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1. Sakamoto A: Atypical fibroxanthoma. Clin Med Oncol; 2008;2:117-27

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a nodular dermal ulcerative lesion with a favorable prognosis.
  • AFX most commonly occurs on sun-exposed skin in elderly individuals.
  • Making a diagnosis of AFX is challenging, and it is important to differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.
  • Histological features and combined immunohistochemical markers are necessary for a definitive diagnosis (i.e., an absence of immunostaining for cytokeratins, S100 and HMB45 in AFX is helpful for excluding both squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma).
  • AFX, as well as MFH (malignant fibrous histiocytoma), is a fibrohistiocytic lesion with myofibroblastic differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 21892274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-9314
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3161641
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; atypical fibroxanthoma / malignant fibrous histiocytoma / malignant melanoma / squamous cell carcinoma
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2. Vandergriff TW, Reed JA, Orengo IF: An unusual presentation of atypical fibroxanthoma. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(1):6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual presentation of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasm.
  • The tumor occurs most commonly in sun-damaged skin of the head and neck in elderly patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18319023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Sakamoto A, Akieda S, Oda Y, Iwamoto Y, Tsuneyoshi M: Mutation analysis of the Gadd45 gene at exon 4 in atypical fibroxanthoma. BMC Dermatol; 2009;9:1
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mutation analysis of the Gadd45 gene at exon 4 in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) histologically mimics high-grade sarcoma in the skin, although it follows a benign clinical course.
  • AFX occurs in the sun-exposed skin and for this reason, an association with ultraviolet light has long been suspected.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was analyzed in 7 cases of AFX, and in 7 cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) used as a comparison.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19128509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-5945
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / GADD45A protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628644
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4. Koch M, Dimmler A, Alexiou C: [Recurrent and metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma]. HNO; 2008 Oct;56(10):1046-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Recurrent and metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Rezidivierendes und metastasierendes atypisches Fibroxanthom.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare skin tumor that arises particularly on sun-exposed skin.
  • The accurate classification of aggressive processes of atypical fibroxanthoma is currently still the subject of discussion.
  • The case of an 81-year-old patient with relapsing atypical fibroxanthoma of the right auricle is presented.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma and the appropriate therapy for it are described, and the newest discoveries regarding this disease are discussed on the basis of the current literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18210006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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5. Dim-Jamora KC, Perone JB: Management of cutaneous tumors with mohs micrographic surgery. Semin Plast Surg; 2008 Nov;22(4):247-56

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of cutaneous tumors with mohs micrographic surgery.
  • Since the inception of Mohs micrographic surgery in the 1930s, this technique has proved its utility in the treatment of cutaneous tumors.
  • We discuss the use of Mohs micrographic surgery for the following cutaneous tumors: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma in situ, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, Merkel cell carcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and sebaceous carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20567701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2884874
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mohs micrographic surgery / cutaneous oncology / skin cancer
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6. Lisovsky M, Hoang MP, Dresser KA, Kapur P, Bhawan J, Mahalingam M: Apolipoprotein D in CD34-positive and CD34-negative cutaneous neoplasms: a useful marker in differentiating superficial acral fibromyxoma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Mod Pathol; 2008 Jan;21(1):31-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apolipoprotein D in CD34-positive and CD34-negative cutaneous neoplasms: a useful marker in differentiating superficial acral fibromyxoma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
  • To corroborate these results, we sought to ascertain the utility of Apo D by investigating its sensitivity and specificity in a variety of CD34-positive and CD34-negative cutaneous neoplasms including superficial acral fibromyxoma, sclerotic fibromas, and cellular dermatofibromas.
  • Of interest, we found absence of Apo D expression in all four cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma.
  • Of the remaining CD34-positive lesions, Apo D expression was noted in 35/36 (97%) cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 3/5 (60%) giant-cell fibroblastomas, 4/4 (100%) sclerotic fibromas, 8/8 (100%) neurofibromas, and 1/1 (100%) solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Of the CD34-negative lesions, Apo D expression was noted in 2/22 (9%) regular dermatofibroma, 23/45 (51%) cellular dermatofibroma, 10/10 (100%) malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 9/10 (90%) atypical fibroxanthoma, 7/8 (86%) cellular neurothekeoma, 9/9 (100%) malignant melanoma, 8/8 (100%) melanocytic nevi (100%), 0/2 superficial angiomyxoma, 0/15 fibromatosis, 0/1 nodular fasciitis, and 1/2 (50%) desmoplastic fibroblastomas.
  • Its principal use as an immunohistochemical adjunct lies in its utility in differentiating superficial acral fibromyxoma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
  • Although strong positive staining of Apo D in a markedly atypical fibrohistiocytic lesion is suggestive of atypical fibroxanthoma and/or malignant fibrous histiocytoma, further studies with the inclusion of other atypical spindled cell neoplasms are required to conclusively prove the same.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Apolipoproteins D / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Giant Cell Tumors / chemistry. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / immunology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / chemistry. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / immunology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma / chemistry. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / immunology. Nevus, Pigmented / chemistry. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / immunology. Reproducibility of Results. United States

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  • (PMID = 17885669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Apolipoproteins D; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. García López I, Sánchez Fernández F, Raboso García-Baquero E, Fogué Calvo L: [Fibroxanthoma of the external auditory canal]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2005 May;56(5):219-21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Fibroxanthoma of the external auditory canal].
  • [Transliterated title] Fibroxantoma del conducto auditivo externo.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is an scarce skin tumor which usually develops in exposed areas of elderly persons.
  • We report a case of atypical fibroxanthoma of the external auditory canal and review the current procedure for the differential diagnosis of these lesions.

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  • (PMID = 15960126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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8. Mirza B, Weedon D: Atypical fibroxanthoma: a clinicopathological study of 89 cases. Australas J Dermatol; 2005 Nov;46(4):235-8
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: a clinicopathological study of 89 cases.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is a controversial entity with a disputed histogenesis.
  • It has recently been suggested that most atypical fibroxanthoma are actually variants of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We reviewed 100 purported cases of atypical fibroxanthoma received over 4 years to perform clinical follow up and immunohistochemical markers.
  • A further case was interpreted as a malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Our cases were typical of the usual clinical presentation of atypical fibroxanthoma on the skin of the sun-damaged elderly.
  • We found no cases of recurrent or metastatic atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Two patients developed a second primary atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • CD10 proved to be a useful marker for atypical fibroxanthoma when used on 20 cases in the present study, as was CD99 in seven cases.
  • It had dual features of atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • However, as the majority of atypical fibroxanthoma had no adjacent solar keratosis, our data suggest it is unlikely that atypical fibroxanthoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16197421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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9. Pastor-Nieto MA, Kilmurray LG, Requena L: [Pigmented or hemosiderotic atypical fibroxanthoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 May;100(4):321-4
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  • [Title] [Pigmented or hemosiderotic atypical fibroxanthoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Fibroxantoma atípico pigmentado o hemosiderótico.
  • Pigmented atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma and is characterized by extensive areas of hemorrhage, erythrophagocytosis, and hemosiderin accumulation in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells.
  • It affects elderly individuals and presents as irregularly pigmented, dome-shaped nodules or plaques on areas of skin exposed to the sun.
  • We present a case of pigmented atypical fibroxanthoma on the cheek of an 81-year-old man.
  • The 9 cases of pigmented atypical fibroxanthoma reported in the literature are reviewed, and the histopathological features and differential diagnosis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemosiderosis / etiology. Skin Diseases / complications. Xanthomatosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19463236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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10. Fussell JN, Cooke ER, Florentino F, Sheehan DJ: Atypical fibroxanthoma with keloidal collagen. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Oct;32(7):713-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma with keloidal collagen.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a lesion that typically occurs on actinically damaged skin of the head and neck.
  • Histopathology of these neoplasms reveals atypical cells, which often demonstrate positive staining for immunohistochemical markers such as vimentin and CD10.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen Type I / biosynthesis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Procollagen / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20700041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Procollagen; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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11. Kim UR, Arora V, Shanti R, Shah AD: Neglected giant atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 Sep-Oct;25(5):408-9

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  • [Title] Neglected giant atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the superficial soft tissue that occurs in actinically damaged skin of elderly patients.
  • The authors present an unusual case of neglected giant atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid in an elderly patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19966663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Marcet S: Atypical fibroxanthoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Dermatol Ther; 2008 Nov-Dec;21(6):424-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an unusual spindle cell tumor occurring on actinically damaged skin of the head and neck.
  • Although initially thought to be a diagnosis of exclusion histologically, newer immunostains have helped in the identification of AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local


