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6. Jaukovic LDj, Ajdinovic BZ, Jankovic ZD, Strbac M: Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin in diagnosis of breast cancer and axillary lymph node involvement. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur; 2006;9(1):30-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Technetium-99m-tetrofosmin in diagnosis of breast cancer and axillary lymph node involvement.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of breast cancer seeking agent Tc-99m-Tetrofosmin in the detection of breast malignancy and axillary lymph node metastases.
  • All the patients underwent clinical investigation, Tc-99m Tetrofosmin scintimammography (SMM), mammography (MM) and biopsy/surgery for final histopathologic diagnosis.
  • Planar images were acquired in left and right prone lateral view as well as in the supine position for an anterior view of chest and axillary region.
  • In the group of 23 patients with positive SMM scans 19 had breast malignancy: 15 infiltrating ductal cancer, three patients with one infiltrating lobular, one papillary, one colloidal cancer and one patient with cystosarcoma phyllodes-malignant type.
  • Axillary dissection was performed in 19/20 with malignant disease.
  • Metastatic involvement was confirmed by HP in 9 out of 20 patients.
  • SMM detected axillary metastases with 55% sensitivity and 80% accuracy.
  • Further studies to evaluate the role of SMM in metastatic node involvement are necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Organophosphorus Compounds. Organotechnetium Compounds. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 16791801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1506-9680
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine review. Central & Eastern Europe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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7. Aponte-Rueda ME, Saade Cárdenas RA, Saade Aure MJ: Endoscopic axillary dissection: a systematic review of the literature. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):150-8
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  • [Title] Endoscopic axillary dissection: a systematic review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility, effectiveness and morbidity associated with Endoscopic Axillary Dissection.
  • Two port metastases were registered.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This procedure meets the tumor control and staging requirements.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 19493679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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8. Bujas T, Pavić I, Lenicek T, Mijić A, Kruslin B, Tomas D: Axillary apocrine carcinoma associated with apocrine adenoma and apocrine gland hyperplasia. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2007;15(3):148-51
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  • [Title] Axillary apocrine carcinoma associated with apocrine adenoma and apocrine gland hyperplasia.
  • Apocrine carcinomas represent a rare group of tumors with a potential for destructive local invasion, regional and distant metastases, and are equally common in both sexes.
  • A case of a 79-year-old woman with axillary apocrine carcinoma associated with apocrine adenoma and apocrine gland hyperplasia is presented.
  • Grossly, the tumor measured 3.2x1.5x1.2 cm and on cut section appeared granular, white to gray-tanned.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was located in the dermis, poorly demarcated, focally necrotic with ulcerated overlying skin.
  • In one area, the tumor was lobular and composed of tubular structures lined with one layer of uniform cuboidal or columnar eosinophilic cells, indicating a pre-existing apocrine adenoma.
  • Beneath the tumor, in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue, hyperplastic apocrine glands were also found.
  • No additional therapy was used, and one year after the surgery the patient was alive and showed no signs of tumor spread.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17868540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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9. Yang J, Hu A, Wang L, Li B, Chen Y, Zhao W, Xu W, Li T: NOEY2 mutations in primary breast cancers and breast hyperplasia. Breast; 2009 Jun;18(3):197-203
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  • NOEY2 gene mutations were not correlated with patient ages, histological types, tumour sizes, histological grades, clinical stages, axillary lymph node metastases or with the condition of hormone receptor (ER, PR) expression and HER2 amplification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 19482475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
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10. Haid A, Knauer M, Köberle-Wührer R, Ammann K, Koller L, Eiter H, Lang A, Wenzl E: Medium-term follow-up data after sentinel node biopsy alone for breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec;32(10):1180-5
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  • AIMS: In patients with early breast cancer sentinel node biopsy (SNB) proved to be an accurate procedure for axillary staging with significantly reduced morbidity.
  • 180 patients had SNB alone (group 1), while 118 subsequently underwent axillary dissection (AD; group 2).
  • In ten patients AD was omitted despite the tumor burden in the SN.
  • One patient in group 1 developed axillary and simultaneous supraclavicular lymph node recurrence.
  • Five patients in group 1 and 15 patients in group 2 developed distant metastases.
  • All patients with SN tumor infiltration not subjected to AD are alive and well.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Axillary recurrence is rare after sentinel node biopsy alone.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16750344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Huston TL, Pressman PI, Moore A, Vahdat L, Hoda SA, Kato M, Weinstein D, Tousimis E: The presentation of contralateral axillary lymph node metastases from breast carcinoma: a clinical management dilemma. Breast J; 2007 Mar-Apr;13(2):158-64
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  • [Title] The presentation of contralateral axillary lymph node metastases from breast carcinoma: a clinical management dilemma.
  • Metastases to the contralateral axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients are uncommon.
  • Involvement of the contralateral axilla is a manifestation of systemic disease (stage IV) or a regional metastasis from a new occult primary (T0N1, stage II).
  • The uncertain laterality of the cancer responsible for these metastases complicates overall disease staging and is a management dilemma for clinicians.
  • Seven women who developed contralateral axillary metastases (CAM), but did not have evidence of systemic disease were identified.
  • Patient demographics, histopathologic tumor characteristics, treatment and outcome were examined.
  • There was a median interval of 71 months between initial breast cancer diagnosis and CAM presentation.
  • Surgical management of the CAM included simple excision in one (14%) and axillary lymph node dissection in five (71%).
  • The median follow-up from the diagnosis of CAM was 35 months and three women were alive without disease, two were alive with disease and two had died of disease.
  • With surgical treatment, there were no axillary recurrences in this series.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17319857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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12. Sakorafas GH, Farley DR, Peros G: Recent advances and current controversies in the management of DCIS of the breast. Cancer Treat Rev; 2008 Oct;34(6):483-97
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  • Recent advances in the diagnosis of DCIS include using magnetic resonance imaging, and the use of stereotactic-guided directional vacuum-assisted biopsy (DVAB).
  • Axillary lymph node dissection is not required for the management of DCIS; however, during the last decade, sentinel lymph node biopsy is increasingly used to exclude the presence of axillary metastases (when invasive disease is present within the DCIS).
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18490111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
  • [Number-of-references] 204
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13. Silva VA, Kataguiri P, Trufelli DC, Matos LL, Neves-Pereira JC, Campos JR: [Pulmonary hamartoma as a differential diagnosis of breast cancer metastasis: case report]. J Bras Pneumol; 2007 Nov-Dec;33(6):738-42
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary hamartoma as a differential diagnosis of breast cancer metastasis: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Hamartoma pulmonar como diagnóstico diferencial de metástase de carcinoma de mama: relato de caso.
  • The patient had a history of mastectomy and ipsilateral axillary lymphadenectomy for invasive ductal breast carcinoma, as well as of hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • Recent studies show that 75% of patients who undergo surgery for pulmonary nodules after a curative mastectomy for breast cancer present lung metastases, 11.5% present primary lung cancer, and 13.5% present benign lesions, including hamartoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18200376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça̋o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Pneumol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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1
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4. Usmani S, Khan HA, Javed A, Al Mohannadi S, Al Huda FA, Al Shammary I: Functional breast imaging with Tc 99m Mibi for detection of primary breast lesion and axillary lymph node metastases. Gulf J Oncolog; 2008 Jul;(4):52-7
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  • [Title] Functional breast imaging with Tc 99m Mibi for detection of primary breast lesion and axillary lymph node metastases.
  • The principle aim is to study the utility of Tc- MIBI scintimammography in evaluation of breast cancer and lymph node metastases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 patients both with breast lumps or/and axillary masses suspected breast cancer on clinical examination and/or at conventional imaging procedures (CIP's) were included in this study.
  • All patients had histopathology for tissue diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: There were 36 patients who presented with breast lesions (30 palpable, 6 non-palpable) and 8 patients with axillary lump.
  • In case of axillary lump, it was true positive in 4 and true negative in 2 patients.
  • However sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy for axially metastasis were 86%, 67%, 80%, 67% and 75% respectively. (P-value <0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: It is concluded from the study that SMM has good diagnostic accuracy in the detection of breast cancer specially in palpable lesion and lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 20084776.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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15. Ranieri E, Larcinese A, Barberi S, Caprio G, Naticchioni E, Civitelli L, Paglicci C, Pagni P, Zancla S, Rengo M, Di Giorgio A: [Quadrantectomy and removal of the sentinel lymph node under local anaesthesia in the day hospital setting]. Chir Ital; 2008 May-Jun;60(3):391-4
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  • The aim of this study, after thorough analysis of the axillary lymph nodes with ultrasound and cytological examinations, was to assess whether it would be possible to distinguish between negative and metastatic lymph nodes and whether the operation could be performed under local anaesthesia without hospitalisation.
  • From January 2005 to January 2007, 54 breast carcinoma patients with negative axillary lymph nodes (after ultrasound examination) had a quadrantectomy and sentinel lymph node removal under local anaesthesia together with sedation where appropriate.
  • Our data show that, thanks to thorough analysis of the axillary cavity, it may be possible to use the sentinel lymph node approach with a good chance of the patient remaining free of distant metastases and of operating under local anaesthesia.

