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13. Sobrino-Mota V, Lagarejos-Bernardo S, Varela-Mezquita B, Castro Y, Segura-González C, Pérez-Milán F: Unusual sonographic findings in a case of atypical medullary inflammatory carcinoma of the breast. J Clin Ultrasound; 2008 Mar-Apr;36(3):166-8
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  • [Title] Unusual sonographic findings in a case of atypical medullary inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.
  • We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who complained of a rapid enlargement of a pre-existing breast mass and yellowish nipple discharge.
  • The histopathologic examination revealed an atypical medullary carcinoma with high mitotic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Mastitis / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18241044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Arun B, Vogel KJ, Lopez A, Hernandez M, Atchley D, Broglio KR, Amos CI, Meric-Bernstam F, Kuerer H, Hortobagyi GN, Albarracin CT: High prevalence of preinvasive lesions adjacent to BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2009 Feb;2(2):122-7
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  • [Title] High prevalence of preinvasive lesions adjacent to BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers.
  • Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer by 43% to 84%.
  • It was originally postulated that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers develop more rapidly than sporadic cancers and may lack preinvasive lesions.
  • More recent studies have found preinvasive lesions in prophylactic mastectomy specimens from mutation carriers; however, there is little information on the presence of preinvasive lesions in tissue adjacent to breast cancers.
  • Our aim is to investigate the role of preinvasive lesions in BRCA-associated breast carcinogenesis.
  • We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of preinvasive lesions [ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ, and atypical lobular hyperplasia] in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers.
  • Pathology was reviewed for 73 BRCA1/2-associated tumors from patients with breast cancer.
  • We selected 146 patients with mutation-negative breast cancer as age-matched controls.
  • Among the BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers, 59% had at least one associated preinvasive lesion compared with 75% of controls.
  • The most common preinvasive lesion in both groups was DCIS; 56% of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and 71% of the sporadic breast cancers had adjacent intraductal disease, respectively.
  • Preinvasive lesions, most notably DCIS, are common in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers.
  • These findings suggest that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers progress through the same intermediate steps as sporadic breast cancers, and that DCIS should be considered as a part of the BRCA1/2 tumor spectrum.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA1 Protein / genetics. BRCA2 Protein / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009 Feb;2(2):100-3 [19174575.001]
  • (PMID = 19174581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / BRCA2 Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS660771; NLM/ PMC4520422
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15. Honrado E, Benítez J, Palacios J: Histopathology of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2006 Jul;59(1):27-39
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  • [Title] Histopathology of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer.
  • Hereditary breast carcinomas that are attributable to BRCA1/2 mutations have their own morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics.
  • BRCA1-associated carcinomas are poorly differentiated infiltrating ductal carcinomas that frequently show morphological features of typical or atypical medullary carcinoma.
  • BRCA2-associated breast carcinomas tend to be of higher grade than sporadic age-matched controls.
  • In addition, BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast carcinomas show a low frequency of HER2 expression.
  • Most BRCA1 breast carcinomas are characterized by the expression of basal (myoepithelial) markers, such as cytokeratin 5/6 and or P-cadherin.
  • These features could be used to distinguish patients who are likely to carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation, thus indicating which gene should be screened for first in families with a high incidence of breast and ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2


16. Lim KH, Telisinghe PU, Abdullah MS, Ramasamy R: Possible significance of differences in proportions of cytotoxic T cells and B-lineage cells in the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes of typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast. Cancer Immun; 2010;10:3
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  • [Title] Possible significance of differences in proportions of cytotoxic T cells and B-lineage cells in the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes of typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast.
  • Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the breast is a high grade carcinoma that has a relatively favourable prognosis compared to atypical medullary carcinoma (AMC) and other more common breast carcinomas.
  • In a retrospective study in Brunei Darussalam of all available biopsy samples, we compared the nature of the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in MC and AMC in relation to recorded tumour characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoma, Medullary / immunology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20092246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-9634
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2964018
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17. Sasaki Y, Tsuda H: Clinicopathological characteristics of triple-negative breast cancers. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(4):254-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological characteristics of triple-negative breast cancers.
  • Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a group of breast carcinomas that are negative for expression of hormone receptors and HER2.
  • DNA microarray analyses have proved that TNBCs are composed of the basal-like subtype and normal breast (or unclassified) subtype, the former being correlated with an aggressive clinical course.
  • Histological types of TNBCs are reported to be common with those of basal-like subtype, comprising high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, no special type [solid-tubular carcinoma (or atypical medullary carcinoma), invasive ductal carcinoma with a large central acellular zone], typical medullary carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis


18. Liu F, Cui L, Zhang Y, Chen L, Wang Y, Fan Y, Lei T, Gu F, Lang R, Pringle GA, Zhang X, Chen Z, Fu L: Expression of HAb18G is associated with tumor progression and prognosis of breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Dec;124(3):677-88
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  • [Title] Expression of HAb18G is associated with tumor progression and prognosis of breast carcinoma.
  • However, its role in the tumor progression of breast cancer has not been explored.
  • HAb18G expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in pathological sections of 1,637 breast tissue samples and by in situ hybridization in 41 cases of invasive breast carcinomas (BC).
  • While not detected in any cases of tumor-like conditions or benign tumors of breast, and only rarely in normal tissue (4.4%), HAb18G expression was gradually up-regulated from atypical ductal hyperplasia (27.3%), to ductal carcinoma-in situ (59.8%), and to BC (61.4%) (P < 0.01).
  • Significant differences of expression were also identified among the subgroups of BC examined: in decreasing order from invasive micropapillary carcinoma, ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, to mucinous adenocarcinoma (P = 0.001), corresponding to their known clinical aggressiveness.
  • Further evaluation of this new marker in breast cancer is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD147 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoma / immunology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20213083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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19. Batori M, Ruggieri M, Chatelou E, Straniero A, Mariotta G, Palombi L, Casella G, Basile M, Casella MC: Breast cancer in young women: case report and a review. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2006 Mar-Apr;10(2):51-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast cancer in young women: case report and a review.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in patients under 40 years is uncommon.
  • Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program reveals that 75% of breast tumors occur in women age > 50 years, only 6.5% in women age < 40 years, and a mere 0.6% in women age < 30 years.
  • Breast-conserving surgery with subsequent chemo-radiotherapy has become the treatment of choice in women with breast neoplasm.
  • CASE REPORT: Two young patients, 30 and 28 years respectively, with breast cancer.
  • One patient with an atypical medullary breast carcinoma diagnosis, pT2 pN1 bipMx, Grade 3 Stage IIB, negative for receptors, Ki 67: 47%, cERB-2 negative; the other with an intraductal breast carcinoma, pT1c pN0 pMx, Grade 2 Stage I, negative for receptors, Ki 67: 85%, cERB-2 negative, p53 negative, Bcl-2 negative.
  • After 2 years an ecotomography revealed small hypoechogenic nodules in the left breast.
  • The histological exam revealed a not much differentiated intraductal carcinoma, pT1a N0 Mx, Stage I.
  • DISCUSSION: Breast cancer in women under 40 years of age differ from breast cancer in older women in numerous clinical, pathological and biological features.
  • The studies demonstrate that breast cancer arising in women under 40 years have a more aggressive profile than those of older patients.
  • In both our patients family history of breast cancer was reported.
  • Breast conservative surgery with chemio-radiotherapy is the most commonly used treatment breast cancer, expecially in consideration of the aggressiveness of the lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Radical


20. Rakha EA, Aleskandarany M, El-Sayed ME, Blamey RW, Elston CW, Ellis IO, Lee AH: The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Jul;45(10):1780-7
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  • [Title] The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast.
  • The new gene expression molecular taxonomy of breast cancer places medullary carcinoma in the basal group.
  • The basal group is considered to have a poor prognosis, but medullary carcinoma is considered to have a better prognosis than other grade 3 carcinomas.