13. Rudisaile SN, Hurt MA, Santa Cruz DJ: Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Apr;32(4):314-7
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  • [Title] Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • We report on two patients with granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD68 and vimentin and negative for Melan-A or human melanoma black (HMB)-45, S-100 protein, pancytokeratin, and actin, consistent with atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of granular cells in neoplasms containing cytological pleomorphism is challenging in view of the many different neoplasms that may present with granular cytoplasm.
  • These include the conventional granular cell tumor and its malignant form, leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, dermatofibroma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and angiosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15769283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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14. Mathew RA, Schlauder SM, Calder KB, Morgan MB: CD117 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):34-6
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  • [Title] CD117 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a spindle cell neoplasm of the skin seen typically on sun-damaged skin of the elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Aug;30(4):401-2 [18645317.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2009 Feb;31(1):96-8 [19155737.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Dec;30(6):640-2 [19033951.001]
  • (PMID = 18212542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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15. Sangüeza M, Zelger B: Melanoma simulating atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Dec;29(6):551-4
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  • [Title] Melanoma simulating atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Melanoma may present with a wide variety of clinicopathological presentations, among those very rarely lesions imitating atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).
  • The present series describes 4 cases of such melanomas in 3 patients whose exact diagnosis was (markedly) delayed due to unusual clinicopathological presentations including negative immunohistochemistry for melanocytic markers (S100 protein, MelanA/MART1, HMB45).
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18032950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Stefanato CM, Robson A, Calonje JE: The histopathologic spectrum of regression in atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):310-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The histopathologic spectrum of regression in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) with prominent fibrosis, sclerosis and hyalinization, and near-total tumor regression is rare.
  • Advanced fibrosis, in the absence of a history of prior trauma or surgery, may indicate spontaneous regression.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of recognizing this subset of AFX in order to avoid misinterpretation, particularly in cases with few residual atypical cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19765173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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17. Lum DJ, King AR: Peritoneal metastases from an atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):1041-6
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  • [Title] Peritoneal metastases from an atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a mesenchymal neoplasm usually occurring in sun-exposed skin of elderly patients.
  • Histology of the scalp lesion showed a markedly pleomorphic neoplasm characteristic of AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16861978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Stepanova A, Marsch WC, Stadie V: [A rare low-grade malignant scalp tumor. Atypical fibroxanthoma]. Hautarzt; 2005 Jul;56(7):679-82
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  • [Title] [A rare low-grade malignant scalp tumor. Atypical fibroxanthoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Seltener niedrig-maligner Tumor der Kopfhaut. Atypisches Fibroxanthom.
  • Based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical staining, we made the diagnosis of an atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).
  • AFX is a rare tumor, but important in the differential diagnosis of other scalp tumors.
  • The routine histological staining allows one to identify a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, while a spindle-cell malignant melanoma can be excluded with immunohistochemical staining.
  • An anaplastic squamous cell carcinoma cannot always be separated with completed certainty from atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • AFX is a low-grade malignant tumor and most cases behave in a benign fashion.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15726303.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Gómez de la Fuente E, Sols M, Pinedo F, Alvarez-Fernández JG, Vicente FJ, Naz E, López-Estebaranz JL: [Atypical fibroxanthoma. Clinical/pathological study of 10 cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Apr;96(3):153-8
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  • [Title] [Atypical fibroxanthoma. Clinical/pathological study of 10 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Fibroxantoma atípico. Estudio clinicopatológico de 10 casos.
  • INTRODUCTION: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare tumor of unknown histogenesis, considered by most authorities as a superficial form of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH).
  • Clinical (age, onset-diagnosis time, location, accompanying pathology, outcome), histological (architectural pattern, cell type, ulceration, vascular or perineural invasion, subcutis involvement, pleomorphism, mitosis, inflammatory infiltrate) and immunohistochemical variable were analyzed.
  • CASES REPORT: Clinical and epidemiological features coincide with those previously reported: onset late in life, short time onset-diagnosis, involvement of skin with notable sun damage and a good outcome.
  • DISCUSSION: The diagnosis of AXF is always of exclusion.
  • Other spindle-cell tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, leyomiosarcoma or dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans must be ruled out by immunohistochemical techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16476356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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20. Bugatti L, Filosa G: Dermatoscopic features of cutaneous atypical fibroxanthoma: three cases. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;34(8):e898-900
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  • [Title] Dermatoscopic features of cutaneous atypical fibroxanthoma: three cases.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon, low-grade, malignant, spindle-cell tumour of fibrohistiocytic histogenesis, which can mimic other malignant skin tumours, such as basal and squamous cell carcinoma (CC), melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).
  • Three cases of AFX were examined by dermatoscopy, which revealed white areas and an atypical polymorphous vascular pattern characterized by the concurrence of different structures: linear, dotted, hairpin, arborescent and highly tortuous vessels, irregularly distributed over the surface.
  • AFX may be added to the list of slightly pigmented, reddish, malignant cutaneous tumours, such as SCC, MCC, amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma and eccrine porocarcinoma, which display prominent and chaotic dermatoscopic neoangiogenetic features in more advanced stages of proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20055861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Ríos-Martín JJ, Delgado MD, Moreno-Ramírez D, García-Escudero A, González-Cámpora R: Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma: report of two cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Feb;29(1):84-7
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  • [Title] Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma: report of two cases.
  • Two cases of an uncommon histopathological variant of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) are described.
  • Even though both lesions presented as clinically conventional atypical fibroxanthoma, histopathology disclosed a neoplasm composed of cells with granular change that was negative for S100 staining, and showed prominent pleomorphism, severe nuclear atypia, and a high mitotic index.
  • The differential diagnosis with primitive nonneural granular cell tumor is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroma / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Phenotype. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17284969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins
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22. Arsenovic N, Sen S, Naik V, Reed M, Moreira R: Trichilemmal cyst with carcinoma in situ within an atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Aug;31(6):587-90
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  • [Title] Trichilemmal cyst with carcinoma in situ within an atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • A 91-year-old lady presented with an 8-month history of a slow growing keratotic nodule on the forehead, which was excised.
  • Therefore, the lesion was designated as atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) by exclusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19590414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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23. Cooper JZ, Newman SR, Scott GA, Brown MD: Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma (cutaneous malignant histiocytoma): report of five cases. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Feb;31(2):221-5; discussion 225
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma (cutaneous malignant histiocytoma): report of five cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an unusual malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor of sun-damaged skin.
  • When first described, it was felt to be a reactive tumor of low malignant potential.
  • More recently, it has been shown to be a tumor of intermediate malignant potential.
  • Also, three of the five cases had other aggressive cutaneous malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Face / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Scalp / pathology. Upper Extremity / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15762219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Wylie J, Hampton N, Telfer MR, Clarke AM: Atypical fibroxanthoma: Case series of 16 patients. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2010 Sep;48(6):466-8
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: Case series of 16 patients.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is an unusual tumour of skin seen mainly in the head and neck region of elderly patients.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis also aids diagnosis.
  • We present a case series of 16 patients with 17 atypical fibroxanthomas over a 5-year period in a district general hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Scalp / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20129724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1940
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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25. Nakai N, Takenaka H, Kishimoto S: Atypical fibroxanthoma on a bald scalp. J Dermatol; 2005 Oct;32(10):848-51
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma on a bald scalp.
  • We present the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of an atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) on the bald scalp of an 81-year-old French man who had worked at a private high school in Japan as a janitor for over 40 years.
  • This case therefore provides further support to the theory that AFX displays a clinically benign course, even though it is essentially a malignant tumor histologically located in the dermis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Scalp Dermatoses / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Alopecia / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16361741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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26. Shao L, Newell B, Quintanilla N: Atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in xeroderma pigmentosum. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2007 Mar-Apr;10(2):149-52
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in xeroderma pigmentosum.
  • Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) have defective DNA repair and a high predisposition to developing abnormalities and neoplasia in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a pleomorphic tumor that arises predominantly in the sun-damaged skin of the head and neck regions of the elderly.
  • We describe a unique case of a 6-year-old African American boy with XP who developed an atypical fibroxanthoma and 2 squamous cell carcinomas in the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Conjunctiva / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xeroderma Pigmentosum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17378688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vimentin
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27. Wright NA, Thomas CG, Calame A, Cockerell CJ: Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma: case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):380-5
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  • [Title] Granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • We present a case of granular cell atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp.
  • The neoplasm occurred as a tender nodule on the frontal scalp of an 82-year-old Caucasian man.
  • Histology demonstrated a diffuse proliferation of atypical epithelioid cells with abundant granular cytoplasm.
  • Many of the cells had large irregular nuclei and atypical mitotic figures were present.
  • The granular cell phenotype has been observed in other cutaneous neoplasms including granular cell tumors, dermatofibromas, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, fibrous papules, basal cell carcinomas, leiomyosarcomas, angiosarcomas and primitive polypoid granular cell tumors.
  • We discuss the differential diagnosis and review the previously reported cases of this rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19341433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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28. Wollina U, Schönlebe J, Koch A, Haroske G: Atypical fibroxanthoma: a series of 25 cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Aug;24(8):943-6
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: a series of 25 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare mesenchymal tumour of skin that develops on skin of elderly patients.
  • We analysed our patients with atypical fibroxanthoma over the last 8 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Cheek. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Forehead. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Scalp. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20158588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vimentin
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29. Hiscutt EL, Adams JR, Ryan JM, Langtry JA, Natarajan S: Atypical fibroxanthoma, lentigo maligna melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising in the site of a thermal burn treated with skin grafts. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Mar;47(2):157-8
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma, lentigo maligna melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising in the site of a thermal burn treated with skin grafts.
  • We report the first case of atypical fibroxanthoma, lentigo maligna melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma that developed in the site of a thermal burn that had previously been treated with multiple skin grafts.There is a controversy over the question of an increased risk of skin cancer in scars from burns and the various factors which may contribute to this.
  • [MeSH-major] Burns / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / etiology. Melanoma / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cicatrix / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / etiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Skin Transplantation


