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Items 1 to 100 of about 1903
1. Wu WJ, Pan CE, Zeng J: [Effect of preoperative lymphatic chemotherapy on Bcl-2 and Bax expression in axillary metastasis of breast cancer]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao; 2005 Aug;25(8):1001-4
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  • [Title] [Effect of preoperative lymphatic chemotherapy on Bcl-2 and Bax expression in axillary metastasis of breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins and cell apoptosis induced by preoperative lymphatic chemotherapy with epirubicin-activated carbon suspension (Epi-CH) in the cells of axillary metastatic lymph node of breast cancer and investigate the mechanism.
  • Forty patients in Epi-CH group were injected with 10 mg Epi-CH in the tissue around the primary tumor or biopsy excision 72 h before operation.
  • The stained lymph nodes full of tumor cells in Epi-CH group and the non-stained nodes in the control group were selected for apoptotic detection by TUNEL method.
  • RESULTS: The apoptotic index of the metastatic cancer cells in Epi-CH group was increased remarkably in comparison with that in the control group [(9.5+/-2.7) % vs (3.8+/-1.4) %, P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Lymphatic chemotherapy can promote cell apotosis in axillary metastasis of breast cancer, which may result from decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apoptosis / drug effects. Axilla. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Female. Humans. Injections, Intralymphatic. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 16109560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-2588
  • [Journal-full-title] Di 1 jun yi da xue xue bao = Academic journal of the first medical college of PLA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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2. Gu GL, Wang SL, Wei XM, Ren L, Zou FX: Axillary metastasis as the first manifestation of male breast cancer: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):285
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  • [Title] Axillary metastasis as the first manifestation of male breast cancer: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is very rare in men, and the occurrence of occult breast cancer which present axillary metastasis as the first manifestation is even rarer in men.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 72-year-old male Han-Chinese patient who presented axillary metastasis as the first manifestation of breast cancer and got correctly diagnoses by histological examination.
  • He underwent modified radical mastectomy and axillary dissection on 11 Apr 2006.
  • The histopathologic examination showed that no tumor focus was found in his breast tissue, but two out of fifteen of axillary lymph nodes were invaded by infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • He is alive without any residual or metastasis disease 29 months after being diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first case in our hospital that presents axillary metastases as the first manifestation of male breast cancer.


3. Gouvêa AF, Moreira AE, Reis RR, de Almeida OP, Lopes MA: Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, squamous cell carcinoma and axillary metastasis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2010 Sep;15(5):e704-8
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  • [Title] Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, squamous cell carcinoma and axillary metastasis.
  • Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is an aggressive form of oral leukoplakia with multifocal presentation, high rates of recurrence and malignant transformation.
  • Although development of regional lymph node metastasis is relatively frequent in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, axillary metastasis is quite uncommon.
  • This paper presents a case of a 64-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with PVL and developed five oral squamous cell carcinomas and later an axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Leukoplakia, Oral / pathology. Leukoplakia, Oral / secondary. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20173705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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4. Schwartz GF, Tannebaum JE, Jernigan AM, Palazzo JP: Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast. Cancer; 2010 Mar 1;116(5):1243-51
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  • [Title] Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: The timing and accuracy of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients who are receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer are controversial.
  • Thirty-nine women (49.4%) had clinical evidence of axillary metastasis (N1-N2) at the time of diagnosis.
  • Sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 98.7% of patients (in 1 patient, SLNB failed to capture 1 proven axillary metastasis), and 29 patients underwent full axillary lymph node dissection.
  • One false-negative SLNB was reported in the group of 23 patients who underwent full axillary dissection after a negative SLNB.
  • No patient had a subsequent axillary recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SLNB after NACT was feasible in virtually all patients and accurately selected patients who required complete level I and II axillary dissection.
  • NACT frequently downstaged the axilla, converting patients with N1-N2 lymph node status to N0 status and also avoiding full axillary dissection in these patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20087958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Davis JT, Brill YM, Simmons S, Sachleben BC, Cibull ML, McGrath P, Wright H, Romond E, Hester M, Moore A, Samayoa LM: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of clinically negative lymph nodes versus sentinel node mapping in patients at high risk for axillary metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec;13(12):1545-52
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  • [Title] Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of clinically negative lymph nodes versus sentinel node mapping in patients at high risk for axillary metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Sonographically directed fine-needle aspiration is a less invasive and less costly alternative to sentinel node (SN) mapping in breast cancer patients at high risk for metastatic disease but with clinically negative axillae.
  • METHODS: Radiographic, cytological, and histological diagnostic data on breast primary tumors from 114 consecutive SN candidates were prospectively assessed for clinicopathologic variables associated with an increased incidence of axillary metastases.
  • SN mapping was performed in patients with normal axillary sonogram results or negative cytological results.
  • Patients with positive cytological results proceeded to complete axillary dissection.
  • Final axillary histological outcomes from patients not meeting the high-risk criteria were recorded.
  • Additionally, a cost analysis was performed in which the costs of ultrasonography and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the axilla were compared with those of SN mapping.
  • RESULTS: According to our selection criteria, a third of the patients with clinically negative axillae (37 of 114; 32%) were considered at high risk for axillary metastases.
  • Fifty-nine percent of these patients (22 of 37) had metastatic disease on final histological analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in patients at increased risk for axillary metastases, the use of sonographic evaluation of the axilla in combination with fine-needle aspiration is not only clinically justified, but also cost-effective.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17009156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Bedrosian I, Babiera GV, Mittendorf EA, Kuerer HM, Pantoja L, Hunt KK, Krishnamurthy S, Meric-Bernstam F: A phase I study to assess the feasibility and oncologic safety of axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer patients. Cancer; 2010 Jun 1;116(11):2543-8
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  • [Title] A phase I study to assess the feasibility and oncologic safety of axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a novel technique to preserve upper extremity lymphatics that may reduce the incidence of lymphedema after axillary lymph node dissection.
  • Early reports have suggested that ARM lymph nodes do not contain metastatic disease from breast cancer; however, these studies were conducted in early stage patients with low likelihood of lymph node metastasis.
  • This study reported a phase 1 trial conducted in patients with cytologically documented axillary metastasis undergoing axillary lymph node dissection to determine the feasibility and oncologic safety of ARM.
  • RESULTS: The average time between blue dye injection and axillary exposure was 35 minutes (range, 15-60 minutes).
  • The median number of ARM lymph nodes was 1 (range, 0-3 lymph nodes) and the median number of axillary lymph nodes was 26 (range, 6-47 lymph nodes).
  • Axillary metastases were noted in 60% (18 of 30) of patients.
  • Of 11 patients who had axillary metastasis and at least 1 ARM lymph node identified, 2 (18%) had metastasis to the ARM lymph node.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ARM appears to be a feasible technique with which to identify upper arm lymphatics during axillary surgery.
  • However, the high prevalence of disease involving ARM lymph nodes in this small cohort suggested that preservation of these lymphatics is not oncologically safe in women with documented axillary lymph node metastasis from breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphedema / prevention & control. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20336790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS668485; NLM/ PMC4406355
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7. Park HS, Park S, Kim JH, Lee JH, Choi SY, Park BW, Lee KS: Clinicopathologic features and outcomes of metaplastic breast carcinoma: comparison with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Yonsei Med J; 2010 Nov;51(6):864-9
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  • RESULTS: Stage IV cases at diagnosis were more common in MBC (10.3%) than in IDC (0.9%).
  • Larger tumors (> 2 cm) and lower tendency of axillary metastasis were frequently observed in MBC.
  • CONCLUSION: MBC was characterized by a higher incidence of TNBC, larger tumor size, and lower tendency of axillary metastasis, and was difficult to diagnose with CNB.
  • Although the incidence of stage IV disease at diagnosis was higher in MBC, the survival rates of stage I-III were comparable to those of IDC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Incidence. Medical Oncology / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20879052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1976-2437
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2995974
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8. Wu WJ, Zeng J, Pan CE: [Efficacy of activated charcoal-epirubicin suspension for treatment of breast cancer with axillary metastasis]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2006 Dec;26(12):1812-4
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  • [Title] [Efficacy of activated charcoal-epirubicin suspension for treatment of breast cancer with axillary metastasis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of activated charcoal-epirubicin suspension (Epi-CH) for treatment of breast cancer and clearance of axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • METHODS: Sixty patients with breast cancer of stages II-III were randomized into Epi-CH group (n=40) receiving injection with 10 mg Epi-CH in the tissue around the primary tumor 72 h before modified radical resection and control group (n=20) with 10 mg of aqueous epirubicin injection in the same region.
  • The dissected axillary lymph nodes and the staining lymph nodes were counted.
  • RESULTS: In comparison with the control group, Epi-CH injection allowed dissection of 4.04 more lymph nodes (P<0.01) and resulted in the staining rate of the axillary lymph nodes of 86.9% (565/650).
  • The metastatic rate of stained lymph nodes was similar with that in non-stained lymph nodes (214/565 vs 23/85, P>0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Epi-CH allows more effective treatment of breast cancer and clearance of axiliary metastasis by increasing the dissected lymph nodes and raising the concentration of epirubicin in the axillary lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Axilla. Female. Humans. Injections, Intralymphatic. Lymph Nodes / drug effects. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17259127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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9. Cervinka V, St'astný K, Havlícek K, Nechvátal L: [An axillary metastasis as the first sign of the breast carcinoma--a case review]. Rozhl Chir; 2006 Feb;85(2):71-3
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  • [Title] [An axillary metastasis as the first sign of the breast carcinoma--a case review].
  • Less than 1% of the patients diagnosed with breast cancer initially present with axillary metastases as their only clinical manifestation.
  • CASUISTIC: We report case of 58 years old woman with occult breast carcinoma in which extensive axillary node metastasis was the first manifestation.
  • DISCUSSION: Breast cancer presenting with axillary metastases and no clinical apparent primary tumour in the breast is an uncommon form of stage II or IV of this disease.
  • The appropriate treatment of the breast after an axillary presentation of occult breast carcinoma continues to be a controversial issue.
  • Complete axillary lymph node dissection is indicated in all patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Axillary metastasis is rare first sign of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16626014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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10. Alameda F, Pijuan L, Lloveras B, Romero E, Carreras R, Serrano S: Axillary metastasis in a patient with double neoplasia: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Nov-Dec;54(6):1133-5
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  • [Title] Axillary metastasis in a patient with double neoplasia: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node metastases in women are most frequently associated with breast cancer.
  • CASE: A 72-year-old woman presenting endometrial and breast cancer developed axillary metastasis 2 months after diagnosis of breast cancer.
  • A diagnosis of metastasis from endometrial cancer was made on the basis of cytological characteristics.
  • CONCLUSION: The morphologic features in this case (emperipolesis) oriented as axillary metastases from primary endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Emperipolesis. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 21428162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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11. Islam S, Cole CV, Hoffman GR, Brennan PA: Bilateral axillary metastasis from a primary ethmoidal squamous cell carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Apr;120(4):353-5
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  • [Title] Bilateral axillary metastasis from a primary ethmoidal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The development of infra-clavicular lymph node metastasis from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon event.
  • We present a rare case of bilateral axillary nodal metastasis that developed in a patient previously treated for a primary ethmoidal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • To our knowledge, there have only been five case reports in the English literature, accounting for a total of 10 patients, which documented a clinically apparent metastasis to axillary lymph nodes from various head and neck malignancies.
  • Significantly however, the simultaneous ipsilateral and contralateral lymphatic spread of disease from a tumour in the para-nasal sinus, so as to involve bi-axillary nodes, has not been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Ethmoid Sinus. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16553967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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12. Santiago MP, Vázquez-Boquete A, Fernández B, Masa C, Antúnez JR, Fraga M, Forteza J, García-Caballero T: Whether to determine HER2 status for breast cancer in the primary tumour or in the metastasis. Histol Histopathol; 2009 06;24(6):675-82
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  • [Title] Whether to determine HER2 status for breast cancer in the primary tumour or in the metastasis.
  • In metastatic breast cancer, we routinely assess HER2 expression in the primary tumour, assuming that HER2 status remains stable through cancer progression.
  • However, it is frequent to find reports that describe discordance between HER2 expression in primary and metastatic tumours.
  • The aim of this paper was to verify whether HER2 status of breast carcinomas is maintained in the corresponding axillary metastasis.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on 52 breast carcinomas and their matched axillary metastasis.
  • We concluded that HER2 status was stable during axillary metastatic progression.
  • Evaluation of gene HER2 status in axillary metastasis rather than in the primary can be useful in certain situations, e.g., small invasive component intimately mixed with in situ component and difficult to recognize in dark field, no tumor after biopsy, or axillary relapse (in this case we can find occasional de novo amplifications susceptible to trastuzumab treatment).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19337966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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13. Lanitis S, Behranwala KA, Al-Mufti R, Hadjiminas D: Axillary metastatic disease as presentation of occult or contralateral breast cancer. Breast; 2009 Aug;18(4):225-7
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  • [Title] Axillary metastatic disease as presentation of occult or contralateral breast cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Atypical axillary metastasis may arise from an occult ipsilateral or contralateral breast cancer or from primary non-breast tumour.
  • RESULTS: A study of atypical axillary metastasis done at St Mary's hospital, from 1998 to 2008, identified six cases.
  • Axillary nodal clearance was done for all patients except for the patient with lymphoedema.
  • CONCLUSION: Atypical axillary metastasis from ipsilateral occult or contralateral breast cancer should be treated with axillary node clearance and further endocrine or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19656680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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14. Kebudi A, Işgör A, Atay M, Yetkin G, Yazici D, Yildiz A: The safety and accuracy of sentinel-node biopsy in early-stage invasive breast cancer--Turkish experience. J Invest Surg; 2005 May-Jun;18(3):129-34
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TECHNETIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the correlation of sentinel lymph node (SLN) and axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis in early-stage invasive breast cancer in a single institution.
  • One hundred and fifteen patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer first underwent SLND followed by an appropriate surgical procedure (modified radical mastectomy, lumpectomy + axillary dissection, simple mastectomy + mammoplasty).
  • In 28 (24.3%) patients, metastases were found in both SLN and axillary dissections.
  • There were no metastases in either of these procedures in 69 (60%) patients.
  • SLN metastasis was found in 13 (11.3%) patients, but no axillary metastasis was found.
  • No skip metastasis was detected.
  • Five patients in whom the sentinel node was not found were also negative for axillary metastasis.
  • As the studies progress in this direction, it might be possible to avoid axillary dissection in patients with early breast cancer in whom metastasis in SLN cannot be detected.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium. Treatment Outcome. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16036784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1939
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Invest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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15. Yamashita K, Haga S, Shimizu K: Sentinel and axillary nodes of the breast distinguished from those of the arm by 3D-CT lymphography and selectively dissected by endoscopic surgery. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):616

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel and axillary nodes of the breast distinguished from those of the arm by 3D-CT lymphography and selectively dissected by endoscopic surgery.
  • : 616 Background: In early breast cancer, the presence of metastasis in axillary lymph nodes (AN) is an important factor in prognosis and further treatment.
  • 3D-CT lymphography (LG) can show the precise individual lymphatic flow not only from the breast tumor to SN but also from SN to venous angle, which means breast lymphatic channel.
  • Above the tumor and near the areola and the arm pit, 2 ml of Iopamidol 300 was injected subcutaneously.
  • 3D-CT LG clearly showed the precise lymphatic flow from the tumor to SN.

