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1. Batori M, Ruggieri M, Chatelou E, Straniero A, Mariotta G, Palombi L, Casella G, Basile M, Casella MC: Breast cancer in young women: case report and a review. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2006 Mar-Apr;10(2):51-2
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  • One patient with an atypical medullary breast carcinoma diagnosis, pT2 pN1 bipMx, Grade 3 Stage IIB, negative for receptors, Ki 67: 47%, cERB-2 negative; the other with an intraductal breast carcinoma, pT1c pN0 pMx, Grade 2 Stage I, negative for receptors, Ki 67: 85%, cERB-2 negative, p53 negative, Bcl-2 negative.
  • The histological exam revealed a not much differentiated intraductal carcinoma, pT1a N0 Mx, Stage I.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Radical


2. Lim KH, Telisinghe PU, Abdullah MS, Ramasamy R: Possible significance of differences in proportions of cytotoxic T cells and B-lineage cells in the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes of typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast. Cancer Immun; 2010;10:3
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  • [Title] Possible significance of differences in proportions of cytotoxic T cells and B-lineage cells in the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes of typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast.
  • Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the breast is a high grade carcinoma that has a relatively favourable prognosis compared to atypical medullary carcinoma (AMC) and other more common breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoma, Medullary / immunology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20092246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-9634
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2964018
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3. Rakha EA, Aleskandarany M, El-Sayed ME, Blamey RW, Elston CW, Ellis IO, Lee AH: The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Jul;45(10):1780-7
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  • [Title] The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast.
  • The new gene expression molecular taxonomy of breast cancer places medullary carcinoma in the basal group.
  • The basal group is considered to have a poor prognosis, but medullary carcinoma is considered to have a better prognosis than other grade 3 carcinomas.
  • The prognostic significance of tumour associated inflammation, an important feature of medullary carcinomas, remains controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic importance of medullary histological type and inflammation in breast cancer.
  • Typical and atypical medullary carcinomas (n=132) did not have significantly different survival and were grouped together.
  • Medullary carcinoma did not have significantly different prognosis than grade 3 ductal carcinoma with prominent inflammation, but both had a better prognosis than grade 3 ductal carcinoma without prominent inflammation (P<0.0001 and P=0.03).
  • These results question the current separation of typical and atypical medullary carcinoma.
  • Prominent inflammation is associated with a better prognosis, and may explain the better prognosis in medullary carcinoma compared with grade 3 ductal carcinoma without prominent inflammation.
  • The good prognosis of medullary carcinoma emphasises the heterogeneity of basal-like breast carcinomas.
  • Further studies are needed to investigate the difference in survival between medullary carcinoma and other forms of basal carcinomas and the role of inflammation in any such differences in behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / complications. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Inflammation / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19286369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Matkovic B, Juretic A, Separovic V, Novosel I, Separovic R, Gamulin M, Kruslin B: Immunohistochemical analysis of ER, PR, HER-2, CK 5/6, p63 and EGFR antigen expression in medullary breast cancer. Tumori; 2008 Nov-Dec;94(6):838-44
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of ER, PR, HER-2, CK 5/6, p63 and EGFR antigen expression in medullary breast cancer.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Recent publications of breast cancer classification based on gene expression profile analyses indicate that medullary breast carcinomas (MBC) may be considered part of the basal-like carcinoma spectrum made up of ER-negative, PR-negative and HER-2-negative cells ("triple-negative phenotype").
  • On the other hand, there are also data showing that a proportion of MBC and atypical MBC (AMBC) is ER, PR and/or HER-2 positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism


5. Bobinski M, Greco CM, Schrot RJ: Giant intracranial medullary thyroid carcinoma metastasis presenting as apoplexy. Skull Base; 2009 Sep;19(5):359-62
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  • [Title] Giant intracranial medullary thyroid carcinoma metastasis presenting as apoplexy.
  • We present a case of a giant sellar and suprasellar skull base-invasive metastasis from a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Radiographic features were similar to atypical/malignant meningioma or pituitary macroadenoma.
  • Intracranial metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma are very rare.

