in patients expressing high levels of PAI-1 mRNA (p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001; respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that high PAI-1 mRNA expression represents a strong and independent unfavorable prognostic factor for the development of metastases and for breast cancer specific survival in a population of hormone receptor- and lymph node-positive breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen. Receptors, Progesterone. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16945123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1564186
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88. Yamashita K, Shimizu K: Video-assisted breast surgery can sample the second and third sentinel nodes to omit axillary node dissection for sentinel-node-positive patients. Surg Endosc; 2009 Jul;23(7):1574-80
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  • [Title] Video-assisted breast surgery can sample the second and third sentinel nodes to omit axillary node dissection for sentinel-node-positive patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The preservation of the axillary node (AN) has become standard therapy for early breast cancer patients with a metastasis-positive sentinel node (SN).
  • However, about half of the patients with metastasis in the SN have no metastasis in the other AN.
  • Late-phase three-dimensional computed tomographic lymphography (3D-CT LG) of the breast can show the axillary lymphatic architecture from the SN into the venous angle.
  • For SN-metastasis-positive patients, standard AN dissection was performed under video assistance.
  • Sentinel node metastasis (n = 40) involved SN metastasis alone in 21 cases (52.5%) and SN, second-node, and third-node metastasis in eight cases.
  • A reviewed lymphoid path by 3D-CT LG confirmed that metastasis occurred in order of lymph flow.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of 3D-CT LG-guided VABS SN biopsy of the second and third nodes will predict SN metastasis alone and help to obviate the need for dissection of more nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / physiopathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Video-Assisted Surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Axilla. Dissection. Esthetics. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Frozen Sections. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tomography, Spiral Computed. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • (PMID = 19263154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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89. Katz A, Niemierko A, Gage I, Evans S, Shaffer M, Smith FP, Taghian A, Magnant C: Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 May 1;65(1):40-4
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  • [Title] Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients.
  • PURPOSE: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation.
  • The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed.
  • Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis.
  • RESULTS: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes.
  • On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis.
  • On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Irradiation. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16488555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA50628
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Tjalma WA: Suction drain-induced haemorrhage after nerve- and vessel-sparing axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer. Breast; 2006 Jun;15(3):443-5
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  • [Title] Suction drain-induced haemorrhage after nerve- and vessel-sparing axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer.
  • Suction drainage following axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer is generally accepted as a routine measure for reducing seroma formation.
  • When performing more nerve- and vessel-sparing axillary lymph node dissection, nerves and vessels can be ruptured by the suction of the drainage system.
  • When using a suction system, we recommend a low-pressure system and that the fully perforated drain should not reach or touch neighbouring vessels or nerves in the axilla when installed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Pressure

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  • (PMID = 16171995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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91. Flynn LW, Park J, Patil SM, Cody HS 3rd, Port ER: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is successful and accurate in male breast carcinoma. J Am Coll Surg; 2008 Apr;206(4):616-21
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  • BACKGROUND: Men and women with breast cancer have similar risks of morbidity related to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • At a median followup of 28 months (range 5 to 96 months), there were no axillary recurrences.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18387465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Arora N, Martins D, Huston TL, Christos P, Hoda S, Osborne MP, Swistel AJ, Tousimis E, Pressman PI, Simmons RM: Sentinel node positivity rates with and without frozen section for breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):256-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is used to detect breast cancer axillary metastases.
  • Some surgeons send the sentinel lymph node (SLN) for intraoperative frozen section (FS) to minimize delayed axillary dissections.
  • There has been concern that FS may discard nodal tissue and thus underdiagnose small metastases.
  • After adjustment for patient age, tumor diameter, grade, and hormone receptor status in a multivariate logistic regression model, there remained an increased likelihood of final node positivity for patients undergoing both procedures relative to PS alone (adjusted odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.6; P = .005).
  • Therefore, evaluating SLN by FS does not underdiagnose small metastases nor produce a higher false-negative rate.
  • Intraoperative FS offers the advantage of less delayed axillary dissections.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17879116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Barry M, Cahill RA, Roche-Nagle G, Landers R, Walsh D, Bouchier-Hayes DJ, Watson RG: Preoperative selection of symptomatic breast cancer patients appropriate for lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy. Ir J Med Sci; 2007 Jul-Sep;176(2):91-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Breast ultrasound (US) and a simultaneous core biopsy was performed in all patients at their initial presentation, and their estimates of tumor size and grade compared with the final pathological specimen (FPS).
  • RESULTS: Of the T1 group 47% had lymphatic metastases as did 49% of those with grade I or II cancers.
  • By combining these measures, however, subgroups of patients with lower rates of nodal metastases were identified (32% of patients with T1, non-grade III disease had lymphatic disease while only 15% of those with T < 1.5 cm, non-grade III cancers had such metastases).
  • CONCLUSION: Combination of the US and ultrasound guided core biopsy (UGCB) may however identify subgroups unlikely to have axillary disease that are therefore suitable for SLNB.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17476566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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94. Shen J, Gilcrease MZ, Babiera GV, Ross MI, Meric-Bernstam F, Feig BW, Kuerer HM, Francis A, Ames FC, Hunt KK: Feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with documented axillary metastases. Cancer; 2007 Apr 1;109(7):1255-63
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  • [Title] Feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with documented axillary metastases.
  • However, a relative contraindication to SLN biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy is the presence of axillary metastases at initial diagnosis.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and accuracy of SLN biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy in patients with documented axillary metastases at presentation.
  • METHODS: Between 1994 and 2002, 69 patients who had axillary metastases identified by ultrasound-guided, fine-needle aspiration underwent SLN biopsy after treatment on prospective, preoperative chemotherapy protocols.
  • All but 8 patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • RESULTS: The median patient age was 49 years, and the median primary tumor size was 4 cm.
  • Based on the current results, the status of the SLN cannot be used as a reliable indicator of the presence or absence of residual disease in the axilla in this patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. False Negative Reactions. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Time Factors. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17330229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CAF protocol; FEC protocol
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95. Khera SY, Kiluk JV, Hasson DM, Meade TL, Meyers MP, Dupont EL, Berman CG, Cox CE: Pregnancy-associated breast cancer patients can safely undergo lymphatic mapping. Breast J; 2008 May-Jun;14(3):250-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Positive SLN were identified in 5/10 patients (50%) while there was no evidence of metastases in 5/10 patients (50%).
  • By performing a SLN biopsy, a large proportion of patients with PABC may be spared the risk of a complete axillary lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Maternal Exposure. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Retrospective Studies