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  • (PMID = 27961492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Marcy P Sr, Chamorey E, Macchiavello J, Largillier R, Peyrade F, Ferrero J, Hanoun-Levi J, Poudenx M, François E, Frenay M: Distal or proximal venous port device insertion: Results of a prospective randomized trial. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e20605

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Exclusion criteria included current anticoagulant therapy, previous ipsilateral venous catheter/pacewires/surgical axillary node dissection/radiodermatitis, local tumor growth/sepsis, symptomatic brain metastasis, psychosis.

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  • (PMID = 27961555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Pugliese MS, Stempel MM, Patil SM, Hsu M, Cody HS 3rd, Morrow M, Gemignani ML: The clinical impact and outcomes of immunohistochemistry-only metastases in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):613

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The clinical impact and outcomes of immunohistochemistry-only metastases in breast cancer.
  • : 613 Background: Modern surgical and pathologic techniques can detect small volume axillary metastases in breast cancer.
  • The clinical significance of these metastases was evaluated in comparison to patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes (Neg-SN).
  • METHODS: Retrospective database review from 1997 through 2003 for eligible patients with unilateral breast cancer and no history of significant non-breast malignancy identified 232 patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases identified only by immunohistochemical stains (IHC-SN).
  • In 123 IHC-SN patients treated with axillary dissection (ALND), 16% had macrometastases in the non-SLNs.
  • Only one axillary recurrence occurred in the group of IHC-SN patients without ANLD (n=109).
  • There were no differences between cases and controls for recurrence-free survival (RFS) or overall survival (OS) both by univariate and multivariate models that included variables such as age, tumor size, chemotherapy and hormone therapy [HR 0.99 (95%CI 0.43-2.28, p=0.99) for RFS, HR 2.06 (95%CI 0.79-5.35) p=0.14 for OS].
  • In patients not undergoing dissection, axillary recurrence was a rare event.
  • However, failure to identify additional metastases by omitting ALND may result in understaging and inadequate systemic treatment in some patients.

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  • (PMID = 27961483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Jinno H, Onishi T, Takahashi M, Sakata M, Kitagawa Y, Kitamura N, Nakahara T, Mukai M: Non-sentinel lymph node status and prognosis of the breast cancer patients with micrometastatic sentinel lymph nodes. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11504

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However it remains controversial whether to perform axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for patients with micrometastases in SLNs and their prognostic significance is also a matter of debate.
  • METHODS: A prospective database of 666 breast cancer patients with the tumor size less than 3cm and clinical negative node, who underwent SLNB from January 2002 to July 2007 at Keio University Hospital was analyzed.
  • Twenty nine (58.0%) of 50 patients with micrometastatic SLNs underwent ALND and revealed no NSLN metastasis.
  • Among 21 (42.0%) patients with micrometastatic SLNs who skipped ALND, no axillary lymph node recurrence has been observed in the median follow-up time of 43 months, although 20 patients (95.2%) in 21 patients received adjuvant systemic therapy.

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  • (PMID = 27964583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Sever A, Jones S, Cox K, Weeks J, Mills P, Fish D, Jones P: A novel approach to identify sentinel lymph nodes using microbubbles and contrast enhanced ultrasound in preoperative breast cancer patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11543

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e11543 Background: In patients with early invasive breast cancer, surgical excision of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) has been shown to be a safe and accurate first-line technique to stage the axilla.
  • Pre-operatively; patients received periareolar intra-dermal injection of microbubble contrast agent, breast lymphatics were visualised by ultrasound and followed to identify putative axillary SLN.
  • Five patients were found to have metastasis.
  • In all metastatic cases, SLN were correctly identified and localised with guide-wires pre-operatively.
  • Improvements in percutaneous techniques may facilitate ultrasound guided SLN excision in the breast clinic and could reduce the numbers of patients requiring axillary surgery.

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  • (PMID = 27964662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Han W, Kim H, Lee J, Lee K, Moon H, Ko E, Kim E, Yu J, Noh D: Value of preoperative staging of breast cancer patients using computed tomography to detect asymptomatic lung and liver metastasis. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1105

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Value of preoperative staging of breast cancer patients using computed tomography to detect asymptomatic lung and liver metastasis.
  • Identifying unexpected distant metastases in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients frequently alters initial treatment plans.
  • Routine imaging studies to detect lung or liver metastasis is not indicated in patients with early and operable breast cancer.
  • METHODS: We aimed to investigate the value of preoperative computed tomography to detect asymptomatic liver and lung metastasis in breast cancer patients.
  • We performed preoperative CT for 667 breast cancer patients to detect lung and liver metastasis among 1,636 primary breast cancer patients who had been diagnosed and treated between January 2006 and December 2007 at Seoul National University Hospital.
  • RESULTS: CT showed abnormal findings (suspicious of metastasis or indeterminate nodules) in 78 patients (10.5%).
  • Among these, abnormal finding in 13 patients (1.7%) turned out to be true metastatic lesions.
  • There was no CT-detected lung or liver metastasis in patients with T1 tumor and 4 metastases in patients with T2 tumor.
  • There was no CT-detected lung or liver metastasis in patients with negative axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • When patients were classified according to the AJCC staging, CT-detected true metastatic lesions were only present in stage III patients (13 out of 173 patients, 7.5%).
  • The true metastatic lesions in lung or liver were all small sized nodules, ranging from 0.3cm to 1.2cm in largest diameters.
  • In seven patients, the CT-detected metastatic lesions were less than 1cm which is in contrast with the previous studies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated the lack of usefulness in performing routine CT exams to detect asymptomatic liver and lung metastasis in early breast cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 27962171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Kawaguchi H, Shigematsu H, Koga C, Mori E, Nishimura S, Nakamura Y, Nishiyama K, Esaki T, Ohno S: Sentinel node biopsy in Asian breast cancer patients: An observation study of 1,000 consecutive patients treated at a single institute. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11584

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e11584 Background: In woman with breast cancer, sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) provides staging information and a favorable effect on quality of life if the SLN does not have metastasis.
  • After that, we evaluated detection rate, positive rate, axillary relapse rate in 1,000 consecutive patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer at a single institute in Japan from 2002 to August 2008.
  • Defenitive histology found metastasis in 24 cases who defined as negative by the frozen section examination.
  • 15 of 24 (62.5%) cases underwent delayed axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after definitive histology.
  • With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years (0.5-5.2), axillary lymph node recurrence were occurred in 5 patients (5 of 796, 0.6%).

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  • (PMID = 27964113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Marzese DM, Gago FE, Vargas-Roig LM, Roqué M: Methylation profile of human breast cancer: A possible biomarker for the detection of circulating tumor cells. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):11112

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Methylation profile of human breast cancer: A possible biomarker for the detection of circulating tumor cells.
  • One of the most common epigenetic mechanisms by which genes are silenced is the aberrant methylation of their promoter CpG islands, i.e. hypermethylation in promoters of Tumor Suppressor Genes.
  • The identification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients, based on their aberrant methylation profile, appears as a potential tool for early detection and provides therefore the promise of a non-invasive and affordable cancer detection test.
  • METHODS: The methylation status of 26 cancer-related regions was studied, using Methyl Specific-Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification (MS-MLPA) assay in invasive breast tumors (n=24), axillary lymph nodes (n= 5), and normal breast tissue (n=2).
  • A nested-Methyl Specific PCR (Nested-MSP) was designed for one of the methylated regions in the tumor suppressor gene rassf1A, to identify CTCs in peripheral blood samples.
  • Blood samples from non tumor individuals were used as control.
  • The profiles were specific for each tumor.
  • The specific methylation profile of tumors could be used to identify the metastasis origin in a patient with a left-sided breast tumor and bilateral tumor invasion of axillary lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The identification of the methylation profile of the tumor by MS-MLPA allowed to establish the metastasis origin of invaded axillary lymph nodes and to detect CTCs in peripheral blood of a cancer patient.

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  • (PMID = 27963494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Ruibal A, Snchez Salmn A: Reduced clinicopathological influence of hormone-dependence on breast carcinomas in women older than 70 years. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jan - Mar;23(1):58-62

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tumor size, axillary involvement, distant metastasis, histological grade, ploidy and S-phase were taken into account.
  • In the younger subgroup, negativity for ER was associated with larger tumor size, higher S-phase fraction, lymph node involvement, histological grade 3 and lower pS2 values.

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  • (PMID = 28207106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6008
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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24. Bastiaannet E, De Jong JR, Brouwers AH, Suurmeijer AJ, Hoekstra HJ: The prognostic value of FDG-PET measured by standardized uptake value in patients with melanoma stage III evaluated in a prospective study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e20000

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e20000 Background: FDG-PET is a sensitive modality to detect melanoma metastases; melanomas are typically FDG-avid and melanoma shows an unpredictable pattern of spread.
  • Therefore, aim of this study was to perform a prospective analysis to determine whether SUV is of prognostic value in the DFS and DSS of melanoma patients with palpable lymph node metastases.
  • METHODS: From July 2002 until December 2007, all consecutive patients with palpable, histology or cytology proven lymph node metastases of melanoma referred to the University Medical Centre Groningen for examination with FDG-PET were prospectively included.
  • The SUVmean (70% isocontour) and SUVmax in the lymph node metastasis were calculated for patients who showed no distant metastases on chest X-Ray, FDG-PET and CT.
  • High SUV values were present in axillary metastases (p=0.118), in patients who had more than 15 nodes removed (p=0.061) and in patients with a large tumor size in the lymph node (p=0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The SUV in the lymph node metastasis seems to be associated with disease-free survival for melanoma patients clinically stage III.

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  • (PMID = 27962608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Botan RD, Alvares MN, Hassan A: Male breast cancer: Prognostic factors evaluation in a 35-year service. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11618

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: From 45 patients with male breast cancer, 91% presented ductal histology, 26% were negative axillary, 9.1% were T1, 25% were T2, 4.5% were T3, 50% were T4 and 12.12% presented with distant metastasis at diagnose.

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  • (PMID = 27961146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Macrorie-Fairweather RA, Albuquerque K, Yao K, Sinacore J: A decision tree to predict four or more positive axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel node biopsy: Determining necessity for regional nodal irradiation in the absence of axillary dissection. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11540

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A decision tree to predict four or more positive axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel node biopsy: Determining necessity for regional nodal irradiation in the absence of axillary dissection.
  • : e11540 Background: Regional nodal irradiation (RNI) is indicated for breast cancer patients with ≥ 4 positive axillary lymph nodes (ALN).
  • The need for RNI is unclear for women with T1-2 tumors and 1-3 positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) who don't undergo axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • Ten clinicopathologic predictive variables were identified for analysis: patient age, size of tumor, histological type, tumor grade, number of metastatic SLN, largest SLN metastasis size, detection method, estrogen receptor, Ki67 and lymphovascular invasion (LVI).
  • Three variables were selected into the CHAID tree based upon maximum predictability: LVI, the number of metastatic SLNs, and largest SLN metastasis size.
  • 100% of patients (N=42) had < 4 positive ALN if negative for LVI and had only 1 positive SLN with a metastasis size < 0.2cm (p-value < 0.0432).
  • For patients with LVI (N=77), 13 of 14 (93%) had < 4 positive ALN if the SLN metastasis size was ≤ 0.2cm (p < .0014).
  • The highest prevalence of ≥ 4 positive ALN were patients with LVI and a SLN metastasis size > 0.2cm.

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  • (PMID = 27964656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Koussis H, Scola A, Maruzzo M, Ghiotto C, Orvieto E, Bozza F, Zavagno G, Jirillo A: Triple negative breast cancer: Adjuvant treatment and outcome of 62 patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11636

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • They are high risk in view of poorly differentiated tumor shortened survival, younger age, increased mortality rate in the first 5 years, increased risk of brain metastasis, rapid progression from distant recurrence to death of patients.
  • To provide further insight we have undertaken a comprehensive multi year review of demographics tumor features adjuvant treatment and outcomes in this patients group.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 57 years (range 27-86 yrs).
  • All patients underwent axillary lymph nodes dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • The stage of the disease at diagnosis was: I in 22, IIA in 22, IIB in 8, IIIA in 4, IIIB in 2 and stage 0 in 4 patients.

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  • (PMID = 27961189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Di Filippo F, Mottolese M, Botti C, Marandino F, Psaila A, Perri P, Di Filippo S, Pasqualoni R, Ferranti F, Buglioni S: A prospective clinical study for molecular intra-operative detection of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients by one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) in comparison to intensive histological investigation. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):609

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A prospective clinical study for molecular intra-operative detection of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients by one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) in comparison to intensive histological investigation.
  • : 609 Background: The aims of the study were 1) to assess the accuracy of a new intra-operative molecular diagnostic tool named OSNA, based on the measurement of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA, in the detection of axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases in patients with breast carcinoma 2) to determine the concordance of OSNA analysis with multilevel haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical (IHC) examination.

