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41. Jain M, Singh S, Agarwal K: Spindle cell neoplasm of skin: diagnostic dilemma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):814-6
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  • [Title] Spindle cell neoplasm of skin: diagnostic dilemma.
  • Poorly differentiated, spindle cell malignancies, on sun damaged skin frequently pose a diagnostic challenge for pathologists.
  • The vast majority of these neoplasms ultimately are diagnosed as either atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), spindle cell melanoma (SCM), and very rarely as spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC), leiomyosarcoma or angiosarcoma.
  • Light microscopic clues may suggest one of these neoplasms, but subtle and overlapping characteristics often render precise diagnosis impossible based on morphological features alone.
  • Immunohistochemistry therefore is necessary to firmly and accurately diagnose the majority of spindle cell malignancies on sun damaged skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Melanoma / pathology. S100 Proteins / analysis. Vimentin / analysis. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18306566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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42. Melendez MM, Xu X, McClain SA, Huang SI: Atypical fibroxanthoma in a young woman: An unusual case presentation. Can J Plast Surg; 2007;15(3):169-72
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma in a young woman: An unusual case presentation.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon neoplasm, identified as a spindle cell tumour that is generally found in elderly patients on sun-exposed areas.
  • The present case report highlights the importance of correct diagnosis for AFX with adequate excision and by considering the histopathology and immunohisto-chemistry of its clinical differential diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19554152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-2199
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of plastic surgery = Journal canadien de chirurgie plastique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687503
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical fibroxanthoma / Histopathology / Immunohistochemistry / Mohs micrographic surgery
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43. Ang GC, Roenigk RK, Otley CC, Kim Phillips P, Weaver AL: More than 2 decades of treating atypical fibroxanthoma at mayo clinic: what have we learned from 91 patients? Dermatol Surg; 2009 May;35(5):765-72
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  • [Title] More than 2 decades of treating atypical fibroxanthoma at mayo clinic: what have we learned from 91 patients?
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) typically occurs on the head and neck of elderly white men.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Hospitals, University. Mohs Surgery / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Xanthomatosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Minnesota / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19389106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Clarke LE, Frauenhoffer E, Fox E, Neves R, Bruggeman RD, Helm KF: CD10-positive myxofibrosarcomas: a pitfall in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jul;37(7):737-43
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  • [Title] CD10-positive myxofibrosarcomas: a pitfall in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • CD10 is now commonly used to differentiate atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) from melanoma, spindle cell and dedifferentiated variants of squamous cell carcinoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate CD10 expression in a wide range of mesenchymal neoplasms that may involve the skin using tissue microarrays.
  • Myxofibrosarcomas commonly present in the skin and may be difficult to distinguish from AFX on small biopsies and CD10 positivity may confound the diagnostic difficulty.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Neprilysin / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20175824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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45. Seavolt M, McCall M: Atypical fibroxanthoma: review of the literature and summary of 13 patients treated with mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Mar;32(3):435-41; discussion 439-41
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: review of the literature and summary of 13 patients treated with mohs micrographic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16640694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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46. McGregor DH, Cherian R, Romanas MM, Ulusarac O, Mathur SC, Feldman MM: Amelanotic malignant melanoma: two collision tumors presenting as basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2008;38(2):157-62
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  • [Title] Amelanotic malignant melanoma: two collision tumors presenting as basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Collision (contiguous) tumors of the skin can result in misleading clinicopathological presentations, and the choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques may prevent incomplete diagnosis and management.
  • We report 2 cases of collision tumors involving amelanotic malignant melanoma of the back.
  • This lesion was composed of 2 distinct contiguous neoplastic infiltrates, the predominant component being an atypical fibroxanthoma and the smaller component an amelanotic melanoma (primary vs metastatic), with diagnostic confirmation requiring multiple immunohistochemical stains.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Melanoma, Amelanotic / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18469362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-8080
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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47. Ries S, Barr R, LeBoit P, McCalmont T, Waldman J: Cutaneous sarcomatoid B-cell lymphoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Feb;29(1):96-8
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  • [Title] Cutaneous sarcomatoid B-cell lymphoma.
  • A rare case of a spindle cell (sarcomatoid) B-cell lymphoma is described.
  • Although there have been a few recent reports of cutaneous sarcomatoid lymphomas, this case is especially unusual because it presented as a scarlike plaque rather than a tumor and microscopically exhibited a prominent myxoid matrix.
  • Given these features, the lesion was initially interpreted as an atypical fibromucinosis.
  • The differential diagnosis included fibromucinous lesion consistent with variant of lichen myxedematosus, spindle cell carcinoma, spindle cell melanoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and atypical smooth muscle tumors.