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  • (PMID = 20190947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0065
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2765703
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Medullary thyroid carcinoma / metastasis / sella turcica / skull base
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6. Hsieh MH, Lin MC, Shun CT, Chang TC: Fine needle aspiration cytology of mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2008 May-Jun;52(3):361-5
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma (MMFTC) is a rare tumor that has been regarded as a clinicopathologic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Pathology revealed follicular carcinoma.
  • Pathology revealed follicular carcinoma with parafollicular cell differentiation.
  • The component of medullary carcinoma should be considered when encountering an atypical thyroid carcinoma with predominance of cells showing oncocytic changes on FNAC and with clinically poor response to conventional treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18540307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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7. Orlando L, Renne G, Rocca A, Curigliano G, Colleoni M, Severi G, Peruzzotti G, Cinieri S, Viale G, Sanna G, Goldhirsch A: Are all high-grade breast cancers with no steroid receptor hormone expression alike? The special case of the medullary phenotype. Ann Oncol; 2005 Jul;16(7):1094-9
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  • [Title] Are all high-grade breast cancers with no steroid receptor hormone expression alike? The special case of the medullary phenotype.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the breast is associated with favorable prognosis compared with other histological types, despite high nuclear grade, fast proliferation and lack of steroid hormone receptor expression.
  • We retrospectively evaluated the clinical relevance of selected immunohistochemical features of tumors in three cohorts of patients with typical medullary (MC), 'atypical' medullary (AMC) or ductal (DC) breast carcinoma.


8. Sahin M, Gursoy A, Tutuncu NB, Guvener DN: Prevalence and prediction of malignancy in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Oct;65(4):514-8
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  • We examined the malignancy rates in nodules that showed follicular neoplasm or atypical cells on cytology and attempted to predict malignancy based on ultrasonographic features.
  • The prevalence of malignancy in patients with atypical cell cytology was 51.7% (30 of 59), and the prevalence of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm cytology was 15% (4 of 27).
  • Malignancy prevalence was higher in patients who had follicular neoplasm cytology with atypical cells than in those without atypical cells (2 of 7 and 2 of 20, respectively).
  • But in follicular lesions without atypical cells the malignancy rate is low and reassessment later on could be an alternative approach.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16984245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Rodríguez-Pinilla SM, Rodríguez-Gil Y, Moreno-Bueno G, Sarrió D, Martín-Guijarro Mdel C, Hernandez L, Palacios J: Sporadic invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features display a basal-like phenotype: an immunohistochemical and gene amplification study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):501-8
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  • [Title] Sporadic invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features display a basal-like phenotype: an immunohistochemical and gene amplification study.
  • It is not clear whether invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features (IBCMFs, atypical medullary carcinomas) constitute a specific phenotype of breast cancer that is of biologic significance.
  • Because medullary features are common in BRCA1-associated carcinomas and these tumors frequently show a basal-like phenotype, we examined whether IBCMFs expressed basal/myoepithelial markers and had a basal-like phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology


10. Liu F, Cui L, Zhang Y, Chen L, Wang Y, Fan Y, Lei T, Gu F, Lang R, Pringle GA, Zhang X, Chen Z, Fu L: Expression of HAb18G is associated with tumor progression and prognosis of breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Dec;124(3):677-88
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  • [Title] Expression of HAb18G is associated with tumor progression and prognosis of breast carcinoma.
  • While not detected in any cases of tumor-like conditions or benign tumors of breast, and only rarely in normal tissue (4.4%), HAb18G expression was gradually up-regulated from atypical ductal hyperplasia (27.3%), to ductal carcinoma-in situ (59.8%), and to BC (61.4%) (P < 0.01).
  • Significant differences of expression were also identified among the subgroups of BC examined: in decreasing order from invasive micropapillary carcinoma, ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, to mucinous adenocarcinoma (P = 0.001), corresponding to their known clinical aggressiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD147 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoma / immunology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20213083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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11. Hung WW, Wang CS, Tsai KB, Ou-Yang F, Shin SJ, Hsiao PJ: Medullary thyroid carcinoma with poor differentiation and atypical radiographic pattern of metastasis. Pathol Int; 2009 Sep;59(9):660-3
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  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma with poor differentiation and atypical radiographic pattern of metastasis.
  • A diagnosis of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is complicated.
  • Herein is reported the case of a 73-year-old man who presented with two ill-defined pulmonary opacities, clinically resembling primary lung carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19712135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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12. Lin JD, Chao TC, Huang BY, Chen ST, Chang HY, Hsueh C: Thyroid cancer in the thyroid nodules evaluated by ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Thyroid; 2005 Jul;15(7):708-17
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  • Of patients undergoing surgical treatment, 2761 (76.1%) patients were diagnosed with benign nodules, 858 (23.6%) with malignant nodules, and 10 (0.3%) with atypical adenoma (7 follicular and 3 Hürthle cells).
  • The present results demonstrated a younger distribution for well-differentiated thyroid cancer, particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, compared to previous studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16053388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Bishop JA, Owens CL, Shum CH, Ali SZ: Thyroid bed fine-needle aspiration: experience at a large tertiary care center. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Aug;134(2):335-9
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  • [Title] Thyroid bed fine-needle aspiration: experience at a large tertiary care center.
  • Of the patients, 36 were being followed up for papillary carcinoma, 7 for medullary carcinoma, 4 for follicular carcinoma (1 also had papillary carcinoma), and 1 for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma; 3 had previous benign diagnoses.
  • Of 37 malignant or atypical FNA samples, 32 had surgical follow-up; 30 of 32 were confirmed malignant.
  • TB FNA is a highly reliable tool for diagnosing recurrent thyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20660340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Khilko N, Bourne P, Qi Yang, Ping Tang: Mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 may not play an essential role in breast carcinogenesis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):233-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies in women, and its carcinogenesis is still unknown.
  • Here we studied the expression of 2 mismatch repair genes, hMLH1 and hMSH2, in 211 cases of intraductal (DCIS; 90 cases) and invasive ductal carcinoma (121 cases) of the breast by immunohistochemical analysis; and evaluated its relationship with cytokeratin (CK) subtypes, along with expression of ER-alpha (138 cases positive, 73 cases negative); PR (118 cases positive, 93 cases negative), and HER-2/neu (47 cases positive, 164 cases negative); and clinical features such as patient age (157 cases>50 years, 54 cases<50 years), tumor size (31 cases of IDC>2 cm, 90 cases of IDC<2 cm), tumor grade (87 cases high nuclear grade, 124 case non-high grade), and lymph node metastasis (38 cases of IDC positive, 74 cases of IDC negative, 9 cases of IDC with no available data on lymph node status).
  • No typical or atypical medullary carcinoma was included in this study.
  • Our results showed that no loss of nuclear expression of either hMLH1 or hMSH2 was identified in any of the 211 cases of DCIS or IDC regardless of the various pathological and clinical factors, suggesting that hMLH1 or hMSH2 may not play an essential role in the majority of cases of the breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. DNA Mismatch Repair. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17652529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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15. Bassarova AV, Torlakovic E, Sedloev T, Hristova SL, Trifonov DV, Nesland JM: Simultaneous bilateral breast carcinoma: Histopathological characteristics and CD44/catenin-cadherin profile. Histol Histopathol; 2005 07;20(3):791-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous bilateral breast carcinoma: Histopathological characteristics and CD44/catenin-cadherin profile.
  • AIMS: Family history of breast carcinoma, multicentric tumor foci in one breast, and in situ lobular carcinoma increase the risk of bilateral breast cancer (BBC), synchronous or metachronous.
  • Synchronous tumors are designated as simultaneous breast carcinoma if they appear at the same time.
  • Rare types of breast carcinoma were frequent in this group of patients.
  • There were 6 pleomorphic lobular, 5 invasive ductal of usual type, 3 atypical medullary carcinomas, 2 mucinous and one invasive micropapillary carcinoma.