30. McGregor DH, Cherian R, Romanas MM, Ulusarac O, Mathur SC, Feldman MM: Amelanotic malignant melanoma: two collision tumors presenting as basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2008;38(2):157-62
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  • [Title] Amelanotic malignant melanoma: two collision tumors presenting as basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Collision (contiguous) tumors of the skin can result in misleading clinicopathological presentations, and the choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques may prevent incomplete diagnosis and management.
  • We report 2 cases of collision tumors involving amelanotic malignant melanoma of the back.
  • This lesion was composed of 2 distinct contiguous neoplastic infiltrates, the predominant component being an atypical fibroxanthoma and the smaller component an amelanotic melanoma (primary vs metastatic), with diagnostic confirmation requiring multiple immunohistochemical stains.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Melanoma, Amelanotic / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18469362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-8080
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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31. Murali R, Palfreeman S: Clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma - report of a case with review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 May;33(5):343-8
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  • [Title] Clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma - report of a case with review of the literature.
  • Clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFX) is a rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), a pleomorphic dermal tumour associated with a good prognosis.
  • The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features supported a diagnosis of CCAFX.
  • The diagnosis of CCAFX requires the exclusion of other pleomorphic clear cell tumours that can occur in the skin by using a combination of morphology, immunohistochemistry and electronmicroscopy.
  • Clear cell atypical fibroxanthoma - report of a case with review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16640540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Kemmerling R, Dietze O, Müller S, Neureiter D: Aspects of the differential diagnosis of clear-cell lesions of the skin in connection with the rare case of a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(5):365-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aspects of the differential diagnosis of clear-cell lesions of the skin in connection with the rare case of a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • We present a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFX) and describe the morphological and immunohistochemical aspects of this rare skin lesion.
  • Furthermore, we give an overview of the differential diagnoses of clear-cell lesions of the skin for a practical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nose / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19155147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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33. Luzar B, Calonje E: Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of atypical fibroxanthoma with a special emphasis on potential diagnostic pitfalls: a review. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):301-9
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  • [Title] Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of atypical fibroxanthoma with a special emphasis on potential diagnostic pitfalls: a review.
  • The present manuscript gives emphasis on recognizing different morphological variants of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), on validation of immunohistochemical markers and on discussing potential diagnostic pitfalls.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Histological features analyzed in 66 AFXs were: ulceration, morphological variants, growth pattern, location in the skin and vascular/perineural invasion.
  • All developed on sun damaged skin.
  • An expansile (36.4%) rather than infiltrative (6.1%) growth into superficial subcutis was also noted.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of AFX is still made by exclusion of other malignant neoplasms with similar morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Arm / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibrosis / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Sex Factors

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2011 Aug;38(8):679-80 [21518383.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2010 Mar;37(3):299-300 [20458783.001]
  • (PMID = 19807823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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34. Andres C, Puchta U, Flaig MJ: Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in atypical fibroxanthoma in correlation to clinical features. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):799-803
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in atypical fibroxanthoma in correlation to clinical features.
  • A clear etiopathogenetic concept for atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is not established yet.
  • Nevertheless, AFX is known as a pleomorphic but indolent tumor primarily of the elderly and/or immunosuppressed patient occurring in severely sun- or radiation-damaged skin.
  • These risk factors are almost identical to those of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly malignant skin tumor being thought to be pathogenetically associated with the recently discovered Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Merkel Cells / virology. Polyomavirus / isolation & purification. Polyomavirus Infections / virology. Skin Diseases / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / virology. Xanthomatosis / virology

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  • (PMID = 20861707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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35. Clarke LE, Frauenhoffer E, Fox E, Neves R, Bruggeman RD, Helm KF: CD10-positive myxofibrosarcomas: a pitfall in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jul;37(7):737-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD10-positive myxofibrosarcomas: a pitfall in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • CD10 is now commonly used to differentiate atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) from melanoma, spindle cell and dedifferentiated variants of squamous cell carcinoma and leiomyosarcoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate CD10 expression in a wide range of mesenchymal neoplasms that may involve the skin using tissue microarrays.
  • Myxofibrosarcomas commonly present in the skin and may be difficult to distinguish from AFX on small biopsies and CD10 positivity may confound the diagnostic difficulty.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Neprilysin / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20175824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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36. Gil T, Sabo E, Kerner H, Metanes I, Har-Shai Y: Atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp following hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2010 Oct;63(10):e725-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp following hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm of the elderly.
  • This case report presents an atypical case of AFX of the scalp 8 years after hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male patient.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first description in the medical literature of development of skin malignancy on a hair-transplanted scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / surgery. Hair / transplantation. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Lasers, Gas / adverse effects. Scalp Dermatoses / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Skin Transplantation / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20673656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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37. Avshalumov K, Williford P, Sangueza OP, Goldenberg G: Atypical fibroxanthoma presenting in a patient with stage III mycosis fungoides. J Dermatolog Treat; 2008;19(2):118-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma presenting in a patient with stage III mycosis fungoides.
  • The association of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and mycosis fungoides (MF) has never been reported.
  • The pathologic specimen revealed a relatively well-circumscribed neoplasm in the upper dermis composed of atypical spindle cells with pleomorphism, hyperchromatic nuclei, and brisk mitotic activity.
  • Perilesional skin revealed epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, and multiple epidermotropic lymphocytes with enlarged and hyperchromatic nuclei.
  • This neoplasm underwent a fusiform excision with clear margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Mycosis Fungoides / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18484429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6634
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Beer TW, Haig D: CD117 is not a useful marker for diagnosing atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):649-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD117 is not a useful marker for diagnosing atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare skin tumor that generally pursues an indolent course despite its alarming histological appearances.
  • It is important for the pathologist to distinguish this neoplasm from more aggressive lesions that may show very similar histological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2010 Jul;32(5):528 [20526172.001]
  • (PMID = 19652583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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39. Gleason BC, Calder KB, Cibull TL, Thomas AB, Billings SD, Morgan MB, Hiatt KM, Smoller BR: Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):543-7
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  • [Title] Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC) and spindle cell melanoma are the primary entities in the differential diagnosis of a cytologically atypical spindle cell tumor arising on sun-damaged skin.
  • AFX is generally regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion in this context: in the absence of S100 or keratin reactivity, a diagnosis of AFX is favored.
  • We evaluated 20 AFX and 10 SCSCC with a panel of cytokeratins and p63 to assess the utility of the latter antibody in this differential diagnosis.
  • Two additional cases (excluded from the study) were negative for keratins and S100 on initial shave biopsies, resulting in a favored diagnosis of AFX, but p63 stains performed retrospectively were positive.
  • However, review of the excision specimens in both cases revealed deep subcutaneous extension, excluding AFX. p63 reactivity argues against the diagnosis of AFX and is therefore a useful addition to the standard immunohistochemical panel for cutaneous spindle cell neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2010 Oct;37(10):1123-4 [20175827.001]
  • (PMID = 19476522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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40. Ang GC, Roenigk RK, Otley CC, Kim Phillips P, Weaver AL: More than 2 decades of treating atypical fibroxanthoma at mayo clinic: what have we learned from 91 patients? Dermatol Surg; 2009 May;35(5):765-72
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  • [Title] More than 2 decades of treating atypical fibroxanthoma at mayo clinic: what have we learned from 91 patients?
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) typically occurs on the head and neck of elderly white men.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Hospitals, University. Mohs Surgery / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Xanthomatosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Minnesota / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19389106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. de Feraudy S, Mar N, McCalmont TH: Evaluation of CD10 and procollagen 1 expression in atypical fibroxanthoma and dermatofibroma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Aug;32(8):1111-22
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  • [Title] Evaluation of CD10 and procollagen 1 expression in atypical fibroxanthoma and dermatofibroma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) (dermal pleomorphic sarcoma) remains a somewhat controversial entity.
  • In addition, the immunoperoxidase confirmation of AFX has been less than straightforward and has historically been approached as a diagnosis of exclusion because of the lack of sensitivity and specificity of available "positive" reagents.
  • Group 1 consisted of a retrospective review of 98 consecutive cases in which PC1 was used in the evaluation of dermatopathology specimens in routine practice during a 13-month interval.
  • Group 2 consisted of a direct comparison of 11 AFX, 11 dermatofibroma (DF), and 7 epithelioid dermatofibroma (EDF) using the CD10 reagent on cases identified by database search.
  • Group 3 consisted of a retrospective review of 47 cases in which CD10 was used in routine practice during a 10-month interval.
  • We believe that CD10 and PC1 immunostaining can be used as a useful adjunct to supplement the diagnosis of AFX, within the context of an immunoperoxidase panel.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen Type I / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neprilysin / analysis. Procollagen / analysis. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelioid Cells / chemistry. Epithelioid Cells / immunology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratins / analysis. Male. Melanoma / chemistry. Melanoma / immunology. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18545147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / S100 Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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42. Farley R, Ratner D: Diagnosis and management of atypical fibroxanthoma. Skinmed; 2006 Mar-Apr;5(2):83-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • What is your diagnosis?
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16603840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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43. Patton A, Page R, Googe PB, King R: Myxoid atypical fibroxanthoma: a previously undescribed variant. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Nov;36(11):1177-84
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  • [Title] Myxoid atypical fibroxanthoma: a previously undescribed variant.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) are dermal-based cutaneous tumors typically found in sun-damaged skin of the elderly.
  • Histologically all tumors demonstrated a well-circumscribed, cellular lesion centered in the dermis and composed of a mix of atypical pleomorphic and spindle cells in a prominent myxomatous background.
  • Myxoid change may be a prominent finding in benign and malignant cutaneous tumors and awareness of this variant of AFX will avoid misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19320792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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44. Kanner WA, Brill LB 2nd, Patterson JW, Wick MR: CD10, p63 and CD99 expression in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma, spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma and desmoplastic melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jul;37(7):744-50
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  • [Title] CD10, p63 and CD99 expression in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma, spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma and desmoplastic melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a pleomorphic spindle cell lesion of the skin; it is considered in the differential diagnosis with spindle cell malignant melanoma (MM) and sarcomatoid carcinoma/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • CD10 positivity was preferentially associated with the diagnosis of AFX (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: CD10 positivity is relatively specific in this context for the diagnosis of AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Neprilysin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20184665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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45. New D, Bahrami S, Malone J, Callen JP: Atypical fibroxanthoma with regional lymph node metastasis: report of a case and review of the literature. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Dec;146(12):1399-404
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma with regional lymph node metastasis: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a low-grade sarcoma usually occurring on sun-damaged skin of the head and neck in elderly patients.
  • Our patient was an 87-year-old man with a 7-week history of a rapidly growing AFX presenting as a 1.5-cm sessile nodule on his right mandible.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Atypical fibroxanthoma is a diagnosis of exclusion, and only a small number of metastatic AFX cases have been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neck