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  • (PMID = 18709777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Motomura K, Nagumo S, Komoike Y, Koyama H, Inaji H: Intraoperative imprint cytology for the diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(4):350-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative imprint cytology for the diagnosis of sentinel node metastases in breast cancer.
  • Accurate intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node metastases enables the selection of patients for axillary lymph node dissection, thus avoiding an unnecessary additional operation in patients with false-negative results.
  • False-positive imprint cytology results that lead to an unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection are very rare.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytodiagnosis / methods. False Negative Reactions. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17986799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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17. Vrdoljak DV, Knezevic F, Ramljak V: The relation between tumor marker Ca 15-3 and metastases in interpectoral lymph nodes in breast cancer patients. Saudi Med J; 2006 Apr;27(4):460-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relation between tumor marker Ca 15-3 and metastases in interpectoral lymph nodes in breast cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: We aimed at analyzing the metastatic involvement in interpectoral (Rotter's) lymph nodes (RLN) in relation to tumor marker CA 15-3.
  • Levels of the serum tumor marker CA 15-3 was determined prior to surgery.
  • RESULTS: Rotter's lymph nodes were identified in 66.2% of the patients, with metastatic involvement revealed in 18.6% of the RLNs.
  • Metastatic involvement of RLNs in patients with negative axillary lymph nodes was 2.8% and positive in 34.6%.
  • Elevated serum levels of tumor marker CA 15-3 had 22 (12.4%) patients.
  • Of 33 Rotter's node-positive patients, 27.3% had elevated serum levels of tumor marker CA 15-3 and in Rotter's node-negative patients only 9% had elevated serum levels of tumor marker CA 15-3, with the level statistically significantly higher in Rotter's positive patients compared to those with negative (or absent) RLNs (chi2=8.22, p=0.004).
  • CONCLUSION: Tumor marker CA 15-3 is more frequently elevated in patients with positive RLNs.
  • Elevated values of tumor marker CA 15-3 could be warning for possible positive interpectoral nodes.
  • The removal of the RLNs may be beneficial for patients with (massive) axillary nodal involvement.
  • For axillary node negative patients, sentinel node biopsy could avoid the unnecessary removal of the RLNs.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / blood. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / secondary. Mucin-1 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16598320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucin-1
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18. Takács T, Paszt A, Szentpáli K, Ormándi K, Lázár M, Pálka I, Kahán Z, Lázár G: Importance of sentinel lymph node biopsy in surgical therapy of in situ breast cancer. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Sep;15(3):329-33
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  • The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the rate of sentinel lymph node (SLN) positivity in patients with a final diagnosis of ductal in situ cancer (DCIS) of the breast.
  • In these cases, axillary sampling was performed.
  • Histologic analysis of the SLNs and the axillary lymph nodes with haematoxylin and eosin or cytokeratin immunohistochemistry did not prove the presence of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19023676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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19. Schoppmann SF, Fenzl A, Schindl M, Bachleitner-Hofmann T, Nagy K, Gnant M, Horvat R, Jakesz R, Birner P: Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha correlates with VEGF-C expression and lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Sep;99(2):135-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The transcription factor Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays a crucial role in tumor progression by regulating angiogenesis, cell survival and drug resistance.
  • HIF-1alpha is also implicated in biological functions under normoxic conditions and recent data provide evidence for a possible role in tumor lymphangiogenesis by regulating the lymphatic vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C).
  • In breast cancer, lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) by tumor cells and subsequent metastasis to axillary lymph nodes is a critical point in progression of the disease with severe therapeutical and prognostic implications.
  • Our data provide evidence for a possible role of HIF-1alpha as regulator of tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis in human breast cancer and emphasizes the promising status of HIF-1alpha as a therapeutical target against tumor progression and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16555123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / VEGFC protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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20. Hainsworth JD, Fizazi K: Treatment for patients with unknown primary cancer and favorable prognostic factors. Semin Oncol; 2009 Feb;36(1):44-51
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  • Patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site are heterogeneous with respect to clinical and pathologic features.
  • Specific subsets include women with peritoneal carcinomatosis, women with isolated axillary lymph node metastases, adenocarcinoma presenting as a single metastatic lesion, young men with features of extragonadal germ cell tumor, squamous carcinoma involving cervical or inguinal lymph nodes, and neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19179187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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21. Piekarski JH, Biernat W: Clinical significance of CK5/6 and PTEN protein expression in patients with bilateral breast carcinoma. Histopathology; 2006 Sep;49(3):248-55
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  • The hazard ratio of development of distant metastasis in patients in whom at least one cancer was CK5/6+ was 99.8 (P=0.037) and in patients with at least one carcinoma with reduced PTEN expression it was 10.8 (P=0.044).
  • Reduced PTEN expression was correlated with presence of axillary metastases (P<0.01), with very strong expression of c-erbB-2 (P<0.05) and with reduced expression of oestrogen receptor (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Genes, erbB-2. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53


22. Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Huovinen R, Jukkola-Vuorinen A, Tanner M, Asola R, Kokko R, Ahlgren J, Auvinen P, Hemminki A, Paija O, Helle L, Nuortio L, Villman K, Nilsson G, Lahtela SL, Lehtiö K, Pajunen M, Poikonen P, Nyandoto P, Kataja V, Bono P, Leinonen M, Lindman H, FinXX Study Investigators: Adjuvant capecitabine in combination with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide plus epirubicin for breast cancer: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Dec;10(12):1145-51
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  • METHODS: In this open-label trial, we randomly assigned (centrally by computer; stratified by node status, HER2 status, and centre) 1500 women with axillary node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer to either three cycles of capecitabine and docetaxel followed by three cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and capecitabine (capecitabine group, n=753), or to three cycles of docetaxel followed by three cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil (control group, n=747).
  • FINDINGS: Two patients in each group were excluded from efficacy analyses because of withdrawal of consent or distant metastases.

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2009 Dec;10(12):1132-3 [19906560.001]
  • (PMID = 19906561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00114816
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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23. Sawaki M, Ito Y, Akiyama F, Tokudome N, Horii R, Mizunuma N, Takahashi S, Horikoshi N, Imai T, Nakao A, Kasumi F, Sakamoto G, Hatake K: High prevalence of HER-2/neu and p53 overexpression in inflammatory breast cancer. Breast Cancer; 2006;13(2):172-8
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  • All patients had biopsy-proven carcinomas but no distant metastases at referral.
  • The median age at diagnosis for IBC was 51.8 (range, 28 to 70).
  • Patients presenting with less than ten pathologically involved axillary lymph nodes showed significantly better OS and DFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cause of Death. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis


24. Park HS, Park S, Kim JH, Lee JH, Choi SY, Park BW, Lee KS: Clinicopathologic features and outcomes of metaplastic breast carcinoma: comparison with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Yonsei Med J; 2010 Nov;51(6):864-9
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  • RESULTS: Stage IV cases at diagnosis were more common in MBC (10.3%) than in IDC (0.9%).
  • Larger tumors (> 2 cm) and lower tendency of axillary metastasis were frequently observed in MBC.
  • CONCLUSION: MBC was characterized by a higher incidence of TNBC, larger tumor size, and lower tendency of axillary metastasis, and was difficult to diagnose with CNB.
  • Although the incidence of stage IV disease at diagnosis was higher in MBC, the survival rates of stage I-III were comparable to those of IDC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Incidence. Medical Oncology / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20879052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1976-2437
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2995974
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25. An JK, Oh KK, Jung WH: Soft-tissue axillary masses (excluding metastases from breast cancer): sonographic appearances and correlative imaging. J Clin Ultrasound; 2005 Jul-Aug;33(6):288-97
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  • [Title] Soft-tissue axillary masses (excluding metastases from breast cancer): sonographic appearances and correlative imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / ultrasonography. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Medical Illustration. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Choristoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis. Lymphatic Diseases / ultrasonography. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16134157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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26. Rydén L, Chebil G, Sjöström L, Pawlowski R, Jönsson PE: Determination of sentinel lymph node (SLN) status in primary breast cancer by prospective use of immunohistochemistry increases the rate of micrometastases and isolated tumour cells: analysis of 174 patients after SLN biopsy. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;33(1):33-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prospective use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for histopathological diagnosis of sentinel lymph node(s) (SLN) in primary breast cancer using stage migration and non-SLN metastases as endpoints in relation to metastatic involvement.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed in all cases with macrometastases, micrometastases and isolated tumour cells (ITC).
  • RESULTS: The SLN was found in 173/174 patients and a metastatic foci was found in 50 patients including 28/50 with macrometastases, 16/50 with micrometastases and 6/50 with ITC.
  • Non-SLN metastases were noted in 15/28 of patients with macrometastases and in 3/16 of patients with micrometastases, whereas no patient with ITC had additional metastases (p=0.007).
  • CONCLUSION: The prospective use of IHC and serial sectioning for histopathological diagnosis of SLNs increased the detection rate of N1mi and ITC, but only 3/132 patients were stage-migrated by use of IHC.
  • Patients with ITC did not have any risk of non-SLN metastases, supporting that ALND can safely be omitted in this group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 17174513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Helms G, Kühn T, Moser L, Remmel E, Kreienberg R: Shoulder-arm morbidity in patients with sentinel node biopsy and complete axillary dissection--data from a prospective randomised trial. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Jul;35(7):696-701
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  • [Title] Shoulder-arm morbidity in patients with sentinel node biopsy and complete axillary dissection--data from a prospective randomised trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as part of surgical treatment in breast cancer has been the standard procedure for many decades.
  • Recently, sentinel node (SN) biopsy has been established as a new standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer.
  • METHOD: Between November 2000 and September 2002, 181 women with early stage breast cancer underwent primary surgery following preoperative randomisation into two groups, a "standard group" (SN biopsy was followed by ALND) and a study group (surgical procedure consisting of only SN biopsy when histologically metastasis-free SN was present).
  • Ninety three patients underwent ALND, 57 of which had lymph nodes free of metastasis and 36 had lymph nodes with metastasis and axillary clearing.
  • [MeSH-minor] Arm. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphedema. Morbidity. Muscle Strength. Pain. Range of Motion, Articular. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / adverse effects. Shoulder. Shoulder Joint