  • Subsequently, strong positive staining for LCA(CD45RB) and CD20 was demonstrated characteristic of a B-cell lymphoma.
  • Although all variants of cutaneous sarcomatoid B-cell lymphomas are rare, it is imperative to consider them in the differential diagnosis of otherwise difficult to categorize spindle cell proliferations.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD20 / metabolism. Antigens, CD45 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Scalp Dermatoses / diagnosis. Scalp Dermatoses / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17284972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD20; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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48. Youker SR, Billingsley EM: Combined Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Med Surg; 2005 Jan;9(1):6-9
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  • [Title] Combined Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Although there are reports of squamous cell carcinoma arising within and adjacent to Merkel cell carcinoma, and one report of an atypical fibroxanthoma-like tumor arising in an irradiated recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma, there have previously been no reports of an immunohistochemically verified atypical fibroxanthoma occurring in conjunction with a Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report on a neoplasm with distinct features of both Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • RESULTS: Our results verify the finding of a combined Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / diagnosis. Lip Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16208439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Sachdev R, Sundram UN: Frequent positive staining with NKI/C3 in normal and neoplastic tissues limits its usefulness in the diagnosis of cellular neurothekeoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Oct;126(4):554-63
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  • [Title] Frequent positive staining with NKI/C3 in normal and neoplastic tissues limits its usefulness in the diagnosis of cellular neurothekeoma.
  • Recently, it resurfaced as a marker to separate cellular neurothekeoma from other dermal tumors in the differential diagnosis.
  • NKI/C3 is also positive in many dermal tumors of possible histiocytic origin, including juvenile xanthogranuloma (6/10), atypical fibroxanthoma (4/12), cellular fibrous histiocytoma (5/10), reticulohistiocytoma (3/6), and xanthoma (8/10).
  • Given the wide spectrum of positive staining in morphologic mimics of cellular neurothekeomas, pathologists should be cautious when making this diagnosis based solely on positive staining with NKI/C3.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Neurothekeoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16938667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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50. Alves R, Ocaña J, Vale E, Correia S, Viana I, Bordalo O: Basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma: an unusual collision tumor. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):e74-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma: an unusual collision tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Dermoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Rare Diseases. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20708468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Paramanathan N, Gal A, Benger R: Paraffin histology sections and delayed repair in recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid. Orbit; 2009;28(6):380-2
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  • [Title] Paraffin histology sections and delayed repair in recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid.
  • We present a report of a recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), a tumour known rarely to involve the eyelid.
  • A 61 year-old male was referred after reappearance of a lower eyelid AFX within two months of resection.

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  • (PMID = 19929664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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52. Hartel PH, Jackson J, Ducatman BS, Zhang P: CD99 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a useful diagnostic marker. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33 Suppl 2:24-8
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  • [Title] CD99 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a useful diagnostic marker.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), a benign lesion, and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) are thought to represent points along the same neoplastic spectrum but with different prognoses and treatments.
  • Diagnosis based on histology and clinical parameters alone is sometimes difficult, and a reliable cost-effective immunohistochemical marker to help distinguish these lesions would be beneficial.
  • The diagnosis of AFX or MFH was based upon published clinical and microscopic criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Fibroma / metabolism. Fibroma / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Xanthomatosis / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16972949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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53. Garrido-Ruiz MC, Ramos P, Enguita AB, Rodriguez Peralto JL: Subcutaneous atypical fibrous histiocytoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):499-501
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  • [Title] Subcutaneous atypical fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most frequent benign neoplasms mainly composed of a mixture of fibroblastic and histiocytic cells, especially found in the skin (dermatofibroma), particularly in the limbs.
  • The diagnosis of cutaneous benign fibrous histiocytoma is generally easy; however, rare variants may be difficult to identify, and the diagnosis only confirmed after exhaustive histopathological examination.
  • Thus, deep subcutaneous dermatofibroma may be difficult to distinguish from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and dermatofibroma with monster giant cells from malignant fibrous histiocytoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a painless swelling on the abdominal wall, which was totally excised and histopathologically diagnosed as subcutaneous atypical fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Definitive diagnosis, although especially difficult in our case, is established by characteristic histological and immunohistochemical criteria.
  • To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of subcutaneous fibrous histiocytoma with monster cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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54. Hügel H: [Fibrohistiocytic skin tumors]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2006 Jul;4(7):544-55
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  • [Title] [Fibrohistiocytic skin tumors].