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  • (PMID = 20713774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Beer TW, Drury P, Heenan PJ: Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Aug;32(6):533-40
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases.
  • The clinical and histological features of 171 atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) from a single institution in Western Australia are outlined.
  • In conclusion, AFX may show a wide range of histological appearances, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers is essential to make the correct diagnosis.
  • Specific diagnosis is important because there seems to be a very low risk of recurrence or metastasis despite the frequently alarming histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20526171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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47. Garrido-Ruiz MC, Ramos P, Enguita AB, Rodriguez Peralto JL: Subcutaneous atypical fibrous histiocytoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):499-501

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subcutaneous atypical fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most frequent benign neoplasms mainly composed of a mixture of fibroblastic and histiocytic cells, especially found in the skin (dermatofibroma), particularly in the limbs.
  • The diagnosis of cutaneous benign fibrous histiocytoma is generally easy; however, rare variants may be difficult to identify, and the diagnosis only confirmed after exhaustive histopathological examination.
  • Thus, deep subcutaneous dermatofibroma may be difficult to distinguish from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and dermatofibroma with monster giant cells from malignant fibrous histiocytoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a painless swelling on the abdominal wall, which was totally excised and histopathologically diagnosed as subcutaneous atypical fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Definitive diagnosis, although especially difficult in our case, is established by characteristic histological and immunohistochemical criteria.
  • To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of subcutaneous fibrous histiocytoma with monster cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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48. Hultgren TL, DiMaio DJ: Immunohistochemical staining of CD10 in atypical fibroxanthomas. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):415-9
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining of CD10 in atypical fibroxanthomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The histologic diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) may be difficult at times with a differential diagnosis including spindle cell/desmoplastic melanoma and a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • While there are immunohistochemical stains that may be used to support a diagnosis of either melanoma or carcinoma, the diagnosis of AFX tends to be one of exclusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neprilysin / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17448198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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49. Hügel H: [Fibrohistiocytic skin tumors]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2006 Jul;4(7):544-55
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  • [Title] [Fibrohistiocytic skin tumors].
  • The fibrohistiocytic tumors of the skin are a heterogeneous group of dermal/subcutaneous mesenchymal neoplasms which show fibroblastic, myofibroblastic and histiocytic (macrophage-like) differentiation, often one beside the other in the same tumor.
  • "Fibrohistiocytic" means in this context the morphologic similarity of the cells with fibroblasts and histiocytes.
  • The WHO classification of 2005 includes the following entities as fibrohistiocytic tumors of the skin: BENIGN: 1.
  • Fibrous histiocytoma (FH)/(synonymous: Dermatofibroma.
  • Variants of FH: 1a. cellular fibrous histiocytoma, 1b. atypical (pseudosarcomatous) fibrous histiocytoma, 1c. aneurysmatic fibrous histiocytoma, 1d. epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma; 2. dermatomyofibroma; 3. (juvenile) xanthogranuloma.
  • INTERMEDIATE: 4. plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor; 5. dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans; 6. atypical Fibroxanthoma.
  • MALIGNANT: 7. malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / classification. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Leiomyoma / classification. Leiomyoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant / classification. Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16827912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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50. Sahn RE, Lang PG: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancers. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Jul;33(7):786-92; discussion 792-3
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Although the utility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the staging of melanoma is well established, its usefulness in high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is yet to be determined.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to report our experience with patients who underwent SLNB for the staging of a high-risk NMSC.
  • RESULTS: Of 13 patients, 9 had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2 had sebaceous gland carcinoma, 1 had porocarcinoma, and 1 had atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Compared to melanoma, SCC of the skin are much less predictable as regards their tendency to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17598843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Jain M, Singh S, Agarwal K: Spindle cell neoplasm of skin: diagnostic dilemma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):814-6
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  • [Title] Spindle cell neoplasm of skin: diagnostic dilemma.
  • Poorly differentiated, spindle cell malignancies, on sun damaged skin frequently pose a diagnostic challenge for pathologists.
  • The vast majority of these neoplasms ultimately are diagnosed as either atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), spindle cell melanoma (SCM), and very rarely as spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC), leiomyosarcoma or angiosarcoma.
  • Light microscopic clues may suggest one of these neoplasms, but subtle and overlapping characteristics often render precise diagnosis impossible based on morphological features alone.
  • Immunohistochemistry therefore is necessary to firmly and accurately diagnose the majority of spindle cell malignancies on sun damaged skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Melanoma / pathology. S100 Proteins / analysis. Vimentin / analysis. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18306566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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52. Anderson HL, Joseph AK: A pilot feasibility study of a rare skin tumor database. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Jun;33(6):693-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pilot feasibility study of a rare skin tumor database.
  • BACKGROUND: In the United States melanoma is the only individually reported skin cancer.
  • There are no large state or national registries for nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose was to demonstrate that Mohs surgeons can share data to create a rare skin tumor database.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the surgery logs of five Mohs surgery practices in the Houston, Texas, area for rare-nonmelanoma, nonepithelial-skin cancers.
  • A total of 42,279 biopsy-proven cancers of the skin treated with Mohs micrographic surgery were reviewed.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma was the rare tumor most often treated.
  • This should provide the impetus for a nationwide rare skin tumor database.
  • [MeSH-major] Databases, Factual. Mohs Surgery / statistics & numerical data. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17550446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Offman S, Pasternak S, Walsh N: Keloidal and other collagen patterns in atypical fibroxanthomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):326-32
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  • [Title] Keloidal and other collagen patterns in atypical fibroxanthomas.
  • Collagen deposition is observed in several cutaneous neoplasms and its derivation is variable.
  • It can represent (1) a mesenchymal component of a biphasic tumor, (2) a desmoplastic host response to a neoplasm, or (3) a product of the tumor cells.
  • The result is that collagenous (desmoplastic) variants of many cutaneous neoplasms are well recognized.
  • In regard to atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), conventional wisdom holds that intratumoral collagen is not commonly observed, apart from the rare sclerotic subtype of the neoplasm.
  • (1) Is the collagen part of a host response to the neoplasm or is it a product of the tumor cells?
  • The goal is to facilitate accuracy in diagnosis and to promote further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Keloid / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20514669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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54. Ries S, Barr R, LeBoit P, McCalmont T, Waldman J: Cutaneous sarcomatoid B-cell lymphoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Feb;29(1):96-8
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  • [Title] Cutaneous sarcomatoid B-cell lymphoma.
  • A rare case of a spindle cell (sarcomatoid) B-cell lymphoma is described.
  • Although there have been a few recent reports of cutaneous sarcomatoid lymphomas, this case is especially unusual because it presented as a scarlike plaque rather than a tumor and microscopically exhibited a prominent myxoid matrix.
  • Given these features, the lesion was initially interpreted as an atypical fibromucinosis.
  • The differential diagnosis included fibromucinous lesion consistent with variant of lichen myxedematosus, spindle cell carcinoma, spindle cell melanoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and atypical smooth muscle tumors.
  • Subsequently, strong positive staining for LCA(CD45RB) and CD20 was demonstrated characteristic of a B-cell lymphoma.
  • Although all variants of cutaneous sarcomatoid B-cell lymphomas are rare, it is imperative to consider them in the differential diagnosis of otherwise difficult to categorize spindle cell proliferations.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD20 / metabolism. Antigens, CD45 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Scalp Dermatoses / diagnosis. Scalp Dermatoses / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17284972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD20; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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55. Dettrick A, Strutton G: Atypical fibroxanthoma with perineural or intraneural invasion: report of two cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Apr;33(4):318-22