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  • (PMID = 27961472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Alabdulkarim YA, Nassif E: Isolated tumor cells versus micro-metastasis in sentinel lymph node biopsy for T1, T2 breast cancer compared to macro-metastasis: Significance after complete axillary dissection. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e12028

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated tumor cells versus micro-metastasis in sentinel lymph node biopsy for T1, T2 breast cancer compared to macro-metastasis: Significance after complete axillary dissection.
  • : e12028 Background: Evaluating the axillary lymph nodes is extremely important in the management of breast cancer, with the recent improvement in histopathology techniques detection of micro-metastasis and even isolated cancer cells (ITC) in a setting of sentinel lymph node examination is feasible.
  • In this study we aim to compare the outcome and significance of; positive SLN for macro versus Micro-metastasis, and ITCs.
  • Identifying all those who had positive macro-metastasis, micro-metastasis, or isolated tumor cells, pathology results of the full axillary LN dissection was evaluated for each type.
  • RESULTS: 350 patients had SLN of these 226 had a disease of T1-2, thirty seven patients (16.3%) had full axillary dissection, of these 27/37 had positive SLN for macro-metastasis, six had micro-metastasis and 3/37 had only ITCs.
  • The presence of other LN metastasis was detected in 8 cases (21.6%); all of them were in the macro-metastasis group.
  • No metastasis was found in either the micro-metastasis or the ITC groups.
  • The ITC was only detected with DCIS; while micro-metastasis was present in DCIS or IDC.
  • No relation was identified between the histopathology grade with ITC or micro-metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings did not show any presence of lymphatic metastasis after full axillary dissection, in case of positive micro-metastasis or ITCs in SLN, compared to the group of macro-metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 27964304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Altinyollar H, Berberoğlu U, Gülben K, Irkin F: The correlation of extranodal invasion with other prognostic parameters in lymph node positive breast cancer. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Jun 1;95(7):567-71
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The presence of extranodal invasion (ENI) in the metastatic lymph nodes is reported to increase the risk of locoregional recurrence while shortening disease-free and overall survival in patients with breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Of 650 patients with breast cancer who were treated in Ankara Oncology Teaching and Research Hospital from 1996 to 2003, 368 (56.6%) had lymph node metastasis.
  • The patients with axillary metastasis were separated into two groups as with and without invasion to lymph node capsule and the surrounding adipose tissue.
  • RESULTS: Of 368 patients with axillary metastasis, 135 (36.7%) had ENI.
  • Based on multivariate analysis; the number of metastatic lymph nodes, lymphatic invasion, and tumor necrosis were found to be related with ENI.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Logistic Models. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17226805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Diaz Brito JA, Gatti G, Vento AR, Galimberti V, Intra M, De Almeida RC, Pruneri G, Luini A: Report on a case of breast sarcoma metastatic to the axillary lymph nodes. Tumori; 2006 Mar-Apr;92(2):188-90
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  • [Title] Report on a case of breast sarcoma metastatic to the axillary lymph nodes.
  • Axillary lymph node involvement is extremely rare and usually associated with advanced-stage disease.
  • In the surgical treatment of this neoplasm, complete axillary lymphadenectomy is important for the local clearance of the clinically involved lymph nodes.
  • Six months after breast surgery she developed an axillary metastasis from the same disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Dendritic Cells, Follicular / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16724703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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32. Chung A, Liou D, Karlan S, Waxman A, Fujimoto K, Hagiike M, Phillips EH: Preoperative FDG-PET for axillary metastases in patients with breast cancer. Arch Surg; 2006 Aug;141(8):783-8; discussion 788-9
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  • [Title] Preoperative FDG-PET for axillary metastases in patients with breast cancer.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Fludeoxyglucose F 18 (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to predict axillary node metastases.
  • INTERVENTION: Whole-body FDG-PET performed before axillary surgery and interpreted blindly.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Axillary FDG activity, quantified by standardized uptake value (SUV); axillary metastases, quantified histologically; and tumor characteristics.
  • There were no significant differences between these 2 groups except in axillary metastasis size (SUV </=2.2 vs SUV >/=2.3): mean age, 53 vs 58 years (P = .90); mean modified Bloom-Richardson score, 7.7 vs 7.6 (P = .20); lymphovascular invasion present, 25% vs 36% (P = .40); mean Ki-67 level, 25% vs 32% (P = .20); mean tumor size, 2.9 vs 3.2 cm (P = .05); and axillary metastasis size, 0.9 vs 1.7 (P = .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with an SUV greater than 2.3 had axillary metastases.
  • This finding obviates the need for sentinel lymph node biopsy or needle biopsy to diagnose axillary involvement.
  • Surgeons can proceed to axillary node dissection to assess the number of nodes involved, eliminate axillary disease, or perhaps provide a survival benefit if preoperative FDG-PET has an SUV greater than 2.3.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care / methods. Prognosis. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16924086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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33. Ferguson MS, Nouraei SA, Davies BJ, McLean NR: Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple-areola complex. Dermatol Surg; 2009 Nov;35(11):1771-5
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  • There was a metastatic rate of 9.1%, and one patient died from the disease (3.0%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The optimal treatment of this condition should be local excision, but patients with this condition should be followed up for primary site recurrence and axillary metastasis, because there is greater incidence than with BCC at other anatomical sites.
  • Furthermore, proven axillary metastasis should be surgically treated.

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  • (PMID = 19660023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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34. van Rijk MC, Deurloo EE, Nieweg OE, Gilhuijs KG, Peterse JL, Rutgers EJ, Kröger R, Kroon BB: Ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology can spare breast cancer patients unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Jan;13(1):31-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Some 30% to 40% of the breast cancer patients scheduled for sentinel node biopsy have axillary metastasis.
  • The aims of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity of preoperative ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology for detecting axillary metastases and to assess how often sentinel node biopsy could be avoided.
  • The sentinel node procedure was omitted in patients with tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes in lieu of axillary lymph node dissection.
  • RESULTS: Ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology established axillary metastases in 58 (8%) of the 726 patients.
  • These 58 were 21% of the total of 271 patients who were proven to have axillary metastasis in the end.
  • Of the patients with ultrasonographically suspicious lymph nodes and negative cytology, 31% had tumor-positive sentinel nodes.
  • Patients with preoperatively established metastases by ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology had more tumor-positive lymph nodes (P < .001) than patients with metastases established later on.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Preoperative Care. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Statistics, Nonparametric. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2006 Jan;13(1):1-2 [16421775.001]
  • (PMID = 16372147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Capobianco G, Spaliviero B, Dessole S, Rocca PC, Cherchi PL, Ambrosini G, Meloni F, Meloni GB: Lymph node axillary metastasis from occult contralateral infiltrating lobular carcinoma arising in accessory breast: MRI diagnosis. Breast J; 2007 May-Jun;13(3):305-7
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  • [Title] Lymph node axillary metastasis from occult contralateral infiltrating lobular carcinoma arising in accessory breast: MRI diagnosis.
  • We describe a case of right axillary lymph node metastasis of an occult infiltrating lobular carcinoma arising from accessory mammary gland of the left upper anterior chest wall.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of an axillary lymph node metastasis from an occult contralateral infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the accessory breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / abnormalities. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Mammography. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17461909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. de Bresser J, de Vos B, van der Ent F, Hulsewé K: Breast MRI in clinically and mammographically occult breast cancer presenting with an axillary metastasis: a systematic review. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Feb;36(2):114-9
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  • [Title] Breast MRI in clinically and mammographically occult breast cancer presenting with an axillary metastasis: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary metastatic lymphadenopathy with no primary tumour identified in the breast on physical examination, mammography or ultrasound is referred to as occult breast cancer.
  • Because of low specificity of malignant lesion detection by breast MRI, lesions should be histologically confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional. Mastectomy, Segmental. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19822403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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37. Maffuz A, Barroso-Bravo S, Nájera I, Zarco G, Alvarado-Cabrero I, Rodríguez-Cuevas SA: Tumor size as predictor of microinvasion, invasion, and axillary metastasis in ductal carcinoma in situ. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun;25(2):223-7
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  • [Title] Tumor size as predictor of microinvasion, invasion, and axillary metastasis in ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • It has been proposed that DCIS with palpable lump > or = 2.5 cm can be associated with microinvasion or invasive carcinoma and risk of axillary metastasis.
  • All patients underwent lymphatic mapping with sentinel lymph node biopsy.A total of 24 patients were included with average tumor size of 4 cm (range, 2.5-6 cm); 29% had microinvasive and 12.5% had invasive disease, three patients (12.5%) had positive sentinel lymph node, all had micrometastasis, and no metastasis were found in non-sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Incidence of microinvasion and invasion were directly related with tumor size (10% for DCIS tumor size of 2.5-3.5 cm, 57% for 3.6-4.5 cm, and 71% for tumors between 4.5 and 6 cm).
  • In addition, axillary metastasis incidence had a direct relationship with tumor size. (0% in 2.5-3.5-cm tumor size, 14% for 3.6-4.5 cm, and 28% in DCIS between 4.6 and 6.0 cm).
  • The present study shows high incidence of microinvasion and invasion in DCIS diagnosed in tumors > or = 2.5 cm and supports the importance of axillary evaluation in patients with tumors >3.5 cm by means of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16918134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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38. Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Viale G, Luini A, Zurrida S, Galimberti V, Intra M, Veronesi P, Maisonneuve P, Gatti G, Mazzarol G, De Cicco C, Manfredi G, Fernández JR: Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy as a staging procedure in breast cancer: update of a randomised controlled study. Lancet Oncol; 2006 Dec;7(12):983-90
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  • BACKGROUND: In women with breast cancer, sentinel-lymph-node biopsy (SLNB) provides information that allows surgeons to avoid axillary-lymph-node dissection (ALND) if the SLN does not have metastasis, and has a favourable effect on quality of life.
  • Results of our previous trial showed that SLNB accurately screens the ALN for metastasis in breast cancers of diameter 2 mm or less.
  • Analysis was restricted to patients whose tumour characteristics met eligibility criteria after treatment.
  • The main endpoints were the number of axillary metastases in women in the SLN group with negative SLNs, staging power of SLNB, and disease-free and overall survival.
  • One case of overt clinical axillary metastasis was seen in the follow-up of the 167 women in the SLN group who did not receive ALND (ie, one false-negative).
  • The finding that only one overt axillary metastasis occurred during follow-up of patients who did not receive ALND (whereas eight cases were expected) could be explained by various hypotheses, including those from cancer-stem-cell research.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17138219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. Habib S, Maseeh-uz-Zaman, Hameed A, Niaz K, Hashmi H, Kamal S: Diagnostic accuracy of Tc-99m-MIBI for breast carcinoma in correlation with mammography and sonography. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2009 Oct;19(10):622-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI scintimammography (SMM) in differentiating malignant breast cancer from benign breast mass and in detecting axillary lymph node metastasis in comparison with mammography and ultrasonography.
  • METHODOLOGY: A total of 28 patients (both with breast lumps or/and axillary masses) included were in the study.
  • RESULTS: There were 22 patients presenting with breast lesions (20 palpable, 2 non-palpable) and 6 patients with axillary lump.
  • Scintimammography accurately predicted malignant lesions in the breast (sensitivity 93.3%, specificity.
  • 71.4%, PPV 87.5%, NPV 83.3%, overall accuracy 86.4%) as well as in patients with axillary metastasis (sensitivity 100%, specificity 66%, PPV 75%, NPV 100%, accuracy 83%).
  • CONCLUSION: SMM has good diagnostic accuracy in the detection of breast cancer as well as in axillary metastasis in association with mammography and ultrasound.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics as Topic. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010 Apr;20(4):289; author reply 289-90 [20392413.001]
  • (PMID = 19811712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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40. Jegaraj A, Kadambari D, Srinivasan K, Siddaraju N: Imprint cytology of axillary lymph nodes in breast carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5):685-91
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  • [Title] Imprint cytology of axillary lymph nodes in breast carcinoma following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of imprint cytology (IC) in detecting residual axillary metastasis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in order to check its feasibility on sentinel nodes in the posttherapy setting in patients with breast carcinoma STUDY DESIGN: Thirty women on NACT for locally advanced breast cancer were subjected to total mastectomy with axillary node dissection.
  • Routinely stained imprints from 172 resected nodes were studied to detect residual metastasis and therapy-induced changes, adopting a semiquantitative grading system for assessing the cell yield.
  • CONCLUSION: IC is a sensitive, specific and accurate method of detecting axillary metastasis in patients with down-staged tumors following chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytodiagnosis. Cytological Techniques. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 20968156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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41. Moran CJ, Kell MR, Flanagan FL, Kennedy M, Gorey TF, Kerin MJ: Role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in high-risk ductal carcinoma in situ patients. Am J Surg; 2007 Aug;194(2):172-5
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  • BACKGROUND: The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is poorly defined.
  • However, up to 20% of patients with DCIS will have invasive carcinoma; these patients require staging for axillary metastasis.
  • The aim of this study was to identify patients with a core biopsy diagnosis of DCIS who may benefit from SLNB.
  • METHODS: In a prospective study, we performed SLNB on patients with a preoperative diagnosis of >2.5 cm of high-grade DCIS or DCIS when mastectomy was indicated.
  • Before the adoption of SLNB in selected DCIS patients, all 20 with occult invasive disease would have required second surgery axillary staging (P < .01, chi-square test).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SLNB should not be performed routinely for all patients with an initial diagnosis of DCIS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17618799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Robles-Frías A, González-Cámpora R, Martínez-Parra D, Robles-Frías MJ, Vázquez-Cerezuela T, Otal-Salaverri C, Fernández-Palacín A: Robinson cytologic grading of invasive ductal breast carcinoma: correlation with histologic grading and regional lymph node metastasis. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):149-53
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  • [Title] Robinson cytologic grading of invasive ductal breast carcinoma: correlation with histologic grading and regional lymph node metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the importance of cytologic grading of breast carcinoma and its association with histologic grading and the existence of axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • In 50 patients, > or = 1 metastatic nodes were identified.
  • A study was undertaken to establish the association between histologic and cytologic grades and to compare the various parameters used to evaluate cytologic grade with the presence of axillary node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: A statistically significant association was observed between cytologic and histologic grades (p < 0.0005) and between cytologic grade and presence of axillary metastasis (p < 0.0005).
  • Similarly, cell dissociation (p < 0.0005), cell uniformity (p = 0.0010) and the appearance of nuclear margins (p < 0.0005) all displayed a positive correlation with regional metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 15839618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Martín-Garabato E, Martínez-Arribas F, Pollán M, Lucas AR, Sánchez J, Schneider J: The small variant of the apoptosis-associated X-chromosome RBM10 gene is co-expressed with caspase-3 in breast cancer. Cancer Genomics Proteomics; 2008 May-Aug;5(3-4):169-73
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  • The correlation with the expression of hormone receptors, c-erb-B2, mutant p53 and Ki-67, all measured by means of immunohistochemistry, was also studied, as well as that with standard clinical parameters such as histological type, tumor size, axillary metastasis and DNA-ploidy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18820371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genomics & proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genomics Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RBM10 protein, human; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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44. Yagmurdur MC, Atac FB, Uslu N, Ekici Y, Verdi H, Ozdemir BH, Moray G, Haberal M: Clinical importance of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism in invasive ductal carcinoma. Int Surg; 2009 Oct-Dec;94(4):304-9
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  • Patients' demographics, axillary metastasis status, metastatic lymph nodi/total dissected lymph nodes from axilla, histopathologic characteristics of tumors, local recurrences, and survival ratio were assessed.
  • In conclusion, the vitamin D receptor gene B allele does not seem to be related to local recurrence and distant metastasis of invasive ductal cancer of the breast.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alleles. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Genotype. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20302026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol
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45. Demers M, Rose AA, Grosset AA, Biron-Pain K, Gaboury L, Siegel PM, St-Pierre Y: Overexpression of galectin-7, a myoepithelial cell marker, enhances spontaneous metastasis of breast cancer cells. Am J Pathol; 2010 Jun;176(6):3023-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overexpression of galectin-7, a myoepithelial cell marker, enhances spontaneous metastasis of breast cancer cells.
  • Significant increases in the number of pulmonary metastases and osteolytic lesions were induced by overexpression of galectin-7 compared with control cells.
  • In HER2 overexpressing cases, galectin-7 expression was associated with lymph node axillary metastasis.
  • Taken together, our results indicate that galectin-7 may represent a potential target for both specific detection and therapeutic inhibition of metastatic breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20382700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP-89697
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Galectins; 0 / LGALS7 protein, human; 0 / Lgals7 protein, mouse
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2877862
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46. van der Meij S, Rutgers EJ: [Mammary carcinoma]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd; 2010 Apr;117(4):206-10
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  • For axillary staging a sentinel node procedure is performed.
  • In case of axillary metastasis, an axillary lymph node dissection is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Mastectomy