96. Cabioglu N, Yazici MS, Arun B, Broglio KR, Hortobagyi GN, Price JE, Sahin A: CCR7 and CXCR4 as novel biomarkers predicting axillary lymph node metastasis in T1 breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Aug 15;11(16):5686-93
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  • [Title] CCR7 and CXCR4 as novel biomarkers predicting axillary lymph node metastasis in T1 breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4 have been shown to play an important role in cancer metastasis.
  • We therefore studied the differential expression of CCR7 and CXCR4, along with that of the biomarker HER2-neu, to evaluate whether these biomarkers could predict axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the chemokine receptor CCR7 is a novel biomarker that can predict lymph node metastases in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Receptors, CXCR4 / analysis. Receptors, Chemokine / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, CCR7

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  • (PMID = 16115904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCR7 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, CCR7; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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97. Colleoni M, Rotmensz N, Peruzzotti G, Maisonneuve P, Mazzarol G, Pruneri G, Luini A, Intra M, Veronesi P, Galimberti V, Torrisi R, Cardillo A, Goldhirsch A, Viale G: Size of breast cancer metastases in axillary lymph nodes: clinical relevance of minimal lymph node involvement. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;23(7):1379-89
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  • [Title] Size of breast cancer metastases in axillary lymph nodes: clinical relevance of minimal lymph node involvement.
  • BACKGROUND: Overt ipsilateral axillary lymph node metastases of breast cancer are the most significant prognostic indicators for women who have undergone surgery, yet the clinical relevance of minimal involvement (isolated tumor cells and micrometastases) of these nodes is uncertain.
  • At the multivariate analysis, a statistically significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) and in the risk of distant metastases was observed for patients with pN1a versus pN0 disease (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.46 to 2.86; P < .0001 for DFS; HR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.42 to 3.80; P = .0007 for distant metastases) and for patients with pN1mi/pN0i+ versus pN0 disease (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.47; P = .047 for DFS; HR = 1.94; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.64; P = .037 for distant metastases).
  • CONCLUSION: Even minimal involvement of a single axillary node in breast cancer significantly correlates with worse prognosis compared with no axillary node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15735114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Yirmibeşoğlu E, Tekin E, Memiş L, Yamaç D, Taneri F, Erkal HS: A patient with occult breast cancer presenting with an axillary lymph node metastasis and a synchronous contralateral breast cancer. Breast; 2005 Apr;14(2):157-62
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  • [Title] A patient with occult breast cancer presenting with an axillary lymph node metastasis and a synchronous contralateral breast cancer.
  • Detection of a breast mass accompanied by a contralateral axillary lymphadenopathy presents a dilemma because of the possible presence of an occult breast cancer on the same side as the axillary lymphadenopathy.
  • A patient presented with an axillary lymphadenopathy from an occult breast cancer and a synchronous contralateral breast cancer, for which the differential diagnosis was established through a significant difference in estrogen and progesterone receptor levels.
  • She is alive and free of disease 1.5 years after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Functional Laterality. Humans. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Postmenopause. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 15767187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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99. Dian D, Straub J, Scholz C, Mylonas I, Rack B, Sommer H, Janni W, Friese K: Influencing factors for regional lymph node recurrence of breast cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Feb;277(2):127-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude from these data that women who have negative nodal status at surgical staging do not benefit from further systematic axillary resection with regard to regional lymph node recurrence.
  • For those women, however, who have confirmed axillary metastasis, systematic axillary resection lowers the risk of regional lymph node recurrence depending on the number of lymph nodes removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17763863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists
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100. Straver ME, Rutgers EJ, Oldenburg HS, Wesseling J, Linn SC, Russell NS, Vrancken Peeters MJ: Accurate axillary lymph node dissection is feasible after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Am J Surg; 2009 Jul;198(1):46-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accurate axillary lymph node dissection is feasible after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, lower axillary lymph node retrieval after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was reported.
  • We did not have this experience, and retrospectively analyzed our axillary lymph node dissections (ALNDs).
  • In the neoadjuvant group, 150/191 (79%) patients had residual lymph node metastasis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bridged Compounds / therapeutic use. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19095215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 1605-68-1 / taxane
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