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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma with perineural or intraneural invasion: report of two cases.
  • We report two cases of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) that both had the previously unreported feature of neural invasion (one perineural and the other intraneural).
  • Some authors would regard such cases as malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) because of such deep extension; however, the concept of AFX as a superficial variant of MFH is outmoded--AFX is a distinct clinicopathologic entity with established clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Neurons / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16630185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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56. Paramanathan N, Gal A, Benger R: Paraffin histology sections and delayed repair in recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid. Orbit; 2009;28(6):380-2
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  • [Title] Paraffin histology sections and delayed repair in recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid.
  • We present a report of a recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), a tumour known rarely to involve the eyelid.
  • A 61 year-old male was referred after reappearance of a lower eyelid AFX within two months of resection.

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  • (PMID = 19929664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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57. Tronnier M, Vogelbruch M: Atypical fibroxanthoma arising in an area of syringocystadenoma papilliferum associated with nevus sebaceus: positivity of the atypical fibroxanthoma component for CD31. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Dec;34 Suppl 1:58-63
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma arising in an area of syringocystadenoma papilliferum associated with nevus sebaceus: positivity of the atypical fibroxanthoma component for CD31.
  • The occurrence of an atypical fibroxanthoma in association with a syringocystadenoma papilliferum is reported.

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  • (PMID = 17997741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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58. Mochizuki K, Yamada T, Mori Y, Sawada A, Mori I, Ohnishi Y: Case of atypical fibroxanthoma in the palpebral conjunctiva. Jpn J Ophthalmol; 2008 Sep-Oct;52(5):404-6

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  • [Title] Case of atypical fibroxanthoma in the palpebral conjunctiva.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of atypical fibroxanthoma that developed in the palpebral conjunctiva.
  • From these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as an atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An atypical fibroxanthoma in the palpebral conjunctiva is very rare.
  • The clinical presentation and histological and immunohistochemical studies are helpful in distinguishing between an atypical fibroxanthoma and a malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Conjunctival Diseases. Cryosurgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Xanthomatosis