  • The fibrohistiocytic tumors of the skin are a heterogeneous group of dermal/subcutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms which show fibroblastic, myofibroblastic and histiocytic (macrophage-like) differentiation, often one beside the other in the same tumor.
  • "Fibrohistiocytic" means in this context the morphologic similarity of the cells with fibroblasts and histiocytes.
  • The WHO classification of 2005 includes the following entities as fibrohistiocytic tumors of the skin: BENIGN: 1.
  • Fibrous histiocytoma (FH)/(synonymous: Dermatofibroma.
  • Variants of FH: 1a. cellular fibrous histiocytoma, 1b. atypical (pseudosarcomatous) fibrous histiocytoma, 1c. aneurysmatic fibrous histiocytoma, 1d. epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma; 2. dermatomyofibroma; 3. (juvenile) xanthogranuloma.
  • INTERMEDIATE: 4. plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor; 5. dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans; 6. atypical Fibroxanthoma.
  • MALIGNANT: 7. malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / classification. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Leiomyoma / classification. Leiomyoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant / classification. Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16827912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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55. Gleason BC, Calder KB, Cibull TL, Thomas AB, Billings SD, Morgan MB, Hiatt KM, Smoller BR: Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):543-7
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  • [Title] Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC) and spindle cell melanoma are the primary entities in the differential diagnosis of a cytologically atypical spindle cell tumor arising on sun-damaged skin.
  • AFX is generally regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion in this context: in the absence of S100 or keratin reactivity, a diagnosis of AFX is favored.
  • We evaluated 20 AFX and 10 SCSCC with a panel of cytokeratins and p63 to assess the utility of the latter antibody in this differential diagnosis.
  • Two additional cases (excluded from the study) were negative for keratins and S100 on initial shave biopsies, resulting in a favored diagnosis of AFX, but p63 stains performed retrospectively were positive.
  • However, review of the excision specimens in both cases revealed deep subcutaneous extension, excluding AFX. p63 reactivity argues against the diagnosis of AFX and is therefore a useful addition to the standard immunohistochemical panel for cutaneous spindle cell neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2010 Oct;37(10):1123-4 [20175827.001]
  • (PMID = 19476522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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56. Cooper JZ, Newman SR, Scott GA, Brown MD: Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma (cutaneous malignant histiocytoma): report of five cases. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Feb;31(2):221-5; discussion 225
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma (cutaneous malignant histiocytoma): report of five cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an unusual malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor of sun-damaged skin.
  • When first described, it was felt to be a reactive tumor of low malignant potential.
  • More recently, it has been shown to be a tumor of intermediate malignant potential.
  • Also, three of the five cases had other aggressive cutaneous malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Face / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Scalp / pathology. Upper Extremity / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15762219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Eyden B: The myofibroblast: a study of normal, reactive and neoplastic tissues, with an emphasis on ultrastructure. part 2 - tumours and tumour-like lesions. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol; 2005 Nov;37(3-4):231-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ultrastructural features are described of nodular fasciitis, the myofibromatoses (including Dupuytren's disease), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, post-operative spindle cell nodule, fibroma of tendon sheath, fibrous pseudotumour, benign fibrous histiocytoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, myofibrosarcoma (myofibroblastic sarcoma), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (pleomorphic myofibrosarcoma), epithelioid sarcoma and spindle-cell carcinoma.
  • The fibronexus is emphasised as an important marker for the most confident diagnosis of myofibrosarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 16612972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-9497
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of submicroscopic cytology and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Submicrosc. Cytol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 344
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58. Barr KL, Russo JJ, Vincek V: Re: CD117 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Feb;31(1):96-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Re: CD117 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Feb;30(1):34-6 [18212542.001]
  • (PMID = 19155737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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59. Beer TW, Haig D: CD117 is not a useful marker for diagnosing atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):649-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD117 is not a useful marker for diagnosing atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare skin tumor that generally pursues an indolent course despite its alarming histological appearances.
  • It is important for the pathologist to distinguish this neoplasm from more aggressive lesions that may show very similar histological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2010 Jul;32(5):528 [20526172.001]
  • (PMID = 19652583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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60. Fernandez-Flores A: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of different grades: variation of the expression of CD10. Cesk Patol; 2008 Oct;44(4):100-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of different grades: variation of the expression of CD10.
  • Although it has been claimed that invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) does not express CD10, very few examples have been investigated regarding this matter.
  • 2) lack of cytoplasmic expression of CD10 by cutaneous SCC can be considered as an additional prognosis factor to investigate in the future;.