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  • (PMID = 18838245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Cunningham JE, Jurj AL, Oman L, Stonerock AE, Nitcheva DK, Cupples TE: Is risk of axillary lymph node metastasis associated with proximity of breast cancer to the skin? Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Dec;100(3):319-28
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  • [Title] Is risk of axillary lymph node metastasis associated with proximity of breast cancer to the skin?
  • INTRODUCTION: Risk of axillary lymph node metastasis, the most important predictor of disease-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients, is estimated primarily from histologic features of the primary cancer including tumor size, histologic type and grade, and hormone receptor expression.
  • Based upon a clinical impression, and research showing that palpable cancers are more likely to be node positive, we hypothesized that primary breast cancers more proximal to the skin of the breast are more likely to be positive for axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • RESULTS: None of the 26 cancers more than 14 mm from the skin had metastasized to axillary lymph nodes.
  • In logistic regression modeling only tumor size, histologic grade and tumor proximity to the skin (as a categorical variable) were significantly associated with odds of axillary metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stage T1 and T2 breast cancers located less proximally to the skin may be less likely to spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
  • We observed what appears to be a threshold at approximately 14 mm from the skin (based upon this group of patients): none of 26 cancers below this level had spread to axillary nodes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Odds Ratio. Palpation. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. South Carolina / epidemiology. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16823512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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29. Siponen E, Hukkinen K, Heikkilä P, Joensuu H, Leidenius M: Surgical treatment in Paget's disease of the breast. Am J Surg; 2010 Aug;200(2):241-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Eighteen patients underwent SNB, and 26 patients underwent full or partial axillary clearance.
  • Fourteen patients had no axillary surgery.
  • One patient had local recurrence after breast conservation, and another had axillary recurrence after negative results on SNB.
  • Six patients had distant metastases.
  • MRI may be helpful when considering breast conservation or omitting axillary nodal staging.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Breast / pathology. Breast / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20678619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Buchanan CL, Morris EA, Dorn PL, Borgen PI, Van Zee KJ: Utility of breast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with occult primary breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1045-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Although carcinoma presenting as axillary metastases is assumed to be due to breast cancer, identification of the primary lesion may prove problematic.
  • We investigated the ability of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify the primary tumor, thereby confirming the diagnosis and broadening treatment options.
  • RESULTS: Of 69 patients, 55 had axillary adenopathy without evidence of distant disease (stage II); 14 had stage IV disease.
  • In 62% (26 of 42), the MRI finding proved to be the occult primary tumor.
  • MRI did not identify the primary tumor in 25 women; 12 underwent mastectomy.
  • In women with stage IV disease, MRI identified the primary tumor in 5 of 9 patients with regional adenopathy and 2 of 5 patients with distant disease (overall 50%; 7 of 14).
  • MRI identified the primary tumor in women with both mammographically dense (19 of 44; 43%) and less dense (10 of 20; 50%) breasts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast MRI detects mammographically occult cancer in half of women with axillary metastases, regardless of breast density.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography. Mastectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16244803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Nagata Y, Ono K, Shimokawa H, Yamazaki M, Takenaka M, Yamada S, Hanagiri T: [Three cases of spindle cell carcinoma of the breast]. J UOEH; 2010 Dec 1;32(4):341-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The females were 26, 52, and 58 years old, and the tumor diameters were 3.5, 3.5, and 9.0 cm, respectively.
  • A cystic lesion accompanied by necrosis was observed in the tumor of two of the three patients.
  • Axillary lymph node metastasis was pathologically diagnosed in one of the three patients.
  • One patient died of pulmonary, bone, and brain metastases 2 years after the operation, but the other two have followed a favorable course without recurrence for 5 years since the surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21229727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0387-821X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of UOEH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. UOEH
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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32. Nohara T, Sakai A, Fuse H, Imamura Y: [Metastatic malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Nov;100(7):707-11
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  • [Title] [Metastatic malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder: a case report].
  • A 62-year-old male underwent resection of malignant melanoma of left breast skin in 2006.
  • In 2007, he underwent lymph node dissection and chemotherapy (DAV-feron therapy) for left axillary lymph nodes metastasis.
  • As malignant melanoma cells were found on urinary cytology, a diagnosis of metastatic malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder was made.
  • It was thought that tumor resection would not contribute to prognostic improvement because of multiple lymph node metastases.
  • Therefore, tumor resection was not performed.
  • This is the eleventh case of metastatic malignant melanoma of the urinary bladder to be reported in the Japanese literature.
  • There have been no previous reports of cases in which urinary cytology was positive for malignant melanoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Humans. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19999137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; DAV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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33. Tagaya N, Yamazaki R, Nakagawa A, Abe A, Hamada K, Kubota K, Oyama T: Intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in patients with breast cancer. Am J Surg; 2008 Jun;195(6):850-3
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  • Subcutaneous lymphatic channels draining from the areola to the axilla were immediately showed by fluorescence imaging.
  • After incising the axillary skin near the point of disappearance of the fluorescence, the SLN was dissected under fluorescence guidance.
  • Eight patients were found to have lymph node metastases pathologically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Indigo Carmine. Indocyanine Green. Intraoperative Period. Lymph Nodes. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18353274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; D3741U8K7L / Indigo Carmine; IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
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34. Liu MT, Huang WT, Wang AY, Huang CC, Huang CY, Chang TH, Pi CP, Yang HH: Prediction of outcome of patients with metastatic breast cancer: evaluation with prognostic factors and Nottingham prognostic index. Support Care Cancer; 2010 Dec;18(12):1553-64
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  • [Title] Prediction of outcome of patients with metastatic breast cancer: evaluation with prognostic factors and Nottingham prognostic index.
  • GOALS OF WORK: The purpose of this study is to analyze the survival rate of patients with metastatic breast cancer and to evaluate the outcome of these patients using prognostic factors and Nottingham prognostic index.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 1992 to August 2008, 135 patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated at the Changhua Christian Hospital.
  • In these patients, we evaluated the significance of the following factors in predicting the survival rate after the occurrence of metastasis: age, initial stage at primary diagnosis, histological grade, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor status, human epidermoid growth factor receptor 2 overexpression status, number of axillary lymph node metastasis, history of adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, disease-free interval, status of local recurrence, status of various sites of distant metastases, number of distant metastases, and Nottingham prognostic index.
  • In the univariate analysis, KPS, histological grade, ER status, initial stage at primary diagnosis, number of axillary lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, disease-free interval, first-/second-/third-line chemotherapy for recurrence or metastasis, number of metastases, and Nottingham prognostic index had significant impact on survival.
  • In our multivariate analysis, Karnofsky performance status (p = 0.030) and Nottingham prognostic index (p ≤ 0.0001) were significant prognostic factors for survival, while first-/second-/third-line chemotherapy for recurrence or metastasis (p = 0.002) was a significant predictor for the outcome of the treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of patients with metastatic breast cancer is poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate. Taiwan. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19904562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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35. Heusner TA, Freudenberg LS, Kuehl H, Hauth EA, Veit-Haibach P, Forsting M, Bockisch A, Antoch G: Whole-body PET/CT-mammography for staging breast cancer: initial results. Br J Radiol; 2008 Sep;81(969):743-8
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  • The size of axillary areas, the number of intra-axillary lymph nodes, their transverse diameters, their SUV(max) and the number of distant metastases were compared between PP and SP images.
  • The axillary area was wider in the PP when compared with SP (PP, 14.4 cm(2); SP, 10.6 cm(2); p<0.001).
  • Even though the axilla may be delineated more clearly in the PP, there seems to be no benefit with regard to N-staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Mammography / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Axilla / radionuclide imaging. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18508873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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36. Guth AA, Shanker BA, Roses DF, Axelrod D, Singh B, Toth H, Shapiro RL, Hiotis K, Diflo T, Cangiarella JF: A decade of change: an institutional experience with breast surgery in 1995 and 2005. Breast Cancer (Auckl); 2008;1:51-5
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  • Earlier stage invasive cancers are being detected, reflected by the lower incidence of axillary nodal metastases.

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  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer : basic and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer (Auckl)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3091402
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; breast cancer / breast cancer trends / breast radiology / breast surgery / sentinel nodes
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37. Bräutigam E, Track C, Seewald DH, Feichtinger J, Spiegl K, Hammer J: Medial tumor localization in breast cancer--an unappreciated risk factor? Strahlenther Onkol; 2009 Oct;185(10):663-8
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  • [Title] Medial tumor localization in breast cancer--an unappreciated risk factor?
  • Treatment protocols involved breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy in all women, followed by a tumor bed boost dose according to risk factors for local recurrence.
  • All axillary node-positive patients underwent systemic therapy (six cycles of classic CMF and/or 2-5 years of tamoxifen 20 mg/day).
  • There was no significant difference in local tumor control according to tumor location.
  • CONCLUSION: Medial tumor location is associated with a lower survival rate, but not with inferior local tumor control.
  • Failure to identify nodal metastases confined to the internal mammary chain may lead to undertreatment with systemic/local agents and compromised survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / mortality. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19806331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-099X
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Rontgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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38. Kebudi A, Calişkan C, Yetkin G, Celebi S, Işgör A, Mesrur Halefoğlu A, Ezdeşir R, Akgün I: The role of pre-operative B mode ultrasound in the evaluation of the axillary lymph node metastases in the initial staging of breast carcinoma. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 Sep-Oct;105(5):511-4
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  • [Title] The role of pre-operative B mode ultrasound in the evaluation of the axillary lymph node metastases in the initial staging of breast carcinoma.
  • Physical examination alone is not sufficient to assess axillary metastases.
  • Mammographic examination can give us an idea about breast cancer and axillary involvement.
  • Ultrasonographic evaluation can improve the sensitivity of clinical and mammographic examination in assessing axillary lymph node status.
  • In the study, we used axillary B mode ultrasound to evaluate the axillary lymph nodes.
  • Axillary B mode ultrasound was performed to evaluate the axillary lymph nodes for metastatic involvement.
  • L/W ratio below 2 and parameters above 2 cm were accepted as malignant findings.
  • 168 lymph nodes in 42 patients were evaluated pre-operatively with axillary B mode ultrasound.
  • As a result, these lymph nodes were defined as benign in 19 patients (45.2%) and malignant in 23 patients (54.8%).
  • Axillary lymph node status was found as benign in 18 patients (42.9%) and malignant in 24 patients (57.1%) pathologically .
  • Comparative results of ultrasound and axillary lymph node status can be seen on Table III.
  • As a result, the sensitivity of axillary B mode ultrasound to show the metastases was found as 79.1%, specificity was 77.7%, positive predictive value 82.6% and negative predictive value 73.6%.
  • We think some better results may be obtained in the future and these developments may affect the surgeon's decisions concerning axillary dissection for breast cancer operations.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16315836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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39. Bedrosian I, Babiera GV, Mittendorf EA, Kuerer HM, Pantoja L, Hunt KK, Krishnamurthy S, Meric-Bernstam F: A phase I study to assess the feasibility and oncologic safety of axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer patients. Cancer; 2010 Jun 1;116(11):2543-8
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  • [Title] A phase I study to assess the feasibility and oncologic safety of axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a novel technique to preserve upper extremity lymphatics that may reduce the incidence of lymphedema after axillary lymph node dissection.
  • Early reports have suggested that ARM lymph nodes do not contain metastatic disease from breast cancer; however, these studies were conducted in early stage patients with low likelihood of lymph node metastasis.
  • This study reported a phase 1 trial conducted in patients with cytologically documented axillary metastasis undergoing axillary lymph node dissection to determine the feasibility and oncologic safety of ARM.
  • RESULTS: The average time between blue dye injection and axillary exposure was 35 minutes (range, 15-60 minutes).
  • The median number of ARM lymph nodes was 1 (range, 0-3 lymph nodes) and the median number of axillary lymph nodes was 26 (range, 6-47 lymph nodes).
  • Axillary metastases were noted in 60% (18 of 30) of patients.
  • Of 11 patients who had axillary metastasis and at least 1 ARM lymph node identified, 2 (18%) had metastasis to the ARM lymph node.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ARM appears to be a feasible technique with which to identify upper arm lymphatics during axillary surgery.
  • However, the high prevalence of disease involving ARM lymph nodes in this small cohort suggested that preservation of these lymphatics is not oncologically safe in women with documented axillary lymph node metastasis from breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphedema / prevention & control. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20336790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS668485; NLM/ PMC4406355
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40. Mansi JL, Yellowlees A, Lipscombe J, Earl HM, Cameron DA, Coleman RE, Perren T, Gallagher CJ, Quigley M, Crown J, Jones AL, Highley M, Leonard RC, Evans TR: Five-year outcome for women randomised in a phase III trial comparing doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide with doxorubicin and docetaxel as primary medical therapy in early breast cancer: an Anglo-Celtic Cooperative Oncology Group study. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Aug;122(3):787-94
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  • Eligible patients with histologic-proven breast cancer with primary tumours > or = 3 cm, inflammatory or locally advanced disease, and no evidence of distant metastases, were randomised to receive a maximum of 6 cycles of either doxorubicin (60 mg/m(2)) plus cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) i/v or doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2)) plus docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)) i/v every 3 weeks, followed by surgery on completion of chemotherapy.
  • Time to relapse, site of relapse, and all-cause mortality were recorded.
  • The number of patients with positive axillary nodes at surgery with AC was 61% and AD 66% (P = 0.36).
  • Deaths were due to metastatic breast cancer in 96% of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20559708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 11650
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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41. Argon AM, Duygun U, Acar E, Daglioz G, Yenjay L, Zekioglu O, Kapkac M: The use of periareolar intradermal Tc-99m tin colloid and peritumoral intraparenchymal isosulfan blue dye injections for determination of the sentinel lymph node. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Dec;31(12):795-800
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  • Backup axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was mandatory in group 1 (20 patients) regardless of their lymph node status.
  • In group 2 (80 patients), complete ALND was performed when intraoperative frozen section analysis of SLN revealed metastases.
  • Twenty minutes before surgery, isosulfan blue dye was injected into parenchyma surrounding the tumor or the biopsy cavity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17117076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Rosaniline Dyes; 0 / Technetium Compounds; 0 / Tin Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m tin colloid; 39N9K8S2A4 / iso-sulfan blue
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42. Davis WG, Hennessy B, Babiera G, Hunt K, Valero V, Buchholz TA, Sneige N, Gilcrease MZ: Metaplastic sarcomatoid carcinoma of the breast with absent or minimal overt invasive carcinomatous component: a misnomer. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Nov;29(11):1456-63
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  • 1) an invasive carcinomatous component identifiable on hematoxylin and eosin stains comprising less than 5% of the invasive tumor; or 2) associated ductal carcinoma in situ; or 3) immunohistochemical expression of keratin in the sarcomatoid areas.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection or limited axillary node excision was performed in 17 patients, including 1 patient who had a sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • Lymph node involvement occurred in only 1 patient and consisted of a single 3.5-mm metastasis.
  • Ten patients experienced local relapse, including 7 of 11 patients treated with breast-conserving surgery, and 9 developed distant metastases, most frequently to the lungs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2006 Aug;30(8):1052-3; author reply 1053-5 [16861980.001]
  • (PMID = 16224212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Bonomo A: [Staging role of micrometastatic sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer]. Minerva Chir; 2005 Aug;60(4):243-55
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  • AIM: Axillary dissection may be avoided in patients with breast cancer and negative sentinel lymph node (SL); not all metastatic SL patients show metastasis on the remaining axillary lymph nodes.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of metastases in the remaining axillary lymphatic glands, the so called not-SL, in patients with SL either macro- or micrometastatic, and to try to locate a subgroup of patients in which metastases are present only in SL.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 91 patients who from March 2000 to June 2003 underwent a biopsy of SL and dissection of the axillary cavity (23 patients with micrometastatic SL and 68 with macrometastatic SL).
  • A multivariate analysis evaluated the statistic association with not-SL metastases of almost 22 prognostic factors.
  • RESULTS: Of the 68 patients affected by macrometastatic SL, 32 (47%) showed metastases of the not-SL; of the 23 patients with micrometastatic SL, 7 (30%) showed metastases of the not-SL.
  • During year 2000, 3 (50%) patients out of 6 with micrometastatic SL showed metastases at the not-SL; during years 2002/2003 no patients out of 8 with micrometastatic SL showed metastases at the not-SL.
  • A multivariate analysis showed only 2 factors significantly associated to the metastatic not-SL: age (cut off 60 years) OR 4.6, P 0.003 and histological examination of the SL OR 2.8, P 0.003.
  • The predictive disease value of the remaining axillary lymphatic glands of the micrometastatic SL reached the null percentage in the last 2 years, therefore at seems to depend on the operators experience in SL biopsy technique.
  • Among patients with metastatic SL (micro and macro), it was not possible to detect a subgroup in which not-SL are not metastatic with reasonable certainty.
  • Nevertheless, a multivariate analysis showed the histological factor of the SL, to be significantly associated to not-SL metastases, as well as to the age-factor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16166923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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44. Meretoja TJ, Jahkola TA, Toivonen TS, Krogerus LA, Heikkilä PS, von Smitten KA, Leidenius MH: Sentinel node biopsy with intraoperative diagnosis in patients undergoing skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;33(10):1146-9
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  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy with intraoperative diagnosis in patients undergoing skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction.
  • AIMS: False negative cases in the intraoperative assessment of sentinel node (SN) metastases in breast cancer prompt for a secondary axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • Such ALND is technically demanding and prone to complications in patients with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) if there is a microvascular anastomosis or the thoracodorsal pedicle of a latissimus dorsi flap in the axilla.
  • This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of the intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in breast cancer patients undergoing IBR.
  • METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing SNB with the intraoperative diagnosis of SN metastases simultaneously with mastectomy and IBR between 2004 and 2006 were included in this study.
  • Results of the SNB and especially the false negative cases in the intraoperative diagnosis were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Eleven patients had tumor positive SN.
  • The two false negative cases in the intraoperative diagnosis constituted of isolated tumor cells only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our present study suggests that SNB with intraoperative diagnosis of SN metastases is feasible in patients undergoing IBR if the risk of nodal metastasis is low and the sensitivity of intraoperative SNB diagnosis is high.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. False Negative Reactions. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mammaplasty. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17462851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Lee JH, Kim SH, Suh YJ, Shim BY, Kim HK: Predictors of axillary lymph node metastases (ALNM) in a Korean population with T1-2 breast carcinoma: triple negative breast cancer has a high incidence of ALNM irrespective of the tumor size. Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Mar;42(1):30-6
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  • [Title] Predictors of axillary lymph node metastases (ALNM) in a Korean population with T1-2 breast carcinoma: triple negative breast cancer has a high incidence of ALNM irrespective of the tumor size.
  • PURPOSE: We estimated the likelihood of breast cancer patients having axillary lymph node metastases (ALNM) based on a variety of clinical and pathologic factors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred sixty-one breast cancer patients without distant metastases and who underwent breast conserving surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) (level I and II) or modified radical mastectomy (MRM) were identified, and we retrospectively reviewed their pathology records and treatment charts.
  • RESULTS: Positive axillary lymph nodes were detected in 104 patients for an overall incidence of 28.8%: 2 patients (5%) with T1a tumor, 5 (9.2%) with T1b tumor, 24 (21.8%) with T1c tumor and 73 (44.2%) with T2 tumor.
  • On the multivariate analysis, an increased tumor size (adjusted OR=11.87, p=0.02), the presence of lymphovascular invasion (adjusted OR=7.41, p<0.01), a triple negative profile (ER/PR-, Her2-) (adjusted OR=2.09, p=0.04) and a palpable mass at the time of diagnosis (adjusted OR=2.31, p=0.03) were all significant independent factors for positive ALNM.
  • CONCLUSION: In our study, the tumor size, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, a triple negative profile and a palpable mass were the independent predictive factors for ALNM.
  • The tumor size was the strongest predictor of ALNM.
  • Thus, the exact estimation of the extent of tumor is necessary for clinicians to optimize the patients' care.
  • Patients with a triple negative profile have a high incidence of ALNM irrespective of the tumor size.

