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1. Samaras V, Stamatelli A, Samaras E, Stergiou I, Konstantopoulou P, Varsos V, Judkins AR, Biegel JA, Barbatis C: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system in an 18-year-old patient. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 Jan-Feb;28(1):1-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system in an 18-year-old patient.
  • OBJECTIVE: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors are aggressive neoplasms of the central nervous system occurring mainly in the early childhood and rarely in adults.
  • We described a case of this tumor in an 18-year-old male patient without previous medical history.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The neoplasm was localized in the right frontotemporal area of the brain and was totally excised.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical features of the neoplasm were assessed, while sequencing analysis as well as interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed.
  • RESULTS: Histological and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated atypical rhabdoid cells strongly and diffusely positive for EMA and Vimentin as well as focally immunoreactive for SMA and GFAP.
  • INI1 immunostaining demonstrated diffuse loss of nuclear INI1 expression in tumor cells.
  • Taken together, the results were consistent with a diagnosis of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT).
  • To our knowledge, this is the eighth case of an ATRT reported in an adult patient having genetic confirmation and the first one in which the tumor is, partly, localized in the right temporal area of the brain.
  • This unusual presentation underlines the necessity of considering this devastating neoplasm in the differential diagnosis of malignant brain tumors of young adults.

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  • (PMID = 19216214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046274-17A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 46274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274-17A2
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS113796; NLM/ PMC2712356
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2. Allen JC, Judkins AR, Rosenblum MK, Biegel JA: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor evolving from an optic pathway ganglioglioma: case study. Neuro Oncol; 2006 Jan;8(1):79-82
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor evolving from an optic pathway ganglioglioma: case study.
  • We report an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor arising in a ganglioglioma from an 11-year-old male who had been treated over a nine-year period.
  • Molecular genetic studies demonstrated a mutation in exon 9 of the INI1 gene in the tumor, which was not present in the patient's blood.
  • This report is the first to describe progression of a ganglioglioma to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16443951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46274
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871926
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3. Shalaby T, von Bueren AO, Hürlimann ML, Fiaschetti G, Castelletti D, Masayuki T, Nagasawa K, Arcaro A, Jelesarov I, Shin-ya K, Grotzer M: Disabling c-Myc in childhood medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor cells by the potent G-quadruplex interactive agent S2T1-6OTD. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Jan;9(1):167-79
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  • [Title] Disabling c-Myc in childhood medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor cells by the potent G-quadruplex interactive agent S2T1-6OTD.
  • We investigated here the effects of S2T1-6OTD, a novel telomestatin derivative that is synthesized to target G-quadruplex-forming DNA sequences, on a representative panel of human medulloblastoma (MB) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid (AT/RT) childhood brain cancer cell lines.
  • In remarkable contrast to control cells, short-term (72-hour) treatment with S2T1-6OTD resulted in a dose- and time-dependent antiproliferative effect in all MB and AT/RT brain tumor cell lines tested (IC(50), 0.25-0.39 micromol/L).
  • Long-term treatment (5 weeks) with nontoxic concentrations of S2T1-6OTD resulted in a time-dependent (mainly c-Myc-dependent) telomere shortening.
  • On in vivo animal testing, S2T1-6OTD may well represent a novel therapeutic strategy for childhood brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] G-Quadruplexes / drug effects. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Oxazoles / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Base Sequence. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Protein Binding / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Telomerase / genetics. Telomerase / metabolism. Time Factors


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4. Narendran A, Coppes L, Jayanthan A, Coppes M, Teja B, Bernoux D, George D, Strother D: Establishment of atypical-teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) cell cultures from disseminated CSF cells: a model to elucidate biology and potential targeted therapeutics. J Neurooncol; 2008 Nov;90(2):171-80
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  • [Title] Establishment of atypical-teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) cell cultures from disseminated CSF cells: a model to elucidate biology and potential targeted therapeutics.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant central nervous system neoplasm that usually affects infants and young children.
  • In this report, we describe culture conditions that enabled the sustained growth of tumor cells obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of an infant with AT/RT.
  • These cells retained the morphological and biomarker characteristics of the original tumor.
  • IGF-IR activity is consistent with data from other established AT/RT cell lines.
  • Inhibition of IGF-IR by the small molecular weight inhibitor AEW541 led to growth suppression of cultured AT/RT cells.
  • We also compared cultured AT/RT cells to established cell lines to identify consistent drug sensitivity patterns among these cells.
  • In addition to previously described cell lines and xenograft models, continuous culture of CSF derived cells may also provide an effective way to study the biology of AT/RT and to identify potential targets for future therapeutics for this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Rhabdoid Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Male. Models, Biological. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. SMARCB1 Protein. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured / pathology. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18651103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors; 0 / SMARCB1 Protein; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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5. Athale UH, Duckworth J, Odame I, Barr R: Childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system: a meta-analysis of observational studies. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Sep;31(9):651-63
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  • [Title] Childhood atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
  • PURPOSE: Therapy for central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is controversial.
  • RESULTS: The median OS for patients treated with multiagent chemotherapy (n=79) was 17.3 months (range, 1.5-93 mo); unrelated to age at diagnosis, sex, tumor site, and extent of resection.
  • Patients (n=30) treated with intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy had significantly higher 2-year OS [64% (95% confidence interval, 46.5-82.0) vs. 17.3% (95% confidence interval, 5.4-29.3); P<0.0001] and lower prevalence of distant CNS metastasis compared with those without IT therapy (n=49) (20% vs. 59.2%; P=0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite dismal OS, multimodal therapy can induce remission even in metastatic CNS ATRT with partial resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rhabdoid Tumor / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19707161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Stabouli S, Sdougka M, Tsitspoulos P, Violaki A, Anagnostopoulos I, Tsonidis Ch, Koliouskas D: Primary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an infant. Hippokratia; 2010 Oct;14(4):286-8
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  • [Title] Primary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an infant.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine is a rare pediatric neoplasm with poor prognosis.
  • We report a case of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the cervical spine in a 2-months-old infant.
  • Tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, cytokeratins, S-100 protein, and CD57/Leu-7 antigen.
  • We review the literature on spinal malignant rhabdoid tumor and discuss the pathology, treatment, and outcome of these rare neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 21311641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Hippokratia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hippokratia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3031327
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; atypical teratoid tumor / chemotherapy / chromosome 22q / hydrocephalous / rhabdoid tumor / spine
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7. Moeller KK, Coventry S, Jernigan S, Moriarty TM: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2007 Mar;28(3):593-5
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine.
  • SUMMARY: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant central nervous system neoplasm usually seen in young children and infants.
  • Prognosis for AT/RT is poor, with most patients dying within 1 year of presentation.
  • AT/RT most commonly occurs intracranially.
  • We present a case of AT/RT occurring in the thoracolumbar spine of a child and review available clinical and imaging findings in previously reported cases of spinal AT/RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17353344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Wykoff CC, Lam BL, Brathwaite CD, Biegel JA, McKeown CA, Rosenblum MK, Allewelt HB, Sandberg DI: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor arising from the third cranial nerve. J Neuroophthalmol; 2008 Sep;28(3):207-11
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor arising from the third cranial nerve.
  • An otherwise healthy 6-week-old girl who presented with an isolated left third cranial nerve palsy underwent MRI that revealed an enhancing mass intrinsic to the left third cranial nerve.
  • Rapid enlargement of the lesion over 1 month led to subtotal neurosurgical resection of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), a rare, highly aggressive malignancy of infancy closely related histologically to medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • This is the first report of an AT/RT presenting as an isolated third cranial nerve palsy caused by tumor arising from within the nerve.

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  • [Cites] Childs Nerv Syst. 2001 Sep;17(9):503-11 [11585322.001]
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  • (PMID = 18769285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY014801; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274-17A2; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30-EY014801; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046274-17A2
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS110134; NLM/ PMC2839362
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9. Koral K, Gargan L, Bowers DC, Gimi B, Timmons CF, Weprin B, Rollins NK: Imaging characteristics of atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor in children compared with medulloblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Mar;190(3):809-14
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  • [Title] Imaging characteristics of atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor in children compared with medulloblastoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to compare the imaging characteristics of atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor with medulloblastoma and seek distinguishing features that can aid in preoperative diagnosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative MRI examinations of 55 patients (36 medulloblastomas and 19 atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumors) were analyzed retrospectively.
  • Imaging characteristics of atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor and medulloblastoma were assessed with conventional MRI and CT.
  • Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was available in 27 patients (19 medulloblastomas and eight atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumors).
  • Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated for 14 medulloblastomas and six atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumors.
  • RESULTS: Both atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumors in general and infratentorial atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumors presented at a younger age than medulloblastomas.
  • Eleven of 19 atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumors were infratentorial.
  • Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) involvement was more frequent (8/11, 72.7%) in atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor than in medulloblastoma (4/36, 11.1%) (p < 0.001).
  • Intratumoral hemorrhage was more common in atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor (9/19, 47.4%) than in medulloblastoma (2/36, 5.6%) (p < 0.0001).
  • All atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumors and all medulloblastomas for which DWI was available displayed increased signal intensity on DWI compared with normal brain parenchyma.
  • The mean ADC values for tumor types were not significantly different.
  • CONCLUSION: Atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor presents at a younger age than medulloblastoma.
  • Although atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor and medulloblastoma display similar imaging characteristics on conventional MRI, CPA involvement and intratumoral hemorrhage are more common in atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor.
  • If a pediatric posterior fossa mass that displays restricted diffusion is involving the CPA, atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor is a more likely consideration than medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


10. Kao CL, Huang PI, Tsai PH, Tsai ML, Lo JF, Lee YY, Chen YJ, Chen YW, Chiou SH: Resveratrol-induced apoptosis and increased radiosensitivity in CD133-positive cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 May 1;74(1):219-28
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  • [Title] Resveratrol-induced apoptosis and increased radiosensitivity in CD133-positive cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • PURPOSE: CD133 has recently been proposed as a marker for cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in brain tumors.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of resveratrol (RV) in radiosensitivity of CD133-positive/-negative cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT-CD133(+/-)).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: AT/RT-CD133(+/-) were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and then treated with RV at different doses.
  • RESULTS: AT/RT-CD133(+) displayed enhanced self-renewal and highly coexpressed "stem cell" genes and drug-resistant genes, in addition to showing significant resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy as compared with CD133(-) cells.
  • After treatment with 200 microM RV, the in vitro proliferation rates and in vivo tumor restoration abilities of ATRT-CD133(+) were dramatically inhibited.
  • Importantly, treatment with 150 microM RV can effectively inhibit the expression of drug-resistant genes in AT/RT-CD133(+), and further facilitate to the differentiation of CD133(+) into CD133(-).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AT/RT-CD133(+) exhibit CSC properties and are refractory to IR treatment.
  • Our results suggest that RV treatment plays crucial roles in antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and radiosensitizing effects on treated-CD133(+/-); RV may therefore improve the clinical treatment of AT/RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Radiation Tolerance / drug effects. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Stilbenes / therapeutic use. Teratoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Glycoproteins / analysis. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, SCID. Peptides / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19362240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Stilbenes; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
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11. Zimmerman MA, Goumnerova LC, Proctor M, Scott RM, Marcus K, Pomeroy SL, Turner CD, Chi SN, Chordas C, Kieran MW: Continuous remission of newly diagnosed and relapsed central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. J Neurooncol; 2005 Mar;72(1):77-84
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  • [Title] Continuous remission of newly diagnosed and relapsed central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly malignant lesions of childhood that carry a very poor prognosis.
  • AT/RT can occur in the central nervous system (CNS AT/RT) and disease in this location carries an even worse prognosis with a median survival of 7 months.
  • In spite of multiple treatment regimens consisting of maximal surgical resection (including second look surgery), radiation therapy (focal and craniospinal), and multi-agent intravenous, oral and intrathecal chemotherapy, with or without high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue, only seven long-term survivors of CNS AT/RT have been reported, all in patients with newly diagnosed disease.
  • We now report on four children, two with newly diagnosed CNS AT/RT and two with progressive disease after multi-agent chemotherapy who are long term survivors (median follow-up of 37 months) using a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and intensive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15803379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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12. Chacko G, Chacko AG, Dunham CP, Judkins AR, Biegel JA, Perry A: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor arising in the setting of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. J Neurooncol; 2007 Sep;84(2):217-22
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor arising in the setting of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.
  • We present a case of a 23-year-old man with a tumor containing glial and rhabdoid elements where the former had features of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and the latter had the immunophenotype and genetic profile of an atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumor.
  • The patient presented with a short history of raised intracranial pressure with rapid deterioration in sensorium.
  • We speculate that the PXA was a quiescent tumor and that the secondary genetic alterations, including inactivation of the INI1 gene led to clinical progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17431546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 Protein; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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13. Mora J, Cruz O, Parareda A, Guillen A, Puy R, Massaguer S, de Torres C, Garcia G, Costa JM: Treatment of childhood glial tumors with cisplatin and irinotecan. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10062

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  • [Title] Treatment of childhood glial tumors with cisplatin and irinotecan.
  • : 10062 Background: Childhood glial tumors are heterogeneous neoplasias for which non-surgical management is controversial.
  • After a pilot study suggesting that irinotecan/cisplatin (I/C) may be effective in children (Mora et al, Neuro Oncol 2007), we initiated a phase II prospective trial with the aim of avoiding radiation therapy for low grade's (LG) and improve outcome for high grade's (HG).
  • Weekly Irinotecan (50 mg/m2 and 65 mg/m2 the last 2 cycles) and Cisplatin (30 mg/m2) for four consecutive weeks (1 cycle), and a total of 4 cycles was used.
  • Fourteen tumors were WHO grades I-II gliomas (LGG), 10 grade III (6 gliomas, 2 anaplastic ependymomas and 2 AT/RT), and 6 had no biopsy (3 brainstem (BST) and 3 optic-pathway tumors (OPT)).
  • Primary sites included: 4 supratentorial, 8 BST, 9 OPT, 2 cerebellar, and 7 spinal.
  • Prior to the I/C regimen, gross total resection was performed in 7 and biopsy in 14 tumors; 9 patients received chemotherapy and 5 radiotherapy.
  • All but 6 patients, 2 because of C allergy and 4 BST because of progression, completed the protocol, with no grade 3-4 side effects.
  • Twenty (90%) of 22 patients with evaluable clinical symptoms had a complete and rapid response, with objective functional recovery.