  • 3) our results seem contradictory to the current view that has defended atypical fibroxanthoma as an anaplastic type of SCC, since the former expresses CD10 in virtually 100 % of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neprilysin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


61. Nakai N, Takenaka H, Kishimoto S: Atypical fibroxanthoma on a bald scalp. J Dermatol; 2005 Oct;32(10):848-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma on a bald scalp.
  • We present the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of an atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) on the bald scalp of an 81-year-old French man who had worked at a private high school in Japan as a janitor for over 40 years.
  • This case therefore provides further support to the theory that AFX displays a clinically benign course, even though it is essentially a malignant tumor histologically located in the dermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Scalp Dermatoses / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Alopecia / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16361741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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62. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Richards S, Paver R, Selva D: Scalp tumors treated with Mohs micrographic surgery: clinical features and surgical outcome. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Nov;32(11):1369-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: This prospective, multicenter study included all patients with scalp tumors who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia.
  • The most common tumors were basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 57.9%; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 35.8%; Bowen's disease (BD), 4.1%; and atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), 1.6%.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery


63. Richmond HM, Duvic M, Macfarlane DF: Primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the scalp: an update. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2010;11(4):233-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the scalp: an update.
  • In recent years there have been a number of interesting advances in several topics relating to the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous lesions with particular applicability to primary and metastatic malignancies of the scalp.
  • In this article we provide a general update of advances in this field, and cover the more salient points relating to a variety of malignant tumors that have been reported to appear on the scalp as primary or metastatic lesions.
  • A search and review of the literature on PubMed was made to identify and discuss relevant points relating to diagnosis and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the scalp.
  • We describe the anatomy of the scalp, epidemiology of scalp tumors, theories of field cancerization and field therapy, photodynamic therapy, excisional surgical techniques and reconstruction, lymphoscintigraphy, chemoprevention, as well as details relating to atypical fibroxanthoma, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, nevus sebaceus, cutaneous lymphoma, and metastatic disease.
  • There is a very broad differential diagnosis for scalp nodules, which includes many different benign and malignant diseases, and treatment should be tailored accordingly.
  • Given the potential for poor prognosis with some of the more aggressive malignancies that can be found in this anatomic area, the importance of a thorough physical examination cannot be emphasized enough, and early detection is critical to provide patients with the best chance for a favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoprevention / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20509718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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64. Dotto JE, Glusac EJ: p63 is a useful marker for cutaneous spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jun;33(6):413-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p63 is a useful marker for cutaneous spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC) is a rare variant of SCC.
  • This lesion is sometimes difficult to diagnose based purely on morphologic features. p63 is a member of the p53 gene family that can be identified in epithelial malignancies.
  • Control cases included desmoplastic melanoma (eight cases), atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) (10 cases), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (eight cases), and cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (LMS) (four cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the given differential diagnosis, p63 appears relatively specific to SCSCC and adds a useful nuclear marker to the available repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / immunology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / metabolism. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / metabolism. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Xanthomatosis / diagnosis. Xanthomatosis / metabolism


65. Pastor-Nieto MA, Kilmurray LG, Requena L: [Pigmented or hemosiderotic atypical fibroxanthoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 May;100(4):321-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pigmented or hemosiderotic atypical fibroxanthoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Fibroxantoma atípico pigmentado o hemosiderótico.
  • Pigmented atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma and is characterized by extensive areas of hemorrhage, erythrophagocytosis, and hemosiderin accumulation in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells.
  • It affects elderly individuals and presents as irregularly pigmented, dome-shaped nodules or plaques on areas of skin exposed to the sun.
  • We present a case of pigmented atypical fibroxanthoma on the cheek of an 81-year-old man.
  • The 9 cases of pigmented atypical fibroxanthoma reported in the literature are reviewed, and the histopathological features and differential diagnosis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemosiderosis / etiology. Skin Diseases / complications. Xanthomatosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19463236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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66. Orrock JM, Abbott JJ, Gibson LE, Folpe AL: INI1 and GLUT-1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma and its cutaneous neoplastic and nonneoplastic mimics. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):152-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] INI1 and GLUT-1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma and its cutaneous neoplastic and nonneoplastic mimics.
  • The morphological features of epithelioid sarcoma may closely mimic those of epithelial neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma, mesenchymal tumors, such as benign fibrous histiocytoma, and nonneoplastic lesions, such as granuloma annulare.
  • Immunohistochemistry, particularly for epithelial markers and CD34, thus plays a valuable role in the differential diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma.
  • We examined the utility of immunohistochemistry for INI1 and GLUT-1 in the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma and various cutaneous mimics.