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  • (PMID = 20369049.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-9256
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2848750
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Axillary lymph node / Breast neoplasms / Predictor
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46. Cabibi D, Calascibetta A, Martorana A, Campione M, Barresi E, Rausa L, Aragona F, Sanguedolce R: Different expression of thymidylate synthase in primary tumour and metastatic nodes in breast cancer patients. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4B):2227-30
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  • [Title] Different expression of thymidylate synthase in primary tumour and metastatic nodes in breast cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: To date an accurate evaluation of predictive markers in breast cancer is mainly conducted at the primary site, although the main goal of the adjuvant therapy is the control of micrometastases.
  • In this study the TS levels in primary tumours were compared to those of their metastases.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The TS expression and Ki-67 were evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry in 80 primary breast tumours (PTs) and in their matched axillary metastatic lymph-nodes (ALNs).
  • RESULTS: In 16% of patients, malignant cells of involved nodes showed a lower TS expression than the PTs.
  • In the same group, we also found a lower number of Ki-67 immunoreactive cells in lymph node metastases when compared with primary tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: The group of patients with lower TS and Ki-67 expression in lymph node metastatic cells may be less sensitive to 5-fluorouracil and high dose methotrexate requiring them to be treated with other drug combinations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17695507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase
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47. Niikura N, Ueno NT: The Role of F-FDG-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Staging Primary Breast Cancer. J Cancer; 2010 Jun 22;1:51-3
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  • Despite Medicare approving the use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in staging primary breast cancer, little evidence is available to support the use of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT for the detection of distant metastases in the initial staging of breast cancer.
  • We discuss studies comparing PET/CT with conventional imaging for diagnosing distant metastases and axillary and extra-axillary lymph node metastases.

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  • (PMID = 20842224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1837-9664
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2931351
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; PET/CT / breast cancer / distant metastases / primary staging
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48. Yang WT, Dryden MJ, Gwyn K, Whitman GJ, Theriault R: Imaging of breast cancer diagnosed and treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy. Radiology; 2006 Apr;239(1):52-60
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  • US assessment of the regional lymph node basins, including the axillary, infraclavicular, internal mammary, and supraclavicular regions, was documented.
  • The histologic diagnosis of the primary tumor was invasive ductal cancer in 22 lesions, and the diagnosis was invasive carcinoma in the two other cancers.
  • US correctly depicted axillary metastasis in 15 of 18 women who underwent US nodal assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mammography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color


49. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Hansen NM, Bethke KP, Rademaker AW, Ko CY, Winchester DP, Winchester DJ: Comparison of sentinel lymph node biopsy alone and completion axillary lymph node dissection for node-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Jun 20;27(18):2946-53
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  • [Title] Comparison of sentinel lymph node biopsy alone and completion axillary lymph node dissection for node-positive breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: For women with breast cancer, the role of completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after identification of nodal metastases by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been questioned.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From the National Cancer Data Base (1998 to 2005), women with clinically node-negative breast cancer who underwent SLNB and who had nodal metastases were identified.
  • In patients with macroscopic nodal metastases (n = 20,075 during 1998 to 2000), there was a nonsignificant trend toward better outcomes for completion ALND (v SLNB alone) after analysis was adjusted for differences between the two groups: axillary recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.06) and overall survival (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.04).
  • In patients with microscopic nodal metastases (n = 2,203 during 1998 to 2000), there were no significant differences in axillary recurrence or survival for patients who underwent SLNB alone versus completion ALND.
  • CONCLUSION: Compared with SLNB alone, completion ALND does not appear to improve outcomes for breast cancer patients with microscopic nodal metastases; however, there was a nonsignificant trend toward better outcomes with completion ALND for those with macroscopic disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19364968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Szaluś N, Chciałowski A, From S, Zagrodzka M, Pietrzykowski J, Dziuk E: [Fusion of pulmonary scintigraphy with Tc99m-depreotide imaging with CT scan in recognizing solitary pulmonary nodule]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2008 Oct;25(148):330-4
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  • AIM OF THE STUDY: was to confirmed the usefulness of 99mTc-depreotide in detecting malignancy in SPN; finding lymph nodes metastases; and overlapping scintigraphic scans and CT in precise localizsation of malignancy and its lymph nodes metastases.
  • In the 23 lung cancer patients, 99mTc-depreotide was found in 24 foci, including 18 in the mediastinum and axillary region.
  • Where lymph nodes metastases were suspected in the diagnosed malignancies, the lymph node/background index was 2.60 +/- 0.85.
  • This method seems particularly valuable in imaging lymph nodes where metastases are suspected, especially when CT scans revealed no abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / radiography. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / secondary. Humans. Lung / radiography. Lung / radionuclide imaging. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19145931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9M48M2SF02 / technetium Tc 99m depreotide
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56. Langer I, Guller U, Viehl CT, Moch H, Wight E, Harder F, Oertli D, Zuber M: Axillary lymph node dissection for sentinel lymph node micrometastases may be safely omitted in early-stage breast cancer patients: long-term outcomes of a prospective study. Indian J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jan;1(1):59-67
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  • [Title] Axillary lymph node dissection for sentinel lymph node micrometastases may be safely omitted in early-stage breast cancer patients: long-term outcomes of a prospective study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term disease-free and overall survival of patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) micrometastases, in whom a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was systematically omitted.
  • None of the patients with negative SLN or SLN micrometastases (International Union Against Cancer classification, >0.2 to ≤ 2 mm) underwent a completion ALND or radiation to the axilla.
  • After a median followup of 77 months (range, 24-106 months), neither locoregional recurrences nor distant metastases occurred in any of the 27 patients with SLN micrometastases.
  • There were no statistically significant differences for overall (P = 0.656), locoregional (P = 0.174), and axillary and distant disease-free survival (P = 0.15) between patients with negative SLN and SLN micrometastases.