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  • (PMID = 27962497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. El-Nabbout B, Shbarou R, Glasier CM, Saad AG: Primary diffuse cerebral leptomeningeal atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: report of the first case. J Neurooncol; 2010 Jul;98(3):431-4
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  • [Title] Primary diffuse cerebral leptomeningeal atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: report of the first case.
  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system has been recently described as a distinct clinicopathological entity with characteristic morphologic, immunophenotypic and molecular characteristics.
  • AT/RT typically involves the posterior fossa of the pediatric population.
  • Supratentorial AT/RT is exceedingly rare.
  • In this report, we describe a very unusual case of a child who presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of leptomeningitis.
  • However, imaging studies and histologic findings showed plaque-like AT/RT involving the leptomeninges of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary leptomeningeal AT/RT involving the supratentorial leptomeninges.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20020178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Yang CS, Jan YJ, Wang J, Shen CC, Chen CC, Chen M: Spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in a 7-year-old boy. Neuropathology; 2007 Apr;27(2):139-44
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  • [Title] Spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in a 7-year-old boy.
  • Reported herein is an unusual case of atypical teratoid/ rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the lumbar spine with an intradural extramedullary location in a 7-year-old boy.
  • Histologically, this tumor contained rhabdoid cells, pale cells, and sickle-shaped embracing cells without primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), mesenchymal or epithelial components.
  • Immunohistochemical staining showed that these tumor cells react positively for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), CD99 and neurofilament protein, but negatively for INI1 antibody.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17494515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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16. McVey GP, Morgan SC, Vergis R, Corbishley C, Thomas K, Cooper C, Horwich A, Huddart R, Dearnaley DP, Parker CC: Benefit of radiotherapy dose escalation in localized prostate cancer with respect to expression of intrinsic markers of hypoxia. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16068

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  • : e16068 Background: Dose escalation improves the efficacy of prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT) at the cost of increased toxicity.
  • Tumor hypoxia causes radioresistance, so the benefit of RT dose escalation may be greater in more hypoxic cancers.
  • METHODS: Cases had localized prostate cancer treated with neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation and radical RT at the Royal Marsden in two randomized trials of dose escalation (64 vs 74Gy).
  • Tumour expression of three markers (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α), and osteopontin) was assessed immunohistochemically using a semi-quantitative scale by a uro-pathologist, and analyzed with respect to freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) using the Phoenix definition.
  • The benefit of RT dose escalation was similar regardless of VEGF or HIF- 1α expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data generate the hypothesis that osteopontin expression could inform RT dose individualisation.
  • If validated, patients with low tumor expression of osteopontin could elect to receive less toxic, standard dose RT.

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  • (PMID = 27963064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Biegel JA: Molecular genetics of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Neurosurg Focus; 2006;20(1):E11
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  • [Title] Molecular genetics of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • Rhabdoid tumors are extremely aggressive malignancies that generally occur in infants and young children.
  • The most common locations are the kidney and central nervous system (atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor [RT]), although RTs can also arise in most soft-tissue sites.
  • Rhabdoid tumors in all anatomical locations have a similar molecular origin.
  • Mutation or deletion of both copies of the hSNF5/INI1 gene that maps to chromosome band 22q11.2 is observed in approximately 70% of primary tumors.
  • An additional 20 to 25% of tumors have reduced expression at the RNA or protein level, indicative of a loss-of-function event.
  • The complex is recruited to promoters of a large variety of genes involved in cell signaling, growth, and differentiation.
  • This review summarizes what is currently known regarding the molecular genetics of RTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Molecular Biology / methods. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16459991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46274
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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18. Bannykh S, Duncan C, Ogle E, Baehring JM: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spinal canal. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jan;76(2):129-30
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spinal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16411024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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19. Seno T, Kawaguchi T, Yamahara T, Sakurai Y, Oishi T, Inagaki T, Yamanouchi Y, Asai A, Kawamoto K: An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2008;25(2):79-83
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  • [Title] An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • We report two infant cases with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) located in the cerebellar vermis and spinal cord.
  • MRI showed the tumors were isointense on T1-weighted images and mixed intensity of isointense and slight high intensity on T2-weighted images.
  • Postcontrast MRI demonstrated clear margin of tumor and heterogeneous strong enhancement.
  • It was difficult to differentiate the tumor from medulloblastoma by hematoxylin and eosin staining.
  • However, immunohistochemical staining showed that these tumor cells react positively for cytokeratin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and helped us with the differentiation.
  • Electron microscopic study has confirmed the presence of mesenchymal components, such as filaments and desmosome junctions in the rhabdoid cells, but no neuronal components.
  • The tumors rapidly increased in size, showing high MIB-1 index, and the prognosis was gave.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Coloring Agents. Eosine Yellowish-(YS). Female. Fluorescent Dyes. Hematoxylin. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microscopy, Electron. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Organelles / pathology. Organelles / ultrastructure. Tissue Fixation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18987833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS); YKM8PY2Z55 / Hematoxylin
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20. Taneja AK, Reis F, Zanardi VA, Rogerio F, Queiroz LS: Meningeal presentation of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Neurol India; 2010 Jul-Aug;58(4):681-2
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  • [Title] Meningeal presentation of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20739832.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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21. Kodama H, Maeda M, Imai H, Matsubara T, Taki W, Takeda K: MRI of primary spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: a case report and literature review. J Neurooncol; 2007 Sep;84(2):213-6
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  • [Title] MRI of primary spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: a case report and literature review.
  • Primary spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is extremely rare.
  • Subtotal removal of the tumor was performed and spinal AT/RT was proven histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17361332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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22. Fujisawa H, Misaki K, Takabatake Y, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J: Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with hSNF5/INI1 gene inactivation. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):117-24
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  • [Title] Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with hSNF5/INI1 gene inactivation.
  • OBJECT: Although atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is known to generate through inactivation of the hSNF5/INI1 gene on chromosome 22q, the downstream molecular mechanism remains unclear.
  • We histologically and molecularly reviewed our pediatric brain tumors for unrecognized AT/RTs and evaluated the role of cyclin D1, a potential molecular target of hSNF5/INI1.
  • METHODS: We analyzed 16 tumors under three years of age: seven medulloblastomas, three anaplastic ependymomas (E IIIs), two each of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs) and choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs), and one each of neuroblastoma and pineoblastoma.
  • Because of the presence of rhabdoid cells and the polyimmunophenotypic features, the diagnosis was revised to AT/RT in five (31%) tumors, namely, two E IIIs and one each of medulloblastoma, CPC and pineoblastoma.
  • Cyclin D1 was overexpressed in those three tumors but not in the two that lacked hSNF5/INI1 inactivation.
  • CONCLUSION: AT/RT can be misdiagnosed as a variety of tumors, including ependymoma that potentially harbors LOH 22q.
  • Our data indicate that cyclin D1 is a target of hSNF5/INI1in primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics. Teratoma / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15981100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 Protein; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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23. Lafay-Cousin L, Payne E, Strother D, Chernos J, Chan M, Bernier FP: Goldenhar phenotype in a child with distal 22q11.2 deletion and intracranial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. Am J Med Genet A; 2009 Dec;149A(12):2855-9
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  • [Title] Goldenhar phenotype in a child with distal 22q11.2 deletion and intracranial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor.
  • Here we report on an infant diagnosed with Goldenhar syndrome (GS) phenotype who developed an atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the brain due to a distal deletion of the chromosome 22q11.2 region encompassing the INI1/SMARCB1 tumor suppressor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Goldenhar Syndrome / complications. Rhabdoid Tumor / complications. Teratoma / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Med Genet A. 2011 Feb;155A(2):458 [21271674.001]
  • (PMID = 19938088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Beschorner R, Mittelbronn M, Koerbel A, Ernemann U, Thal DR, Scheel-Walter HG, Meyermann R, Tatagiba M: Atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor spreading along the trigeminal nerve. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(4):258-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor spreading along the trigeminal nerve.
  • We here describe the case of a boy with an atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) of the 4th ventricle at 1 year of age and a local tumor recurrence at 19 months of age.
  • Due to brainstem infiltration, only incomplete tumor resection was possible each time.
  • High-dose chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and irradiation resulted in complete tumor remission on a control MRI.
  • At 8 years of age, another tumor appeared extending from the cerebellopontine angle along the right trigeminal nerve through Meckel's cave into the cavernous sinus.
  • The trigeminal tumor was not in continuity with the primary ATRT but was located within the field of prior irradiation, neuroradiologically mimicking a schwannoma or a meningioma.
  • The origin of the trigeminal tumor as a late metastasis of the former ATRT or as a less likely irradiation-induced secondary ATRT and the operative approach are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16714870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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25. Gidwani P, Levy A, Goodrich J, Weidenheim K, Kolb EA: Successful outcome with tandem myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants in a patient with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jun;88(2):211-5
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  • [Title] Successful outcome with tandem myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants in a patient with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system.
  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are highly malignant tumors of the central nervous system with a peak incidence in children less than 3 years of age.
  • No specific treatment guidelines are defined for ATRTs but a gross total resection and radiation therapy (RT) appear to improve overall outcome.
  • In children less than 3 years of age, the prognosis is dismal due in part to the reluctance to utilize RT given its severe neurological sequelae.
  • To avoid RT in this age group, intensification of chemotherapy has been tried and has shown to improve outcome.
  • We herein report the case of a 4-month-old boy with ATRT with partial resection of his tumor who achieved complete remission using tandem high-dose therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell re-infusions despite having biopsy proven disease at the time of starting the tandem regimens.
  • This was achieved without the use of RT as a treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Myeloablative Agonists / therapeutic use. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18317689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myeloablative Agonists
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26. Sathyamoorthi S, Morales J, Bermudez J, McBride L, Luquette M, McGoey R, Oates N, Hales S, Biegel JA, Lacassie Y: Array analysis and molecular studies of INI1 in an infant with deletion 22q13 (Phelan-McDermid syndrome) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Am J Med Genet A; 2009 May;149A(5):1067-9
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  • [Title] Array analysis and molecular studies of INI1 in an infant with deletion 22q13 (Phelan-McDermid syndrome) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.

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  • [Cites] Genet Med. 2007 Sep;9(9):607-16 [17873649.001]
  • (PMID = 19334084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046274-20; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274-20
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS293509; NLM/ PMC3102295
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27. Squire SE, Chan MD, Marcus KJ: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: the controversy behind radiation therapy. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jan;81(1):97-111
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: the controversy behind radiation therapy.
  • To date, approximately 200 cases of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system have been described in the literature.
  • This CNS tumor tends to present at an age of less than 3 years, and most patients succumb to their disease within 1 year of diagnosis.
  • Prior to the rise in utilization of immunohistochemical (IHC) testing in the late 1990s, this tumor was likely mistaken as medulloblastoma and treated as such.
  • However, lessons learned from regimens based upon medulloblastoma have revealed that AT/RT requires more aggressive treatment.
  • As most patients with AT/RT present as infants or young children, radiation therapy has been a less than standard treatment option.
  • A standardized and effective approach to treating this usually fatal tumor remains elusive, and the role of radiation therapy presents a particular dilemma as young patients with this disease may experience devastating late effects of therapy if they achieve a long-term survival.
  • Our review underscores the importance or enrolling patients in multi-institutional prospective studies to further investigate the value of radiation to treat this pediatric neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Teratoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16855864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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28. Kordes U, Gesk S, Frühwald MC, Graf N, Leuschner I, Hasselblatt M, Jeibmann A, Oyen F, Peters O, Pietsch T, Siebert R, Schneppenheim R: Clinical and molecular features in patients with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor or malignant rhabdoid tumor. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2010 Feb;49(2):176-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical and molecular features in patients with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor or malignant rhabdoid tumor.
  • The SMARCB1 gene status in 50 patients with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor and/or malignant rhabdoid tumor recruited to a German registry was prospectively analyzed with FISH and PCR.
  • Germline mutations were identified in 10 of 41 patients with CNS disease, including three large heterozygous deletions, six truncating mutations and one donor splice site mutation.
  • No germline mutation was found in nine patients without CNS disease.
  • Patients with germline mutation had a lower median age at diagnosis in comparison to those without detectable germline mutation (5.5 vs. 13 months, P = 0.001), a higher rate of primary multicentric CNS disease (5/10 vs. 5/36) and synchronous or metachronous mixed CNS and extracranial disease (4/10 vs. 1/36).
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Mutation. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19902524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2264
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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29. Lerouge D, Gervais R, Dansin E, Dujon C, Chouaid C, Riviere A, Precheur-Agulhon B, Piolat V, Zalcman G, Lartigau E: A fractionated schedule of oral vinorelbine (NVBo) with cisplatin (CDDP) concomitantly with radiotherapy (RT) after induction chemotherapy (CT) in locally advanced (LA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Safety and efficacy results of a phase II trial. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):7539

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A fractionated schedule of oral vinorelbine (NVBo) with cisplatin (CDDP) concomitantly with radiotherapy (RT) after induction chemotherapy (CT) in locally advanced (LA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Safety and efficacy results of a phase II trial.
  • : 7539 Background: NVB+CDDP as induction and concomitant regimen with RT is a recognized treatment in LA NSCLC (Vokes, J Clin Oncol. 2002).
  • The oral formulation of NVB may simplify the administration and a new fractionated schedule may further improve the results during CT-RT.
  • Non progressive pts received 2 additional cycles of fixed dose NVBo of 20 mg on D1, D3 and D5, + CDDP 80 mg/m<sup>2</sup> on D1 every 3 weeks, combined with a conformal RT at 66 Gy.
  • After CT-RT completion, OR was 55% (CR = 7%), DC = 88%.
  • Furthermore, NVBo taken at home at D3 and D5 reduces the organizational constraints linked to CT-RT.
  • Further follow-up is required in order to assess time to progression and survival.