  • Twenty-four cases of epithelioid sarcoma, 13 cases of granuloma annulare, 10 cases of rheumatoid nodule, 19 cases of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, 7 cases of atypical fibroxanthoma, 9 cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma (dermatofibroma), and 3 cases of nodular fasciitis were immunostained for GLUT-1 and INI1 using commercially available antibodies, heat-induced epitope retrieval, and the Dako Envision detection system.
  • GLUT-1 was positive in 40%-50% of epithelioid sarcomas, all cases of granuloma annulare and rheumatoid nodules, 67% of benign fibrous histiocytomas, and in all squamous cell carcinomas.
  • In contrast, atypical fibroxanthomas and cases of nodular fasciitis were consistently GLUT-1 negative.
  • We conclude that immunohistochemistry for INI1 expression should be included as part of the routine immunohistochemical panel for the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma, along with established markers such as wide-spectrum cytokeratins, cytokeratin 5/6, p63, and CD34.
  • In this clinical context, loss of INI1 expression seems to be an entirely specific marker of epithelioid sarcoma and this finding may be of great value in distinguishing CD34-negative epithelioid sarcoma from squamous cell carcinoma and in the distinction of rare cytokeratin-negative epithelioid sarcomas from necrobiotic processes, nodular fasciitis, and benign fibrous histiocytomas.
  • In contrast, there does not seem to be a role for GLUT-1 immunohistochemistry in this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. Granuloma Annulare / metabolism. Sarcoma / metabolism. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Fasciitis / metabolism. Fasciitis / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Humans. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Rheumatoid Nodule / metabolism. Rheumatoid Nodule / pathology. Xanthomatosis / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19318800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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67. Bansal C, Sinkre P, Stewart D, Cockerell CJ: Two cases of cytokeratin positivity in atypical fibroxanthoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jun;60(6):716-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Two cases of cytokeratin positivity in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Keratins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / metabolism. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 1997 Mar;24(3):176-82 [9085154.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Dermatopathol. 2003 Feb;25(1):1-5 [12544091.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 1993 Dec;17(12):1199-209 [8238729.001]
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  • (PMID = 17483246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955050
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68. Kantrow SM, Boyd AS: Primary cutaneous metaplastic carcinoma: report of a case involving angiosarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Jun;29(3):270-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous metaplastic carcinoma: report of a case involving angiosarcoma.
  • Primary cutaneous metaplastic carcinoma is an uncommon cutaneous malignancy comprising a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal components.
  • The former is most frequently a squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma, and the latter is most typically a pleomorphic sarcoma or atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • We describe the first primary cutaneous metaplastic carcinoma with angiosarcoma as the mesenchymal component arising on the scalp of a 90-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17519625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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69. Stefanato CM, Robson A, Calonje JE: The histopathologic spectrum of regression in atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):310-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The histopathologic spectrum of regression in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) with prominent fibrosis, sclerosis and hyalinization, and near-total tumor regression is rare.
  • Advanced fibrosis, in the absence of a history of prior trauma or surgery, may indicate spontaneous regression.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of recognizing this subset of AFX in order to avoid misinterpretation, particularly in cases with few residual atypical cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology


71. González-García R, Nam-Cha SH, Muñoz-Guerra MF, Sastre-Pérez J, Rodríguez-Campo FJ, Naval-Gías L: Atypical fibroxanthoma of the head and neck: report of 5 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Mar;65(3):526-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma of the head and neck: report of 5 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Ear, External / pathology. Ear, External / surgery. Humans. Scalp / pathology. Scalp / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17307603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Fussell JN, Cooke ER, Florentino F, Sheehan DJ: Atypical fibroxanthoma with keloidal collagen. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Oct;32(7):713-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma with keloidal collagen.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a lesion that typically occurs on actinically damaged skin of the head and neck.
  • Histopathology of these neoplasms reveals atypical cells, which often demonstrate positive staining for immunohistochemical markers such as vimentin and CD10.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen Type I / biosynthesis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Procollagen / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20700041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Procollagen; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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73. Chen JT, Hsu JD, Yao CC, Han LW, Han CP: Anti-cytokeratin CAM 5.2 does not act as a surrogate of the cytokeratin 8/18 monoclonal antibody. Comment on: "Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma", in J Cutan Pathol 2009; 36: 543. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1123-4
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  • [Title] Anti-cytokeratin CAM 5.2 does not act as a surrogate of the cytokeratin 8/18 monoclonal antibody. Comment on: "Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma", in J Cutan Pathol 2009; 36: 543.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Immunohistochemistry / standards. Keratin-18 / biosynthesis. Keratin-8 / biosynthesis. Keratins / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 May;36(5):543-7 [19476522.001]
  • (PMID = 20175827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Keratin-8; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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74. Hiscutt EL, Adams JR, Ryan JM, Langtry JA, Natarajan S: Atypical fibroxanthoma, lentigo maligna melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising in the site of a thermal burn treated with skin grafts. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Mar;47(2):157-8
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma, lentigo maligna melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising in the site of a thermal burn treated with skin grafts.