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  • (PMID = 22930620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-7651
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3420993
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57. Julian TB, Blumencranz P, Deck K, Whitworth P, Berry DA, Berry SM, Rosenberg A, Chagpar AB, Reintgen D, Beitsch P, Simmons R, Saha S, Mamounas EP, Giuliano A: Novel intraoperative molecular test for sentinel lymph node metastases in patients with early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jul 10;26(20):3338-45
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  • [Title] Novel intraoperative molecular test for sentinel lymph node metastases in patients with early-stage breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: An accurate, intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) test could decrease delayed axillary dissections.
  • METHODS: A beta trial (n = 304) to determine the threshold levels of mammaglobin and cytokeratin 19 correlating with metastasis greater than 0.2 mm and a validation trial (n = 416) to validate the threshold cutoffs were conducted.
  • These data indicate that the assay may be clinically useful for intraoperative or postoperative axillary lymph node dissection decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Intraoperative Care / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bayes Theorem. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Breast Neoplasms, Male / genetics. Breast Neoplasms, Male / mortality. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Frozen Sections. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18612150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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58. Yu JC, Hsu GC, Hsieh CB, Sheu LF, Chao TY: Prediction of metastasis to non-sentinel nodes by sentinel node status and primary tumor characteristics in primary breast cancer in Taiwan. World J Surg; 2005 Jul;29(7):813-8; discussion 818-9
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  • [Title] Prediction of metastasis to non-sentinel nodes by sentinel node status and primary tumor characteristics in primary breast cancer in Taiwan.
  • We aimed to determine how to approach the axilla after finding a positive sentinel node (SN) for a woman with breast cancer in Taiwan.
  • All patients underwent SN biopsy, followed by at least level II axillary dissection.
  • SN metastases were found in 286/814 (35.1%).
  • Subsequent axillary dissections revealed tumors in non-SNs in 188 (65.7%) of these patients.
  • There was a relatively high incidence of non-SN metastases in our population.
  • Tumor exhibiting high nuclear grading, ER-, PR-, Erb-2/neu overexpression, lymphovascular invasion, increasing tumor size, multiple positive SNs, and macrometastatic size in SNs (> 2 mm) were all significantly correlated with non-SN metastases.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size, the number of positive SNs, and the metastatic size in SNs were independent factors predicting the presence of positive non-SNs.
  • Small (< 2 cm) cancers, having only micrometastatic foci in the SN and having only one SN involved are closely correlated with the tumor-free non-SNs.
  • Our data will assist such patients regarding the need for axillary dissection after finding a positive SN.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Taiwan


59. Fedko MG, Scow JS, Shah SS, Reynolds C, Degnim AC, Jakub JW, Boughey JC: Pure tubular carcinoma and axillary nodal metastases. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17 Suppl 3:338-42
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  • [Title] Pure tubular carcinoma and axillary nodal metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Pure tubular carcinoma of the breast is a rare subtype with a low incidence of axillary lymph node metastases.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with pure tubular carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We identified patients diagnosed with tubular carcinoma from 1987 to 2009 from our institution's tumor registry.
  • Pathology slides were reviewed, and pure tubular carcinoma was defined as ≥ 90% tubule formation, low nuclear grade, and rare to no mitoses.
  • Medical records were reviewed for clinicopathologic data including tumor size, number of positive and negative axillary lymph nodes, treatment, and recurrence.
  • Median tumor size was 0.8 (range 0.1-1.8) cm.
  • Five patients (5.4%) had positive lymph nodes, and two patients (2.2%) had isolated tumor cells.
  • All patients with lymph node metastases had tumors >0.8 cm in size.
  • At 5.2 years' follow-up, no patients have developed recurrence or metastases, or have died from breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Axillary lymph node metastases are not common in small pure tubular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20853056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Gimbergues P, Abrial C, Durando X, Le Bouedec G, Cachin F, Penault-Llorca F, Mouret-Reynier MA, Kwiatkowski F, Maublant J, Tchirkov A, Dauplat J: Clinicopathological factors and nomograms predicting nonsentinel lymph node metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Jul;16(7):1946-51
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological factors and nomograms predicting nonsentinel lymph node metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
  • Our goal was to determine clinicopathological factors correlating with the presence of non-SLN metastases in patients after NAC and to assess the validity of nomograms predicting additional axillary metastases.
  • At surgery, SLN biopsy followed by axillary lymph node dissection was performed.
  • RESULTS: In univariate analysis, tumor size (P = 0.016) and the size of SLN metastases (P = 0.0055) were significantly correlated with the presence of non-SLN metastases.
  • In multivariate analysis, SLN macrometastases (P = 0.047) conferred significantly increased risk of non-SLN metastases.
  • The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center nomogram was not reliably predictive for non-SLN metastases (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC, of 0.542), whereas the MD Anderson (AUC 0.716) and Tenon scoring systems (AUC 0.778) were validated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Nomograms. Predictive Value of Tests. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 19408057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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61. Carter MR, Hornick JL, Lester S, Fletcher CD: Spindle cell (sarcomatoid) carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Mar;30(3):300-9
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  • Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 15 cm (median, 4 cm).
  • Treatment was by excision and/or mastectomy with axillary node evaluation in most cases, often combined with postoperative radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-seven cases exhibited pure spindled or sarcomatoid morphology of variable appearance and nuclear grade, whereas 2 contained high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma comprising <or=20% of the tumor mass.
  • Of 20 cases in which axillary nodes were biopsied, definitive nodal metastases were identified in only 1 (5%), and this was in a case with a significant component of invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Extranodal metastases occurred in 11 of 24 patients (46%), most commonly to the lungs.
  • Ten of 24 patients (42%) died of disease at a median interval of 11.5 months (range, 1-46 months) and 3 patients were alive with metastatic disease.
  • Eight patients were alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease (median, 29.5 months).
  • Based on this series, spindle cell/sarcomatoid carcinoma of the breast is a highly aggressive neoplasm with a high rate of extranodal metastases.
  • Purely spindled/sarcomatoid tumors have a significantly lower rate of nodal metastases than conventional ductal and lobular breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Treatment Outcome


62. Treseler P: Pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node: what is the best method? Breast J; 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5 Suppl 2):S143-51
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  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an acceptable alternative to complete axillary dissection to determine whether breast cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes.
  • For years there has been speculation that micrometastases in axillary lymph nodes were clinically insignificant and thus lymph nodes did not require sectioning at close intervals.
  • Yet essentially all studies, including a recent large prospective study, have found a significantly poorer prognosis associated even with metastases less than 2 mm in size-the most common definition of micrometastasis-suggesting that such small metastases cannot be safely overlooked.
  • The use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect keratin proteins will reveal metastatic breast carcinoma in about 18% of axillary lymph nodes that appear negative on routine stains.
  • The preponderance of evidence to date suggests a significantly poorer prognosis in patients with such occult metastases, although data from large prospective studies are lacking.
  • Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer even more sensitive methods for detecting occult metastasis in SLNs, although false positives are a particular problem in techniques that do not permit morphologic correlation, and for now they remain a research tool.
  • Intraoperative examination of the SLN permits a completion axillary dissection to be performed during the same procedure if metastatic tumor is found; however, intraoperative techniques such as cytologic examination and frozen section lack sensitivity, and can result in loss of up to 50% of the SLN tissue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Decision Support Techniques. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Breast J. 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):216-7 [18248555.001]
  • (PMID = 16958994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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63. Onishi T, Jinno H, Takahashi M, Hayashida T, Sakata M, Nakahara T, Shigematsu N, Mukai M, Kitagawa Y: Non-sentinel lymph node status and prognosis of breast cancer patients with micrometastatic sentinel lymph nodes. Eur Surg Res; 2010;45(3-4):344-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of sentinel lymph node (SLN) micrometastases and the need for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) on patients with micrometastases in SLNs remain controversial.
  • Twenty-nine (58.0%) of 50 patients with micrometastatic SLNs underwent ALND and no further metastases were found in non-sentinel lymph nodes.
  • Among 21 patients (42.0%) with micrometastatic SLNs who decided to forego ALND, no axillary lymph node recurrence has been observed during a median follow-up time of 47 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Databases, Factual. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21088425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9921
  • [Journal-full-title] European surgical research. Europäische chirurgische Forschung. Recherches chirurgicales européennes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Surg Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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64. Erol B, Ufuk U, Husamettin T, Yasin U, Aslihan C, Koray K: True hematogenous metastases of melanoma on contralateral skin graft donor site: a case report. Melanoma Res; 2008 Dec;18(6):443-6
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  • [Title] True hematogenous metastases of melanoma on contralateral skin graft donor site: a case report.
  • Malignant melanoma spreads through hematogenous, lymphagenous path, or by iatrogenic implantations.
  • In this report, we present an unusual case in which a patient experienced the development of melanoma within the split-thickness skin graft donor site on the contralateral lower extremity.
  • Metastases of malignant melanoma occurred in the donor site of the graft, 8 weeks after primary tumor excision, ipsilateral axillary dissection, and reconstruction with a split-thickness skin graft harvested from the contralateral upper thigh.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19011515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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65. Bergkvist L, de Boniface J, Jönsson PE, Ingvar C, Liljegren G, Frisell J, Swedish Society of Breast Surgeons: Axillary recurrence rate after negative sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: three-year follow-up of the Swedish Multicenter Cohort Study. Ann Surg; 2008 Jan;247(1):150-6
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  • [Title] Axillary recurrence rate after negative sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: three-year follow-up of the Swedish Multicenter Cohort Study.
  • After a negative biopsy, most institutions will not perform a completion axillary dissection.
  • The present study reports the current axillary recurrence (AR) rate, overall and disease-free survival in the Swedish Multicenter Cohort Study.
  • METHODS: From 3534 patients with primary breast cancer < or =3 cm prospectively enrolled in the Swedish multicenter cohort study, 2246 with a negative sentinel node biopsy and no further axillary surgery were selected.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 37 months (0-75), the axilla was the sole initial site of recurrence in 13 patients (13 of 2246, 0.6%).
  • In another 7 patients, axillary relapse occurred after or concurrently with a local recurrence in the breast, and in a further 7 cases, it coincided with distant or extra-axillary lymphatic metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Analysis. Sweden / epidemiology