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  • (PMID = 27963308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Kao CL, Chiou SH, Ho DM, Chen YJ, Liu RS, Lo CW, Tsai FT, Lin CH, Ku HH, Yu SM, Wong TT: Elevation of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid osteopontin levels in patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;123(2):297-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Elevation of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid osteopontin levels in patients with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • Osteopontin, a cancer metastasis-associated gene, is specifically up-regulated in central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), but its biological behavior in the progression of CNS AT/RT has never been studied.
  • We obtained plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue specimens from lobectomy or hemispherectomy samples from 39 patients (medulloblastoma, 16; AT/RT, 8; epilepsy, 6; hydrocephalus, 9).
  • By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the median osteopontin levels in plasma and CSF in AT/RT (852.0 and 1,175.0 ng/mL, respectively) were significantly higher than in medulloblastoma (492.5 and 524.5 ng/mL, respectively) and hydrocephalus and epilepsy (208.0 and 168.0 ng/mL, respectively) (P < .05).
  • The results of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that osteopontin expression in AT/RT (n = 5) was significantly higher than in medulloblastoma (n = 8) samples.
  • The differences in osteopontin expression in plasma, CSF, and tumor samples in AT/RT and medulloblastoma correlated with survival differences.
  • In 5 patients with AT/RT, plasma osteopontin levels decreased after treatment but increased with relapse.
  • Osteopontin might be a potential marker to aid in identifying AT/RT recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Sialoglycoproteins. Teratoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Osteopontin. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15842057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SPP1 protein, human; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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31. Heuer GG, Kiefer H, Judkins AR, Belasco J, Biegel JA, Jackson EM, Cohen M, O'Malley BW Jr, Storm PB: Surgical treatment of a clival-C2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Jan;5(1):75-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of a clival-C2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • The authors present the case of en bloc resection of a clival-C2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • A transoral biopsy procedure revealed an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor on histological examination.
  • The tumor was resected via a transoral approach, and the patient's spine was stabilized with posterior instrumented fusion from the occiput to C-5.
  • The conus tumor was resected and found to be consistent with the primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20043739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046274-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274-18
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184119; NLM/ PMC2840717
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32. Stevens EA, Stanton CA, Nichols K, Ellis TL: Rare intraparenchymal choroid plexus carcinoma resembling atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor diagnosed by immunostaining for INI1 protein. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Oct;4(4):368-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rare intraparenchymal choroid plexus carcinoma resembling atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor diagnosed by immunostaining for INI1 protein.
  • The authors present the case of a rare extraventricular, intraparenchymal choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC).
  • Imaging studies revealed an intraaxial cystic and solid mass located in the right frontal lobe with central nodular enhancement and minimally enhancing cyst walls.
  • Gross-total resection was accomplished via craniotomy without complications.
  • The initial pathological diagnosis was atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT); however, immunostaining for INI1 protein (using the BAF47/SNF5 antibody) showed retention of nuclear staining in the tumor cells, resulting in a change in the diagnosis to CPC.
  • There was no evidence of recurrence at the last follow-up 2.5 years after treatment, which supports the diagnosis of CPC over AT/RT.
  • This case emphasizes the importance of immunostaining for INI1 protein for distinguishing CPC from AT/RT in cases with atypical or indeterminate features.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19795969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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33. Las Heras F, Pritzker KP: Adult variant of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural confirmation of a rare tumor in the sella tursica. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Nov 15;206(11):788-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adult variant of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural confirmation of a rare tumor in the sella tursica.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a distinctive neoplasm of young children characterized by diverse histology and fatal course.
  • We describe the diagnostic problems associated with an AT/RT arising in the sellar region in a 46-year-old female.
  • INI1 protein expression was immunohistochemically determined on tumor tissue.
  • The tumor was composed of large atypical "rhabdoid" cells having macronucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, CD34, CD99, and reacted variably for keratin, synaptophysin, NSE, and SMA.
  • The tumor cells lacked nuclear expression of INI1.
  • AT/RT should be considered when dealing with a malignant neoplasm with rhabdoid features, regardless of age.
  • Immunohistochemistry is of importance in differentiating this entity from primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) and carcinosarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Rare Diseases. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Sella Turcica / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20705400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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34. Chiou SH, Kao CL, Chen YW, Chien CS, Hung SC, Lo JF, Chen YJ, Ku HH, Hsu MT, Wong TT: Identification of CD133-positive radioresistant cells in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. PLoS One; 2008;3(5):e2090
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of CD133-positive radioresistant cells in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is an extremely malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system (CNS) which occurs in infancy and childhood.
  • Recent studies suggested that CD133 could be considered a marker for brain cancer stem-like cells (CSCs).
  • However, the role of CD133 in AT/RT has never been investigated.
  • Herein we report the isolation of CD133-positive cells (CD133(+)), found to have the potential to differentiate into three germ layer tissues, from tissues of nine AT/RT patients.
  • The clinical data showed that the amount of CD133(+) in AT/RTs correlated positively with the degree of resistance to radiation therapy.
  • In sum, this is the first report indicating that CD133(+) AT/RT cells demonstrate the characteristics of CSCs.
  • The IR-resistant and anti-apoptotic properties in CD133(+) may reflect the clinical refractory malignancy of AT/RTs and thus the activated p-ATM pathway and BCL-2 expression in CD133(+) could be possible targets to improve future treatment of deadly diseases like AT/RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / immunology. Glycoproteins / immunology. Peptides / immunology. Radiation Tolerance. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Oncogene. 2007 Mar 1;26(10):1459-67 [16936774.001]
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  • (PMID = 18509505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2396792
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35. Huddleston BJ, Sjostrom CM, Collins BT: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor involving cerebrospinal fluid: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):958-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor involving cerebrospinal fluid: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare, aggressive tumor of the central nervous system.
  • CASE: We present a case of AT/RT arising in the cervical spine of a 6-month-old boy.
  • The CSF cytomorphologic findings of the AT/RT cells are most notably large cells, eccentrically placed pleomorphic nuclei, prominent nucleoli and, commonly, cytoplasmic inclusions, as well as a second population of smaller mononuclear cells with minimal cytoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: The cervical spine is a rare site for AT/RT to arise.
  • It is important for pathologists to recognize the cytomorphologic features of AT/RT in the CSF of patients with this tumor to help determine prognosis and disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdoid Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Jackson EM, Shaikh TH, Zhang F, Wainwright LM, Storm PB, Hakonarson H, Zackai EH, Biegel JA: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Am J Med Genet A; 2007 Aug 1;143A(15):1767-70
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a genetic disorder associated with an increased risk of childhood tumors.
  • Here we describe a patient with BWS who developed a central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT).
  • To our knowledge, despite the known cancer predisposition, this patient is the first described with BWS to develop an AT/RT.
  • Due to the high propensity of these patients to develop childhood tumors, in addition to routine diagnostic tests, analysis of the tumor DNA using the Illumina Infinium whole-genome genotyping 550K Beadchip was performed to investigate a possible common underlying mechanism for his BWS and AT/RT.
  • The only alteration detected was monosomy 22, which was accompanied by a somatic mutation in the INI1 rhabdoid tumor gene.
  • These results suggest that, despite an underlying cancer predisposition, the occurrence of BWS and AT/RT in this patient may be unrelated.
  • [MeSH-major] Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome / genetics. Rhabdoid Tumor / complications. Teratoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / radiography. Humans. Infant. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17603804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. de León-Bojorge B, Rueda-Franco F, Anaya-Jara M: Central nervous system atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: experience at the National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Mar;24(3):307-12
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  • [Title] Central nervous system atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor: experience at the National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to present our experience with ten cases of Central nervous system atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (CNS/ATRT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of ten patients with CNS/ATRT, were diagnosed and treated between 1990 and 2005, at the National Institute of Pediatrics, in Mexico City.
  • The gender, age of presentation, clinical features, tumor localization, imaging studies, grade of tumor resection, complications, adjuvant therapy, and survival are presented.
  • In nine patients, the grade of resection was total or subtotal.
  • There were two cases with longer survival (9 and 16 months), and their tumors were resected in total or subtotal manner and received adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy and chemotherapy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results, show that in older children, we can improve their survival with the subtotal or total resection of the tumor and the addition of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17876589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Parwani AV, Stelow EB, Pambuccian SE, Burger PC, Ali SZ: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the brain: cytopathologic characteristics and differential diagnosis. Cancer; 2005 Apr 25;105(2):65-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the brain: cytopathologic characteristics and differential diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly aggressive neoplasm with a unique cytogenetic profile.
  • Although the clinicopathologic and radiologic features of AT/RT have been described previously, to the authors' knowledge the cytomorphologic profile of this tumor has not been studied well.
  • METHODS: Nine samples of AT/RT from 8 patients were analyzed from the pathology files of 2 large institutions in a 10-year period (1993-2002).
  • RESULTS: There were 4 males and 4 females who ranged in age from 1-16 years (mean age, 7.1 years).
  • Cytomorphologic features consisted of hypercellularity (eight of eight tumors); predominantly large tissue fragments with tumor cells surrounding proliferating capillaries depicting a "papillary-like" appearance (five of eight tumors); large, round, "plasmacytoid" cells and characteristic "rhabdoid" cells (i.e., intermediate-sized cells with granular to fibrillary, brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm with or without globoid "inclusions"; large, eccentrically located, round-to-reniform nuclei with single prominent nucleoli; eight of eight tumors); small, round, primitive "neuronal-appearing" cells with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio (five of eight patients); and bizarre, multinucleated giant cells (two of eight tumors).
  • Also seen were numerous apoptotic bodies, mitoses, and significant necrosis (seven of eight tumors), and prominent dystrophic calcification (four of eight tumors).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AT/RT is extremely rare.
  • The differential diagnosis includes medulloblastoma (in cerebellar tumors), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (in suprasellar tumors), choroid plexus carcinoma, and malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive. Retrospective Studies