  • We report the first case of atypical fibroxanthoma, lentigo maligna melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma that developed in the site of a thermal burn that had previously been treated with multiple skin grafts.There is a controversy over the question of an increased risk of skin cancer in scars from burns and the various factors which may contribute to this.
  • [MeSH-major] Burns / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / etiology. Melanoma / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cicatrix / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / etiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Skin Transplantation


75. Kim J, McNiff JM: Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma: a case series. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):535-9
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  • [Title] Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma: a case series.
  • BACKGROUND: Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare variant of AFX with thick bands of hyalinized collagen.
  • The identification of keloidal collagen associated with fibrohistiocytic cells may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of keloidal dermatofibroma.
  • Although AFX is a pleomorphic cutaneous tumor typically associated with a good prognosis, occasional reports of metastatic AFX highlight the importance of accurate identification.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of keloidal AFX requires the exclusion of other malignant and benign lesions with keloidal or sclerotic collagen.
  • Awareness of the rare variant of keloidal AFX may avoid a diagnostic pitfall leading to an erroneous diagnosis, particularly in small biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Keloid / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19476521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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76. Offman S, Pasternak S, Walsh N: Keloidal and other collagen patterns in atypical fibroxanthomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):326-32
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  • [Title] Keloidal and other collagen patterns in atypical fibroxanthomas.
  • Collagen deposition is observed in several cutaneous neoplasms and its derivation is variable.
  • It can represent (1) a mesenchymal component of a biphasic tumor, (2) a desmoplastic host response to a neoplasm, or (3) a product of the tumor cells.
  • The result is that collagenous (desmoplastic) variants of many cutaneous neoplasms are well recognized.
  • In regard to atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), conventional wisdom holds that intratumoral collagen is not commonly observed, apart from the rare sclerotic subtype of the neoplasm.
  • (1) Is the collagen part of a host response to the neoplasm or is it a product of the tumor cells?
  • The goal is to facilitate accuracy in diagnosis and to promote further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Keloid / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20514669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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77. Ferri E, Iaderosa GA, Armato E: Atypical fibroxanthoma of the external ear in a cardiac transplant recipient: case report and the causal role of the immunosuppressive therapy. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Jun;35(2):260-3
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma of the external ear in a cardiac transplant recipient: case report and the causal role of the immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AF) is an unusual cutaneous fibrohistiocytic tumour that is most commonly found in ENT sun-exposed areas of elderly males.
  • Cardiac transplant patients have an increased incidence of multiple cutaneous neoplasms, but the AF is uncommon.
  • Although this neoplasm is benign, it may mimic spindle cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma on histologic examination.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for cytokeratin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, S100 protein and vimentin may be helpful in differential diagnosis.
  • We present a case of a cardiac transplant recipient who developed, after multiple cutaneous squamous tumours, an AF of external ear following the prolonged immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporin.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, External. Heart Transplantation. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cyclosporins. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Male. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 17804184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclosporins; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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78. Sakamoto A, Akieda S, Oda Y, Iwamoto Y, Tsuneyoshi M: Mutation analysis of the Gadd45 gene at exon 4 in atypical fibroxanthoma. BMC Dermatol; 2009;9:1
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  • [Title] Mutation analysis of the Gadd45 gene at exon 4 in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) histologically mimics high-grade sarcoma in the skin, although it follows a benign clinical course.
  • AFX occurs in the sun-exposed skin and for this reason, an association with ultraviolet light has long been suspected.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was analyzed in 7 cases of AFX, and in 7 cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) used as a comparison.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19128509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-5945
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / GADD45A protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628644
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79. Kemmerling R, Dietze O, Müller S, Neureiter D: Aspects of the differential diagnosis of clear-cell lesions of the skin in connection with the rare case of a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(5):365-70
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  • [Title] Aspects of the differential diagnosis of clear-cell lesions of the skin in connection with the rare case of a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • We present a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFX) and describe the morphological and immunohistochemical aspects of this rare skin lesion.
  • Furthermore, we give an overview of the differential diagnoses of clear-cell lesions of the skin for a practical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nose / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19155147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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80. Andres C, Puchta U, Flaig MJ: Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in atypical fibroxanthoma in correlation to clinical features. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):799-803
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  • [Title] Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in atypical fibroxanthoma in correlation to clinical features.