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  • (PMID = 20446548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2200
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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47. Ers V, Galant C, Malaise J, Rahier J, Daumerie C: Axillary lymph node metastasis in recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2006 Mar;118(3-4):124-7
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  • [Title] Axillary lymph node metastasis in recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • We report a case of axillary lymph node metastasis as a result of recurrence of papillary carcinoma in a 62-year-old woman with papillary thyroid cancer extending locally beyond the thyroid capsule.
  • Six years after initial surgical treatment, a lymph node metastasis in the left axillary region was diagnosed with positron tomography.
  • To our knowledge, only one previous case of confirmed axillary metastasis of thyroid cancer has ever been reported.
  • These two cases provide some evidence that thyroid carcinoma may exceptionally spread to axillary lymph nodes.
  • Thus, when recurrence of thyroid carcinoma is considered, careful clinical examination of the axilla is recommended.
  • Furthermore, thyroid carcinoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an axillary mass, especially when breast cancer is ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiotherapy Dosage. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16703258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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48. Dian D, Straub J, Scholz C, Mylonas I, Rack B, Sommer H, Janni W, Friese K: Influencing factors for regional lymph node recurrence of breast cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Feb;277(2):127-34
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  • CONCLUSION: We conclude from these data that women who have negative nodal status at surgical staging do not benefit from further systematic axillary resection with regard to regional lymph node recurrence.
  • For those women, however, who have confirmed axillary metastasis, systematic axillary resection lowers the risk of regional lymph node recurrence depending on the number of lymph nodes removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17763863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists
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49. Varadarajan R, Edge SB, Yu J, Watroba N, Janarthanan BR: Prognosis of occult breast carcinoma presenting as isolated axillary nodal metastasis. Oncology; 2006;71(5-6):456-9
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  • [Title] Prognosis of occult breast carcinoma presenting as isolated axillary nodal metastasis.
  • Axillary metastasis from an occult breast carcinoma is an uncommon presentation and presents a therapeutic dilemma.
  • We conducted a retrospective review of patients who presented with axillary nodal metastases from an occult breast carcinoma between 1997 and 2004 at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute; 2,150 patients were diagnosed and treated for breast cancer during this period.
  • After excluding stage I and IV patients, we identified 642 who had disease metastatic to lymph nodes, 10 of these had no primary tumor in the breast despite a thorough evaluation including bilateral mammography and breast ultrasound.
  • All patients underwent axillary nodal dissection.
  • Breast conservation with radiation therapy alone can be considered as a management option for women with occult breast cancer presenting with axillary nodal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Axilla / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17690561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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50. Moore A, Hester M, Nam MW, Brill YM, McGrath P, Wright H, Weisinger K, Romond E, Samayoa LM: Distinct lymph nodal sonographic characteristics in breast cancer patients at high risk for axillary metastases correlate with the final axillary stage. Br J Radiol; 2008 Aug;81(968):630-6
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  • [Title] Distinct lymph nodal sonographic characteristics in breast cancer patients at high risk for axillary metastases correlate with the final axillary stage.
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical relevance, limitations and most common findings of axillary ultrasound and subsequent image-guided aspiration cytology in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients who are at high risk for axillary metastasis.
  • Following institutional review board approval and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliance, sonographic axillary surveys from 112 patients considered at high risk for axillary metastases were reviewed retrospectively for the following abnormal features: asymmetric cortical thickening/lobulations; loss or compression of the hyperechoic medullary region; absence of fatty hilum; abnormal lymph node shape; hypoechoic cortex; admixture of normal and abnormal appearing nodes; and increased peripheral blood flow.
  • Patients with abnormal ultrasound and positive cytology proceeded to complete axillary dissection.
  • The number of positive nodes, the size of tumour deposits and the histological pattern of metastatic disease on the positive nodes were then correlated and compared with their corresponding sonographic abnormalities.
  • In conclusion, nodal sonographic characteristics of patients at high risk for metastases are useful predictors of tumour burden in the axilla.
  • When combined with the results from aspiration cytology, these findings could modify the surgical approach to the axilla, eliminating the need for sentinel node mapping in a significant proportion of patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 18628332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Veronesi U, Viale G, Paganelli G, Zurrida S, Luini A, Galimberti V, Veronesi P, Intra M, Maisonneuve P, Zucca F, Gatti G, Mazzarol G, De Cicco C, Vezzoli D: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: ten-year results of a randomized controlled study. Ann Surg; 2010 Apr;251(4):595-600
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  • OBJECTIVE: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is widely used to stage the axilla in breast cancer.
  • We present 10-year follow-up of our single-institute trial designed to compare outcomes in patients who received no axillary dissection if the sentinel node was negative, with patients who received complete axillary dissection.
  • METHODS: From March 1998 to December 1999, 516 patients with primary breast cancer up to 2 cm in pathologic diameter were randomized either to SNB plus complete axillary dissection (AD arm) or to SNB with axillary dissection only if the sentinel node contained metastases (SN arm).
  • RESULTS: The 2 arms were well-balanced for number of sentinel nodes found, proportion of positive sentinel nodes, and all other tumor and patient characteristics.
  • About 8 patients in the AD arm had false-negative SNs on histologic analysis: a similar number (8, 95% CI: 3-15) of patients with axillary involvement was expected in SN arm patients who did not receive axillary dissection; but only 2 cases of overt axillary metastasis occurred.
  • Axillary dissection should not be performed in breast cancer patients without first examining the sentinel node.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg. 2011 Dec;254(6):1078-9 [22107745.001]
  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg. 2010 Apr;251(4):601-3 [20224365.001]
  • (PMID = 20195151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00970983
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Lo YF, Hsueh S, Ma SY, Chen SC, Chen MF: Radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer: experience at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Chang Gung Med J; 2006 Sep-Oct;29(5):458-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can identify regional metastases and provides an alternative to axillary dissection that avoids arm morbidity.
  • This investigation assessed the accuracy of SLN biopsy for predicting axillary node status.
  • SLN biopsy was performed in a two-day protocol with backup axillary dissection: subdermally injected technetium-99 sulfur colloid to detect and localize SLN on day one; sentinel node harvesting under gamma-counter guidance on day two.
  • Three SLN negative cases had non-SLN metastasis representing a false-negative rate of 6.3% (3 of 48).
  • Tumor size was the only factor statistically correlated with the accuracy of the SLN biopsy.
  • Hematoxylin-eosin stain followed by immunohistochemical stain increased the diagnosis of axillary metastasis from 25.5% to 29.1%.
  • CONCLUSION: SLN biopsy can accurately forecast axillary node status in early breast cancer, particularly in patients with tumor sizes of no more than 2 cm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17214389.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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53. Samoilova E, Davis JT, Hinson J, Brill YM, Cibull ML, McGrath P, Romond E, Moore A, Samayoa LM: Size of sentinel node tumor deposits and extent of axillary lymph node involvement: which breast cancer patients may benefit from less aggressive axillary dissections? Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Aug;14(8):2221-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Size of sentinel node tumor deposits and extent of axillary lymph node involvement: which breast cancer patients may benefit from less aggressive axillary dissections?
  • On the basis of these observations, the object of this study is to identify a subset of patients who might benefit from a less aggressive axillary dissection, without compromising staging or local disease control.
  • We reviewed known clinicopathologic variables associated with a higher risk for axillary metastasis in 467 patients who underwent sentinel node mapping at our institution.
  • RESULTS: Although the presence of lymphvascular invasion in the primary tumor and extracapsular extension of tumor in the sentinel node were statistically significantly different between N1a and N2-3 patients (P < .025 and P < .01, respectively), the variable that most reliably separated N1a from N2-3 patients was the size of the tumor deposits in the sentinel node (P < .001).
  • All patients with sentinel node tumor deposits <or=5 mm had three or fewer positive nodes; 95% were sentinel node-positive only, and 91% had single-node involvement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients at low risk for extensive axillary nonsentinel node involvement may benefit from a more conservative surgical approach to their axillae, perhaps limited to sentinel node biopsy only or to axillary procedures restricted to the group of axillary nodes in close proximity to those designated as sentinel nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Patient Selection. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / pathology. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 Nov;14(11):3040-2 [17879118.001]
  • (PMID = 17549569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Kell MR, Burke JP, Barry M, Morrow M: Outcome of axillary staging in early breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Apr;120(2):441-447
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  • [Title] Outcome of axillary staging in early breast cancer: a meta-analysis.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is associated with significant morbidity, whilst sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has the potential to minimize complications in the management of breast cancer.
  • The overall rate of axillary lymph node positivity for those with no clinically palpable nodes was 28.8% for ALND and 27.6% for SNB (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.86-1.17, P = 0.956), though there was a trend for superior detection of metastatic disease with SNB when this was compared with ALND alone (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.95-1.57, P = 0.122).
  • SNB is at least equivalent to ALND in detecting metastatic disease in the axilla.
  • SNB is the optimum approach in terms of morbidity for the assessment of axillary metastasis in clinically node negative breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 20063121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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55. Holwitt DM, Gillanders WE, Aft RL, Eberlein TJ, Margenthaler JA: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with multicentric/multifocal breast cancer: low false-negative rate and lack of axillary recurrence. Am J Surg; 2008 Oct;196(4):562-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with multicentric/multifocal breast cancer: low false-negative rate and lack of axillary recurrence.
  • BACKGROUND: Accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and rate of axillary recurrence in multicentric/multifocal (MC/MF) breast cancer are reported.
  • METHODS: From 1999 to 2006, 93 patients with MC/MF breast cancer underwent SLNB; 41 underwent axillary lymph node dissection regardless of SLN pathology (group 1), and 52 underwent axillary lymph node dissection only if an SLN was positive (group 2).
  • RESULTS: There were no differences between the 2 groups with respect to patient age; tumor size, grade, stage, and histology; or method of SLN detection.
  • The incidence of axillary metastasis was greater in group 1 patients (68%) compared with group 2 patients (12%) (P < .01).
  • None of the 52 patients in group 2 experienced axillary recurrence (median follow-up 4.8 years).
  • Despite a lower rate of SLN positivity in patients undergoing SLNB only, axillary recurrence was not observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / pathology. False Negative Reactions. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18760396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA091842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS594302; NLM/ PMC4077037
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56. Khan A, Sabel MS, Nees A, Diehl KM, Cimmino VM, Kleer CG, Schott AF, Hayes DF, Chang AE, Newman LA: Comprehensive axillary evaluation in neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients with ultrasonography and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep;12(9):697-704
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comprehensive axillary evaluation in neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients with ultrasonography and sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • We report the accuracy of comprehensive pre-neoadjuvant CTX and post-neoadjuvant CTX axillary staging via ultrasound imaging, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, and SLN biopsy.
  • METHODS: From 2001 to 2004, 91 neoadjuvant CTX patients at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center underwent axillary staging by ultrasonography, ultrasound-guided FNA biopsy, SLN biopsy, or a combination of these.
  • RESULTS: Axillary staging was pathologically negative by pre-neoadjuvant CTX SLN biopsy in 53 cases (58%); these patients had no further axillary surgery.
  • In 38 cases (42%), axillary metastases were confirmed at presentation by either ultrasound-guided FNA or SLN biopsy.
  • These 38 patients underwent completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after delivery of neoadjuvant CTX.
  • Residual metastatic disease was identified in 22 cases, and the SLN was falsely negative in 1 (4.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving neoadjuvant CTX can have accurate axillary nodal staging by ultrasound-guided FNA or SLN biopsy.
  • In cases of documented axillary metastasis at presentation, repeat axillary staging with SLN biopsy can document the post-neoadjuvant CTX nodal status.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results. Time Factors. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16079956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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57. Sun X, Liu JJ, Wang YS, Wang L, Yang GR, Zhou ZB, Li YQ, Liu YB, Li TY: Roles of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug;40(8):722-5
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  • The visualization of sentinel lymph nodes in lymphoscintigram was not associated with patients' age, primary tumor size and location, histopathologic type and time interval from injection of radiocolloid to lymphoscintigraphy.
  • However, patients with axillary metastasis had a lower identification rate of sentinel lymph nodes by lymphoscintigraphy than those without metastasis (P = 0.003).
  • The identification rate of axillary sentinel lymph nodes was 99.3% in the group and the rate was similar whether there was sentinel lymph nodes spotted in axillary in lymphoscintigram or not (99.6% vs. 98.1%, P = 0.327).
  • There was no significant difference between the two groups in the identification rate of axillary sentinel lymph nodes (P = 0.594) and in the false-negative rate (P = 1.00).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Ductal / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Preoperative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / radionuclide imaging. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 20430775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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58. Santamaría G, Velasco M, Farré X, Vanrell JA, Cardesa A, Fernández PL: Power Doppler sonography of invasive breast carcinoma: does tumor vascularization contribute to prediction of axillary status? Radiology; 2005 Feb;234(2):374-80
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  • [Title] Power Doppler sonography of invasive breast carcinoma: does tumor vascularization contribute to prediction of axillary status?
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively compare unenhanced power Doppler sonographic findings of arterial vascularization of invasive breast carcinoma with histopathologic and immunohistochemical parameters and to determine whether tumor arterial vascularization contributes to prediction of axillary node status.
  • Lumpectomy or mastectomy with full axillary nodal dissection was performed.
  • Sonographic tumor size and number of tumor arteries were correlated with axillary nodal status by means of logistic regression analysis.
  • Tumor microvascularization was immunohistochemically assessed in a subset of 55 carcinomas.
  • Sonographic variables were correlated with tumor arteries with a diameter larger than 300 mum and with the density and area of microvascularization.
  • RESULTS: Good agreement of sonographic and histologic findings regarding number of tumor arteries (kappa= 0.66, P < .001) and tumor size (P = .012) was observed.
  • Multivariate analysis showed an independent relationship between probability of axillary metastasis, number of tumor arteries (P = .016), and sonographic tumor size (P = .035).
  • A predictive model of axillary status was developed.
  • The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine 0.2324 as the score to classify axillary nodal status.
  • CONCLUSION: The number of arteries in invasive breast carcinoma detected with unenhanced power Doppler sonography and sonographic tumor size are independent predictors of axillary nodal status; these variables could contribute to reliable prediction of absence of axillary involvement on the basis of a mathematic model.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pasteurellaceae. Prospective Studies. ROC Curve. Regression Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2004.
  • (PMID = 15601892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Sakr R, Barranger E, Antoine M, Prugnolle H, Daraï E, Uzan S: Ductal carcinoma in situ: value of sentinel lymph node biopsy. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Oct 1;94(5):426-30
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  • Axillary metastasis is often related to undiagnosed DCIS with microinvasion (DCISM).
  • METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of DCIS or DCISM and axillary lymph node evaluation were selected.
  • Surgical treatment included SLN biopsy and/or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • Node metastasis was identified in 9 patients (7%) of the 128 patients with DCIS and DCISM.
  • At final histology, 4 (10%) of the 39 patients with pure DCIS and SLN biopsy and 1 (7%) of the 14 patients with DCISM and SLN biopsy had axillary micrometastasis.
  • Four of the 12 patients upstaged to invasive carcinoma had metastatic SLNs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is valuable in patients with diffuse DCIS or DCISM who are scheduled for mastectomy in order to search for axillary micrometastases and occult breast microinvasion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16967457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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60. Kendal WS: Statistical kinematics of axillary nodal metastases in breast carcinoma. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2005;22(2):177-83
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  • [Title] Statistical kinematics of axillary nodal metastases in breast carcinoma.
  • A statistical description for the frequency distribution of the numbers of involved nodes in an affected population could potentially reveal mechanisms of axillary metastasis, and eventually facilitate predictive models for tumor control and axillary sampling.
  • A meta-analysis of 15 studies involving 24,757 axillary dissections was performed, including conventional dissections, sentinel node dissections and studies of occult metastases.
  • Frequency histograms for the numbers of involved axillary lymph nodes from the populations were tested for clustering and they were fitted, as a first approximation, to a negative binomial distribution.
  • (1) an apparent contagion model, where involved nodes seeded further nodal metastases, and (2) a spurious contagion model where the number of involved nodes per individual was randomly (Poisson) distributed and population heterogeneity accounted for the more severe cases.
  • Both models were consistent with the hypothesis that the nodal metastasis is a chance event, with the probability of involvement greatest for nodes contiguous to the primary tumor and proportioned by lymphatic flow.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / physiopathology. Models, Statistical