39. Honda M, Baba H, Yonekura M, Iseki M: Cerebral composite atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and yolk sac tumor in the frontal lobe of an infant. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Jun;45(6):318-21
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  • [Title] Cerebral composite atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and yolk sac tumor in the frontal lobe of an infant. Case report.
  • A 1-year-old male infant presented with a rare cerebral composite tumor consisting of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) with epithelial and mesenchymal components and yolk sac tumor (YST) with Schiller-Duval bodies.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large, intra-axial solid tumor with a cyst in the left frontal lobe.
  • Total resection of the tumor was performed.
  • Histological examination showed two different main growth patterns: solid sheets of undifferentiated polygonal cells and a few rhabdoid cells with rosette structures and rhabdomyoblastic cells; and reticular or papillary structures with occasional Schiller-Duval bodies in a myxoid matrix.
  • The immunohistochemical and electron microscopy findings indicated composite AT/RT and YST.
  • Initial total resection of the tumor was subsequently followed by local recurrence, hydrocephalus, and spinal metastasis.
  • AT/RT is a recently established entity of the central nervous system.
  • The present case of composite AT/RT and YST in the frontal lobe indicates the poor prognosis of such tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15973067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Yano S, Hida K, Kobayashi H, Iwasaki Y: Successful multimodal therapies for a primary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in the cervical spine. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(5):406-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful multimodal therapies for a primary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in the cervical spine.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) occurring in the central nervous system is a high-grade malignant tumor, and its prognosis is poor for patients younger than 3 years of age.
  • In this article, we present a case of infant AT/RT in the cervical spine and its successful treatment by intensive chemotherapy.
  • MRI revealed a large, intradural mass in the cervical spine.Total surgical resection was performed, and the specimen was diagnosed as AT/RT.
  • At the age of nearly 3 years, she received radiation therapy to the local tumor bed and craniospinal axis.
  • The success of this treatment for the patient was that we could prevent tumor recurrence until she was able to receive radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18703889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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41. Strother D: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors of childhood: diagnosis, treatment and challenges. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Oct;5(5):907-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors of childhood: diagnosis, treatment and challenges.
  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the brain was described as a unique entity in the late 1980s.
  • At presentation, the differential diagnosis includes medulloblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, ependymoma and choroid plexus carcinoma.
  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor behaves in a very aggressive manner and while cure is possible for a small minority of patients, no standard or effective therapy has been defined for most patients.
  • Since its first description, considerable pathologic, cytogenetic and molecular characterizations, as described in this review, have been accomplished that provide insight into the possible molecular etiology of the disease and of malignant rhabdoid tumors that occur outside the CNS.
  • Co-operative group clinical trials that focus solely on atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor are needed that incorporate biologic studies along with evaluations of aggressive treatment approaches.
  • The goal of these trials should be to increase the cure rate for children with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor and further increase our understanding not only of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, but also of other pediatric brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16221059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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42. Zarovnaya EL, Pallatroni HF, Hug EB, Ball PA, Cromwell LD, Pipas JM, Fadul CE, Meyer LP, Park JP, Biegel JA, Perry A, Rhodes CH: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an adult: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2007 Aug;84(1):49-55
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an adult: case report and review of the literature.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are rare, malignant brain tumors which occur almost exclusively in infants and young children.
  • There have been only 17 cases of AT/RT in adults reported in the medical literature and the rarity of this tumor makes the diagnosis in adults difficult.
  • We describe a case of an AT/RT of the spinal cord in an adult.
  • In consultation with senior pathologists at other institutions, the lesion was initially diagnosed as a rhabdoid meningioma.
  • Subsequently, immunohistochemical studies revealed the absence of INI1 gene expression in the malignant cells, supporting the diagnosis of AT/RT.
  • The patient underwent three additional surgical procedures for recurrent disease throughout the neuraxis secondary to leptomeningeal spread of the tumor.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of a spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in an adult fully documented with molecular, immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and autopsy findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17377740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46274
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 Protein; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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43. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Lovell MA, Donson AM, Wilkinson CC, Madden JR, Addo-Yobo SO, Lillehei KO, Foreman NK: Molecular array analyses of 51 pediatric tumors shows overlap between malignant intracranial ectomesenchymoma and MPNST but not medulloblastoma or atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Jun;113(6):695-703
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular array analyses of 51 pediatric tumors shows overlap between malignant intracranial ectomesenchymoma and MPNST but not medulloblastoma or atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor.
  • Gene microarray has been used to identify prognostic markers and genes of interest for therapeutic targets; a less common use is to show possible histogenetic relationships between rare tumor types and more common neoplasms.
  • Intracranial malignant ectomesenchymoma (MEM) is a pediatric tumor postulated to arise from neural crest cells that contain divergent neuroectodermal and mesenchymal tissues, principally mature ganglion cells and rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).
  • We investigated a case of MEM by molecular, cytogenetic, and gene array analyses and compared results with our previously unpublished series of 51 pediatric tumors including conventional RMS, Ewing sarcoma (EWS), medulloblastoma (MED), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST); the latter is a sarcoma also with potential for divergent differentiation.
  • Standard cytogenetic analyses and RT-PCR testing for the classic gene rearrangements seen in RMS [t(2;13)-PAX3/FKHR] and EWS ([t(11;22) & t(21;22)-EWS/FLI-1 & EWS/ERG), were used for characterization of the MEM, with gene expression microarray analyses on all tumor types.
  • Gene expression microarray analyses showed tight clustering of the MEM with the MPNST (n = 2), but divergence from other pediatric tumors.
  • Despite the presence of malignant skeletal muscle differentiation in the MEM, gene array testing showed no overlap with RMS, MED, or ATRT, but rather with MPNST.
  • This suggests a common stem cell origin or embryonic gene recapitulation for these tumors and provides novel insights into their underlying biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Mesenchymoma / genetics. Mesenchymoma / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / genetics. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / genetics. Teratoma / pathology


44. Partap S, Murphy PA, Vogel H, Barnes PD, Edwards MS, Fisher PG: Efficacy and tolerability of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine for central nervous system embryonal tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2064

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy and tolerability of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine for central nervous system embryonal tumors.
  • METHODS: We reviewed all patients at our institution treated with liposomal cytarabine for primary central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors-MB, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT).
  • RESULTS: A cohort of 17 patients were treated with liposomal cytarabine at diagnosis of CNS embryonal tumor (2 PNET, 3 ATRT) or relapse (12 MB [7 average-risk, 5 high-risk]); nine had leptomeningeal metastases.
  • A total of 102 doses were administered (lumbar IT 76, Ommaya intraventricular 36) with a mean of six treatments (range 1-16).
  • All six evaluable patients with malignant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and treated with at least two doses cleared their spinal fluid (mean 3 doses, range 1-5).
  • No patient developed malignant CSF cytology while receiving liposomal cytarabine.
  • All patients with neoplastic meningitis cleared malignant cells from their spinal fluid after treatment with IT liposomal cytarabine and systemic chemotherapy.
  • Our findings warrant a phase II trial of liposomal cytarabine in newly diagnosed or recurrent CNS embryonal tumors.

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  • (PMID = 27964690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Biswas A, Goyal S, Puri T, Das P, Sarkar C, Julka PK, Bakhshi S, Rath GK: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the brain: case series and review of literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Nov;25(11):1495-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the brain: case series and review of literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Intracranial atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor is an uncommon malignancy with a dismal outcome.
  • Commonly misdiagnosed over the decades as primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the brain, it has dramatically different biological behavior.
  • DISCUSSION: We herein report a case series of five patients diagnosed and treated as atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor of the brain in a major cancer center in north India.
  • We have also analyzed the clinical, histopathological, and radiological features and the therapeutic options of this enigmatic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19484251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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46. Nicolaides T, Tihan T, Horn B, Biegel J, Prados M, Banerjee A: High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;98(1):117-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system.
  • Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the central nervous system are rare but aggressive tumors of childhood.
  • Nine consecutive children (median age 21 months) were diagnosed with AT/RT at the University of California San Francisco Childrens Hospital from 1997 to 2007 and treated with this aggressive approach.
  • Two of nine patients treated for AT/RT at our institution with high dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplant are long-term survivors, suggesting that a subset of patients can be cured with this approach.

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  • (PMID = 19936623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108462; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046274-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108462-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184133; NLM/ PMC2880232
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47. Jóźwiak J, Bikowska B, Grajkowska W, Sontowska I, Roszkowski M, Galus R: Activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in a patient with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Folia Neuropathol; 2010;48(3):185-9
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  • [Title] Activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in a patient with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • A typical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant childhood brain tumor.
  • Most AT/RTs are shown to contain chromosome 22 mutation in the region of hSNF5/INI1 gene, whose protein product participates in chromatin remodeling.
  • Although the presence of this mutation is well described, molecular pathways underlying AT/RT development are poorly, if at all, understood.
  • In the current paper we evaluate a case of AT/RT with special consideration of two pathways often implicated in tumor development: protein kinase B (PKB or Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk).
  • First, we confirmed expression of typical protein pattern being unique for AT/RT, including epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein.
  • We found that Erk pathway signaling in the tumor was not upregulated.
  • At the same time, inhibitor of Akt pathway, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), was not upregulated.
  • These results strongly support the hypothesis that Akt pathway contributes to chromatin remodeling disruption, promoting malignant transformation of AT/RT.


48. Nishihira Y, Tan CF, Hirato J, Yoshimura J, Nishiyama K, Takahashi H, Fujii Y, Takahashi H: A case of congenital supratentorial tumor: atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor or primitive neuroectodermal tumor? Neuropathology; 2007 Dec;27(6):551-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of congenital supratentorial tumor: atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor or primitive neuroectodermal tumor?
  • Two embryonal CNS tumors, atypical teratoid/rabdoid tumor (AT/RT) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), may be confused with each other and misdiagnosed.
  • Here we report an infant with a congenital supratentorial tumor, which was detected by fetal MRI at 37 weeks gestation.
  • On routine histological examination, the tumor was composed mainly of small undifferentiated cells, among which many rhabdoid cells and occasional sickle-shaped embracing cells were observed.
  • Our impression was that the tumor was an atypical example of AT/RT.
  • Immunohistochemically, almost all the tumor cells were strongly positive for vimentin.
  • However, epithelial membrane antigen was notably negative, and most of the tumor cell nuclei were clearly positive for INI1.
  • In addition, many tumor cells were positive for neurofilament protein.
  • There were also occasional small areas containing many tumor cells positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein.
  • Finally, a diagnosis of PNET, with a rhabdoid phenotype and expression of neuronal and glial markers, was made.
  • In the present case, application of INI1 immunostaining was very helpful for distinguishing PNET from AT/RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / congenital. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant, Newborn. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / congenital. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Neuropathology. 2008 Feb;28(1):108
  • (PMID = 18021375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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49. Howes TL, Buatti JM, O'Dorisio MS, Kirby PA, Ryken TC: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor case report: treatment with surgical excision, radiation therapy, and alternative medicines. J Neurooncol; 2005 Mar;72(1):85-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor case report: treatment with surgical excision, radiation therapy, and alternative medicines.
  • Intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare with a poor prognosis.
  • We report one case of a 7-year old girl living over 17 months after the diagnosis of AT/RT in the left frontal lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Teratoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15803380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. MacDonald TJ: Aggressive infantile embryonal tumors. J Child Neurol; 2008 Oct;23(10):1195-204
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  • [Title] Aggressive infantile embryonal tumors.
  • Embryonal tumors are the most common brain tumors in infants less than 36 months.
  • Histologically characterized as undifferentiated small, round cell tumors with divergent patterns of differentiation, these include medulloblastoma, the most common form of embryonal tumor, as well as supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, medulloepithelioma, ependymoblastoma, medullomyoblastoma, melanotic medulloblastoma, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • All are similarly aggressive and have a tendency to disseminate throughout the central nervous system.
  • Because of efforts to avoid craniospinal irradiation in an attempt to lessen treatment-related neurotoxicity, management of these tumors in infants is unique.
  • Outcomes remain similarly poor among all the tumor types and, therefore, identification of specific molecular targets that have prognostic and therapeutic implications is crucial.
  • The molecular and clinical aspects of the 3 most common aggressive infantile embryonal tumors, medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, are the focus of this review.