  • A clear etiopathogenetic concept for atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is not established yet.
  • Nevertheless, AFX is known as a pleomorphic but indolent tumor primarily of the elderly and/or immunosuppressed patient occurring in severely sun- or radiation-damaged skin.
  • These risk factors are almost identical to those of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly malignant skin tumor being thought to be pathogenetically associated with the recently discovered Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Merkel Cells / virology. Polyomavirus / isolation & purification. Polyomavirus Infections / virology. Skin Diseases / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / virology. Xanthomatosis / virology

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  • (PMID = 20861707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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81. Morgan MB, Purohit C, Anglin TR: Immunohistochemical distinction of cutaneous spindle cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Jun;30(3):228-32
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical distinction of cutaneous spindle cell carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous spindle cell squamous carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma in which keratinocytes infiltrate the dermis as single cells with elongated nuclei rather than as cohesive nests or islands, and signs of keratinization of conventional squamous cell carcinoma are insubstantial or nonexistent.
  • Spindle cell carcinoma must be distinguished from spindle cell/desmoplastic melanoma, cutaneous leiomyosarcoma, atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), and scar.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cicatrix / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratinocytes / chemistry. Keratinocytes / pathology. Keratins / analysis. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18496422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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82. Leinweber B, Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Kaddu S, McCalmont TH: Procollagen 1 and Melan-A expression in desmoplastic melanomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):173-6
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  • The histopathologic diagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is usually based on typical conventional microscopic findings coupled with expression of S100 protein by neoplastic cells.
  • Important differential diagnostic considerations include atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and spindle cell squamous carcinoma.
  • Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by positivity for cytokeratin, whereas the diagnosis of AFX has been one of exclusion.
  • Melan-A offers little for the diagnosis of DM, as less than a quarter of lesions exhibit a strong reaction with this antibody.
  • It is critical to employ a broad panel of antibodies, including S100 protein, Melan-A, cytokeratin, PC1, and others, in the immunohistochemical evaluation of spindle cell neoplasms of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Procollagen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19318805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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83. Tronnier M, Vogelbruch M: Atypical fibroxanthoma arising in an area of syringocystadenoma papilliferum associated with nevus sebaceus: positivity of the atypical fibroxanthoma component for CD31. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Dec;34 Suppl 1:58-63
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma arising in an area of syringocystadenoma papilliferum associated with nevus sebaceus: positivity of the atypical fibroxanthoma component for CD31.
  • The occurrence of an atypical fibroxanthoma in association with a syringocystadenoma papilliferum is reported.

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  • (PMID = 17997741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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84. Troxel DB: An insurer's perspective on error and loss in pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Oct;129(10):1234-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sixty-three percent of claims involved failure to diagnose cancer, resulting in delay in diagnosis or inappropriate treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: A false-negative diagnosis of melanoma is the single most common reason for filing a malpractice claim against a pathologist.
  • Nearly one third of misdiagnoses involve melanoma misdiagnosed as Spitz nevus, "dysplastic" nevus, spindle cell squamous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and dermatofibroma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16196510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Shao L, Newell B, Quintanilla N: Atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in xeroderma pigmentosum. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2007 Mar-Apr;10(2):149-52
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in xeroderma pigmentosum.
  • Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) have defective DNA repair and a high predisposition to developing abnormalities and neoplasia in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a pleomorphic tumor that arises predominantly in the sun-damaged skin of the head and neck regions of the elderly.
  • We describe a unique case of a 6-year-old African American boy with XP who developed an atypical fibroxanthoma and 2 squamous cell carcinomas in the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Conjunctiva / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xeroderma Pigmentosum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17378688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vimentin
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86. Murali R, Palfreeman S: Clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma - report of a case with review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 May;33(5):343-8
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  • [Title] Clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma - report of a case with review of the literature.
  • Clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFX) is a rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), a pleomorphic dermal tumour associated with a good prognosis.
  • The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features supported a diagnosis of CCAFX.
  • The diagnosis of CCAFX requires the exclusion of other pleomorphic clear cell tumours that can occur in the skin by using a combination of morphology, immunohistochemistry and electronmicroscopy.
  • Clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma - report of a case with review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16640540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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87. Dudelzak J, Sheehan DJ, Mullins SC, Peterson CM: Malignant perifollicular atypical fibroxanthoma treated with Mohs surgery. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Mar;33(3):364-8
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  • [Title] Malignant perifollicular atypical fibroxanthoma treated with Mohs surgery.