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  • (PMID = 18991043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5155
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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59. Youker SR, Billingsley EM: Combined Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Med Surg; 2005 Jan;9(1):6-9
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  • [Title] Combined Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Although there are reports of squamous cell carcinoma arising within and adjacent to Merkel cell carcinoma, and one report of an atypical fibroxanthoma-like tumor arising in an irradiated recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma, there have previously been no reports of an immunohistochemically verified atypical fibroxanthoma occurring in conjunction with a Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report on a neoplasm with distinct features of both Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • RESULTS: Our results verify the finding of a combined Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / diagnosis. Lip Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16208439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Ferri E, Iaderosa GA, Armato E: Atypical fibroxanthoma of the external ear in a cardiac transplant recipient: case report and the causal role of the immunosuppressive therapy. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Jun;35(2):260-3
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma of the external ear in a cardiac transplant recipient: case report and the causal role of the immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AF) is an unusual cutaneous fibrohistiocytic tumour that is most commonly found in ENT sun-exposed areas of elderly males.
  • Cardiac transplant patients have an increased incidence of multiple cutaneous neoplasms, but the AF is uncommon.
  • Although this neoplasm is benign, it may mimic spindle cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma on histologic examination.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for cytokeratin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, S100 protein and vimentin may be helpful in differential diagnosis.
  • We present a case of a cardiac transplant recipient who developed, after multiple cutaneous squamous tumours, an AF of external ear following the prolonged immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporin.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear, External. Heart Transplantation. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cyclosporins. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Male. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 17804184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclosporins; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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61. Lee JC, Christensen T, O'Hara CJ: Metastatic interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma masquerading as a skin primary tumor: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Feb;31(1):88-93
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  • [Title] Metastatic interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma masquerading as a skin primary tumor: a case report and review of the literature.
  • We report an unusual case of a lymph node interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS), metastatic to skin, in a 73-year-old patient.
  • The patient initially presented as having a primary skin tumor with lymph node metastasis.
  • The metastatic IDCS was initially read as an atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the shave biopsy, confirming that the skin tumor was a metastasis.
  • In the workup of a spindle cell neoplasm, IDCS should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cell Sarcoma, Interdigitating / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Humans. Hyperlipidemias / complications. Hypertension / complications. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19155734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Thosani MK, Marghoob A, Chen CS: Current progress of immunostains in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Dec;34(12):1621-36
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  • Mohs micrographic surgery is often considered the treatment of choice for a variety of skin malignancies.
  • In recent years, the application of immunostaining techniques has facilitated the successful removal of a number of common and less common cutaneous malignancies, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, extramammary Paget's disease, and even sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 19018832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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63. Hanly AJ, Jordà M, Elgart GW, Badiavas E, Nassiri M, Nadji M: High proliferative activity excludes dermatofibroma: report of the utility of MIB-1 in the differential diagnosis of selected fibrohistiocytic tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jun;130(6):831-4
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  • [Title] High proliferative activity excludes dermatofibroma: report of the utility of MIB-1 in the differential diagnosis of selected fibrohistiocytic tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Dermatofibroma is a benign fibrohistiocytic tumor composed of a mixture of fibroblastic and histiocytic cells.
  • The diagnosis of this tumor is generally uncomplicated; however, rare variants may be difficult to distinguish from malignant fibrohistiocytic tumors.
  • Deep penetrating dermatofibroma may be difficult to distinguish from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and pseudosarcomatous dermatofibroma and dermatofibroma with monster giant cells share morphologic similarities with malignant fibrous histiocytoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To find an immunohistochemical marker or markers that differentiate between fibrohistiocytic lesions of skin.
  • DESIGN: We evaluated the immunophenotypic characteristics of 83 fibrohistiocytic tumors (36 typical dermatofibromas, 16 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 16 malignant fibrous histiocytomas, and 15 atypical fibroxanthomas) using antibodies against MIB-1 (Ki-67), factor XIIIa, CD34 (HPCA-1), HHF35 (muscle-specific actin), 1A4 (smooth muscle actin), cytokeratin (AE1/AE3, CAM 5.2, and 34betaE12), S100 protein, and desmin.
  • RESULTS: A high proliferative index detected by MIB-1 staining excluded the possibility of dermatofibroma and was diagnostically useful in separating this entity from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Factor XIIIa reactivity was not helpful for the diagnosis of dermatofibroma, whereas CD34 reactivity was statistically significant in the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
  • CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the proliferative index may further assist in distinguishing dermatofibroma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, atypical fibroxanthoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Feb;132(2):160; author reply 160-1 [18251566.001]
  • (PMID = 16740036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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64. Kantrow SM, Boyd AS: Primary cutaneous metaplastic carcinoma: report of a case involving angiosarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Jun;29(3):270-3
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous metaplastic carcinoma: report of a case involving angiosarcoma.
  • Primary cutaneous metaplastic carcinoma is an uncommon cutaneous malignancy comprising a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal components.
  • The former is most frequently a squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma, and the latter is most typically a pleomorphic sarcoma or atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • We describe the first primary cutaneous metaplastic carcinoma with angiosarcoma as the mesenchymal component arising on the scalp of a 90-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17519625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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65. Kim J, McNiff JM: Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma: a case series. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):535-9
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  • [Title] Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma: a case series.
  • BACKGROUND: Keloidal atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare variant of AFX with thick bands of hyalinized collagen.
  • The identification of keloidal collagen associated with fibrohistiocytic cells may erroneously lead to the diagnosis of keloidal dermatofibroma.
  • Although AFX is a pleomorphic cutaneous tumor typically associated with a good prognosis, occasional reports of metastatic AFX highlight the importance of accurate identification.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of keloidal AFX requires the exclusion of other malignant and benign lesions with keloidal or sclerotic collagen.
  • Awareness of the rare variant of keloidal AFX may avoid a diagnostic pitfall leading to an erroneous diagnosis, particularly in small biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Keloid / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19476521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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66. Tran TA, Muller S, Chaudahri PJ, Carlson JA: Cutaneous carcinosarcoma: adnexal vs. epidermal types define high- and low-risk tumors. Results of a meta-analysis. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):2-11
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  • [Title] Cutaneous carcinosarcoma: adnexal vs. epidermal types define high- and low-risk tumors. Results of a meta-analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report four cases of cutaneous carcinosarcoma (CS) and perform a meta-analysis of the cutaneous CS literature.
  • RESULTS: CS occurred in elderly patients (mean of 80 years) on sun-damaged skin, and were keratotic papules of short duration.
  • CS exhibited basal cell carcinoma mixed with atypical fibroxanthoma cell populations.
  • Literature review identified 38 cases of cutaneous CS that could be broadly classified into two distinct groups.
  • Epidermal-derived (basal or squamous cell carcinoma epithelial component) CS arose on the sun-damaged skin of the head and neck of elderly males (mean age 72 years) and had a 70% 5-year disease-free survival.
  • Age less than 65 years, recent growth, long-standing skin tumor, and tumor size greater than 2 cm significantly correlated with poor outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous CS is an aggressive skin cancer with high risk for advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. PubMed. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15660649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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67. Hartel PH, Jackson J, Ducatman BS, Zhang P: CD99 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a useful diagnostic marker. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33 Suppl 2:24-8
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  • [Title] CD99 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a useful diagnostic marker.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), a benign lesion, and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) are thought to represent points along the same neoplastic spectrum but with different prognoses and treatments.
  • Diagnosis based on histology and clinical parameters alone is sometimes difficult, and a reliable cost-effective immunohistochemical marker to help distinguish these lesions would be beneficial.
  • The diagnosis of AFX or MFH was based upon published clinical and microscopic criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Fibroma / metabolism. Fibroma / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Xanthomatosis / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16972949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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68. Luzar B, Calonje E: Cutaneous fibrohistiocytic tumours - an update. Histopathology; 2010 Jan;56(1):148-65
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  • [Title] Cutaneous fibrohistiocytic tumours - an update.
  • The term 'fibrohistiocytic' tumour is a descriptive designation without histogenetic connotation for a group of heterogeneous lesions that share morphological features of histiocytes and fibroblasts on light microscopy.
  • However, over the years it has become apparent that many so-called 'fibrohistiocytic' tumours are largely composed of relatively undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, but can also show areas of myofibroblastic differentiation.
  • This review focuses on the clinical and histological features as well as differential diagnosis of so-called fibrohistiocytic tumours.
  • Special emphasis is given to more recently described histological variants of fibrous histiocytoma, e.g. cellular, epithelioid, aneurysmal and atypical fibrous histiocytoma, to angiomatous and plexiform fibrous histocytoma (plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumour), lesions that are not true variants of fibrous histiocytomas but have erroneously been designated such, and to atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • The literature on metastasizing fibrous histiocytoma is also reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20055912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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69. Leinweber B, Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Kaddu S, McCalmont TH: Procollagen 1 and Melan-A expression in desmoplastic melanomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):173-6
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  • The histopathologic diagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is usually based on typical conventional microscopic findings coupled with expression of S100 protein by neoplastic cells.
  • Important differential diagnostic considerations include atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and spindle cell squamous carcinoma.
  • Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by positivity for cytokeratin, whereas the diagnosis of AFX has been one of exclusion.
  • Melan-A offers little for the diagnosis of DM, as less than a quarter of lesions exhibit a strong reaction with this antibody.
  • It is critical to employ a broad panel of antibodies, including S100 protein, Melan-A, cytokeratin, PC1, and others, in the immunohistochemical evaluation of spindle cell neoplasms of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Procollagen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19318805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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70. Sachdev R, Sundram UN: Frequent positive staining with NKI/C3 in normal and neoplastic tissues limits its usefulness in the diagnosis of cellular neurothekeoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Oct;126(4):554-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequent positive staining with NKI/C3 in normal and neoplastic tissues limits its usefulness in the diagnosis of cellular neurothekeoma.
  • Recently, it resurfaced as a marker to separate cellular neurothekeoma from other dermal tumors in the differential diagnosis.
  • NKI/C3 is also positive in many dermal tumors of possible histiocytic origin, including juvenile xanthogranuloma (6/10), atypical fibroxanthoma (4/12), cellular fibrous histiocytoma (5/10), reticulohistiocytoma (3/6), and xanthoma (8/10).
  • Given the wide spectrum of positive staining in morphologic mimics of cellular neurothekeomas, pathologists should be cautious when making this diagnosis based solely on positive staining with NKI/C3.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Neurothekeoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16938667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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71. Troxel DB: Medicolegal aspects of error in pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 May;130(5):617-9
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  • Sixty-three percent of claims involved failure to diagnose cancer, resulting in delay in diagnosis or inappropriate treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: A false-negative diagnosis of melanoma was the single most common reason for filing a malpractice claim against a pathologist.
  • Nearly one third involved melanoma misdiagnosed as Spitz nevus, "dysplastic" nevus, spindle cell squamous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and dermatofibroma.

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  • (PMID = 16683874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Troxel DB: An insurer's perspective on error and loss in pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Oct;129(10):1234-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sixty-three percent of claims involved failure to diagnose cancer, resulting in delay in diagnosis or inappropriate treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: A false-negative diagnosis of melanoma is the single most common reason for filing a malpractice claim against a pathologist.
  • Nearly one third of misdiagnoses involve melanoma misdiagnosed as Spitz nevus, "dysplastic" nevus, spindle cell squamous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and dermatofibroma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16196510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Yang A, Hanley A, Velazquez EF, Cassarino DS: Primary cutaneous myxoid spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37(4):465-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous myxoid spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study and review of the literature.
  • Here, we report six cases of primary cutaneous and mucocutaneous SCC with prominent extracellular stromal mucin deposition and an epithelial spindle cell component.
  • We also propose a set of histologic and immunohistochemical findings for distinguishing MSC SCC from primary cutaneous and metastatic spindle cell neoplasms including other sarcomatoid carcinomas, myxoid sarcomas and the spindle cell variant of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).
  • Given the small numbers of cases reported to date, the presence of prominent myxoid stroma in primary cutaneous spindle cell SCC has unknown prognostic significance at this time.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19811587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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74. Bose AC, Kate V, Ananthakrishnan N, Srinivasan S: Primary cutaneous malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a case report. Med Sci Monit; 2006 Jul;12(7):CS61-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is one of the commonest soft tissue sarcomas to occur in the extremities, but presentation as a primary cutaneous lesion is rare.
  • MFH can present as a cutaneous lesion in the form of a primary tumor or as metastasis from MFH at other sites, such as primary MFH of the breast; however, both presentations are very rare.
  • CASE REPORT: We report here a 55-year-old male patient with cutaneous MFH on the right thigh region.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although MFH is one of the commonest soft tissue sarcomas, cutaneous presentation is very rare.
  • MFH variants such as atypical fibrous histiocytoma or atypical fibroxanthoma can occur sometimes as cutaneous MFH.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16810139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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75. Hall JM, Saenger JS, Fadare O: Diagnostic utility of P63 and CD10 in distinguishing cutaneous spindle cell/sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinomas and atypical fibroxanthomas. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(6):524-30

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of P63 and CD10 in distinguishing cutaneous spindle cell/sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinomas and atypical fibroxanthomas.
  • The pathologic distinction of atypical fibroxanthomas (AFXs) from cutaneous spindle cell/sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinomas (SCSCCs) may occasionally pose a significant diagnostic challenge, given the substantial clinicopathologic overlap between these lesions.
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the utility of CD10 and p63 in distinguishing cutaneous SCSCCs and AFXs.
  • The usefulness of CD10 in this differential diagnosis is limited.