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  • (PMID = 18952586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R13 NS040925; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5R13NS040925-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 70
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS473079; NLM/ PMC3674573
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51. Bing F, Nugues F, Grand S, Bessou P, Salon C: Primary intracranial extra-axial and supratentorial atypical rhabdoid tumor. Pediatr Neurol; 2009 Dec;41(6):453-6
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  • [Title] Primary intracranial extra-axial and supratentorial atypical rhabdoid tumor.
  • An atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system is an aggressive infantile embryonal neoplasm, usually presenting as an infratentorial and intraparenchymatous lesion.
  • We report on magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 22-month-old boy with a biopsy-proven primary rhabdoid tumor, presenting as a single intracranial supratentorial extra-axial mass.
  • Based on the patient's age and imaging features (perfusion, diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy), a diagnosis of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor was more accurate than diagnoses of meningioma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • Although this entity is relatively rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dural-based, space-occupying central nervous system lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Brain Edema / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19931170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5150
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Gyure KA: Newly defined central nervous system neoplasms. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jun;123 Suppl:S3-12
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  • [Title] Newly defined central nervous system neoplasms.
  • In recent years, numerous new entities or variants of recognized central nervous system tumors have been described in the literature, and the morphologic spectrum of these neoplasms is delineated incompletely.
  • The clinicopathologic features and differential diagnosis of 4 new entities, including the chordoid glioma of the third ventricle, cerebellar liponeurocytoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and papillary glioneuronal tumor, are discussed in this review.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / classification. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebellar Neoplasms / classification. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Child. Chordoma / classification. Chordoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Ganglioglioma / classification. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / classification. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Medulloblastoma / classification. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Prognosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / classification. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Teratoma / classification. Teratoma / diagnosis. Third Ventricle / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16100866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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53. Ingold B, Moschopulos M, Hutter G, Seeger H, Röthlisberger B, Landolt H, Yonekawa Y, Jochum W, Heppner FL: Abdominal seeding of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the pineal gland along a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter. Acta Neuropathol; 2006 Jan;111(1):56-9
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  • [Title] Abdominal seeding of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the pineal gland along a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Pinealoma / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / secondary. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Iatrogenic Disease. Liver Neoplasms / chemistry. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Peritoneal Neoplasms / chemistry. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Splenic Neoplasms / chemistry. Splenic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16328512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. El Kababri M, André N, Carole C, Lena G, Figarella-Branger D, Gentet JC: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor in a child with neurofibromatosis 1. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Feb;46(2):267-8
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor in a child with neurofibromatosis 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Neurofibromin 1 / genetics. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16086409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Neurofibromin 1
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55. Rezanko T, Tunakan M, Kahraman A, Sucu HK, Gelal F, Akkol I: Primary rhabdoid tumor of the brain in an adult. Neuropathology; 2006 Feb;26(1):57-61
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  • [Title] Primary rhabdoid tumor of the brain in an adult.
  • Rhabdoid tumor (RT) is an uncommon childhood neoplasm that typically arises within the kidney.
  • Since its description in 1978, several cases of primary extrarenal RT, including a CNS localization, have been reported.
  • The first case in the CNS was reported in 1985 and was defined as "rhabdoid tumor" initially, and was classified as grade IV in the most recent classification of the World Health Organization under the term of "atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor".
  • Nearly 200 cases of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the CNS have been reported to date, most of them occurring in childhood.
  • We report a case of primary RT of the brain located in the right frontal lobe with the clinical, radiographic and pathological features presenting at an unusual age.
  • This tumor, which was composed purely of rhabdoid cells with no additional primitive neuroectodermal, epithelial and mesenchymal components, was in a 27-year-old male patient.
  • In conclusion, RT should be considered also in the differential diagnosis of intracerebral neoplasms of adult patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Meningioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16521480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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56. Antonelli M, Cenacchi G, Modena P, Morra I, Forni M, Giangaspero F: Ultrastructural evidence of ependymal differentiation in a genetically proven atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Dec;25(12):1627-31
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  • [Title] Ultrastructural evidence of ependymal differentiation in a genetically proven atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • INTRODUCTION: We describe a case of genetically proven atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), showing ultrastructural evidence of ependymal differentiation.
  • CONCLUSION: This finding supports the concept that ATRTs as the majority of central nervous system embryonal tumors may derive from an immature and pluripotent neuroectodermal cell capable of differentiating along multiple lineages.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Ependyma / ultrastructure. Rhabdoid Tumor / ultrastructure. Teratoma / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 19554334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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57. Tez S, Köktener A, Güler G, Ozişik P: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: imaging findings of two cases and review of the literature. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 Jan;18(1):30-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors: imaging findings of two cases and review of the literature.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a malignant embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumor, manifesting in children, and composed of rhabdoid cells, with or without fields resembling a classical primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), epithelial tissue and neoplastic mesenchyme.
  • Around 200 cases of CNS AT/RT have been documented in the literature.
  • Although the clinical and pathological findings have been defined in large series previously, and AT/RT has become increasingly recognized, awareness of typical AT/RT is important in making the correct diagnosis of this uncommon but probably underdiagnosed entity.
  • Neuroradiologists rarely mention AT/RT in their differential diagnosis and this paper presents two additional cases in which clinical and pathological findings are combined with neuroradiological presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18382974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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58. Perry A, Fuller CE, Judkins AR, Dehner LP, Biegel JA: INI1 expression is retained in composite rhabdoid tumors, including rhabdoid meningiomas. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jul;18(7):951-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] INI1 expression is retained in composite rhabdoid tumors, including rhabdoid meningiomas.
  • Rhabdoid cells are encountered in specific entities, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, as well as in composite rhabdoid tumors derived secondarily from other tumor types.
  • Although rhabdoid tumors are uniformly aggressive, distinction of the entity from the phenotype remains important for its therapeutic implications.
  • The majority of malignant rhabdoid tumors and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors affect infants and young children, harbor chromosome 22q deletions, and inactivate the INI1/hSNF5/BAF47 tumor suppressor gene on 22q11.2.
  • In contrast, most composite rhabdoid tumors are diagnosed in adults, with FISH detectable 22q losses the exception rather than the rule.
  • However, this assay remains limited since 22q dosages are maintained in 20-30% of malignant rhabdoid tumors and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.
  • Furthermore, chromosome 22 losses are common in some parent tumor types, particularly meningiomas.
  • The recently developed INI1 antibody shows loss of nuclear expression in malignant rhabdoid tumors and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, though its status in composite rhabdoid tumors is largely unknown.
  • Therefore, we utilized immunohistochemistry and FISH to study INI1 expression and 22q dosages, respectively, in 40 composite rhabdoid tumors, including 16 meningiomas, 15 carcinomas, three melanomas, two sarcomas, two glioblastomas, and 1 neuroblastoma.
  • Approximately 70% of rhabdoid meningiomas had a 22q deletion, but this was rare in other tumor types.
  • Except for one retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma, nuclear INI1 expression was retained in all composite rhabdoid tumors, including meningiomas with 22q deletion.
  • Therefore, we conclude that INI1 immunohistochemistry is a relatively simple, sensitive, and specific technique for distinguishing malignant rhabdoid tumor and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor from composite rhabdoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15761491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46274
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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59. Gauchotte G, Baylac F, Marie B, Vignaud JM: [Medullomyoblastoma: a medulloblastoma with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation]. Ann Pathol; 2010 Apr;30(2):135-8
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  • A 26 years old patient was operated for a tumor of cerebellar vermix, and then reoperated for a relapse at the age of 35 years, with a similar histological pattern in both cases.
  • At pathologic examination, the tumor was composed of hypercellular sheets typical of medulloblastoma, containing also sparse large cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei containing voluminous nucleoli.
  • The main differential diagnoses are atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, immature teratoma, medulloepithelioma, primitive intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma and myoneurocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Differentiation. Desmin / analysis. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Muscle Cells / chemistry. Muscle Cells / pathology. Myogenin / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurofilament Proteins / analysis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20451073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Myogenin; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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60. Janson K, Nedzi LA, David O, Schorin M, Walsh JW, Bhattacharjee M, Pridjian G, Tan L, Judkins AR, Biegel JA: Predisposition to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor due to an inherited INI1 mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Sep;47(3):279-84
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  • [Title] Predisposition to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor due to an inherited INI1 mutation.
  • BACKGROUND: Germline mutations of the INI1 gene predispose children to the development of rhabdoid tumors.
  • PROCEDURE: We have identified a three-generation family in which two half-brothers were diagnosed with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT).
  • A maternal uncle died in childhood from a brain tumor and a malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney, and presumably carried the same germline mutation.
  • CONCLUSION: The identification of two unaffected carriers in a family segregating a germline mutation and rhabdoid tumor supports the hypothesis that there may be variable risks of development of rhabdoid tumor in the context of a germline mutation.
  • There may be a developmental window in which most rhabdoid tumors occur.
  • This family highlights the importance of mutation analysis in all patients with a suspected rhabdoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics. Teratoma / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Sep;47(3):343-4 [16609948.001]
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Sep;47(3):235-7 [16304667.001]
  • (PMID = 16261613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98543
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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61. Makuria AT, Rushing EJ, McGrail KM, Hartmann DP, Azumi N, Ozdemirli M: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) in adults: review of four cases. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jul;88(3):321-30
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) in adults: review of four cases.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid (AT/RT) tumor is a rare, highly malignant tumor of the central nervous system (CNS) most commonly found in children less than 5 years of age.
  • Since its histological appearance can be confused with other tumors, especially in adults, separating AT/RT from other neoplasms may be difficult.
  • Radiographically, two tumors were localized in the right fronto-parietal region, one was frontal and the other was found in the left temporal lobe.
  • Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were positive for vimentin and reacted variably for keratin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, CD34, and smooth muscle actin (SMA).
  • In adult examples of AT/RT, the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, with early tissue diagnosis and a low threshold for investigation with INI1 immunohistochemistry to differentiate this entity from other morphologically similar tumors.
  • Although the prognosis is dismal in pediatric population, long term survival is possible in adult AT/RT cases after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18369529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 Protein; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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62. Cheng YC, Lirng JF, Chang FC, Guo WY, Teng MM, Chang CY, Wong TT, Ho DM: Neuroradiological findings in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. Acta Radiol; 2005 Feb;46(1):89-96
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  • [Title] Neuroradiological findings in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of atypical teratoid tumor/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system (CNS).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty cases of CNS AT/RT have been found over the past 23 years in our hospital; these involving 11 boys and 9 girls whose mean age at diagnosis was 5.5 years.
  • RESULTS: AT/RT was located in the cerebellum in 15 cases.
  • Survival time ranged from 2 months to 3 years, with a mean survival of 11.6 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Most cases of AT/RT are located in the cerebellum.
  • However, AT/RT should still remain in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors in young children, especially those located in the cerebellar hemisphere and with eccentric cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiography. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiography. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 15841745.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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63. Singh A, Jairajpuri Z, Gupta V, Sharma S, Chand K: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system associated with congenital cataract. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2008 Jul-Sep;51(3):389-91
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system associated with congenital cataract.
  • Atypical teratoid /rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system is a rare but highly aggressive neoplasm that usually affects young children and infants and follows a rapidly fatal course.
  • We report a case of AT/RT in a 3-month-old male infant who also had coincidental unilateral congenital cataract even though there was no associated congenital infectious disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cataract / complications. Cataract / congenital. Central Nervous System / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 18723966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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64. Niwa T, Aida N, Tanaka M, Okubo J, Sasano M, Shishikura A, Fujita K, Ito S, Tanaka Y, Kigasawa H: Diffusion-weighted imaging of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the cervical spine. Magn Reson Med Sci; 2009;8(3):135-8
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  • [Title] Diffusion-weighted imaging of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the cervical spine.
  • Spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare, aggressive malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system usually seen in young children and infants.
  • We present diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings for an intradural extramedullary AT/RT in the cervical spine of a 6-year-old boy.
  • High signal on DWI and low apparent diffusion coefficients may represent high cellularity of the tumor.
  • These findings indicated a highly malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19783876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-2206
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medical sciences : MRMS : an official journal of Japan Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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65. Reddy AT: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system. J Neurooncol; 2005 Dec;75(3):309-13

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant central nervous system neoplasm that usually affects very young children and is typically deadly despite very aggressive treatment.
  • Considered rare, the tumor was not recognized as a distinct entity until the 80's, due to its similar features with other primitive tumors.
  • Although AT/RT has become increasingly recognized, published data has been based on small series and are retrospective.
  • AT/RT is the first pediatric brain tumor for which a candidate tumor suppressor gene has been identified.
  • A mutation or deletion in the INI1 gene occurs in the majority of AT/RT tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / genetics. Teratoma / pathology

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  • [Cites] Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000 May;28(1):31-7 [10738300.001]
  • [Cites] J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2002 Mar;61(3):215-25; discussion 226-9 [11895036.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jul 15;22(14):2877-84 [15254056.001]
  • [Cites] Can J Neurol Sci. 1996 Nov;23(4):257-63 [8951203.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Nov;8(11):3461-7 [12429635.001]
  • [Cites] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002 Jun-Jul;24(5):337-42 [12142780.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Mar 1;23(7):1491-9 [15735125.001]
  • [Cites] J Neurosurg. 1996 Jul;85(1):56-65 [8683283.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2004 May;28(5):644-50 [15105654.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer Res. 2002 Jan 1;62(1):323-8 [11782395.001]
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  • (PMID = 16195799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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66. Nagai S, Kurimoto M, Ishizawa S, Hayashi N, Hamada H, Kamiyama H, Endo S: A rare astrocytic tumor with rhabdoid features. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):19-24
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  • [Title] A rare astrocytic tumor with rhabdoid features.
  • We report an extremely rare tumor presenting with rhabdoid features in the left temporoparietal lobe near the trigone in an 18-year-old Japanese man.
  • This tumor mainly consisted of medium to large round cells that proliferated diffusely and incoherently with a scant extracellular matrix.
  • These tumor cells had an eccentric nucleus and an eosinophilic cytoplasm containing inclusion bodies and bundles of intermediate filaments.
  • This tumor had an area appearing to be diffuse astrocytoma peripherally and lacked a primitive neuroectodermal tumor component, a mesenchymal component, and epithelial differentiation.
  • INI expression, which is not observed in atypical teratoid/ rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), was found in this tumor.
  • From these findings, we concluded that this tumor was not AT/RT but an astrocytic tumor with rhabdoid features.
  • We also concluded that the tumor cells exhibiting rhabdoid features had secondarily arisen from the peripheral area presenting an appearance of diffuse astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19408093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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67. Lafay-Cousin L, Strother D: Current treatment approaches for infants with malignant central nervous system tumors. Oncologist; 2009 Apr;14(4):433-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current treatment approaches for infants with malignant central nervous system tumors.
  • The management of brain tumors in very young children remains a challenge for neuro-oncologists in large part because of the greater vulnerability of the developing brain to treatment-related toxicity.
  • Nearly three decades of infant brain tumor clinical trials have led to significant progress in the delineation of prognostic factors and improvements in outcome.
  • This review covers the most recent therapeutic advances for the most common histological subtypes of malignant infant brain tumors: medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, ependymoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, choroid plexus carcinoma, and high-grade glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Ependymoma / therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Glioma / therapy. Humans. Infant. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19342475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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68. Dunham C: Pediatric brain tumors: a histologic and genetic update on commonly encountered entities. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Aug;27(3):147-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric brain tumors: a histologic and genetic update on commonly encountered entities.
  • As our understanding of pediatric brain neoplasia flourishes, so does the development of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers.
  • This review serves to highlight the key microscopic and genetic features of the most common pediatric brain tumors.
  • For example, INI-1 immunohistochemistry has assisted in identifying several previously unrecognized cases of rhabdoid cell-poor atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT).
  • Through these and other advances, our understanding of pediatric brain tumors will continue to expand exponentially, and as such will set the stage for truly effectual future treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20919607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Yilmaz C, Altinors N, Sonmez E, Gulsen S, Caner H: Rare lesions of the cerebellopontine angle. Turk Neurosurg; 2010 Jul;20(3):390-7
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  • Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies other than these tumors constitute 1% of all lesions located in the CPA.
  • We have retrospectively reviewed the medical files and radiological data of all patients who underwent surgery involving any kind of pathology in the CPA.
  • Our research revealed a case of craniopharyngioma, a case of chloroma, a case of solitary fibrous tumor, a case of pinealoblastoma, a case of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, a case of an aneurysm, a case of hemorrhage and a case of abscess.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroma, Acoustic / surgery. Rhabdoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20669114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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70. Edgar MA, Rosenblum MK: The differential diagnosis of central nervous system tumors: a critical examination of some recent immunohistochemical applications. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Mar;132(3):500-9