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  • (PMID = 16086238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0262-0898
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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61. Pinkney TD, Nightingale P, Carmichael AR: A prospective study of use of a clinicopathological score to select patients for the type of axillary surgery. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Mar;33(2):153-6
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  • [Title] A prospective study of use of a clinicopathological score to select patients for the type of axillary surgery.
  • AIMS: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess a previously described and independently validated clinicopathological score for counselling and selecting patients for sentinel node biopsy or axillary clearance.
  • The clinicopathological score may assist patients to decide if they would benefit from sentinel node biopsy or axillary clearance as a primary procedure.
  • Based on a previously validated clinicopathological score (Table 1), patients with a score of 10 or below were classed as less likely to have positive lymph nodes and hence were offered for minimally invasive axillary surgery and patients with a score of 11 or above were regarded to have high risk of nodal involvement and were counselled for axillary clearance.
  • RESULTS: Only 3 of 31 patients in the low score group had axillary metastasis and needed further axillary treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: It is concluded that until pre-operative axillary staging becomes widely available, by using the clinicopathological score for patient's selection for minimally invasive axillary surgery, it may be possible to avoid a second axillary procedure in a large majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Patient Selection. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17097850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Rickelt J, Hoekstra H, van Coevorden F, de Vreeze R, Verhoef C, van Geel AN: Forequarter amputation for malignancy. Br J Surg; 2009 Jul;96(7):792-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Forequarter amputation (FQA) is an important treatment for malignant disease of the shoulder girdle.
  • The 1-year, 2-year and 5-year overall survival for patients with malignant disease was 71, 59 and 38 per cent respectively.
  • However, in patients with axillary metastasis, FQA has no impact on survival, although local control may improve the patient's quality of life.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Arm. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Shoulder. Thoracic Wall. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19526625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Schniewind B, Christgen M, Hauschild A, Kurdow R, Kalthoff H, Klomp HJ: Paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction and rapid progression in a patient with malignant melanoma: establishment of KT293, a novel G-CSF-secreting melanoma cell line. Cancer Biol Ther; 2005 Jan;4(1):23-7
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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic leukemoid reaction and rapid progression in a patient with malignant melanoma: establishment of KT293, a novel G-CSF-secreting melanoma cell line.
  • Here we report the rapid progression of a patient suffering from a metastasized malignant melanoma and PLR.
  • A Tc-m99-labeled anti-NCA90/95 based granulocyte scan demonstrated reactive bone marrow expansion, splenomegaly and granulocyte infiltration into the tumor.
  • KT293, a S100, gp100 and CD68 positive melanoma cell line derived from an axillary metastasis, produced large amounts of G-CSF in vitro and induced rapidly growing tumors and PLR after subcutaneous inoculation in SCID mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Leukocytosis / etiology. Melanoma / complications. Melanoma / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15662134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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64. Yagmurdur MC, Atac FB, Tutar NU, Verdi H, Isiklar I, Ozdemir BH, Ozbek N, Karakayali H, Haberal M: Prognostic value of the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Int Surg; 2008 May-Jun;93(3):163-8
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  • The study group was derived from the archive materials of 55 invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) patients who had undergone breast-preserving surgery (partial mastectomy/ axillary dissection).
  • Patient demographics, axillary metastasis status, metastatic lymph nodi/total dissected lymph nodes from axilla, histopathologic characteristics of tumors, local recurrences, and survival ratio were assessed.
  • Also five-year distant metastases ratio of 4G/5G patients was the highest (18%) (P = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-minor] Alleles. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Genotype. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 18828272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
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65. Cunningham JE, Jurj AL, Oman L, Stonerock AE, Nitcheva DK, Cupples TE: Is risk of axillary lymph node metastasis associated with proximity of breast cancer to the skin? Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Dec;100(3):319-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is risk of axillary lymph node metastasis associated with proximity of breast cancer to the skin?
  • INTRODUCTION: Risk of axillary lymph node metastasis, the most important predictor of disease-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients, is estimated primarily from histologic features of the primary cancer including tumor size, histologic type and grade, and hormone receptor expression.
  • Based upon a clinical impression, and research showing that palpable cancers are more likely to be node positive, we hypothesized that primary breast cancers more proximal to the skin of the breast are more likely to be positive for axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: None of the 26 cancers more than 14 mm from the skin had metastasized to axillary lymph nodes.
  • In logistic regression modeling only tumor size, histologic grade and tumor proximity to the skin (as a categorical variable) were significantly associated with odds of axillary metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stage T1 and T2 breast cancers located less proximally to the skin may be less likely to spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
  • We observed what appears to be a threshold at approximately 14 mm from the skin (based upon this group of patients): none of 26 cancers below this level had spread to axillary nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Odds Ratio. Palpation. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. South Carolina / epidemiology. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16823512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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66. Degnim AC, Zakaria S, Boughey JC, Sookhan N, Reynolds C, Donohue JH, Farley DR, Grant CS, Hoskin T: Axillary recurrence in breast cancer patients with isolated tumor cells in the sentinel lymph node [AJCC N0(i+)]. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2685-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Axillary recurrence in breast cancer patients with isolated tumor cells in the sentinel lymph node [AJCC N0(i+)].
  • BACKGROUND: Completion axillary lymph node dissection (CALND) is controversial in patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases ≤ 0.2 mm [N0(i+)].
  • Our goal was to characterize patients with SLN isolated tumor cells regarding surgical management and axillary recurrence.
  • Clinicopathologic characteristics, predicted probability of nonsentinel node disease, axillary surgery, and recurrences were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Of 81 patients with SLN N0(i+) metastasis, 31 underwent CALND and 50 did not.
  • The two groups of patients showed no statistical differences in tumor size, stage, grade, number of SLNs removed, and number of positive SLNs.
  • Predicted probability of additional axillary metastasis was somewhat higher among those who underwent CALND compared with those who did not.
  • Of the 31 patients with CALND, 4 (12.9%) had additional nodal metastases.
  • Radiation to nodal fields was administered to 8 patients in the CALND group (25.8%) and to 7 in the group without axillary dissection (14.0%, P = 0.44).
  • No axillary recurrences were noted at a median follow-up of 38 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Among breast cancer patients with SLN isolated tumor cells, a small percentage have additional metastasis in other axillary nodes.
  • However, the risk of axillary recurrence appears low in those who do not undergo CALND.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20390457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Kim HJ, Lee JS, Park EH, Choi SL, Lim WS, Chang MA, Ku BK, Gong GY, Son BH, Ahn SH: Sentinel node biopsy in patients with multiple breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Jun;109(3):503-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Axillary dissection after SLNB was performed on 884 patients, 757 with unifocal and 127 with multiple tumors.
  • RESULTS: In the multiple tumor group, 2.68 +/- 0.84 SLNs were identified in 136 of 139 patients (identification rate, 97.84%); 81.5% of SLNs were identified by scintigram.
  • The incidence of axillary metastases was 29.50% (41/139).
  • The incidence of axillary metastasis was 22.04% (177/803).
  • These findings indicate that SLNB can be used an as alternative to complete axillary lymph node dissection in patients with multiple breast tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17661171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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68. Kim JY, Ross MI, Butler CE: Reconstruction following radical resection of recurrent metastatic axillary melanoma. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2006 Apr 15;117(5):1576-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reconstruction following radical resection of recurrent metastatic axillary melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Recurrent axillary metastasis following axillary lymphadenectomy for melanoma is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • Radical resection of such axillary recurrences with concomitant reconstruction may not only yield significant palliation of symptoms but also improve disease-free survival.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent axillary reexcision and reconstruction for metastatic melanoma between 1990 and 2000 was conducted at The University of Texas M. D.
  • Nine patients were identified who underwent flap reconstruction following radical excision of axillary recurrence after a previous lymphadenectomy.
  • One patient was alive with distant metastasis, and four patients had died of distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive resection of axillary recurrence following lymphadenectomy can palliate symptoms in select individuals and may result in long-term disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Amputation. Arm / surgery. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Mesh. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16641728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Ueda S, Tsuda H, Asakawa H, Omata J, Fukatsu K, Kondo N, Kondo T, Hama Y, Tamura K, Ishida J, Abe Y, Mochizuki H: Utility of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT) in combination with ultrasonography for axillary staging in primary breast cancer. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:165
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  • [Title] Utility of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging (18F-FDG PET/CT) in combination with ultrasonography for axillary staging in primary breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement is mandatory before treatment of primary breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study is to compare preoperative diagnostic accuracy between positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET/CT) and axillary ultrasonography (AUS) for detecting ALN metastasis in patients having operable breast cancer, and to assess the clinical management of axillary 18F-FDG PET/CT for therapeutic indication of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) and preoperative systemic chemotherapy (PSC).
  • Using 18F-FDG PET/CT, we studied both a visual assessment of 18F-FDG uptake and standardized uptake value (SUV) for axillary staging.
  • RESULTS: In a visual assessment of 18F-FDG PET/CT, the diagnostic accuracy of ALN metastasis was 83% with 58% in sensitivity and 95% in specificity, and when cut-off point of SUV was set at 1.8, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 36, 100, and 79%, respectively.
  • By the combination of 18F-FDG PET/CT and AUS to the axilla, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64, 94, and 85%, respectively.
  • If either 18F-FDG PET uptake or AUS was positive in allixa, the probability of axillary metastasis was high; 50% (6 of 12) in 18F-FDG PET uptake only, 80% (4 of 5) in AUS positive only, and 100% (28 of 28) in dual positive.
  • The axillary 18F-FDG uptake was correlated with the maximum size and nuclear grade of metastatic foci (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT was shown to be nearly equal to ultrasound, and considering their limited sensitivities, the high radiation exposure by 18F-FDG PET/CT and also costs of the examination, it is likely that AUS will be more cost-effective in detecting massive axillary tumor burden.
  • However, when we cannot judge the axillary staging using AUS alone, metabolic approach of 18F-FDG PET/CT for axillary staging would enable us a much more confident diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Probability. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • [Cites] Breast Cancer. 2000 Jan;7(1):95-8 [11029779.001]
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  • (PMID = 18541009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2430574
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70. Cermik TF, Mavi A, Basu S, Alavi A: Impact of FDG PET on the preoperative staging of newly diagnosed breast cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2008 Mar;35(3):475-83
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  • RESULTS: For the tumor, node, metastases (TNM) staging, 240 patients (250 breasts) were considered eligible based on the criteria that were established for this analysis.
  • The average SUVmax of the primary tumor was calculated in patients with axillary involvement (n = 58) and for the ones without axillary metastasis (n = 79), and SUVmax were 4.1 +/- 3.5 and 2.8 +/- 2.3, respectively, with a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.03).
  • PET imaging revealed pathological FDG uptake in 54% (46/85) of patients with axillary lymph node metastases.
  • The sensitivities of FDG PET for detecting axillary lymph node metastasis were found 41% in pN1, 67% in pN2, and 100% in pN3, and the specificity was 89% for pN0 stage.
  • Detection of extra-axillary regional node or distant metastatic lesions revealed by PET scan in 22 of 24 patients resulted in a significant change in the TNM stage.
  • Distant metastasis without axillary lymph node metastasis was noted in 21% (5/24) of patients.
  • The results revealed that FDG PET upgraded TNM stage in 9.2% (22/240) of patients and 7.5% (18/240) of patients were diagnosed as having one or more distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: FDG PET was able to identify extra-axillary regional nodal and distant lesions in newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer; FDG PET may alter the staging and management of therapy in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008 Mar;35(3):472-4 [18064456.001]
  • (PMID = 17957366.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR 00040
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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71. Jaka RC, Zaveri SS, Somashekhar SP, Sureshchandra, Parameswaran RV: Value of frozen section and primary tumor factors in determining sentinel lymph node spread in early breast carcinoma. Indian J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jan;1(1):27-36
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  • [Title] Value of frozen section and primary tumor factors in determining sentinel lymph node spread in early breast carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care to assess the metastasis in breast carcinoma.
  • Accuracy of intraoperative frozen section examination to evaluate SLN in detecting metastasis is important as it determines the further management of axilla.
  • Primary tumor characteristics determining the metastasis to the lymph node will help in predicting the probability of spread and to determine the nature of disease.
  • First 75 cases had complete axillary clearance irrespective of SLNB result and subsequently, positive cases underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • Age of the patient and primary tumor characteristics like size, grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), perineural invasion, ER/PR status, Her2-neu status and histological sub-types were evaluated for predicting the SLN metastasis.
  • Frozen section examination had accuracy of 97.37% in determining metastatic sentinel node with sensitivity of 96.15% and specificity of 100% with value P < 0.001.
  • SLN remained significant indicator of the status of rest of axilla with value P < 0.001.
  • Primary tumor characteristics like histological subtypes, grade (P = 0.353), ER/PR status (P = 0.839), Her2-neu status (P =0.296) were not significantly associated with SLN metastasis.
  • Size of the primary tumor (P = 0.002), LVI (P < 0.001), perineural invasion (P = 0.084+) were significant factors determining the SLN metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: SLNB is a valuable method of determining the axillary nodal metastasis.
  • Intraoperative frozen section examination is highly ac-curate in detecting nodal metastasis.
  • Primary tumor characteristics like size, LVI and perineural invasion are significant in predicting SLN metastasis.
  • SLNB remains an important method of predicting axillary metastasis even in previously treated breast carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 22930615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-7651
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3420992
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast carcinoma / Metastasis / Sentinel lymph node
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72. Ruano R, Ramos M, García-Talavera JR, García Macías MC, Martín de Arriba A, González-Orús JM, Iglesias M, Serrano E: [Sentinel node biopsy in T2 breast cancers larger than 3 cm and clinically negative axilla compared with the T1-T2 &lt;3 cm standard indication]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2008 May-Jun;27(3):176-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Sentinel node biopsy in T2 breast cancers larger than 3 cm and clinically negative axilla compared with the T1-T2 <3 cm standard indication].
  • [Transliterated title] La biopsia del ganglio centinela en cáncer de mama de más de 3 cm y axila clínicamente negativa frente a la indicación estándar T1-T2 < 3 cm.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience in the application of sentinel node (SN) biopsy in patients with breast cancer T > 3 cm without clinical evidence of axillary metastasis.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection was completed only when the SN was positive for metastasis in the histopathology analysis or not located.
  • In the follow-up of T2 > 3 cm (median 42.88 months) we did not find any axillary relapse which could be considered a false negative of the technique.
  • CONCLUSION: The detection of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and safe in tumours larger than 3cm with clinically negative axilla.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection can be avoided in 45 % of these patients and therefore, we consider that they should be included as a general indication in breast cancer SN detection.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Coloring Agents. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Palpation. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Rosaniline Dyes. Sensitivity and Specificity. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid

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  • (PMID = 18570859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Rosaniline Dyes; 0 / nanocis; 39N9K8S2A4 / iso-sulfan blue; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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73. Bull JM, Strebel FR, Jenkins GN, Deng W, Rowe RW: The importance of schedule in whole body thermochemotherapy. Int J Hyperthermia; 2008 Mar;24(2):171-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Differently timed combinations of a) cisplatin with FR-WB-TT, b) gemcitabine with FR-WB-TT, and c) cisplatin with gemcitabine were examined for anti-tumor efficacy and toxicity.
  • RESULTS: The greatest primary tumor and axillary metastasis growth delay and lowest toxicity was induced with administration of cisplatin 24 h prior to gemcitabine and cisplatin 24 h prior to simultaneous gemcitabine and FR-WB-TT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The relative timing of agents in multiple modality treatments is critically important in achieving tumor control or cures, and in reducing toxicity.
  • Optimizing the relative timing of multiple agents in thermochemotherapy allows use of lower drug doses to achieve maximal anti-tumor efficacy and minimal toxicity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 18283593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0265-6736
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Hyperthermia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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74. Kim J, Lee J, Chang E, Kim S, Suh K, Sul J, Song I, Kim Y, Lee C: Selective Sentinel Node Plus Additional Non-Sentinel Node Biopsy Based on an FDG-PET/CT Scan in Early Breast Cancer Patients: Single Institutional Experience. World J Surg; 2009 May;33(5):943-9
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  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine whether a preoperative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) integrated with computed tomography (CT) (FDG-PET/CT) could be used as a guide for axillary node dissection (AND) or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) in breast cancer patients.
  • In performing SNB, we also performed additional non-SNB (ADD), which was enlarged at the lower axilla.
  • The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and overall accuracy of FDG-PET/CT in predicting axillary metastasis were 77.1%, 100%, 100%, and 94.2%, respectively.
  • Among 110 SNB + ADD cases, there were only 8 cases (7.3%) of positive axillary basins in permanent biopsy, including two cases of late positives that had micrometastases in the SN only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT is a specific imaging modality for predicting axillary node metastasis, and allows for a selective approach to either AND or SNB.
  • A selective SNB + ADD based on an FDG-PET/CT reduced both unnecessary SNBs and positive axillary basins, enhancing the identification rates of SN and the accuracy of SNB.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / radiography. Axilla / radionuclide imaging. Axilla / surgery. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 19259728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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75. Parmar V, Hawaldar R, Badwe RA: Safety of partial breast reconstruction in extended indications for conservative surgery in breast cancer. Indian J Surg Oncol; 2010 Sep;1(3):256-62

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  • The mean surgical time for excision of primary with axillary clearance followed by volume replacement by LD was 5 h and mean hospital stay 6 days.
  • Donor site morbidity was seen in 11 patients and 3 had minor recipient site infection.
  • The determinants of local recurrence were presence of lymphatic vascular invasion (p = 0.016) and axillary metastasis (p = 0.003).

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  • (PMID = 22693374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0976-6952
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3244242
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast conservation surgery / Latissimus dorsi flap / Recurrence
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76. Kohrt HE, Nouri N, Nowels K, Johnson D, Holmes S, Lee PP: Profile of immune cells in axillary lymph nodes predicts disease-free survival in breast cancer. PLoS Med; 2005 Sep;2(9):e284
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  • [Title] Profile of immune cells in axillary lymph nodes predicts disease-free survival in breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: While lymph node metastasis is among the strongest predictors of disease-free and overall survival for patients with breast cancer, the immunological nature of tumor-draining lymph nodes is often ignored, and may provide additional prognostic information on clinical outcome.
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed immunohistochemical analysis of 47 sentinel and 104 axillary (nonsentinel) nodes from 77 breast cancer patients with 5 y of follow-up to determine if alterations in CD4, CD8, and CD1a cell populations predict nodal metastasis or disease-free survival.
  • Sentinel and axillary node CD4 and CD8 T cells were decreased in breast cancer patients compared to control nodes.
  • CD1a dendritic cells were also diminished in sentinel and tumor-involved axillary nodes, but increased in tumor-free axillary nodes.
  • Axillary node, but not sentinel node, CD4 T cell and dendritic cell populations were highly correlated with disease-free survival, independent of axillary metastasis.
  • Immune profiling of ALN from a test set of 48 patients, applying CD4 T cell and CD1a dendritic cell population thresholds of CD4 > or = 7.0% and CD1a > or = 0.6%, determined from analysis of a learning set of 29 patients, provided significant risk stratification into favorable and unfavorable prognostic groups superior to clinicopathologic characteristics including tumor size, extent or size of nodal metastasis (CD4, p < 0.001 and CD1a, p < 0.001).
  • Moreover, axillary node CD4 T cell and CD1a dendritic cell populations allowed more significant stratification of disease-free survival of patients with T1 (primary tumor size 2 cm or less) and T2 (5 cm or larger) tumors than all other patient characteristics.
  • Finally, sentinel node immune profiles correlated primarily with the presence of infiltrating tumor cells, while axillary node immune profiles appeared largely independent of nodal metastases, raising the possibility that, within axillary lymph nodes, immune profile changes and nodal metastases represent independent processes.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the immune profile of tumor-draining lymph nodes is of novel biologic and clinical importance for patients with early stage breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16124834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-1676
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090809; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 090809
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1198041
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77. Taira N, Ohsumi S, Takabatake D, Hara F, Takashima S, Aogi K, Takashima S, Inoue T, Sugata S, Nishimura R: Determination of indication for sentinel lymph node biopsy in clinical node-negative breast cancer using preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography fusion imaging. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Jan;39(1):16-21
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  • OBJECTIVE: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is indicated for axillary lymph node metastasis-negative cases (N0), but clarification of the indication may increase treatment efficiency.
  • Fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may have a high positive predictive value in diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • METHODS: Ninety-two breasts/axillae were analyzed retrospectively in 90 patients (median age 54.6-year old, median primary tumor 1.7 cm).
  • Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed in cases that were axillary lymph node metastasis-positive (PET N+) on FDG-PET/CT.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-four (80.4%) and 18 (19.6%) of the 92 axillae were diagnosed as metastasis-negative (PET N0) and PET N+, respectively, by FDG-PET/CT.
  • Of the 74 PET N0 axillae, 14 were metastasis-positive (pN+) and 60 were pN0 pathologically, and of the 18 PET N+ axillae, 13 were pN+ and five were pN0.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT for diagnosis of axillary metastasis were 48.1 and 92.3%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 72.2 and 81.1%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18997183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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78. Ozmen V, Karanlik H, Cabioglu N, Igci A, Kecer M, Asoglu O, Tuzlali S, Mudun A: Factors predicting the sentinel and non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Jan;95(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Factors predicting the sentinel and non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer.
  • The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the only focus of axillary metastasis in a significant proportion of patients.
  • In this single institutional study, clinicopathologic characteristics were investigated to determine the factors predicting the status of a SLN biopsy and the metastatic involvement of non-SLNs.
  • Data were retrospectively reveiwed for 400 consecutive patients with clinical T1/T2 N0 breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy including axillary and/or internal mammary lymph nodes.
  • The SLN contained metastases in 148 patients (38.5%) including 18 patients (12.2%) with micrometastases (<or=0.2 mm) and 130 patients (87.8%) with macrometastases (>0.2 cm).
  • Five patients had isolated tumor cells detected by IHC (<or=0.2 mm, N(0i)).
  • Patients with tumor size more than 2 cm (T1, 29.8% versus T2, 51.6%; OR=2.31, 95% CI, 1.50-3.56) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI-, 30.3% versus LVI+, 51.3%; OR=2.07, 95% CI, 1.34-3.19) were more likely to have positive SLNs in both univariate and multivariate analyses.
  • Among patients with a positive SLN biopsy, those with T2 tumors (versus T1; 63.1% versus 36.9; OR=2.93, 95% CI, 1.43-6.04), macrometastases in SLNs (versus micrometastases; 88.9% versus 11.1%; OR=8.83; 95% CI, 1.82-42.87) and extracapsular node extension (versus without extracapsular node extension; 65.4% versus 34.6%; OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.05-4.72) were more likely to have non-SLN metastases in both univariate and multivarite analyses.
  • However, additional factors are still needed to be identified to omit surgical axillary staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16322900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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79. Yang WT, Dryden MJ, Gwyn K, Whitman GJ, Theriault R: Imaging of breast cancer diagnosed and treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy. Radiology; 2006 Apr;239(1):52-60
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  • US assessment of the regional lymph node basins, including the axillary, infraclavicular, internal mammary, and supraclavicular regions, was documented.
  • The histologic diagnosis of the primary tumor was invasive ductal cancer in 22 lesions, and the diagnosis was invasive carcinoma in the two other cancers.
  • US correctly depicted axillary metastasis in 15 of 18 women who underwent US nodal assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mammography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color