  • The prognostic significance of tumour associated inflammation, an important feature of medullary carcinomas, remains controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic importance of medullary histological type and inflammation in breast cancer.
  • Typical and atypical medullary carcinomas (n=132) did not have significantly different survival and were grouped together.
  • Medullary carcinoma did not have significantly different prognosis than grade 3 ductal carcinoma with prominent inflammation, but both had a better prognosis than grade 3 ductal carcinoma without prominent inflammation (P<0.0001 and P=0.03).
  • These results question the current separation of typical and atypical medullary carcinoma.
  • Prominent inflammation is associated with a better prognosis, and may explain the better prognosis in medullary carcinoma compared with grade 3 ductal carcinoma without prominent inflammation.
  • The good prognosis of medullary carcinoma emphasises the heterogeneity of basal-like breast carcinomas.
  • Further studies are needed to investigate the difference in survival between medullary carcinoma and other forms of basal carcinomas and the role of inflammation in any such differences in behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / complications. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Inflammation / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19286369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Elston CW: Classification and grading of invasive breast carcinoma. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2005;89:35-44
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  • [Title] Classification and grading of invasive breast carcinoma.
  • The main reasons for applying a classification system to invasive breast carcinoma are to obtain a correlation with prognosis and tumour biology.
  • A wide range of histological patterns is recognised in invasive carcinoma of the breast and four broad prognostic groups are recognised: the excellent prognosis group comprises tubular, cribriform, mucinous carcinomas; the good group tubular mixed, mixed ductal NST/special type and classical lobular carcinoma; the average group mixed lobular, medullary and atypical medullary carcinoma and the poor group is composed of ductal NST, mixed ductal and solid lobular carcinoma understanding of the biology of breast cancer.
  • For example, tumours with a medullary phenotype which express basal cytokeratins and are p53 positive and ER and c-erbB-2 negative are strongly predictive of the BRCA-1 gene-mutation carrier state.
  • Histological grading refers to the semi-quantitative evaluation of the morphological structure of breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18035670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein
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22. Akbulut M, Zekioglu O, Kapkac M, Ozdemir N: Fine needle aspiration cytologic features of medullary carcinoma of the breast: a study of 20 cases with histologic correlation. Acta Cytol; 2009 Mar-Apr;53(2):165-73
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytologic features of medullary carcinoma of the breast: a study of 20 cases with histologic correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material from 20 cases of histologically verified medullary carcinoma (MC) of the breast and correlate the cytomorphologic features with histologic appearance to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of FNAC.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the cytologic features of 20 cases of MC of the breast in the archives of Ege University Hospital between 1994 and 2006.
  • RESULTS: Twenty patients with an aspirate and confirmed diagnosis of MC were identified.
  • The initial cytologic diagnoses were positive for cancer in 17 cases, atypical/suspicious for cancer in 2 cases and negative for cancer in 1 case.
  • The cytologic picture was characterized by cellular smears composed of highly atypical epithelial tumor cells in loosely cohesive sheets and lying singly, admixed with polymorphous lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils.
  • Histologic examination confirmed that 11 cases were atypical MC and 9 were pure MC.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast MC is a rare, distinct category that appears to have rather characteristic cellular features.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19365969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Matkovic B, Juretic A, Separovic V, Novosel I, Separovic R, Gamulin M, Kruslin B: Immunohistochemical analysis of ER, PR, HER-2, CK 5/6, p63 and EGFR antigen expression in medullary breast cancer. Tumori; 2008 Nov-Dec;94(6):838-44
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of ER, PR, HER-2, CK 5/6, p63 and EGFR antigen expression in medullary breast cancer.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Recent publications of breast cancer classification based on gene expression profile analyses indicate that medullary breast carcinomas (MBC) may be considered part of the basal-like carcinoma spectrum made up of ER-negative, PR-negative and HER-2-negative cells ("triple-negative phenotype").
  • On the other hand, there are also data showing that a proportion of MBC and atypical MBC (AMBC) is ER, PR and/or HER-2 positive.
  • Modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection was performed in 30/48 patients (63%) while breast segmentectomy with axillary dissection was performed in 18/48 patients (37%).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism


24. Tsuda H, Tani Y, Weisenberger J, Kitada S, Hasegawa T, Murata T, Tamai S, Hirohashi S, Matsubara O, Natori T: Frequent KIT and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpressions in undifferentiated-type breast carcinomas with 'stem-cell-like' features. Cancer Sci; 2005 Jun;96(6):333-9
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  • [Title] Frequent KIT and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpressions in undifferentiated-type breast carcinomas with 'stem-cell-like' features.
  • It was hypothesized that four histopathological types or subtypes of breast carcinoma were undifferentiated types characterized by bidirectional differentiation toward both luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells and had characteristic molecular changes: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with a large central acellular zone, atypical medullary carcinoma (a subgroup in Grade 3 solid-tubular carcinoma), matrix-producing carcinoma, and spindle-cell carcinoma (or carcinoma with spindle-cell metaplasia).
  • The undifferentiated-type breast carcinomas appeared to show mammary epithelial stem cell-like features, and they could be identified by KIT and/or EGFR overexpressions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Stem Cells

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  • (PMID = 15958055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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25. Khilko N, Bourne P, Qi Yang, Ping Tang: Mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 may not play an essential role in breast carcinogenesis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):233-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 may not play an essential role in breast carcinogenesis.
  • Breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies in women, and its carcinogenesis is still unknown.
  • The role of microsatellite instability (MSI) in breast carcinogenesis has been inconsistent in the literature.
  • Here we studied the expression of 2 mismatch repair genes, hMLH1 and hMSH2, in 211 cases of intraductal (DCIS; 90 cases) and invasive ductal carcinoma (121 cases) of the breast by immunohistochemical analysis; and evaluated its relationship with cytokeratin (CK) subtypes, along with expression of ER-alpha (138 cases positive, 73 cases negative); PR (118 cases positive, 93 cases negative), and HER-2/neu (47 cases positive, 164 cases negative); and clinical features such as patient age (157 cases>50 years, 54 cases<50 years), tumor size (31 cases of IDC>2 cm, 90 cases of IDC<2 cm), tumor grade (87 cases high nuclear grade, 124 case non-high grade), and lymph node metastasis (38 cases of IDC positive, 74 cases of IDC negative, 9 cases of IDC with no available data on lymph node status).
  • No typical or atypical medullary carcinoma was included in this study.
  • Our results showed that no loss of nuclear expression of either hMLH1 or hMSH2 was identified in any of the 211 cases of DCIS or IDC regardless of the various pathological and clinical factors, suggesting that hMLH1 or hMSH2 may not play an essential role in the majority of cases of the breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. DNA Mismatch Repair. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17652529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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26. Putti TC, El-Rehim DM, Rakha EA, Paish CE, Lee AH, Pinder SE, Ellis IO: Estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinomas: a review of morphology and immunophenotypical analysis. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jan;18(1):26-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinomas: a review of morphology and immunophenotypical analysis.
  • Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers are a group of tumors with poor prognosis and fewer cancer prevention and treatment strategies compared to ER-positive tumors.
  • In total, 291 consecutive ER-negative cases available from our primary breast cancer series were examined.
  • ER-negative tumors constituted 30% of the primary operable breast cancer series.
  • The majority of tumors were grade 3 (94%) and the commonest histological types were ductal/no specific type (85%), and atypical medullary carcinoma (8%).
  • High-grade comedo-type necrosis, lymphoid stroma, central necrosis/fibrosis and pushing margins were the most common morphological features.
  • ER-negative breast cancers are a distinct group of tumors with several common morphological features.
  • ER-negative tumors show a higher expression of p53, CerbB2 and epidermal growth factor receptor compared to ER-positive breast cancer.
  • These unique features support the concept that ER-negative tumors are a morphologically and phenotypically distinct entity and provide a rationale for the study and use of newer promising agents in the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15332092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins v-erbB; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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