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  • [Title] The differential diagnosis of central nervous system tumors: a critical examination of some recent immunohistochemical applications.
  • These will be used for purposes of tumor subclassification, as prognostic markers, as identifiers of potential therapeutic targets, and as predictors of treatment response.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide for nonspecialists a critical assessment of the peer-reviewed literature (necessarily colored by our own experience) as it pertains to several immunohistochemical reagents that have been recently forwarded as adjuncts to the histologic typing of central nervous system tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Discussion concentrates on the use of 4 antibodies: BAF47 in the diagnosis of atypical teratoid/ rhabdoid tumor, OCT4 in intracranial germinoma, beta-catenin in craniopharyngioma, and NeuN as a marker of neuronal differentiation in neuroepithelial neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18318590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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71. Ohba S, Yoshida K, Hirose Y, Ikeda E, Nakazato Y, Kawase T: Cerebral tumor with extensive rhabdoid features and a favorable prognosis. J Neurosurg; 2009 Sep;111(3):492-6
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  • [Title] Cerebral tumor with extensive rhabdoid features and a favorable prognosis.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor was reactive for vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, smooth muscle actin, and BAF47/INI-1, and negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament protein, S100 protein, CK7, CK20, HMB-45, MIC2, and Bcl-2.
  • This tumor could not be categorized according to the present World Health Organization classification.
  • Results of staining with glial fibrillary acidic protein were not consistent with a glioma, and staining with INI-1 was inconsistent with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • The tumor was therefore designated as a "cerebral tumor with extensive rhabdoid features. "
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19231929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Fan YS, Lui PC, Tam FK, Hung KN, Ng HK, Leung SY: A 33-year-old Chinese woman with a left frontal tumor. Brain Pathol; 2009 Apr;19(2):337-40
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  • [Title] A 33-year-old Chinese woman with a left frontal tumor.
  • Rhabdoid tumor cells are typically observed in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) but may also be seen in meningioma,glioma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and metastatic carcinoma.We present an astroblastoma with unusual rhabdoid features which is rarely described in the English literature.
  • Apart from the rhabdoid tumor cells, all the histopathological features typical for astroblastoma are present in this case.
  • These features include pseudopapillary arrangement, astroblastic pseudorosettes, perivascular hyalinization and calcifications, absence of fibrillary background and a pushing tumor border.
  • The tumor cells display a multilineage immunohistochemical profile.
  • The diagnosis of astroblastoma is also well supported by the age of presentation, anatomical location and radiological features of the tumor.We believe that on top of the above-mentioned unusual tumors with rhabdoid cells, astroblastoma should also be considered in the list of differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Frontal Lobe. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19291001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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73. Casagrande R, Georgetti SR, Verri WA, Jabor JR, Santos AC, Fonseca MJ: Evaluation of functional stability of quercetin as a raw material and in different topical formulations by its antilipoperoxidative activity. AAPS PharmSciTech; 2006 Mar;7(1):E64-E71

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  • There was no detectable loss of activity during 182 days (6 months) of storage at all tested temperatures (4°C, room temperature [RT], 37°C, and 45°C) for the raw material.
  • In conclusion, the results suggest that the activity of quercetin depends on iron chelation, and its posible usefulness as a topical antioxidant to prevent oxidative stress-induced skin damage depends on maintaining its antilipoperoxidative activity stored at RT, which avoids special storage conditions.

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  • (PMID = 28290025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9932
  • [Journal-full-title] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AAPS PharmSciTech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; antioxidant / flavonoids / lipid peroxidation / quercetin / stability
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74. Ma HI, Kao CL, Lee YY, Chiou GY, Tai LK, Lu KH, Huang CS, Chen YW, Chiou SH, Cheng IC, Wong TT: Differential expression profiling between atypical teratoid/rhabdoid and medulloblastoma tumor in vitro and in vivo using microarray analysis. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Mar;26(3):293-303
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  • [Title] Differential expression profiling between atypical teratoid/rhabdoid and medulloblastoma tumor in vitro and in vivo using microarray analysis.
  • OBJECTIVES: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) and medulloblastoma (MB) are the most malignant primary brain tumors in early childhood.
  • AT/RT is frequently misdiagnosed as primitive neuroectodermal tumor/medulloblastoma.
  • The biological features and clinical outcomes of AT/RT and MB are extremely different.
  • In this study, we used microarray as a platform to distinguish these two tumors with the definitive diagnostic marker as well as the profiling of expression genes.
  • METHODS: In order to clarify the pathogenesis and find the biological markers for AT/RT, we established a derivative AT/RT primary cell culture.
  • The differential profiling between AT/RT and MB were analyzed by using microarray method.
  • RESULTS: With the use of the microarray method, we demonstrated that 15 genes were significantly changed (at least 5-fold in upregulation and 1/5-fold in downregulation) between AT/RT and MB in tissues and cell lines.
  • The quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses further confirmed that mRNA expression levels of SERPINI1 and osteopontin were highly expressed in AT/RT cells and tissues than those in MB.
  • Importantly, our microarray result suggested that AT/RT presents the stemness-like pattern and expression profiling of embryonic stem cells as well as high mRNA expressions of Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, and c-Myc.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated the differential gene expression profiling between AT/RT and MB.
  • Based on the microarray findings, AT/RTs present embryonic stem-like gene recapitulation and further provide novel insights into their underlying biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Teratoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19902219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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75. Yamashita Y, Kumabe T, Higano S, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient is significantly correlated with cellularity in medulloblastomas. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):940-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: On diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, posterior fossa tumors may exhibit the various signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) reflecting their histology and cellularity.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ADC and tumor cellularity in medulloblastoma and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • METHODS: Pre-operative diffusion-weighted MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 26 patients with posterior fossa neoplasms: 11 medulloblastomas, one atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), four glioblastomas, four ependymomas, three pilocytic astrocytomas and three hemangioblastomas.
  • The minimum ADC (minADC) value of each tumor was determined on ADC maps derived from isotropic diffusion-weighted MR images.
  • The minADC values were compared by a two-tailed t-test.
  • Tumor cellularity measured in surgical specimens was compared with the minADC value by simple linear regression analysis.
  • AT/RT and glioblastoma had similar minADC values to medulloblastoma.
  • Tumor cellularity was negatively correlated with the minADC value in medulloblastomas and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • DISCUSSION: The low minADC value of medulloblastomas reflects the high tumor cellularity.
  • Analysis of ADC values has high predictive value for the differentiation of medulloblastoma from other posterior fossa tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Medulloblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19138469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Mohapatra I, Santosh V, Chickabasaviah YT, Mahadevan A, Tandon A, Ghosh A, Chidambaram B, Sampath S, Bhagavatula ID, Chandramouli BA, Kolluri SV, Shankar SK: Histological and immunohistochemical characterization of AT/RT: a report of 15 cases from India. Neuropathology; 2010 Jun;30(3):251-9
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  • [Title] Histological and immunohistochemical characterization of AT/RT: a report of 15 cases from India.
  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a highly malignant embryonal CNS tumor, generally unresponsive to any form of therapy, uniformly fatal within 1 year.
  • We report 15 cases of AT/RT diagnosed at our center over a period of 5 years (2003-08).
  • Tumors were located in different sites of the neuraxis, posterior fossa being the most common (n = 10) followed by cerebral lobes (n = 3).
  • Radiologically most of the tumors were heterodense and enhancing heterogeneously.
  • The tumors exhibited diverse histological profile that included rhabdoid and PNET areas in all cases, mesenchymal and epithelial areas in 73.3% and 53.3% cases, respectively.
  • Tumor cells displayed a polyphenotypic immunoprofile.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / chemistry. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / chemistry. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / chemistry. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19925561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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77. Judkins AR, Ellison DW: Ependymoblastoma: dear, damned, distracting diagnosis, farewell!*. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jan;20(1):133-9
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  • Ependymoblastoma is a diagnostic label that has been applied to a variety of rare central nervous system (CNS) tumors over the last eight decades.
  • The current study, based on 14 cases from our institutional archives and identified by the search terms "ependymoblastoma,"ependymoblastomatous," "ependymoblastic" or "PNET with ependymal differentiation," aimed to test the hypothesis that the ependymoblastoma is a distinct and recognizable entity.
  • Ependymoblastic rosettes are a key diagnostic feature and were present in 11/14 (79%) tumors, eight (73%) of which were embryonal tumors with abundant areas of neuropil-like differentiation.
  • Three other cases showed rare ependymoblastic rosettes in the histopathological setting of a typical primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), medulloblastoma (MB) or atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT).
  • The remaining cases were all embryonal tumors with structures that mimicked ependymoblastic rosettes.
  • Our results indicate that ependymoblastic rosettes are most frequently encountered in embryonal tumors with abundant neuropil and less frequently in other CNS embryonal neoplasms, including PNET, MB and AT/RT.
  • We believe that ependymoblastoma as a diagnosis is neither precise nor specific and that it is time once and for all to retire this diagnosis from the lexicon of neuropathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Ganglia / cytology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neurons / physiology. Neuropil / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Rosette Formation. Sex Factors. Teratoma / pathology. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 19120373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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78. Kubota KC, Itoh T, Yamada Y, Yamaguchi S, Ishida Y, Nakasu Y, Watanabe R, Ito I, Sawamura Y, Matsuno Y, Nagashima K: Melanocytic medulloblastoma with ganglioneurocytomatous differentiation: a case report. Neuropathology; 2009 Feb;29(1):72-7
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  • Melanotic or melanocytic medulloblastoma is a rare variant of medulloblastoma, especially when the tumor shows advanced neuronal differentiation.
  • We report a case of this tumor, which developed in the cerebellar vermis in an 8-year-old girl.
  • Surgical removal of the tumor was performed after chemo-radiotherapy, and black pigments were noticed on the tumor surface.
  • Histologically, the tumor was composed of classical medulloblastoma with the presence of pigmented epithelial cells forming tubules and clusters.
  • Immunohistochemically, the pigmented tumor cells were positive for S100 protein, HMB45, and MART1, indicating that the pigments were derived from melanosomes, and these features were compatible with melanocytic medulloblastoma.
  • Interestingly, some of the non-pigmented or amelanotic tumor cells were also positive for HMB45 and S100 protein.
  • Although the tumor showed an unusual cell combination, it was distinguished from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) by nuclear expression of INI1/BAF45 protein.
  • The tumor also possessed ganglion-like cells within the neuropil matrix, which resembled small mature ganglion cells, and was consequently designated as ganglioneurocytoma.
  • Hence, the present case provides new information indicating that melanocytic medulloblastoma differs from AT/RT, and that it can exhibit advanced neuronal differentiation.
  • In addition, reduction of the tumor MIB1 index was observed after chemo-radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Melanosomes / chemistry. Melanosomes / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neurocytoma / chemistry. Neurocytoma / pathology. Neurocytoma / therapy. Neurons / chemistry. Neurons / pathology. Neuropil / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. S100 Proteins / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18422908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Transcription Factors
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79. Addo-Yobo SO, Straessle J, Anwar A, Donson AM, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK, Foreman NK: Paired overexpression of ErbB3 and Sox10 in pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Aug;65(8):769-75
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  • To identify alternative targets of gefitinib in PA, we studied other members of the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family that have been identified in brain tumors.
  • Using gene expression microarray and Western blot analyses, we found that ErbB3 is highly overexpressed in PA compared with other pediatric brain tumors (glioblastoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and choroid plexus papilloma).
  • Investigation of Sox10 in PA revealed that it is highly overexpressed relative to other pediatric brain tumors, lending support to the theory that Sox10-regulated overexpression of ErbB3 may be driving growth in PA.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. High Mobility Group Proteins / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-3 / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics


80. Pytel P, Lukas RV: Update on diagnostic practice: tumors of the nervous system. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Jul;133(7):1062-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Update on diagnostic practice: tumors of the nervous system.
  • CONTEXT: Changes in the practice of diagnosing brain tumors are formally reflected in the evolution of the World Health Organization classification.
  • Beyond this classification, the practice of diagnostic pathology is also changing with the availability of new tests and the introduction of new treatment options.
  • OBJECTIVE: Glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, glioneuronal tumors, and primitive pediatric tumors are discussed in an exemplary way to illustrate these changes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The example of glioblastomas shows how new predictive markers may help identify subgroups of tumors that respond to certain therapy regimens.
  • The development of new treatment strategies also leads to different questions in the assessment of brain tumors, as seen in the example of pseudoprogression or the changes in tumor growth pattern in patients taking bevacizumab.
  • Oligodendrogliomas illustrate how the identification of 1p/19q loss as a cytogenetic aberration aids our understanding of these tumors and changes diagnostic practice but also introduces new challenges in classification.
  • Glioneuronal tumors are an evolving group of lesions.
  • Besides a growing list of usually low-grade entities with well-defined morphologic features, these also include more poorly defined cases in which a component of infiltrating glioma is often associated with focal neuronal elements.
  • Oligodendrogliomas and glioneuronal tumors both illustrate the importance of effective communication between the pathologist and the treating oncologist in the discussion of these patients.
  • Finally, the discussion of primitive pediatric tumors stresses the clinical importance of the distinction between different entities, like atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, "central" (supratentorial) primitive neuroectodermal tumor, "peripheral" primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. World Health Organization
  • [MeSH-minor] Glioblastoma / classification. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Medulloblastoma / classification. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / classification. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / classification. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19642733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 139
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81. Rosol M, Harutyunyan I, Xu J, Melendez E, Smbatyan G, Finlay JL, Krieger MD, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Reynolds CP, Nelson MD, Erdreich-Epstein A, Blüml S: Metabolism of orthotopic mouse brain tumor models. Mol Imaging; 2009 Jul-Aug;8(4):199-208
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  • [Title] Metabolism of orthotopic mouse brain tumor models.
  • We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine whether orthotopic mouse brain tumors grown as xenografts in immunocompromised mice either from human brain tumor cells implanted immediately after surgery or from cultured human tumor lines show metabolic profiles comparable to those of the original tumors.
  • Using a 7 T scanner, spectra were acquired from mice with a human atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) either implanted directly from the surgical specimen or first grown in culture, directly implanted choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC), and two medulloblastoma cell lines.
  • The results were compared with spectra from these same tumors or tumor types in patients and with controls.
  • Metabolic variability of tumors from a single cell line was also evaluated using the medulloblastoma lines.
  • The main metabolic features of human tumors were qualitatively replicated in xenografts.
  • AT/RTs in mice exhibited choline, creatine, and myo-inositol levels comparable to those observed in the patient.
  • Tumors from a single cell line were comparable.
  • Significant correlations were found with key metabolites in humans and mice; however, differences including lower lipids in the implanted AT/RTs than in patient spectra and taurine observed in all animal spectra were also noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiography. Child. Child, Preschool. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / metabolism. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / radiography. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Male. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / radiography. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, Nude. Mice, SCID. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19728974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3508
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98568
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Behdad A, Perry A: Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a clinicopathologic and genetic study of 33 cases. Brain Pathol; 2010 Mar;20(2):441-50
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  • [Title] Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a clinicopathologic and genetic study of 33 cases.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) include supratentorial, brain stem, and spinal cord tumors with medulloblastoma-like histopathology.
  • After re-diagnosis of three infantile cases as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), 33 remaining CNS PNETs were retrieved for clinicopathologic and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies.
  • Neither EWS gene rearrangements, nor AT/RT-like 22q deletions were encountered.
  • We conclude that in CNS PNET: (i) routine application of INI1 immunohistochemistry helps rule out AT/RT, particularly in infants;.
  • (iii) involvement of CNS parenchyma by Ewing sarcoma/peripheral PNET is rare enough that EWS gene testing is not necessary unless significant dural involvement is present; and (iv) both anaplastic/large cell features and polysomies of 2 and 8 are associated with more aggressive clinical behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aneuploidy. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. RNA-Binding Protein EWS / genetics. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / genetics. Teratoma / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19725831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MYCN protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Protein EWS
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83. Santagata S, Hornick JL, Ligon KL: Comparative analysis of germ cell transcription factors in CNS germinoma reveals diagnostic utility of NANOG. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1613-8
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of germ cell transcription factors in CNS germinoma reveals diagnostic utility of NANOG.
  • Expression of NANOG has been detected in fetal germ cells and in gonadal germ cell tumors.
  • To assess the diagnostic utility of NANOG in central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors, we analyzed its expression by immunohistochemistry in a series of 12 CNS germinomas and compared its expression with other stem cell markers.
  • Strong nuclear expression of NANOG was demonstrated in >90% of the tumor cells in all cases.
  • NANOG was not detected in tumor types frequently considered in the differential diagnosis of CNS germinoma: pineoblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, medulloblastoma, lymphoma, pituitary adenoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and gliomas.
  • These findings demonstrate that NANOG is a sensitive and specific marker of CNS germinoma.
  • Compared with other currently used markers, NANOG may have superior diagnostic characteristics and can facilitate identification of germinomas in minute surgical biopsies commonly obtained from these tumors.
  • These findings also suggest a potential biologic role for NANOG in maintenance of CNS germinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Germinoma / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Child. HMGB Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. SOXB1 Transcription Factors. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17122519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS047213
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HMGB Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / NANOG protein, human; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / germ-cell AP isoenzyme; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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84. Lassaletta A, Lopez-Ibor B, Mateos E, Gonzalez-Vicent M, Perez-Martinez A, Sevilla J, Diaz MA, Madero L: Intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in children under 4 years with malignant brain tumors. J Neurooncol; 2009 Oct;95(1):65-69
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  • [Title] Intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in children under 4 years with malignant brain tumors.
  • Infants and very young children with malignant brain tumors usually have unfavourable locations and are not candidates for craniospinal irradiation.
  • The primary goal of the present study was to report on the safety profile and toxicity of intrathecal administration of liposomal cytarabine in children <4 years with malignant brain tumors.
  • The diagnoses were ependymoma (3), peripheral neuroectodermic tumor (PNET) (2), meduloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), cerebral lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma with CNS invasion.
  • A total of 44 doses (median = 6) of liposomal cytarabine were administered.
  • This study demonstrates the feasibility of using intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in children under 4 years of age with malignant brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Phospholipids / administration & dosage

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  • [Cites] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007 Apr;29(4):222-6 [17414563.001]
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  • (PMID = 19381444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / liposom; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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85. Takei H, Bhattacharjee MB, Rivera A, Dancer Y, Powell SZ: New immunohistochemical markers in the evaluation of central nervous system tumors: a review of 7 selected adult and pediatric brain tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Feb;131(2):234-41
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  • [Title] New immunohistochemical markers in the evaluation of central nervous system tumors: a review of 7 selected adult and pediatric brain tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an important tool in the diagnosis of brain tumors.
  • We discuss (1) placental alkaline phosphatase, c-Kit, and OCT4 for germinoma, (2) alpha-inhibin and D2-40 for capillary hemangioblastoma, (3) phosphohistone-H3 (PHH3), MIB-1/Ki-67, and claudin-1 for meningioma, (4) PHH3, MIB-1/Ki-67, and p53 for astrocytoma, (5) synaptophysin, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurofilament protein, and neuronal nuclei for medulloblastoma, (6) INI1 for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and (7) epithelial membrane antigen for ependymoma.
  • All the markers presented here are used mainly for supporting or confirming the diagnosis, with the exception of the proliferation markers (MIB-1/Ki-67 and PHH3), which are primarily used to support grading and are reportedly associated with prognosis in certain categories of brain tumors.
  • The judicious use of a panel of selected immunostains is unquestionably helpful in diagnostically challenging cases.
  • In addition, IHC is also of great help in predicting the prognosis for certain brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / metabolism. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / metabolism. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / metabolism. Humans. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17284108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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86. Hashizume R, Gupta N, Berger MS, Banerjee A, Prados MD, Ayers-Ringler J, James CD, VandenBerg SR: Morphologic and molecular characterization of ATRT xenografts adapted for orthotopic therapeutic testing. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Apr;12(4):366-76
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  • [Title] Morphologic and molecular characterization of ATRT xenografts adapted for orthotopic therapeutic testing.
  • Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a malignant tumor of the central nervous system that most commonly arises in young children.
  • Large clinical trials that could test new therapeutic agents are difficult to conduct due to the low incidence of this cancer.
  • Our results indicate that following supratentorial or infratentorial injection in athymic mice, ATRT cells produce rapidly growing tumors, often with intraventricular spread or neuraxis dissemination.
  • When established as orthotopic xenografts, the tumors predominantly display cells with a rhabdoid-like cellular morphology that show a spectrum of immunophenotypes similar to primary ATRT tumors.
  • These data suggest that an orthotopic ATRT xenograft model, in which BLI is used for monitoring tumor growth and response to therapy, should contribute to the identification of effective therapeutics and regimens for treating this highly aggressive pediatric brain tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20308314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA097257
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940601
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87. Nomura Y, Yasumoto S, Yanai F, Akiyoshi H, Inoue T, Nibu K, Tsugu H, Fukushima T, Hirose S: Survival and late effects on development of patients with infantile brain tumor. Pediatr Int; 2009 Jun;51(3):337-41
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  • [Title] Survival and late effects on development of patients with infantile brain tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Most infants with brain tumor may have a poor prognosis.
  • The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the survival and outcome with regard to mental and physical development in 11 subjects with brain tumor; these tumors were diagnosed when the patients were under 1 year of age.
  • METHODS: The histological diagnoses of these tumors were astrocytoma, n = 3; pineocytoma, n = 2; teratoma, n = 1; ependymoma, n = 1; atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, n = 1; glioblastoma, n = 1; medulloblastoma, n = 1; and choroid plexus papilloma, n = 1.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of infantile brain tumor with regard to mortality and developmental outcome remains poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Child Development. Pinealoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19400825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-200X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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88. de León-Bojorge B, Rueda-Franco F, Anaya-Jara M: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Nov;25(11):1387; author reply 1389
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Childs Nerv Syst. 2009 Jun;25(6):707-11 [19212771.001]
  • [Cites] Childs Nerv Syst. 2008 Mar;24(3):307-12 [17876589.001]
  • [Cites] Childs Nerv Syst. 2009 Jun;25(6):707-11 [19212771.001]
  • (PMID = 19636570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Frühwald MC, Hasselblatt M, Wirth S, Köhler G, Schneppenheim R, Subero JI, Siebert R, Kordes U, Jürgens H, Vormoor J: Non-linkage of familial rhabdoid tumors to SMARCB1 implies a second locus for the rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Sep;47(3):273-8
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  • [Title] Non-linkage of familial rhabdoid tumors to SMARCB1 implies a second locus for the rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Rhabdoid tumors represent an independent entity among embryonal neoplasms.
  • These tumors affect the kidney (RTK, rhabdoid tumor of kidney) and central nervous system (AT/RT, atypical teratoid, rhabdoid tumor), but may also be found in peripheral soft tissue.
  • Unifying features include immunohistochemical characteristics and inactivation of the putative tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 (hSNF5/INI1) in chromosome 22q11.2.
  • Several familial cases have been published and summarized under the term rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome.
  • In all of the published familial cases, inactivation of SMARCB1 was detected in tumor tissues.
  • PROCEDURE AND RESULTS: We report on a family with three children, two of which were affected by rhabdoid tumors, one RTK, the other an AT/RT.
  • While both children demonstrated typical morphological and clinical features neither the RTK nor the AT/RT showed evidence for inactivation of SMARCB1 in molecular studies including CGH and array CGH, FISH, gene dosage analysis by dHPLC, and DNA-sequencing.
  • Immunohistochemistry for SMARCB1 showed normal expression within the nuclei of tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We thus demonstrate a family with rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome without linkage to SMARCB1.
  • This finding indicates that other loci than SMARCB1 below the resolution of array CGH are involved in the origin of these tumors.
  • Our data impact on the clinical counseling of affected families and warrant further studies in the molecular biology of these enigmatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Genetic Linkage. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Sep;47(3):235-7 [16304667.001]
  • (PMID = 16206192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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90. Woehrer A, Slavc I, Waldhoer T, Heinzl H, Zielonke N, Czech T, Benesch M, Hainfellner JA, Haberler C, Austrian Brain Tumor Registry: Incidence of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors in children: a population-based study by the Austrian Brain Tumor Registry, 1996-2006. Cancer; 2010 Dec 15;116(24):5725-32
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  • [Title] Incidence of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors in children: a population-based study by the Austrian Brain Tumor Registry, 1996-2006.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors are highly malignant embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumors that were defined as an entity in 1996.
  • As compared with other malignant CNS tumors, their biological behavior is particularly aggressive, but patients may benefit from an intensified treatment.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors display a complex histomorphology, which renders them prone to misdiagnosis.
  • They occur predominantly in young children, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% among all pediatric CNS tumors.
  • However, population-based data on the incidence of these tumors are not yet available.
  • METHODS: A nation-wide survey of malignant high-grade CNS tumors (World Health Organization grade III/IV), diagnosed in children (aged birth to 14 years) from 1996 to 2006 was conducted by the Austrian Brain Tumor Registry.
  • A central histopathology review was performed including the assessment of SMARCB1 (INI1) protein status.
  • RESULTS: A total of 311 newly diagnosed, malignant CNS tumors were included.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors constituted the sixth most common entity (6.1%), referring to an age-standardized incidence rate of 1.38 per 1,000,000 person-years in children.
  • Peak incidence was found in the birth to 2 years age group, where they were as common as CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors and medulloblastomas.
  • A total of 47.4% of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors were initially diagnosed, whereas 52.6% were retrospectively detected by the central review.
  • The 5-year survival of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor patients was 39.5%, with 66.7% in the correctly diagnosed group versus 15.0% in the not recognized group (P = .0469).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the high incidence of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors in young children to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rhabdoid Tumor / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20737418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Azizi AA; Scarpatetti M; Ebetsberger G; Weis S; Jones N; Klein-Franke A; Sterlacci W; Jauk B; Kiefer A; Mueller G; Gruber-Moesenbacher U; Reiner-Concin A; Feichtinger H
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91. Varan A, Sari N, Akalan N, Söylemezoğlu F, Akyüz C, Kutluk T, Büyükpamukçu M: Extraneural metastasis in intracranial tumors in children: the experience of a single center. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(2):187-90
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  • [Title] Extraneural metastasis in intracranial tumors in children: the experience of a single center.
  • Our aim is to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of children with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors who develop extraneural metastasis (ENM).
  • We retrospectively evaluated children diagnosed with primary CNS tumors treated at our institution between 1972 and 2004.
  • Of 1,011 patients these tumors, 10 (0.98%) developed ENM.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis was medulloblastoma in six patients, germ cell tumors in two patients, and ependymoma and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) in one patient each.
  • In six patients, the primary tumor was located in the posterior fossa; it had a supratentorial location in the patient with ATRT, was located in the sellar and suprasellar region in the two patients with germ cell tumors, and was found in the distal spinal cord in the patient with an ependymoma.
  • In two patients ENM was detected at the time of diagnosis.
  • Of the 10 patients who developed ENM, 8 died of their disease 0.27-16.2 months (median, 2.60 months) after it was detected.
  • One patient with germ cell tumor is alive with disease 11.3 months after diagnosis of the ENM.
  • Systemic metastasis to other extraneural sites is extremely rare in children with intracranial tumors.
  • The outcome is poor in patients with CNS tumors with ENM.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Medulloblastoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / mortality. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / mortality. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / secondary. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdoid Tumor / mortality. Rhabdoid Tumor / secondary. Teratoma / mortality. Teratoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16645723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Wang CH, Hsu TR, Wong TT, Chang KP: Efficacy of temozolomide for recurrent embryonal brain tumors in children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 May;25(5):535-41
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  • [Title] Efficacy of temozolomide for recurrent embryonal brain tumors in children.
  • OBJECTIVE: The salvage therapy of recurrent embryonal brain tumors in children is disappointing.
  • Temozolomide is a newly developed chemotherapeutic agent in central nervous system tumors.
  • This study analyzed the efficacy of temozolomide on the treatment of recurrent embryonal brain tumors in children.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: There were eight patients, including four with medulloblastoma (MB), three with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) and one with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor, whose tumors recurred after surgery and radiotherapy, with or without conventional intravenous cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • The responsiveness of the tumors to temozolomide was judged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during regular follow-up.
  • The follow-up MRI showed no tumor progression in five patients at 6 months and four patients at 12 months.
  • Another patient with AT/RT showed partial response accompanying with a long period of PFS for 59 months.
  • CONCLUSION: In this preliminary study, oral temozolomide shows promising results on recurrent embryonal brain tumors in children.
  • However, a further well-designed, controlled study and more long-term follow-up are needed to assess the exact role of temozolomide in children with embryonal tumors in brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19107490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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93. Fouladi M, Blaney SM, Poussaint TY, Freeman BB 3rd, McLendon R, Fuller C, Adesina AM, Hancock ML, Danks MK, Stewart C, Boyett JM, Gajjar A: Phase II study of oxaliplatin in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study. Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;107(9):2291-7
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  • [Title] Phase II study of oxaliplatin in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors: a pediatric brain tumor consortium study.
  • BACKGROUND: An open-label Phase II study of oxaliplatin was conducted to evaluate its safety and efficacy in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma (MB), supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (SPNET), and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT).
  • The primary objective was to estimate the sustained response rate in stratum 1A.
  • RESULTS: A total of 43 patients with a median age of 8.5 years (range, 0.6-18.9 years) were enrolled.
  • The most frequent Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included thrombocytopenia (25.6%), neutropenia (16.3%), leukopenia (12%), increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) (7%), vomiting (4.7%), and sensory neuropathy (4.7%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oxaliplatin was well tolerated in children but has limited activity in children with recurrent CNS embryonal tumors previously treated with platinum compounds.
  • [MeSH-major] Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Rhabdoid Tumor / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy


94. Rumboldt Z, Camacho DL, Lake D, Welsh CT, Castillo M: Apparent diffusion coefficients for differentiation of cerebellar tumors in children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Jun-Jul;27(6):1362-9
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  • [Title] Apparent diffusion coefficients for differentiation of cerebellar tumors in children.
  • We hypothesized that cerebellar tumors in children can be differentiated by their ADC values.
  • METHODS: Brain MR imaging studies that included ADC maps were retrospectively reviewed in 32 patients with histologically proved cerebellar neoplasm.
  • There were 17 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), 8 medulloblastomas, 5 ependymomas, and 2 rhabdoid (atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor [AT/RT]) tumors.
  • Absolute ADC values of contrast-enhancing solid tumor regions and ADC ratios (ADC of solid tumor to ADC of normal-appearing white matter) were compared with the histologic diagnosis.
  • ADC values and ratios of JPAs, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas were compared by using a 2-tailed t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).
  • ADC ratios were also significantly different among these 3 tumor types.
  • AT/RT ADC values were similar to medulloblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Assessment of ADC values of enhancing solid tumor is a simple and reliable technique for preoperative differentiation of cerebellar tumors in pediatric patients.

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007 Feb;3(2):78-9 [17279080.001]
  • (PMID = 16775298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Shih CS, Hale GA, Gronewold L, Tong X, Laningham FH, Gilger EA, Srivastava DK, Kun LE, Gajjar A, Fouladi M: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue for children with recurrent malignant brain tumors. Cancer; 2008 Mar 15;112(6):1345-53
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue for children with recurrent malignant brain tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) has been reported to be effective in treating children with recurrent central nervous system (CNS) malignancies.
  • METHODS: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of HDCT and ASCR, the medical records of 27 children with recurrent CNS malignancies who received such therapy at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1989 and 2004 were reviewed.
  • Diagnoses included medulloblastoma (13 patients), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (3 patients), pineoblastoma (2 patients), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (2 patients), ependymoma (3 patients), anaplastic astrocytoma (2 patients), and glioblastoma multiforme (2 patients).
  • Two patients died of transplant-related toxicities; 44% experienced grade 3 or 4 transplant-related toxicities (toxicities were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HDCT with ASCR is not an effective salvage strategy for older children with recurrent CNS malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy. Pinealoma / pathology. Pinealoma / therapy. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18224664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Pfister SM, Korshunov A, Kool M, Hasselblatt M, Eberhart C, Taylor MD: Molecular diagnostics of CNS embryonal tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Nov;120(5):553-66
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  • [Title] Molecular diagnostics of CNS embryonal tumors.
  • Tremendous progress has recently been made in both molecular subgrouping, and the establishment of prognostic biomarkers for embryonal brain tumors, particularly medulloblastoma.
  • Well-described subgroups of medulloblastomas include tumors showing wingless signaling pathway (Wnt) activation, and another characterized by sonic hedgehog pathway activity.
  • Two or more additional subgroups were consistently reported to contain the vast majority of high-risk tumors, including most tumors with metastatic disease at diagnosis and/or large cell/anaplastic histology.
  • Several years ago, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) was recognized as a separate entity based on its distinct biology and particularly aggressive clinical behavior.
  • These tumors may occur supra or infratentorially and are usually found to have genetic alterations of SMARCB1 (INI1/hSNF5), a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q.
  • Subsequent loss of SMARCB1 protein expression comprises a relatively specific and sensitive diagnostic marker for AT/RT.
  • For CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS PNETs), a consistent finding has been that they are molecularly distinct from medulloblastoma.
  • Furthermore, a distinct fraction of CNS PNETs with particularly poor prognosis only occurring in young children was delineated, which was previously labeled ependymoblastoma or embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR) and which is morphologically characterized by the presence of multilayered "ependymoblastic" rosettes.
  • This group of tumors shows a unique cytogenetic abnormality not seen in other brain tumors: focal amplification of a micro-RNA cluster at chromosome 19q13.42, which has never been found to be amplified in other CNS PNETs, medulloblastoma or AT/RT.
  • In summary, these consistent findings have significantly contributed to our ability to sub-classify embryonal brain tumors into clinically and biologically meaningful strata and, for some of the subgroups, have led to the identification of specific targets for future development of molecularly targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Pathology, Molecular / methods

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  • (PMID = 20882288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055089
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS376305; NLM/ PMC4512653
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97. Choi YL, Kim CJ, Matsuo T, Gaetano C, Falconi R, Suh YL, Kim SH, Shin YK, Park SH, Chi JG, Thiele CJ: HUlip, a human homologue of unc-33-like phosphoprotein of Caenorhabditis elegans; Immunohistochemical localization in the developing human brain and patterns of expression in nervous system tumors. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;73(1):19-27
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  • [Title] HUlip, a human homologue of unc-33-like phosphoprotein of Caenorhabditis elegans; Immunohistochemical localization in the developing human brain and patterns of expression in nervous system tumors.
  • HUlip is a human homologue of a C. elegans gene, unc-33, that is developmentally regulated during maturation of the nervous system.
  • HUlip is highly expressed only in the fetal brain and spinal cord, and is undetected in the adult brain.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of hUlip expression in the developing human brain and nervous system tumors.
  • Ten human brains at different developmental stages and 118 cases of nervous system tumor tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry.
  • Twelve related tumor cell lines were also analyzed by northern blotting and immunoblotting.
  • HUlip was expressed in late fetal and early postnatal brains; strongly in the neurons of the brain stem, basal ganglia/thalamus, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and relatively weakly in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex.
  • Among tumors, hUlip expression was easily detected in tumor cells undergoing neuronal differentiation such as ganglioneuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas.
  • Furthermore, hUlip immunoreactivity was also found in various brain tumors showing neuronal differentiation: central neurocytomas (6 of 6 cases were positive), medulloblastomas (5/11), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (1/1) and gangliogliomas (4/7).
  • Some astrocytic tumors also showed weak positivity: astrocytomas (1 of 5 cases), anaplastic astrocytomas (2/5), and glioblastomas (3/11).
  • The results of this study indicate that the expression of hUlip protein is distinctly restricted to the late fetal and early postnatal periods of human nervous system development and to certain subsets of nervous system tumors.
  • The exact function of hUlip needs to be further clarified; yet the results of our study strongly imply that hUlip function is important in human nervous system development and its aberrant expression in various types of nervous system tumors suggests a role of hUlip as an oncofetal neural antigen.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Muscle Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytes / cytology. Astrocytes / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neuroblastoma / genetics. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neurons / cytology. Neurons / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15933812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DPYSL3 protein, human; 0 / Muscle Proteins
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98. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • A total of 88 intrathecal injections of liposomal cytarabine (dose range, 20-50 mg) were administered with concomitant dexamethasone prophylaxis.
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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99. Sasani M, Oktenoglu T, Ozer AF, Sarioglu AC: Giant supratentorial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor presentation: a case of a five-year-old child with favorable outcome and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(2):149-54
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  • [Title] Giant supratentorial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor presentation: a case of a five-year-old child with favorable outcome and review of the literature.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system is a highly malignant neoplasm and that usually arises in the posterior fossa, survival from this is frequently poor.
  • We present a unique case in a 21-month-old girl who had an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with cystic components located in the right fronto-parietal lobe.
  • Two years later at the last follow-up visit, there was no evidence of a tumor relapse on MRI, and the examination was symptom free.
  • It is possible the favorable outcome of the patient resulted from a rapid diagnosis, prompt management, radical surgical intervention and aggressive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Frontal Lobe / surgery. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Rhabdoid Tumor / surgery. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Infant. Keratins / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microsurgery. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neurologic Examination. Vimentin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17337931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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100. Cecen E, Gunes D, Uysal KM, Yuceer N, Ozer E: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in an infant conceived by in vitro fertilization. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Feb;26(2):263-6
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in an infant conceived by in vitro fertilization.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATsRT) is a rare tumor and extremely aggressive embryonal neoplasm of the central nervous system.
  • Brain tumors in infant are suggestive of some oncogenic prenatal factors.
  • Some previous reports have raised a question about the possible relation between IVF and childhood cancer, particularly embryonal tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Report of such cases may provide some evidence to identify if there is a real association between congenital tumors and IVF.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diseases in Twins / pathology. Fertilization in Vitro. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Twins

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  • (PMID = 19937253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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