66. Esen G, Gurses B, Yilmaz MH, Ilvan S, Ulus S, Celik V, Farahmand M, Calay OO: Gray scale and power Doppler US in the preoperative evaluation of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with no palpable lymph nodes. Eur Radiol; 2005 Jun;15(6):1215-23
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  • [Title] Gray scale and power Doppler US in the preoperative evaluation of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with no palpable lymph nodes.
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of gray scale and Doppler US findings in the detection of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with no palpable lymph nodes.
  • Histopathologically, there were 93 malignant and 105 benign nodes.
  • In conclusion, US is successful and reliable in the determination of axillary metastatic involvement in nonpalpable and small lymph nodes.
  • Inclusion of axillary US in the preoperative diagnostic evaluation would be complimentary to sentinel node biopsy, and also could eliminate the need for it in patients with positive US results, after confirmation with biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15690206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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67. Wada N, Imoto S, Yamauchi C, Hasebe T, Ochiai A: Predictors of tumour involvement in remaining axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Feb;32(1):29-33
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  • [Title] Predictors of tumour involvement in remaining axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node.
  • One hundred eighty-five of these patients showed positive SLNs, and subsequently underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • These cases were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of metastases in the non-SLNs, i.e. positive non-SLNs (NSLN+; 81 cases) and negative non-SLNs (NSLN-; 104 cases).
  • RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that a larger size of the primary tumour (>2.0cm), presence of lymphatic invasion, larger size of the largest SLN metastasis (>2mm), and a 100% metastatic rate in the SLNs (number of positive SLNs/number of harvested SLNs) were significantly associated with NSLN+.
  • CONCLUSION: We found four independent predictors in relation to non-SLN metastasis.
  • Thus, until further evidence is accumulated from the results of large clinical trials, ALND would still be recommended for patients with SLN metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16269227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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68. Intra M, Rotmensz N, Veronesi P, Colleoni M, Iodice S, Paganelli G, Viale G, Veronesi U: Sentinel node biopsy is not a standard procedure in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: the experience of the European institute of oncology on 854 patients in 10 years. Ann Surg; 2008 Feb;247(2):315-9
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  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: DCIS cannot give rise to axillary metastases by definition.
  • Axillary dissection is therefore not indicated.
  • RESULTS: SLN metastases were detected in 12 (1.4%) DCIS patients.
  • Eleven patients underwent complete axillary dissection.
  • None of these patients had additional positive axillary lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of the low prevalence of metastatic involvement, SLN biopsy should not be considered a standard procedure in the treatment of all patients with DCIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Academies and Institutes. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Europe. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Oncology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18216539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Heuts EM, van der Ent FW, van der Pol HA, Debets JM, Kengen RA, Verkeyn JM, Hulsewé KW, Hoofwijk AG: Evaluation of early versus delayed lymphoscintigraphic imaging in detecting internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer: a multicenter study to establish an optimal lymphatic mapping protocol. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Aug;27(8):677-81
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  • OBJECTIVE: Metastases in the internal mammary lymph nodes have an important prognostic value in breast cancer.
  • Axillary hotspots were visualized in 97% in group A and 96% in group B.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Quality Assurance, Health Care / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Netherlands / epidemiology. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16829768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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70. Langer I, Guller U, Koechli OR, Berclaz G, Singer G, Schaer G, Fehr MK, Hess T, Oertli D, Bronz L, Schnarwyler B, Wight E, Uehlinger U, Infanger E, Burger D, Zuber M, Swiss Multicenter Sentinel Lymph Node Study Group in Breast Cancer: Association of the presence of bone marrow micrometastases with the sentinel lymph node status in 410 early stage breast cancer patients: results of the Swiss Multicenter Study. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Jun;14(6):1896-903
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  • BACKGROUND: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) status has proven to accurately reflect the remaining axillary lymph nodes and represents the most important prognostic factor.
  • The SLN contained metastases in 32.4% (133/410).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Coloring Agents. Female. Humans. Keratins / analysis. Keratins, Type I / analysis. Keratins, Type II / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Switzerland

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  • (PMID = 17356955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Keratins, Type I; 0 / Keratins, Type II; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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71. Chaiwun B, Nakrungsee S, Sukhamwang N, Srisukho S: A study of high-nuclear-grade breast cancer in Thailand: subclassification and correlation with prognostic factors and immunohistochemical study. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):35-41
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  • The patients' age, histologic types, various histologic features, axillary lymph node (ALN) status, and results of immunohistochemical (IHC) study were recorded and analyzed.
  • RESULTS: One-hundred and eighty-one cases of high-nuclear-grade BCs were reviewed and categorized into IDC, NOS (140, 77.3%), TMC (1, 0.6%), AMC (21, 11.6%), and others (19, 10.5%).
  • NMC patients had a higher incidence of LVI and ALN metastasis with involvement of more than four lymph nodes (p = 0.006) whereas AMC patients had a higher mitotic index.
  • AMC had a significantly lower number of node metastases (p = 0.006) than NMC; whereas TN had higher MI (p = 0.001) than non-TN.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Medullary / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Incidence. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thailand / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19789946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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72. Akosa A, Van Norden S, Tettey Y: Hormone receptor expression in male breast cancers. Ghana Med J; 2005 Mar;39(1):14-8
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  • Four cases had axillary lymph nodes removed at surgery and three were positive for metastases.

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  • (PMID = 17299535.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-9560
  • [Journal-full-title] Ghana medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ghana Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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73. Cserni G, Bianchi S, Vezzosi V, Peterse H, Sapino A, Arisio R, Reiner-Concin A, Regitnig P, Bellocq JP, Marin C, Bori R, Penuela JM, Iturriagagoitia AC: The value of cytokeratin immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of axillary sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lobular breast carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2006 May;59(5):518-22
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  • [Title] The value of cytokeratin immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of axillary sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lobular breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (IHC) reveals a higher rate of occult lymph node metastases among lobular carcinomas than among ductal breast cancers.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of cytokeratin IHC for the detection of metastases in sentinel lymph nodes of patients with invasive lobular carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The value of IHC, the types of metastasis found by this method, and the involvement of non-sentinel lymph nodes were analysed in a multi-institutional cohort of 449 patients with lobular breast carcinoma, staged by sentinel lymph node biopsy and routine assessment of the sentinel lymph nodes by IHC when multilevel haematoxylin and eosin staining revealed no metastasis.
  • IHC was needed for identification of 65 of these cases: 17 of 19 isolated tumour cells, 40 of 64 micrometastases, and 8 of 106 larger metastases were detected by this means.
  • Non-sentinel-node involvement was noted in 66 of 161 cases undergoing axillary dissection.
  • Although isolated tumour cells were not associated with further lymph node involvement, sentinel node positivity detected by IHC was associated with further nodal metastases in 12 of 50 cases (0.24), a proportion that is higher than previously reported for breast cancer in general.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IHC is recommended for the evaluation of sentinel nodes from patients with lobular breast carcinoma, as the micrometastases or larger metastases demonstrated by this method are often associated with a further metastatic nodal load.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Keratins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16497870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860289
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74. Nagai T, Igase M, Ochi M, Nagai A, Takada K, Kohara K, Miki T: [Multiple metastases from renal carcinoma 15 years after nephrectomy]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2007 Nov;44(6):747-51
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  • [Title] [Multiple metastases from renal carcinoma 15 years after nephrectomy].
  • A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of an axillary mass.
  • Since further evaluation yielded no evidence of extra renal metastases, he was followed up in the outpatient clinic.
  • On admission, there was a hard tumor in the right axilla.
  • Ultrasonography demonstrated a vascular tumor with a smooth surface, 26 by 24mm.
  • Laboratory findings were generally close to normal, including tumor markers.
  • Chest contrast-enhanced dynamic CT showed that the tumor was enhanced.
  • Open simple axillary mass biopsy was performed on August 2 and the tumor was histologically confirmed as a metastasis of the RCC to the axillary.
  • His overall status was normal, and he underwent an operation for the pancreas tumor and the tumor in the rectus muscle of the abdomen.
  • On histological examination, both excised specimens were found to be metastases of RCC.
  • During 2 years follow-up period in the outpatient clinic, additional metastasis has not been observed in any organ.
  • Since this case confirms the potential of RCC for late and multiple distant metastases, careful long-term follow-up after radical nephrectomy is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Nephrectomy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Humans. Male. Muscle, Skeletal

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  • (PMID = 18198458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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75. Schlichting E, Harr ME, Sauer T, Babovic A, Kåresen R: [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2006 Aug 24;126(16):2098-100
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  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy is a technique for identifying axillary metastases from primary breast cancer.
  • Metastases to SN were detected in 25 % of the patients and 52 % of these had no further positive nodes in the axilla.
  • Thus, axillary lymph node clearance was omitted in 948 patients.
  • Three patients had local recurrence in the axilla within one year after the successful SN procedure.
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ grade 3 was diagnosed preoperatively in 162 patients (cytology); 88 had the diagnosis after histology and the rest had invasive cancer or combinations with in situ lesions of other grades.
  • Axillary metastases were found in 4.8 % of these patients.
  • Isolated tumour cells (< 0.2 mm diameter) were found in 9 patients for whom axillary clearance has not been performed.
  • INTERPRETATION: SN biopsy has replaced routine axillary clearance as a routine operation in breast cancer.
  • The method is safe when performed correctly, as metastases in the axilla after a negative SN rarely occur.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Clinical Competence. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16932777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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76. Fujita T, Ogasawara Y, Naito M, Doihara H, Shimizu N: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma associated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(1):63-7
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  • A 75-year-old woman was hospitalized due to a right axillary mass.
  • A physical examination revealed a right axillary mass associated with skin ulceration.
  • Persistent bleeding was observed at the skin ulcer associated with the right axillary lymph node, despite conservative treatment for the lesion.
  • Surgery was thus performed to control persistent bleeding from the axillary ulcer, and a histopathological examination resulted in a diagnosis of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • The postoperative course was uneventful, but marked leukocytosis and extensive skin metastases were recognized 30 days postoperatively.

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  • (PMID = 16378196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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77. Bialek EJ, Jakubowski W, Szczepanik AB, Maryniak RK, Bilski R, Prochorec-Sobieszek M, Serafin-Krol M: 3D ultrasound examination of the superficial lymph nodes--does it provide additional information? Ultraschall Med; 2006 Oct;27(5):467-72
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty two lymph nodes (35 cervical, 16 axillary, 1 inguinal) in 52 patients were examined with ultrasound in 3D mode.
  • Final histopathological diagnoses included 36 lymphomas, 11 reactive or inflammatory lymph nodes, 3 metastases and 2 plasmocytoma infiltrations.

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  • (PMID = 17033947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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78. Cserni G: Further axillary metastases associated with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients. Ann Surg; 2006 Feb;243(2):287; author reply 287
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  • [Title] Further axillary metastases associated with isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [CommentOn] Ann Surg. 2005 Feb;241(2):319-25 [15650643.001]
  • (PMID = 16432365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1448906
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79. Kinkor Z, Skálová A: [Metastases to the breast from primary extramammary tumors--real diagnostic dilemma]. Ceska Gynekol; 2010 Dec;75(6):560-3
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  • [Title] [Metastases to the breast from primary extramammary tumors--real diagnostic dilemma].
  • To evaluate the effectiveness velocity and cheapness of imunuohistochemistry at reaching the correct diagnosis.
  • METHODS: Detailed clinicopathologic characteristics and review of morphologic spectrum in nine cases of extramammary tumors metastatic to the breast (three melanomas, two small cell carcinomas, one carcinoma from salivary gland, ovary, kidney and prostate).
  • RESULTS: In total nine cases, eight women and one man, were identified among 3238 of malignant breast tumors in the years 2005-2010.
  • Two neoplasms (one of the melanomas and small cell carcinomas) were the first sign of underlying malignant process ever; in this melanoma the clinical workout to disclose primary skin lesion failed.
  • There was evident other organs spread in three cases at the time of diagnosis (generalization in melanoma and prostate carcinoma; skin metastasis in salivary gland carcinoma) and axillary lymph nodes involvement in two melanomas.
  • In five patients where follow-up was available, three died of tumor in interval from five to eighteen months (in turn melanoma, small cell and prostate carcinoma).
  • Four original pathologic verdicts turned out to be wrong (two melanomas, salivary gland and prostate carcinoma); in three of them final correct diagnosis was established even after additional clinical information about morphologically verified malignancy in the past.