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  • [Cites] J Clin Pathol. 2007 Jun;60(6):716-7 [17483246.001]
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  • (PMID = 18787630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480581
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical fibroxanthoma / CD10 / p63 / sarcomatoid/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma / skin
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76. Pouryazdanparast P, Yu L, Cutlan JE, Olsen SH, Fullen DR, Ma L: Diagnostic value of CD163 in cutaneous spindle cell lesions. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Aug;36(8):859-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic value of CD163 in cutaneous spindle cell lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: The histologic diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) can sometimes be challenging.
  • No specific marker exists to confirm the diagnosis other than excluding other entities.
  • In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of CD163 in diagnosing AFX and in identifying skin lesions with histiocytic/dendritic derivation.
  • METHODS: A total of 157 cases, including 14 AFXs, 5 spindle cell squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and 7 spindle cell/desmoplastic melanomas, along with other cutaneous spindle cell and histiocytic/fibrohistiocytic lesions, were stained with CD163.
  • Rare spindle cell/desmoplastic melanomas (2/7) and cutaneous leiomyosarcomas (1/5) demonstrated positive staining.
  • CD163 reactivity was seen in 24 of 29 of benign fibrous histiocytomas (BFHs), including 8 of 8 cellular fibrous histiocytomas and 6 of 9 epithelioid cell histiocytomas.
  • The majority of cutaneous histiocytic lesions, including juvenile xanthogranuloma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Rosai-Dorfman disease, were positive for CD163.
  • CONCLUSION: CD163 is a useful adjunct in distinguishing AFX from other malignant cutaneous spindle cell tumors and offers improved specificity in identifying cutaneous histiocytic/dendritic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Fibrosarcoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2010 Oct;37(10):1119-20 [20602661.001]
  • (PMID = 19040468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD163 antigen; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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77. Fernandez-Flores A: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of different grades: variation of the expression of CD10. Cesk Patol; 2008 Oct;44(4):100-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of different grades: variation of the expression of CD10.
  • Although it has been claimed that invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) does not express CD10, very few examples have been investigated regarding this matter.
  • 2) lack of cytoplasmic expression of CD10 by cutaneous SCC can be considered as an additional prognosis factor to investigate in the future;.
  • 3) our results seem contradictory to the current view that has defended atypical fibroxanthoma as an anaplastic type of SCC, since the former expresses CD10 in virtually 100 % of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neprilysin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19069747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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78. Dotto JE, Glusac EJ: p63 is a useful marker for cutaneous spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jun;33(6):413-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p63 is a useful marker for cutaneous spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC) is a rare variant of SCC.
  • This lesion is sometimes difficult to diagnose based purely on morphologic features. p63 is a member of the p53 gene family that can be identified in epithelial malignancies.
  • Control cases included desmoplastic melanoma (eight cases), atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) (10 cases), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (eight cases), and cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (LMS) (four cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the given differential diagnosis, p63 appears relatively specific to SCSCC and adds a useful nuclear marker to the available repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / immunology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / metabolism. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / metabolism. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Xanthomatosis / diagnosis. Xanthomatosis / metabolism


79. Morgan MB, Purohit C, Anglin TR: Immunohistochemical distinction of cutaneous spindle cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Jun;30(3):228-32
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical distinction of cutaneous spindle cell carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous spindle cell squamous carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma in which keratinocytes infiltrate the dermis as single cells with elongated nuclei rather than as cohesive nests or islands, and signs of keratinization of conventional squamous cell carcinoma are insubstantial or nonexistent.
  • Spindle cell carcinoma must be distinguished from spindle cell/desmoplastic melanoma, cutaneous leiomyosarcoma, atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), and scar.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cicatrix / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratinocytes / chemistry. Keratinocytes / pathology. Keratins / analysis. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18496422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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80. Melendez MM, Xu X, McClain SA, Huang SI: Atypical fibroxanthoma in a young woman: An unusual case presentation. Can J Plast Surg; 2007;15(3):169-72

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma in a young woman: An unusual case presentation.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon neoplasm, identified as a spindle cell tumour that is generally found in elderly patients on sun-exposed areas.
  • The present case report highlights the importance of correct diagnosis for AFX with adequate excision and by considering the histopathology and immunohisto-chemistry of its clinical differential diagnosis.

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 2006 Apr;33(4):318-22 [16630185.001]
  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 2006 May;33(5):343-8 [16640540.001]
  • [Cites] Skinmed. 2006 Mar-Apr;5(2):83-6 [16603840.001]
  • [Cites] Semin Cutan Med Surg. 1999 Mar;18(1):78-83 [10188846.001]
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  • (PMID = 19554152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-2199
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of plastic surgery = Journal canadien de chirurgie plastique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687503
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical fibroxanthoma / Histopathology / Immunohistochemistry / Mohs micrographic surgery
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81. Akbulut M, Zekioglu O, Ozdemir N, Kapkac M: Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammary carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous features: a report of 2 cases. Acta Cytol; 2008 Jan-Feb;52(1):99-104
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Neoplasms of the breast containing multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) include both benign and malignant entities, such as benign soft tissue giant cell tumors, atypical fibrous histiocytoma, sarcomas, metaplastic carcinomas and the uncommon carcinomas containing osteoclast-like giant cells (OGC).
  • Although rare, FNAC of breast cancer with pleomorphic MGC requires careful search for differential diagnosis; breast carcinoma with giant cell features (choriocarcinomatous features, OGC features) must be differentiated from metastatic tumors and other breast lesions containing giant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18323284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Khong JJ, Chen CS, James CL, Huilgol SC, O'Donnell BA, Sullivan TJ, Selva D: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid: differential diagnosis and management. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 Mar;21(2):103-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid: differential diagnosis and management.
  • PURPOSE: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma that occurs rarely in the periocular region.
  • The purpose of this study was to present a case series of periocular MFH and to discuss the differential diagnosis and management.
  • The initial diagnoses were sarcomatoid carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and leiomyosarcoma that were subsequently reclassified as MFH.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the difficulties in the clinicopathologic diagnosis of periocular MFH and in particular the distinction of more superficial tumors from atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15778662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Coindre JM: Grading of soft tissue sarcomas: review and update. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1448-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histologic typing should be clearly defined before any attempt at grading, and grading should not be used on tumors of intermediate malignancy such as atypical fibroxanthoma and on some sarcomas such as dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 17090186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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84. Eyden B: The myofibroblast: a study of normal, reactive and neoplastic tissues, with an emphasis on ultrastructure. part 2 - tumours and tumour-like lesions. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol; 2005 Nov;37(3-4):231-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ultrastructural features are described of nodular fasciitis, the myofibromatoses (including Dupuytren's disease), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour, post-operative spindle cell nodule, fibroma of tendon sheath, fibrous pseudotumour, benign fibrous histiocytoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, myofibrosarcoma (myofibroblastic sarcoma), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (pleomorphic myofibrosarcoma), epithelioid sarcoma and spindle-cell carcinoma.
  • The fibronexus is emphasised as an important marker for the most confident diagnosis of myofibrosarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 16612972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-9497
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of submicroscopic cytology and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Submicrosc. Cytol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 344
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85. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Richards S, Paver R, Selva D: Scalp tumors treated with Mohs micrographic surgery: clinical features and surgical outcome. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Nov;32(11):1369-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: This prospective, multicenter study included all patients with scalp tumors who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia.
  • The most common tumors were basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 57.9%; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 35.8%; Bowen's disease (BD), 4.1%; and atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), 1.6%.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery


86. Richmond HM, Duvic M, Macfarlane DF: Primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the scalp: an update. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2010;11(4):233-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the scalp: an update.
  • In recent years there have been a number of interesting advances in several topics relating to the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous lesions with particular applicability to primary and metastatic malignancies of the scalp.
  • In this article we provide a general update of advances in this field, and cover the more salient points relating to a variety of malignant tumors that have been reported to appear on the scalp as primary or metastatic lesions.
  • A search and review of the literature on PubMed was made to identify and discuss relevant points relating to diagnosis and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the scalp.
  • We describe the anatomy of the scalp, epidemiology of scalp tumors, theories of field cancerization and field therapy, photodynamic therapy, excisional surgical techniques and reconstruction, lymphoscintigraphy, chemoprevention, as well as details relating to atypical fibroxanthoma, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, nevus sebaceus, cutaneous lymphoma, and metastatic disease.
  • There is a very broad differential diagnosis for scalp nodules, which includes many different benign and malignant diseases, and treatment should be tailored accordingly.
  • Given the potential for poor prognosis with some of the more aggressive malignancies that can be found in this anatomic area, the importance of a thorough physical examination cannot be emphasized enough, and early detection is critical to provide patients with the best chance for a favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoprevention / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20509718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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87. Khong JJ, Muecke J: Complications of mitomycin C therapy in 100 eyes with ocular surface neoplasia. Br J Ophthalmol; 2006 Jul;90(7):819-22
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  • RESULTS: One to three 7 day cycles of topical MMC 0.04% four times a day were given to 59 eyes with localised corneal-conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 19 eyes with diffuse CIN, six eyes with recurrent CIN, one eye with ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma, three eyes with primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia, nine eyes with conjunctival malignant melanoma (MM), two eyes with sebaceous carcinoma with pagetoid spread, and one eye with recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • 31 (34%) cases developed an allergic reaction to MMC and 14 (14%) eyes had epiphora secondary to punctal stenosis at a mean follow up period of 26.5 months.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Corneal Diseases / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / drug therapy. Humans. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / chemically induced. Lacrimal Duct Obstruction / chemically induced. Male. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanosis / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Oct;114(10):1261-4 [8859090.001]
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  • [CommentIn] Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul;90(7):807-9 [16782942.001]
  • (PMID = 16672325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1857172
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88. Orrock JM, Abbott JJ, Gibson LE, Folpe AL: INI1 and GLUT-1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma and its cutaneous neoplastic and nonneoplastic mimics. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):152-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] INI1 and GLUT-1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma and its cutaneous neoplastic and nonneoplastic mimics.
  • The morphological features of epithelioid sarcoma may closely mimic those of epithelial neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma, mesenchymal tumors, such as benign fibrous histiocytoma, and nonneoplastic lesions, such as granuloma annulare.
  • Immunohistochemistry, particularly for epithelial markers and CD34, thus plays a valuable role in the differential diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma.
  • We examined the utility of immunohistochemistry for INI1 and GLUT-1 in the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma and various cutaneous mimics.
  • Twenty-four cases of epithelioid sarcoma, 13 cases of granuloma annulare, 10 cases of rheumatoid nodule, 19 cases of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, 7 cases of atypical fibroxanthoma, 9 cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma (dermatofibroma), and 3 cases of nodular fasciitis were immunostained for GLUT-1 and INI1 using commercially available antibodies, heat-induced epitope retrieval, and the Dako Envision detection system.
  • GLUT-1 was positive in 40%-50% of epithelioid sarcomas, all cases of granuloma annulare and rheumatoid nodules, 67% of benign fibrous histiocytomas, and in all squamous cell carcinomas.
  • In contrast, atypical fibroxanthomas and cases of nodular fasciitis were consistently GLUT-1 negative.
  • We conclude that immunohistochemistry for INI1 expression should be included as part of the routine immunohistochemical panel for the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma, along with established markers such as wide-spectrum cytokeratins, cytokeratin 5/6, p63, and CD34.
  • In this clinical context, loss of INI1 expression seems to be an entirely specific marker of epithelioid sarcoma and this finding may be of great value in distinguishing CD34-negative epithelioid sarcoma from squamous cell carcinoma and in the distinction of rare cytokeratin-negative epithelioid sarcomas from necrobiotic processes, nodular fasciitis, and benign fibrous histiocytomas.
  • In contrast, there does not seem to be a role for GLUT-1 immunohistochemistry in this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. Granuloma Annulare / metabolism. Sarcoma / metabolism. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Fasciitis / metabolism. Fasciitis / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Humans. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Rheumatoid Nodule / metabolism. Rheumatoid Nodule / pathology. Xanthomatosis / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19318800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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89. Plaza JA, Torres-Cabala C, Evans H, Diwan HA, Suster S, Prieto VG: Cutaneous metastases of malignant melanoma: a clinicopathologic study of 192 cases with emphasis on the morphologic spectrum. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Apr;32(2):129-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous metastases of malignant melanoma: a clinicopathologic study of 192 cases with emphasis on the morphologic spectrum.
  • Metastatic melanoma represents one of the most common types of cutaneous metastases.
  • For the most part, the histologic diagnosis of metastatic melanoma poses little diagnostic difficulty; however, some metastases may adopt unusual or unfamiliar appearances mimicking other benign and malignant conditions.
  • We present a study of 192 cases of cutaneous metastatic melanomas with special emphasis on their spectrum of morphologic features.
  • One hundred ten cases showed the classic morphologic appearance of melanoma (well-circumscribed epithelioid dermal/subcutaneous nodule), 82 cases showed unusual histologic appearances that mimicked other benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • In 16 patients (8.3%), there was no evidence of primary melanoma and the cutaneous metastasis was the only manifestation of the disease.
  • The histologic diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic melanoma can pose difficulties for diagnosis, especially in the face of an unknown primary neoplasm.
  • Unusual features observed in this series included examples of cutaneous metastatic melanoma that closely simulated metastatic carcinoma, dermatofibroma, leiomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, nevoid melanoma, halo nevus, blue nevi, and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Immunohistochemical stains plus careful clinical history helped to establish the correct diagnosis.
  • Our series illustrates that the differential diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic melanoma can be broad and difficult.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest series of cutaneous metastatic melanomas reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Desmin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20010406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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90. Kohlhof JK, Müller-Richter U, Driemel O, Sachs H: [Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the periorbital region]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2007 Mar;224(3):203-6
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  • [Title] [Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the periorbital region].
  • BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytomas (undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas) belong to the soft tissue tumours and are more likely in elder patients.
  • About 3 % percent of all pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytomas arise in the head and neck region.
  • PATIENT: A 91 year old female patient presented because of a prominent tumour in the upper right periorbital region.
  • A biopsy was classified as a malignant fibrous tumour with the subclassification of an atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Therefore the tumour classification was changed to pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma).
  • The defect was closed with a full skin graft on the basis of a galea periosteal flap.
  • CONCLUSION: The histopathological examination could not provide the correct diagnosis initially.
  • In the process of finding the right diagnosis sometimes a change from benign to malignant occurs and alters the treatment regime.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / radiography. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17385123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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91. Prajapati V, Barankin B: Dermacase. Atypical fibroxanthoma. Can Fam Physician; 2008 Apr;54(4):519, 535
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermacase. Atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18411378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-5258
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2294083
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92. Espino-Ardila C, Goldberg LH: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX). Dermatol Nurs; 2005 Jun;17(3):207
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).

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  • (PMID = 16035424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-3441
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Nurs
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Bansal C, Sinkre P, Stewart D, Cockerell CJ: Two cases of cytokeratin positivity in atypical fibroxanthoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jun;60(6):716-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Two cases of cytokeratin positivity in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Keratins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / metabolism. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17483246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955050
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94. Nakamura Y, Abe Y, Ichimiya M, Muto M: Atypical fibroxanthoma presenting immunoreactivity against CD10 and CD99. J Dermatol; 2010 Apr;37(4):387-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma presenting immunoreactivity against CD10 and CD99.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Cheek. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Neprilysin / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20507414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Vimentin; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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95. Sakamoto A, Oda Y, Tsuneyoshi M, Iwamoto Y: Expression of the UV-induced molecule, Gadd45, in atypical fibroxanthoma. Histopathology; 2007 Jun;50(7):939-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of the UV-induced molecule, Gadd45, in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Skin / radiation effects. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. DNA Damage. Head and Neck Neoplasms / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / metabolism. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 17543084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / GADD45A protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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96. Wilsher MJ: Collision tumour: atypical fibroxanthoma and invasive melanoma. Pathology; 2009;41(7):699-701
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Collision tumour: atypical fibroxanthoma and invasive melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Reoperation. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20001356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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97. Beer TW: CD117 in atypical fibroxanthoma: tumor or stroma? Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):401-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD117 in atypical fibroxanthoma: tumor or stroma?
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Stromal Cells / metabolism

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Feb;30(1):34-6 [18212542.001]
  • (PMID = 18645317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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98. Brown GE, Madray MM, Greene JF Jr, Fiala KH: Atypical fibroxanthoma in an African American woman. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Sep;146(9):1045-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma in an African American woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] African Americans. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mohs Surgery / methods. Nose. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20855713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Barr KL, Russo JJ, Vincek V: Re: CD117 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Feb;31(1):96-8
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  • [Title] Re: CD117 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Feb;30(1):34-6 [18212542.001]
  • (PMID = 19155737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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100. Berk DR, Lind AC, Tapia B, Kane AA, Bayliss SJ: Atypical fibroxanthoma in a child without xeroderma pigmentosum. Pediatr Dermatol; 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):450-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma in a child without xeroderma pigmentosum.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology






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