80. Wu WJ, Zeng J, Lu YF, Jiang WZ, Chen L, Pan CE: [Impact of preoperative lymphatic chemotherapy on relapse and metastasis of breast cancer and its mechanism]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Dec;24(12):1537-41
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  • [Title] [Impact of preoperative lymphatic chemotherapy on relapse and metastasis of breast cancer and its mechanism].
  • This study was to explore the impact of lymphatic chemotherapy on relapse and metastasis of breast cancer, and to investigate the mechanism.
  • METHODS: Sixty patients with breast cancer of stage II-III were randomized into 2 groups: 40 patients in Epi-CH (carbon activated absorbing epirubicin) group were injected with 10 mg of Epi-CH in the tissue around primary tumor 72 h before modified radical resection; 20 patients in control group were injected with 10 mg of aqueous epirubicin in the same region.
  • The stained nodes full of tumor cells in Epi-CH group and non-stained nodes in control group were selected.
  • The apoptotic index (AI) of cancer cells in metastatic axillary lymph node was calculated by TUNEL method; the expression of Fas/Fas-L proteins was examined by SP immunohistochemistry; the relapse and metastatic rate was compared.
  • RESULTS: The AI of cancer cells in metastatic axillary lymph node was significantly higher in Epi-CH group than in control group [(9.5+/-2.7)% vs. (3.8+/-1.4)%, P<0.01].
  • The relapse and metastatic rate was significantly lower in Epi-CH group than in control group (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative Epi-CH lymphatic chemotherapy could suppress relapse and metastasis of breast cancer, which might through up-regulating expression of Fas protein and inducing apoptosis of axillary metastasis cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Axilla. Combined Modality Therapy. Fas Ligand Protein / metabolism. Female. Humans. Injections, Intralymphatic. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Preoperative Care. Single-Blind Method

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  • (PMID = 16351809.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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81. Sahin FI, Yilmaz Z, Yagmurdur MC, Atac FB, Ozdemir BH, Karakayali H, Demirhan B, Haberal M: Clinical findings and HER-2/neu gene amplification status of breast carcinoma patients. Pathol Oncol Res; 2006;12(4):211-5
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  • The study group was derived from the archival materials of 48 invasive intraductal breast cancer patients who had undergone partial mastectomy/ axillary dissection.
  • Ratios of axillary metastatic lymph nodes to dissected total lymph nodes were 17%, 23% and 83% in groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively (P=0.003).
  • The number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes, and the ratio of microscopic metastatic lymph nodes were highest in group 3 (P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively).
  • No significant difference was observed between groups for distant metastasis in a 5-year follow-up period.
  • Histopathologically, an irregular growth pattern of the tumor was observed in 100% of the patients in group 3, and in 54% and 60% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P=0.04).
  • Lymphovascular invasion of the tumor was significantly higher in group 3 compared to the other two groups (P=0.01).
  • Our results show that HER-2/neu signal ratio increases with lymphovascular invasion, an extensive intraductal component, irregular growth pattern and axillary metastasis in clinically T1-2N0M0 invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17189983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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82. Ferrari A, Dionigi P, Rovera F, Boni L, Limonta G, Garancini S, De Palma D, Dionigi G, Vanoli C, Diurni M, Carcano G, Dionigi R: Multifocality and multicentricity are not contraindications for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer surgery. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:79

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: After the availability of the results of validation studies, the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced routine axillary dissection (AD) as the new standard of care in early unifocal breast cancers.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with preoperative diagnosis of MF or MC infiltrating and clinically node-negative (cN0) breast carcinoma were enrolled in this study.
  • Two consecutive groups of patients underwent SLN mapping using a different site of injection of the radioisotope tracer: a) "2ID" Group received two intradermal (i.d.) injections over the site of the two dominant neoplastic nodules.
  • In 7 of 13 (53.8%) patients the SLN was the only site of axillary metastasis.
  • Since the case of skip metastasis was identified by the surgeon intraoperatively, it would have been no impact in the clinical practice.
  • CONCLUSION: Our lymphoscintigraphic study shows that axillary SLN represents the whole breast regardless of tumor location within the parenchyma.

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  • (PMID = 17116258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1665453
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83. Gipponi M: Clinical applications of sentinel lymph-node biopsy for the staging and treatment of solid neoplasms. Minerva Chir; 2005 Aug;60(4):217-33

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  • The sN is an accurate method for the pathologic staging of the axilla in patients with early stage breast cancer, and it can be useful for the selection of patients with axillary metastasis who should undergo standard axillary dissection.
  • Patients with squamous cell vulvar cancer may benefit by sN biopsy because a complete bilateral inguino-femoral lymph-node dissection may be avoided whenever the sN is free of metastasis.
  • The experience in urologic cancer deals mainly with penile and prostate cancer; the modern procedures for the dynamic detection of sN are going to clarify its role in the surgical management of penile cancer; as regards to prostate cancer, very preliminary results suggest that the sN biopsy may enhance the pathologic staging of this neoplasm compared to modified pelvic lymphadenectomy, due to the individual variability of the lymphatic drainage of this cancer.
  • The sN biopsy is also technically feasible in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer; however, the future role of this procedure in the clinical decision-making of these patients remains to be defined due to the questionable biological meaning of nodal metastases.
  • Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer should be investigated by means of radiotracers injected at the time of thoracotomy or under CT-scan guidance in order to achieve a satisfactory identification rate (over 80%); the focused histopathologic staging of the sN improves current pathologic staging by conventional bi-valve assessment of all the lymph nodes of the surgical specimen; moreover, the prognostic role of isolated N2 metastasis can be better elucidated.
  • In patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, the intraoperative lymphatic mapping with sN biopsy have suggested that the lymphatic drainage of the gastrointestinal tract is much more complicated than other sites, skip metastasis being rather frequent.
  • In patients with gastric cancer, current data show that it can be detected by means of peritumoral injection of indocyanine green; the detection of tumor positive lymph nodes beyond the perigastric area could select patients amenable to D2 lymphadenectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Humans. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 16166921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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84. Basu S, Mavi A, Cermik T, Houseni M, Alavi A: Implications of standardized uptake value measurements of the primary lesions in proven cases of breast carcinoma with different degree of disease burden at diagnosis: does 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography predict tumor biology? Mol Imaging Biol; 2008 Jan-Feb;10(1):62-6
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  • [Title] Implications of standardized uptake value measurements of the primary lesions in proven cases of breast carcinoma with different degree of disease burden at diagnosis: does 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography predict tumor biology?
  • OBJECTIVES: Tumor glycolytic activity as determined by 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is an important marker of tumor biology and provides critical information about the behavior of most malignancies at different stages of the disease.
  • This study was undertaken to determine whether the degree of FDG uptake differs between the primary breast lesions with varying disease burden at diagnosis in proven cases of breast carcinoma.
  • Sixty-four patients with primary and metastatic axillary lymphadenopathy (designated as group I) and 18 patients with both axillary and distant metastases (designated as group II) met the inclusion criteria for this analysis.
  • The third group (group III) comprised of a population of 92 patients without any metastasis either at the lymph nodes or at distant sites.
  • The mean SUVmax1, SUVmax2, and the %DeltaSUVmax in the early and delayed FDG-PET in group I (n=64) patients were as follows: primary lesion 4.8+/-3.9, 5.3+/-4.5, and 9.4+/-12.8%, respectively, and axillary lesions 3+/-2.6, 3+/-2.7, and 1.1+/-21.3%, respectively.
  • The corresponding figures for the axillary lesions were 3.5+/-3.1, 3.7+/-3.1, and 6.3+/-20.9%, respectively, and those for the distant metastatic lesions were 3+/-1.4, 3.1+/-1.2, and 8.5+/-21.2%, respectively.
  • The mean SUVmax1, SUVmax2, and the %DeltaSUVmax of the primary lesion of group III patients (n=92) without any metastasis were 2.9+/-2.7, 3.4+/-2.4, and 4.5+/-4.2%, respectively.
  • These values in the primary lesions were highest in group II (those with both axillary and distant metastases), followed by group I (those with only metastatic axillary adenopathy) and group III (patients without any metastasis), and could be related to the more aggressive tumor biology in group II.
  • CONCLUSION: The findings provide evidence that among the lesions with varying disease burden at diagnosis, the FDG uptake is highest in cases with both axillary and distant metastasis, followed by those with axillary metastasis and then by those with no metastatic disease.
  • These provide in vivo insight into tumor biology as FDG uptake is regarded as a surrogate marker of the same.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / metabolism. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Tumor Burden
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18000713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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85. Seenu V, Pavan Kumar MN, Sharma U, Gupta SD, Mehta SN, Jagannathan NR: Potential of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect metastasis in axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer. Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Dec;23(10):1005-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Potential of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to detect metastasis in axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer.
  • Focused pathological evaluation of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer is gaining importance.
  • The biochemical changes associated with breast cancer metastases in axillary nodes by in vitro NMR and its use in the detection of axillary metastases in a clinical setting in comparison with conventional histopathology is presented in this study.
  • Histopathology revealed metastases in 20 nodes from 11 patients, while in vitro NMR spectroscopy revealed metastases in 22 nodes.
  • Out of these 22 nodes, 16 were the same, which showed metastases on histopathology, while 6 nodes have shown metastases only on in vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
  • These 6 nodes with suspicion of metastases on MRS were subjected to reevaluation with serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry, but no additional metastases were revealed.
  • The levels of the glycerophosphocholine-phosphocholine (GPC-PC), choline, lactate, alanine and uridine diphosphoglucose were elevated significantly in nodes with metastases.
  • In addition, the intensity ratio of GPC-PC/threonine (Thr) was higher in nodes with metastases, and using this as marker, MRS detected the axillary metastases with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 80%, 91% and 88%, respectively.
  • The accuracy of MRS in detecting metastases was 75% in patients who received NACT (n=9) as compared to 96% in those who did not (n=21).
  • Our results demonstrate the potential of in vitro MRS in characterizing the metabolite profile of the axillary nodes with breast cancer metastases.
  • It detected axillary metastases with reasonable accuracy and can be complementary to histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / chemistry. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16376185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-725X
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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86. Kelly LM, Buggy Y, Hill A, O'Donovan N, Duggan C, McDermott EW, O'Higgins NJ, Young L, Duffy MJ: Expression of the breast cancer metastasis suppressor gene, BRMS1, in human breast carcinoma: lack of correlation with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes. Tumour Biol; 2005 Jul-Aug;26(4):213-6
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  • [Title] Expression of the breast cancer metastasis suppressor gene, BRMS1, in human breast carcinoma: lack of correlation with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes.
  • The BRMS1 (breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1) gene has been found to suppress metastasis in animal models without inhibiting primary tumor growth.
  • The aim of this study was to measure expression of BRMS1 mRNA in a panel of human breast carcinomas and compare its expression with parameters of local dissemination such as tumor size and lymph node metastasis.
  • We also compared expression of BRMS1 mRNA in normal breast tissue, fibroadenomas, primary breast cancers and axillary nodal metastases from primary breast cancers.
  • BRMS1 mRNA was detected in 10/11 (90%) specimens of normal breast tissue, 12/16 (75%) fibroadenomas, 64/82 (78%) primary breast cancer and 11/15 (64%) lymph node metastases (p, NS).
  • In the primary cancer, expression was independent of tumor size, tumor grade, metastasis to axillary nodes and hormone receptor status.
  • Furthermore, similar levels of BRMS1 were found in normal breast tissue, primary breast carcinomas and lymph node metastases from primary breast cancer.
  • Our results do not suggest a role for BRMS1 in suppressing metastasis to local lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / pathology. Female. Humans. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Repressor Proteins