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  • (PMID = 17338699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Sakamoto A, Oda Y, Tsuneyoshi M, Iwamoto Y: Expression of the UV-induced molecule, Gadd45, in atypical fibroxanthoma. Histopathology; 2007 Jun;50(7):939-41
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  • [Title] Expression of the UV-induced molecule, Gadd45, in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Skin / radiation effects. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. DNA Damage. Head and Neck Neoplasms / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / metabolism. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 17543084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / GADD45A protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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89. Wright NA, Thomas CG, Calame A, Cockerell CJ: Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma: case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):380-5
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  • [Title] Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • We present a case of granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp.
  • The neoplasm occurred as a tender nodule on the frontal scalp of an 82-year-old Caucasian man.
  • Histology demonstrated a diffuse proliferation of atypical epithelioid cells with abundant granular cytoplasm.
  • Many of the cells had large irregular nuclei and atypical mitotic figures were present.
  • The granular cell phenotype has been observed in other cutaneous neoplasms including granular cell tumors, dermatofibromas, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, fibrous papules, basal cell carcinomas, leiomyosarcomas, angiosarcomas and primitive polypoid granular cell tumors.
  • We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the previously reported cases of this rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19341433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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90. Wollina U, Schönlebe J, Koch A, Haroske G: Atypical fibroxanthoma: a series of 25 cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Aug;24(8):943-6
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: a series of 25 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare mesenchymal tumour of skin that develops on skin of elderly patients.
  • We analysed our patients with atypical fibroxanthoma over the last 8 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Cheek. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Forehead. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Scalp. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20158588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vimentin
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96. Troxel DB: Medicolegal aspects of error in pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 May;130(5):617-9
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  • Sixty-three percent of claims involved failure to diagnose cancer, resulting in delay in diagnosis or inappropriate treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: A false-negative diagnosis of melanoma was the single most common reason for filing a malpractice claim against a pathologist.
  • Nearly one third involved melanoma misdiagnosed as Spitz nevus, "dysplastic" nevus, spindle cell squamous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and dermatofibroma.

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  • (PMID = 16683874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Espino-Ardila C, Goldberg LH: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX). Dermatol Nurs; 2005 Jun;17(3):207
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).

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  • (PMID = 16035424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-3441
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Nurs
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Mirza B, Weedon D: Atypical fibroxanthoma: a clinicopathological study of 89 cases. Australas J Dermatol; 2005 Nov;46(4):235-8
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: a clinicopathological study of 89 cases.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is a controversial entity with a disputed histogenesis.
  • It has recently been suggested that most atypical fibroxanthoma are actually variants of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We reviewed 100 purported cases of atypical fibroxanthoma received over 4 years to perform clinical follow up and immunohistochemical markers.
  • A further case was interpreted as a malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Our cases were typical of the usual clinical presentation of atypical fibroxanthoma on the skin of the sun-damaged elderly.
  • We found no cases of recurrent or metastatic atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Two patients developed a second primary atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • CD10 proved to be a useful marker for atypical fibroxanthoma when used on 20 cases in the present study, as was CD99 in seven cases.
  • It had dual features of atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • However, as the majority of atypical fibroxanthoma had no adjacent solar keratosis, our data suggest it is unlikely that atypical fibroxanthoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16197421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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99. Gil T, Sabo E, Kerner H, Metanes I, Har-Shai Y: Atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp following hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2010 Oct;63(10):e725-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp following hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm of the elderly.
  • This case report presents an atypical case of AFX of the scalp 8 years after hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male patient.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first description in the medical literature of development of skin malignancy on a hair-transplanted scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / surgery. Hair / transplantation. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Lasers, Gas / adverse effects. Scalp Dermatoses / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Skin Transplantation / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20673656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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100. Hall JM, Saenger JS, Fadare O: Diagnostic utility of P63 and CD10 in distinguishing cutaneous spindle cell/sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinomas and atypical fibroxanthomas. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(6):524-30
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of P63 and CD10 in distinguishing cutaneous spindle cell/sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinomas and atypical fibroxanthomas.
  • The pathologic distinction of atypical fibroxanthomas (AFXs) from cutaneous spindle cell/sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinomas (SCSCCs) may occasionally pose a significant diagnostic challenge, given the substantial clinicopathologic overlap between these lesions.
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the utility of CD10 and p63 in distinguishing cutaneous SCSCCs and AFXs.
  • The usefulness of CD10 in this differential diagnosis is limited.

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  • (PMID = 18787630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480581
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical fibroxanthoma / CD10 / p63 / sarcomatoid/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma / skin
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