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  • (PMID = 27534016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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80. Kamitani K, Ono M, Toyoshima S, Mitsuyama S, Anan K, Ikeda Y: Isoechoic axillary lymph node metastases of mucinous carcinoma of the breast: a case report. Breast Cancer; 2006;13(4):382-5
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  • [Title] Isoechoic axillary lymph node metastases of mucinous carcinoma of the breast: a case report.
  • We report a case of isoechoic axillary lymph node metastasis of mucinous carcinoma (so-called pure mucinous carcinoma) of the breast.
  • A left axillary ultrasonographic scan demonstrated four nodules, which were indistinct because of their isoechogenicity compared to the surrounding tissue.
  • Based on a preoperative diagnosis of mucinous carcinoma of the left breast with left axillary lymph nodes metastases, left mastectomy and left axillary nodal dissection were performed.
  • Mucinous carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastases was diagnosed histologically.
  • The lymph node metastases showed histological findings identical to those of the primary tumor, which was considered to be the reason for their isoechogenicity.
  • Although lymph node metastasis of mucinous carcinoma of the breast is rare, ultrasonographers should perform careful scanning when the primary breast mass is suspicious for mucinous carcinoma, because lymph node metastases of mucinous carcinoma can be more indistinct and difficult to detect than those of other types of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Axilla / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17146168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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81. Johansen R, Westin AA, Bofin AM, Lundgren S: Outcome of whole-brain irradiation for breast cancer patients. Acta Oncol; 2008;47(2):261-6
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  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population comprised 99 patients with brain metastases (BM) treated with WBRT in the period 1988 to 2004 at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
  • Prognostic factors as age, performance status, axillary lymph node involvement and extent of BM were evaluated.


82. Cheng SH, Horng CF, Clarke JL, Tsou MH, Tsai SY, Chen CM, Jian JJ, Liu MC, West M, Huang AT, Prosnitz LR: Prognostic index score and clinical prediction model of local regional recurrence after mastectomy in breast cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Apr 1;64(5):1401-9
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  • PURPOSE: To develop clinical prediction models for local regional recurrence (LRR) of breast carcinoma after mastectomy that will be superior to the conventional measures of tumor size and nodal status.
  • RESULTS: With these models, patients can be divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups on the basis of axillary nodal status, estrogen receptor status, lymphovascular invasion, and age at diagnosis.
  • For intermediate-risk patients, PMRT improves LR control but not metastases-free or overall survival.
  • For the high-risk patients, however, PMRT improves both LR control and metastasis-free and overall survival.
  • These models provide additional information criteria for selection of patients for PMRT, compared with the traditional selection criteria of nodal status and tumor size.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Bayes Theorem. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16472935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CMF regimen; FEC protocol
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83. Spanu A, Schillaci O, Madeddu G: 99mTc labelled cationic lipophilic complexes in malignant and benign tumors: the role of SPET and pinhole-SPET in breast cancer, differentiated thyroid carcinoma and hyperparathyroidism. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2005 Jun;49(2):145-69
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  • [Title] 99mTc labelled cationic lipophilic complexes in malignant and benign tumors: the role of SPET and pinhole-SPET in breast cancer, differentiated thyroid carcinoma and hyperparathyroidism.
  • In breast cancer patients, SPET with these radiotracers can play an important complementary role to planar scintimammography in detecting primary tumors, especially when non palpable and small in size, whereas SPET and particularly P-SPET represents the procedure of choice in preoperative axillary lymph node status evaluation in which planar is almost always irrelevant.
  • In DTC follow-up patients, SPET and P-SPET with cationic lipophilic radiotracers are indicated in both locoregional and distant metastasis detection, especially in patients with high Tg serum levels and negative radioiodine scanning in whom these procedures represent a reliable alternative to diagnostic (131)I scanning.
  • Moreover, the combined use of [(99m)Tc]tetrofosmin P-SPET and US can identify recurrences and lymph node metastases in the neck, both fixing and non fixing iodine, downstaged or negative at (131)I scanning.

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  • (PMID = 16010252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cations; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Compounds
  • [Number-of-references] 161
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84. Fujii T, Yanagita Y, Fujisawa T, Hirakata T, Iijima M, Kuwano H: Implication of extracapsular invasion of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer: prediction of nonsentinel lymph node metastasis. World J Surg; 2010 Mar;34(3):544-8
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  • [Title] Implication of extracapsular invasion of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer: prediction of nonsentinel lymph node metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Accurate intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases enables the selection of patients who require axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).
  • However, many patients with positive SLN do not show metastasis to other axillary lymph nodes.
  • In this study, we investigated the factors that may determine the likelihood of additional positive nodes in the axilla when metastasis is found in the SLN.
  • Eleven (23.9%) of these 46 cases had additional metastasis in nonsentinel lymph nodes (NSLN).
  • RESULTS: All cases of positive nodes in NSLN in our series had extracapsular invasion (ECI) at the metastatic SLNs.
  • Furthermore, the absence of ECI of SLN was significantly associated with the absence of metastasis in the NSLN (P < 0.001).
  • As contributing factors, the absence of lymphatic invasion at the primary tumor, primary tumor size (<2 cm) and foci size in the metastatic SLN fell short of reaching statistical significance.
  • Other factors, including histological type, pathological grade, estrogen receptor status, HER2 status, and age, were not significantly associated with metastatic involvement of NSLN.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the presence of ECI at metastatic SLNs is a strong predictor for residual disease in the axilla.
  • These findings imply the possibility that ALND might be foregone in the treatment of patients with breast cancer without ECI at metastatic SLNs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Tumor Burden


85. Vanzulli SI, Soldati R, Meiss R, Colombo L, Molinolo AA, Lanari C: Estrogen or antiprogestin treatment induces complete regression of pulmonary and axillary metastases in an experimental model of breast cancer progression. Carcinogenesis; 2005 Jun;26(6):1055-63
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  • [Title] Estrogen or antiprogestin treatment induces complete regression of pulmonary and axillary metastases in an experimental model of breast cancer progression.
  • In this paper we demonstrate, using the C7-2-HI metastatic transplantable ductal mammary tumor, that endocrine therapy can induce complete regression of spontaneous lymph node and lung metastases in a mouse model of breast cancer progression.
  • This tumor expresses high levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and shows a high incidence of early axillary lymph nodes and lung metastases; using this model we had previously shown complete tumor regression of subcutaneous implants.
  • Interestingly, although the metastases showed a more differentiated histology as compared with the primary growth, they underwent complete regression when treated with estrogens or antiprogestins.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Female. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mitosis / drug effects. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15774491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cdkn1a protein, mouse; 0 / Cdkn1b protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Progestins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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86. Uludag M, Citgez B, Ozkaya O, Sakiz D: In-transit metastasis of the breast region from malignant melanoma of the trunk. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009
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  • [Title] In-transit metastasis of the breast region from malignant melanoma of the trunk.
  • Extramammarian cancer metastases to the breast are rare.
  • The distinction between a primary breast carcinoma and a metastatic neoplasm is crucial because surgical and therapeutic treatment options will vary accordingly.
  • The present report concerns a case of breast metastasis from melanoma of the trunk.
  • A 50-year-old man with a self-detected left breast lump who had previously undergone wide local excision and axillary dissection for melanoma was admitted to our department.
  • Surgical pathology revealed metastatic melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 21686814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3028292
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87. van de Sande MA, van den Hurk CJ, Breed WP, Nortier JW: [Allow scalp cooling during adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer; scalp metastases rarely occur]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2010;154:A2134
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  • [Title] [Allow scalp cooling during adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer; scalp metastases rarely occur].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of scalp metastases in high-risk breast cancer patients in order to assess whether caution is warranted with scalp cooling during adjuvant therapy.
  • METHODS: The incidence of scalp metastases and the disease course were studied in 885 very well evaluated high-risk breast cancer patients.
  • These patients, who had at least four positive axillary lymph nodes, were treated in a randomised study with either classical chemotherapy, or the same chemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (the so-called N4+ study).
  • RESULTS: After a median follow up of 110 months, 403 of the 885 patients (46%) had relapsed or developed metastases.
  • 25 patients (3%) had developed skin metastasis; 4 of these patients (0.5%) had developed hairy scalp metastasis.
  • The scalp metastases always occurred at the same time as or later than metastases elsewhere.
  • CONCLUSION: Scalp metastases occur with a very low frequency and not as the first sign of metastatic disease.
  • It is therefore unlikely that scalp cooling (to prevent baldness) decreases the local working of chemotherapy to such an extent that the risk of scalp metastases increases.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / prevention & control. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20735874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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88. van Rijk MC, Deurloo EE, Nieweg OE, Gilhuijs KG, Peterse JL, Rutgers EJ, Kröger R, Kroon BB: Ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology can spare breast cancer patients unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Jan;13(1):31-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Some 30% to 40% of the breast cancer patients scheduled for sentinel node biopsy have axillary metastasis.
  • The aims of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity of preoperative ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology for detecting axillary metastases and to assess how often sentinel node biopsy could be avoided.
  • The sentinel node procedure was omitted in patients with tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes in lieu of axillary lymph node dissection.
  • RESULTS: Ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology established axillary metastases in 58 (8%) of the 726 patients.
  • These 58 were 21% of the total of 271 patients who were proven to have axillary metastasis in the end.
  • Of the patients with ultrasonographically suspicious lymph nodes and negative cytology, 31% had tumor-positive sentinel nodes.
  • Patients with preoperatively established metastases by ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology had more tumor-positive lymph nodes (P < .001) than patients with metastases established later on.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Preoperative Care. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Statistics, Nonparametric. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2006 Jan;13(1):1-2 [16421775.001]
  • (PMID = 16372147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Nassar A, Cohen C, Cotsonis G, Carlson G: Significance of intramammary lymph nodes in the staging of breast cancer: correlation with tumor characteristics and outcome. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):147-52
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  • [Title] Significance of intramammary lymph nodes in the staging of breast cancer: correlation with tumor characteristics and outcome.
  • Patients with stage I breast carcinoma and positive intraMLN metastases have been reported to have a poorer prognosis compared to patients with similar stage and negative intraMLN metastases.
  • However, the presence of intraMLN metastases does not appear to influence the survival of patients with stage II breast carcinoma.
  • Primary tumor characteristics and axillary lymph node (AxLN) status were recorded.
  • Statistical analysis was performed to detect correlation between intraMLN and tumor characteristics as well as outcome.
  • IntraMLN metastases were found in 26% of all in-situ and invasive cancer cases (15/57), and 32% (15/47) of invasive cancer cases only.
  • Most patients (80%) who had intraMLN metastases also had axillary metastases; however, an isolated intraMLN metastasis was documented in one patient (7%).
  • Univariate analysis revealed that predictors of intraMLN metastases include: tumor size (p = 0.04), tumor grade (p = 0.04), tumor stage (p < 0.001), and AxLN status (p < 0.001).
  • Furthermore patients with intraMLN positive for metastases have a poorer 4-year overall (40% versus 88%; p < 0.001) and disease-free survival (37% versus 83%; p < 0.001) than patients with negative intraMLN.
  • On multivariate analysis, intraMLN metastasis is not an independent predictor of outcome (disease-free survival: p = 0.350; and overall survival p = 0.138).
  • IntraMLN metastasis is a poor prognostic marker but not an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18248563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Mullenix PS, Brown TA, Meyers MO, Giles LR, Sigurdson ER, Boraas MC, Hoffman JP, Eisenberg BL, Torosian MH: The association of cytokeratin-only-positive sentinel lymph nodes and subsequent metastases in breast cancer. Am J Surg; 2005 May;189(5):606-9; discussion 609
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  • [Title] The association of cytokeratin-only-positive sentinel lymph nodes and subsequent metastases in breast cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to better characterize the clinical significance of cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (IHC)-only-positive lymph node metastases among patients with breast cancer.
  • We then evaluated the incidence of subsequent regional and distant metastatic disease.
  • The procedures included lumpectomy and SLN biopsy (n = 83), mastectomy with SLN biopsy (n = 7), lumpectomy with SLN biopsy and completion axillary dissection (n = 80), and modified radical mastectomy with SLN biopsy and completion axillary dissection (n = 13).
  • Cytokeratin IHC was negative in 175 axillary specimens and positive in 8 (4.4%) from 8 different patients.
  • Three of these 8 patients (37.5%) developed distant metastatic disease compared with 1 of the 172 patients (0.6%) with negative cytokeratin IHC (P < .001).
  • Additionally, one of the cytokeratin-positive patients developed regional nodal metastasis compared with none of the 172 cytokeratin-negative patients.
  • These data suggest that patients with cytokeratin-positive sentinel nodes are at increased risk for development of regional and distant metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Keratins / analysis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 15862505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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91. Van den Eynden GG, Van der Auwera I, Van Laere SJ, Huygelen V, Colpaert CG, van Dam P, Dirix LY, Vermeulen PB, Van Marck EA: Induction of lymphangiogenesis in and around axillary lymph node metastases of patients with breast cancer. Br J Cancer; 2006 Nov 20;95(10):1362-6
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  • [Title] Induction of lymphangiogenesis in and around axillary lymph node metastases of patients with breast cancer.
  • We studied the presence of lymphangiogenesis in lymph node (LN) metastases of breast cancer.
  • This is the first report demonstrating lymphangiogenesis in LN metastases of cancer in general and breast cancer in particular.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Lymphangiogenesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen

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  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360596
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92. Veronesi U, Luini A, Botteri E, Zurrida S, Monti S, Galimberti V, Cassano E, Latronico A, Pizzamiglio M, Viale G, Vezzoli D, Rotmensz N, Musmeci S, Bassi F, Burgoa L, Maisonneuve P, Paganelli G, Veronesi P: Nonpalpable breast carcinomas: long-term evaluation of 1,258 cases. Oncologist; 2010;15(12):1248-52
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  • All patients underwent radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL), axillary dissection when appropriate, whole breast radiotherapy, or partial breast intraoperative irradiation and received tailored adjuvant systemic treatment.
  • After a median follow-up of 60 months, we observed 19 local events (1.5%), 12 regional events (1%), and 20 distant metastases (1.6%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / radiography. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Adult. Aged. Calcinosis / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiography. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiography. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiography. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / radiography. Carcinoma, Lobular / therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palpation. Prognosis. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 21147866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Gao JD, Wang J, Feng XL, Zhong YX, Wang X: [Characterization of hormone receptor status in 5758 Chinese females with breast cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2009 Sep;31(9):683-6
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  • The ER positive rate was significantly higher in elderly, post-menopausal females with a smaller tumor and well-differentiated histology (P < 0.05), while the PR positive rate was significantly correlated with only histological differentiation and tumor size (P < 0.05).
  • The ER and PR positive rates were significantly higher in the patients with lymph node metastasis than that in those without (P < 0.05).
  • The ER positive rate is significantly correlated with age, histological differentiation, tumor size, and menopause status.
  • The PR positive rate is correlated only with histological differentiation and tumor size.
  • Interestingly, the ER and PR positive rates are significantly higher in the patients with axillary lymph node metastases than that in those without.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. China. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Menopause. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20021865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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94. Huang W, Zhang Y, Varambally S, Chinnaiyan AM, Banerjee M, Merajver SD, Kleer CG: Inhibition of CCN6 (Wnt-1-induced signaling protein 3) down-regulates E-cadherin in the breast epithelium through induction of snail and ZEB1. Am J Pathol; 2008 Apr;172(4):893-904
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  • The cysteine-rich protein CCN6 [or Wnt-1-induced signaling protein 3 (WISP3)] exerts tumor-suppressive effects in aggressive inflammatory breast cancer.
  • Here, we show that reduction of CCN6 expression occurs in 60% of invasive breast carcinomas and is associated with axillary lymph node metastases.

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  • (PMID = 18321996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA 090876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 66712; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 107469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA090876
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / WISP3 protein, human; 0 / ZEB1 protein, human; 0 / snail family transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2276413
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95. Bassarova AV, Nesland JM, Sedloev T, Lilleby W, Hristova SL, Trifonov DY, Torlakovic E: Simultaneous bilateral breast carcinomas: a category with frequent coexpression of HER-2 and ER-alpha, high Ki-67 and bcl-2, and low p53. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jul;13(3):239-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes of simultaneous bilateral adenocarcinomas of the breast and their axillary metastases.
  • In total, 15 primary and 9 metastatic tumors from 8 patients were evaluated.
  • The phenotype of the primary tumors and corresponding metastatic tumors was similar for the expression of ER-alpha (p=0.001), PR (p=0.03), and HER-2 (p=0.018).
  • Most of the patients presented with axillary metastases and had very aggressive course.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Axilla. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / metabolism. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


96. Yoshida M, Mouri Y, Yamamoto S, Yorozuya K, Fujii K, Nakano S, Fukutomi T, Hara K, Tsuda H: Intracystic invasive papillary carcinoma of the male breast with analyses of loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 16q. Breast Cancer; 2010 Apr;17(2):146-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • On physical examination, an oval-shaped, well-circumscribedthe tumor (6.0 x 5.5 cm in size) was located just beneath the right nipple.
  • The tumor was elastic, firm and freely movable.
  • Neither axillary nor supraclavicular lymph nodes were palpable.
  • On contrast-enhanced computed tomography, the inner lesion enhanced, but direct invasion of the tumor to the major pectoral muscle was not found.
  • In December 2007, wide excision of the tumor was performed.
  • On histopathological examination, the tumor had a papillary pattern with a small cribriform component in the cystic wall with microinvasion of the stroma.
  • The final diagnosis of the disease was a microinvasive intracystic papillary carcinoma of low grade without axillary lymph node metastases.
  • The prognosis of the disease was unclear; however, the malignant potential of this condition may be more clearly determined by studying the LOH on chromosome 16q.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cysts / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nipples / pathology. Nipples / radiography. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19350359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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97. Rickelt J, Hoekstra H, van Coevorden F, de Vreeze R, Verhoef C, van Geel AN: Forequarter amputation for malignancy. Br J Surg; 2009 Jul;96(7):792-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Forequarter amputation (FQA) is an important treatment for malignant disease of the shoulder girdle.
  • The 1-year, 2-year and 5-year overall survival for patients with malignant disease was 71, 59 and 38 per cent respectively.
  • However, in patients with axillary metastasis, FQA has no impact on survival, although local control may improve the patient's quality of life.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Arm. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Shoulder. Thoracic Wall. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19526625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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98. Jensen AJ, Naik AM, Pommier RF, Vetto JT, Troxell ML: Factors influencing accuracy of axillary sentinel lymph node frozen section for breast cancer. Am J Surg; 2010 May;199(5):629-35
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  • [Title] Factors influencing accuracy of axillary sentinel lymph node frozen section for breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) frozen section (FS) guides immediate axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients.
  • Slides of positive cases were reviewed and metastasis sizes measured.
  • FS accuracy significantly differed by size of nodal tumor.
  • For 49 cases of tumor </= 2 mm (isolated tumor cells plus micrometastases), the accuracy of FS was 18%; for 77 cases of >2-mm metastases, accuracy was 90% (P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: False-negative FS were predominantly small nodal tumor deposits not sampled at FS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Cohort Studies. Databases, Factual. False Negative Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intraoperative Care / methods. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20466107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Verschraegen C, Vinh-Hung V, Cserni G, Gordon R, Royce ME, Vlastos G, Tai P, Storme G: Modeling the effect of tumor size in early breast cancer. Ann Surg; 2005 Feb;241(2):309-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modeling the effect of tumor size in early breast cancer.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The purpose of this study was to determine the type of relationship between tumor size and mortality in early breast carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The data was abstracted from 83,686 cases registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of women diagnosed with primary breast carcinoma between 1988 and 1997 presenting with a T1-T2 lesion and no metastasis in whom axillary node dissection was performed: 58,070 women were node-negative (N0) and 25,616 were node-positive (N+).
  • Tumor size was modeled as a continuous variable by proportional hazards using a generalized additive models procedure.
  • RESULTS: Functionally, a Gompertzian expression exp(-exp(-(size-15)/10)) provided a good fit to the effect of tumor size (in millimeters) on mortality, irrespective of nodal status.
  • Quantitatively, for tumor size between 3 and 50 mm, the increase of crude cumulative death rate (number of observed deaths divided by the number of patients at risk) increased with size from 10% to 25% for N0 and from 20% to 40% for N+.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The functional relationship of tumor size with mortality is concordant with current knowledge of tumor growth.
  • However, its qualitative and quantitative independence of nodal status is in contradiction with the prevailing concept of sequential disease progression from primary tumor to regional nodes.
  • This argues against the perception that nodal metastases are caused by the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Assessment. SEER Program. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15650642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1356917
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100. Pelosi E, Ala A, Bellò M, Douroukas A, Migliaretti G, Berardengo E, Varetto T, Bussone R, Bisi G: Impact of axillary nodal metastases on lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node identification rate in patients with early stage breast cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2005 Aug;32(8):937-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of axillary nodal metastases on lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node identification rate in patients with early stage breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to define the impact of the presence of axillary nodal metastases on lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rate in patients with early breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six lymphatic mapping procedures were performed with both labelled nanocolloid and blue dye, followed by SLN biopsy and/or complete axillary dissection.
  • The following parameters were recorded: patient's age, tumour laterality and location, tumour size, tumour histology, tumour stage, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, radiotracer injection site (subdermal-peritumoural/peri-areolar), SLN visualisation at lymphoscintigraphy, SLN metastases (presence/absence, size) and other axillary metastases (presence/absence, number).
  • Discriminant analysis showed the gamma probe SLN identification rate to be significantly limited by the presence of axillary nodal metastases.
  • In particular, the size of SLN metastases and the number of other axillary metastases were the most important variables in reducing the gamma probe SLN identification rate (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The accuracy of lymphatic mapping with labelled nanocolloid is limited by the presence of axillary nodal metastases, and particularly by the degree of SLN tumoural invasion and the presence and number of other axillary nodal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla / diagnostic imaging. Axilla / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radionuclide Imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15838690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin; 0 / technetium Tc 99m nanocolloid
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