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16006775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRMS1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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87. Tamiolakis D, Antoniou C: Axillary nodal metastasis of occult breast primary cancer. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2008 Jul-Aug;103(4):467-71
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  • [Title] Axillary nodal metastasis of occult breast primary cancer.
  • Occult breast cancer presenting with axillary metastases is an unusual presentation and can be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
  • A comprehensive work-up, including mammogram, sonogram, magnetic resonance imaging, and even pathologic examination of the mastectomy specimen may not disclose the primary tumor in up to one third of patients.
  • We report a case of a 42-year-old female with occult breast cancer presenting axillary nodal metastasis.
  • She complained of a swelling of the right axillary lymph node, but no breast mass was palpable.
  • Biopsy of the lymph node was performed and histological examination showed a metastatic carcinoma.
  • Calcifications were obtained by mammography and ultrasonography of the right axillary node contained metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18780622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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88. Patani NR, Dwek MV, Douek M: Predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer: a systematic review. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 May;33(4):409-19
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  • [Title] Predictors of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer: a systematic review.
  • AIMS: To review the established and emerging techniques in axillary lymph node prediction and explore their potential impact on clinical practice.
  • To reliably identify patients in whom axillary lymph node surgery, including SLNB, can be safely omitted.
  • METHODS: Searches of PubMed were made using the search terms "axilla" (or "axillary"), "lymph", "node" and "predictor" (or "prediction").
  • FINDINGS: There are numerous studies in which the predictive utility of biomarkers as determinants of axillary lymph node status have been investigated.
  • Few of these have specifically addressed the attributes of the primary tumour which could offer much potential for the prediction of tumour metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Currently, no single marker is sufficiently accurate to obviate the need for formal axillary staging using SLNB or axillary clearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Genetic Markers. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17125963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / CRUK/ A5731
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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89. Teresa DB, Santos RA, Takahashi CS, Carrara HH, Moreira HW, Mattos LC, Lia-Neto N, Cunha LA, Bassi CL, Soares EG, Donadi EA, Mello ER, Soares CP: Polymorphisms of Lewis and Secretor genes are related to breast cancer and metastasis in axillary lymph nodes. Tumour Biol; 2010 Oct;31(5):401-9
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  • [Title] Polymorphisms of Lewis and Secretor genes are related to breast cancer and metastasis in axillary lymph nodes.
  • ABH and Lewis antigen expression has been associated with cancer development and prognosis, tumor differentiation, and metastasis.
  • Considering that invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) presents multiple molecular alterations, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the polymorphism of ABO, Lewis, and Secretor genes, as well as ABO phenotyping, could be associated with tumor differentiation and lymph nodes metastasis.
  • Nonsecretor genotype was associated with axillary lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0149).
  • In conclusion, Lewis and Secretor genotyping could be useful to predict respectively breast cancer susceptibility and axillary lymph nodes metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Fucosyltransferases / genetics. Lymphatic Metastasis / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • [MeSH-minor] ABO Blood-Group System / genetics. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / pathology. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Humans. Middle Aged. Phenotype. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20514537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABO Blood-Group System; EC 2.4.1.- / Fucosyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.65 / 3-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminide 4-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.69 / galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase
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90. Nakagawa T, Martinez SR, Goto Y, Koyanagi K, Kitago M, Shingai T, Elashoff DA, Ye X, Singer FR, Giuliano AE, Hoon DS: Detection of circulating tumor cells in early-stage breast cancer metastasis to axillary lymph nodes. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jul 15;13(14):4105-10
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  • [Title] Detection of circulating tumor cells in early-stage breast cancer metastasis to axillary lymph nodes.
  • We hypothesized that a multimarker quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT) assay could detect circulating tumor cells (CTC) in patients with early-stage breast cancer and correlate with sentinel lymph node (SLN) and non-SLN metastasis status.
  • CTC biomarker detection was correlated with overall axillary LN (ALN), SLN, and non-SLN histopathology status.
  • In multivariate analysis, only lymphovascular invasion and >or=2 CTC biomarkers detected significantly correlated with ALN metastasis [odds ratio (OR), 12.42; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 3.52-43.77, P<0.0001; and OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.69-8.89, P=0.001, respectively].
  • The number of CTC biomarkers detected similarly correlated with SLN and non-SLN metastasis status (P=0.0004).
  • At least one CTC biomarker was detected in 10 of 11 (91%) patients with non-SLN metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy


91. Wang X, Zhao Y, Cao X: Clinical benefits of mastectomy on treatment of occult breast carcinoma presenting axillary metastases. Breast J; 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1):32-7
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  • [Title] Clinical benefits of mastectomy on treatment of occult breast carcinoma presenting axillary metastases.
  • Occult breast carcinoma presenting axillary metastases is uncommon and accounts for less than 1% of newly diagnosed breast carcinoma.
  • All these patients had a palpable axillary nodule, no dominant breast mass, and no abnormal mammograms and breast ultrasonograph.
  • Histological examination of axillary mass revealed metastasis from breast.
  • Seventy-seven percent of patients who had no local treatment of the breast had a tumor recurrence, compared with 26% who had a mastectomy.
  • Once the diagnosis of occult breast carcinoma is clarified, an axillary dissection and the local treatment of breast should be carried out.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Axilla. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mammography / methods. Mastectomy / methods. Mastectomy / mortality. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods

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  • (PMID = 20465598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Zgajnar J, Besic N, Podkrajsek M, Hertl K, Frkovic-Grazio S, Hocevar M: Minimal risk of macrometastases in the non-sentinel axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with micrometastatic sentinel lymph nodes and preoperatively ultrasonically uninvolved axillary lymph nodes. Eur J Cancer; 2005 Jan;41(2):244-8
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  • [Title] Minimal risk of macrometastases in the non-sentinel axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients with micrometastatic sentinel lymph nodes and preoperatively ultrasonically uninvolved axillary lymph nodes.
  • Micrometastases in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) carry a considerable risk of macrometastases in the non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN), resulting in axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • Preoperative ultrasound (US) examination of the axillary lymph nodes combined with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has been proved to discover metastases in the axillary lymph nodes.
  • The aim of our study was to assess the risk of macrometastases in NSLN in patients with micrometastatic SLN after a preoperative US examination of the axillary lymph nodes.
  • The study included 36 patients in whom, after preoperative axillary US, micrometastases in the SLN were revealed and ALND was subsequently performed.
  • In conclusion, the risk of macrometastases in the NSLN in patients with preoperatively ultrasonically uninvolved axillary lymph nodes is minimal.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care / methods. Risk Factors. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15661549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Susini T, Nori J, Olivieri S, Molino C, Marini G, Bianchi S, Vezzosi V, Livi L, Mascalchi M, Scarselli G: Predicting the status of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer: a multiparameter approach including axillary ultrasound scanning. Breast; 2009 Apr;18(2):103-8
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  • [Title] Predicting the status of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer: a multiparameter approach including axillary ultrasound scanning.
  • In a prospective study, we attempted to predict axillary metastases in 135 breast cancer patients by a preoperative multiparameter evaluation including axillary ultrasound scanning (US).
  • After surgery, factors associated with lymph node metastases by univariate analysis were included in a multivariate model.
  • By multivariate analysis, the stronger independent predictors of lymph node metastases were suspicious axillary US (p<0.001), tumor location in the outer quadrants (p=0.001) and high Ki-67 index (>10%) (p=0.002).
  • A predictive model based on these variables, identified a high-risk group (20.0%) represented by women with suspicious axillary US, tumor in the outer quadrants and high Ki-67 index, with axillary metastases in 100%, whereas all patients with opposite features (8.1%) had uninvolved axillary lymph nodes.
  • This multiparameter evaluation including axillary US may be used to optimize the selection of breast cancer patients candidate to sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19285396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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94. Ogino T, Noura S, Ohue M, Matsumura M, Ishiguro S, Kishi K, Takachi K, Eguchi H, Yamada T, Miyashiro I, Yano M, Ohigashi H, Sasaki Y, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S: [A case of apocrine adenocarcinoma suspected as an axillary lymph node metastasis from cecal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1968-70

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  • [Title] [A case of apocrine adenocarcinoma suspected as an axillary lymph node metastasis from cecal cancer].
  • He had a 2-year history of subcutaneous tumor in the left axilla.
  • Biopsy of the tumor showed the features of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • FDG PET to check the primary lesion revealed the collection of an ileocecal junction and left axilla.
  • After CT scan and colonoscopy, we diagnosed cecal cancer and metastasis of the axillary lymph nodes from it.
  • He underwent ileocecal resection and a wide local resection of the axillary tumor.
  • Histopathological examination showed the axillary tumor was different from the cecal cancer.
  • Axillary tumor was diagnosed not as metastasis of axillary lymph nodes from cecal cancer but apocrine adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Cecal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Colonoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17212162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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95. Veronesi U, De Cicco C, Galimberti VE, Fernandez JR, Rotmensz N, Viale G, Spano G, Luini A, Intra M, Veronesi P, Berrettini A, Paganelli G: A comparative study on the value of FDG-PET and sentinel node biopsy to identify occult axillary metastases. Ann Oncol; 2007 Mar;18(3):473-8
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  • [Title] A comparative study on the value of FDG-PET and sentinel node biopsy to identify occult axillary metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has become a standard treatment in staging axillary lymph nodes in early breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer is frequently characterised by increased 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake and many studies have shown encouraging results in detecting axillary lymph node metastases.
  • The aim of this study was to compare SNB and -positron emission tomography (-PET) imaging, to assess their values in detecting occult axillary metastases.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 236 patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axilla were enrolled in the study.
  • Patients underwent axillary lymph nodes dissection (ALND) in cases of positive FDG-PET or positive SNB.
  • RESULTS: In all, 103 out of the 236 patients (44%) had metastases in axillary nodes.
  • Sensitivity of FDG-PET scan for detection of axillary lymph node metastases in this series was low (37%); however, specificity and positive predictive values were acceptable (96% and 88%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The high specificity of PET imaging indicates that patients who have a PET-positive axilla should have an ALND rather than an SNB for axillary staging.
  • In contrast, FDG-PET showed poor sensitivity in the detection of axillary metastases, confirming the need for SNB in cases where PET is negative in the axilla.

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  • (PMID = 17164229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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96. Veronesi U, Orecchia R, Zurrida S, Galimberti V, Luini A, Veronesi P, Gatti G, D'Aiuto G, Cataliotti L, Paolucci R, Piccolo P, Massaioli N, Sismondi P, Rulli A, Lo Sardo F, Recalcati A, Terribile D, Acerbi A, Rotmensz N, Maisonneuve P: Avoiding axillary dissection in breast cancer surgery: a randomized trial to assess the role of axillary radiotherapy. Ann Oncol; 2005 Mar;16(3):383-8
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  • [Title] Avoiding axillary dissection in breast cancer surgery: a randomized trial to assess the role of axillary radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The need to dissect axillary nodes in patients with early breast cancer and clinically negative axilla remains controversial.
  • The aim of the study was to assess the role of axillary radiotherapy (RT) in reducing axillary metastases in patients with early breast cancer who did not receive axillary dissection.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1995 to 1998, 435 patients over 45 years old with breast cancer up to 1.2 cm and no palpable axillary nodes were randomized 214 to breast conservation without axillary treatment and 221 to breast conservation plus axillary RT.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 63 months, overt axillary metastases were fewer than expected: three cases in the no axillary treatment group (1.5%) and one in the RT group (0.5%).
  • Expected cases were 43 in the no axillary treatment group and 10 in the RT group.
  • Rates of distant metastases and local failures were low, and 5-year disease free survival was 96.0% (95% confidence interval, 94.1%-97.9%) without significant differences between the two arms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that occult axillary metastases might never become clinically overt and axillary dissection might be avoided in patients with small carcinomas and a clinically negative axilla.
  • Axillary RT seems to protect the patients from axillary recurrence almost completely.

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  • (PMID = 15668261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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97. Williams RN, Jones L, Stotter A: Lymph nodes in the tail of the breast can be missed in standard axillary dissection. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;35(3):271-5
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  • [Title] Lymph nodes in the tail of the breast can be missed in standard axillary dissection.
  • AIMS: To determine whether excision of the tail of the breast usually by mastectomy or occasionally wide excision together with formal level 1 axillary node dissection (AND) for early breast cancer influences the quantity of harvested lymph nodes and the detection of axillary metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that low axillary nodes may be missed by AND without excision of the tail of the breast and support the use of targeted sentinel node biopsy that should identify an involved node at any site.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18407454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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98. Carmon M, Olsha O, Rivkin L, Spira RM, Golomb E: Intraoperative palpation for clinically suspicious axillary sentinel lymph nodes reduces the false-negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer. Breast J; 2006 May-Jun;12(3):199-201
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  • [Title] Intraoperative palpation for clinically suspicious axillary sentinel lymph nodes reduces the false-negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer.
  • Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely used to identify the first lymph node draining breast tumors.
  • When the sentinel lymph node is free of metastasis, axillary dissection is avoided because the rest of the nodes are expected to be negative as well.
  • We assessed the effect of intraoperative axillary palpation for clinically suspicious lymph nodes that are not otherwise detected by radioactive tracer or blue dye on the false-negative rate of SLNB in breast cancer patients.
  • The procedure included preoperative injection of radiotracer, with dye injection as backup, and intraoperative palpation of the axilla for suspicious lymph nodes that were not radioactive or blue.
  • Of the 290 patients, 89 (30.7%) had sentinel node involvement by tumor.
  • In five of the seven patients, the nodes harbored metastasis.
  • In four of these five patients (4.5% of the 89 patients with axillary involvement), the palpable nodes were the only ones involved.
  • A generous axillary incision and systematic palpation of the axilla reduces the false-negative rate and should be a part of the SLNB procedure.
  • [MeSH-minor] False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Technetium

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  • (PMID = 16684315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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99. Jaukovic LDj, Ajdinovic BZ, Jankovic ZD, Strbac M: Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin in diagnosis of breast cancer and axillary lymph node involvement. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur; 2006;9(1):30-6
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  • [Title] Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin in diagnosis of breast cancer and axillary lymph node involvement.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of breast cancer seeking agent Tc-99m-Tetrofosmin in the detection of breast malignancy and axillary lymph node metastases.
  • All the patients underwent clinical investigation, Tc-99m Tetrofosmin scintimammography (SMM), mammography (MM) and biopsy/surgery for final histopathologic diagnosis.
  • Planar images were acquired in left and right prone lateral view as well as in the supine position for an anterior view of chest and axillary region.
  • In the group of 23 patients with positive SMM scans 19 had breast malignancy: 15 infiltrating ductal cancer, three patients with one infiltrating lobular, one papillary, one colloidal cancer and one patient with cystosarcoma phyllodes-malignant type.
  • Axillary dissection was performed in 19/20 with malignant disease.
  • Metastatic involvement was confirmed by HP in 9 out of 20 patients.
  • SMM detected axillary metastases with 55% sensitivity and 80% accuracy.
  • Further studies to evaluate the role of SMM in metastatic node involvement are necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Organophosphorus Compounds. Organotechnetium Compounds. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 16791801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1506-9680
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine review. Central & Eastern Europe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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100. Shen J, Gilcrease MZ, Babiera GV, Ross MI, Meric-Bernstam F, Feig BW, Kuerer HM, Francis A, Ames FC, Hunt KK: Feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with documented axillary metastases. Cancer; 2007 Apr 1;109(7):1255-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with documented axillary metastases.
  • However, a relative contraindication to SLN biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy is the presence of axillary metastases at initial diagnosis.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and accuracy of SLN biopsy after preoperative chemotherapy in patients with documented axillary metastases at presentation.
  • METHODS: Between 1994 and 2002, 69 patients who had axillary metastases identified by ultrasound-guided, fine-needle aspiration underwent SLN biopsy after treatment on prospective, preoperative chemotherapy protocols.
  • All but 8 patients underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • RESULTS: The median patient age was 49 years, and the median primary tumor size was 4 cm.
  • Based on the current results, the status of the SLN cannot be used as a reliable indicator of the presence or absence of residual disease in the axilla in this patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. False Negative Reactions. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Time Factors. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17330229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CAF protocol; FEC protocol
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