16. Cîmpean AM, Raica M, Nariţa D: Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):123-9
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  • RESULTS: We have found normal breast tissue, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenomas, fibrocystic diseases, phyllodes tumor, DCIS, ductal invasive, lobular, squamous, medullary, mucinous, and papillary carcinomas.
  • We also found apocrine metaplasia, florid ductal hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia, papilloma and LCIS associated with the malignant tumors.
  • The exceptions were represented by a case of fibroadenoma and the phyllodes tumor, with CD34 positivity and a focal acquisition of SMA; fibrocystic disease with associated apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a squamous carcinoma with loss of CD34 expression and focal acquisition of SMA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Smad Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16286998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Smad Proteins
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17. Lerma E, Mora J: Telomerase activity in "suspicious" thyroid cytology. Cancer; 2005 Dec 25;105(6):492-7
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  • The histopathologic diagnoses were nodular hyperplasia in 5 patients, follicular adenoma in 3 patients, papillary carcinoma in 11 patients, follicular carcinoma in 1 patient, medullary carcinoma in 2 patients, and lymphoma in 1 patient.
  • TA was detected in 6 of 18 histologically confirmed thyroid neoplasms (1 of 3 follicular adenomas, 3 of 11 papillary carcinomas, 0 of 1 follicular carcinoma, 1 of 2 medullary carcinomas, and 1 of 1 lymphoma), including 1 neoplasm with scanty atypical cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16104043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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18. Arun B, Vogel KJ, Lopez A, Hernandez M, Atchley D, Broglio KR, Amos CI, Meric-Bernstam F, Kuerer H, Hortobagyi GN, Albarracin CT: High prevalence of preinvasive lesions adjacent to BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2009 Feb;2(2):122-7
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  • We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of preinvasive lesions [ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ, and atypical lobular hyperplasia] in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA1 Protein / genetics. BRCA2 Protein / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009 Feb;2(2):100-3 [19174575.001]
  • (PMID = 19174581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / BRCA2 Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS660771; NLM/ PMC4520422
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19. Buła G, Waler J, Niemiec A, Koziołek H, Bichalski W, Gawrychowski J: Diagnosis of metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):427-9
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  • RESULTS: Among 7 patients with thyroid metastases from renal clear cell carcinoma, as diagnosed postoperatively, cytology of the thyroid material obtained through FNA revealed follicular tumour in 3 (43%) patients, tumour cells in 2 (28.5%) and atypical cells in the other 2 (28.5%).
  • Intraoperative histopathology confirmed the presence of metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma (1) and indicated thyroid medullary cancer (1), follicular tumour (4), or trabecular adenoma with necrosis (1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Follicular tumour diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients after treatment for other cancers, especially renal clear cell carcinoma, should alert the surgeon to the possibility that it could be a metastasis of this cancer to the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods

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  • (PMID = 21049452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
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20. Putti TC, El-Rehim DM, Rakha EA, Paish CE, Lee AH, Pinder SE, Ellis IO: Estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinomas: a review of morphology and immunophenotypical analysis. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jan;18(1):26-35
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  • The majority of tumors were grade 3 (94%) and the commonest histological types were ductal/no specific type (85%), and atypical medullary carcinoma (8%).

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  • (PMID = 15332092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins v-erbB; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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21. Sobrino-Mota V, Lagarejos-Bernardo S, Varela-Mezquita B, Castro Y, Segura-González C, Pérez-Milán F: Unusual sonographic findings in a case of atypical medullary inflammatory carcinoma of the breast. J Clin Ultrasound; 2008 Mar-Apr;36(3):166-8
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  • [Title] Unusual sonographic findings in a case of atypical medullary inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.
  • The histopathologic examination revealed an atypical medullary carcinoma with high mitotic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Mastitis / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18241044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Imperiale A, Greget M, Chabrier G, Keomany J, Rust E, Detour J, Pessaux P, Goichot B: Solitary hepatic metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma mimicking atypical hemangioma: insights from multimodality diagnostic approach by MRI, F-18 FDG and F-18 FDOPA PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Jun;35(6):434-7
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  • [Title] Solitary hepatic metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma mimicking atypical hemangioma: insights from multimodality diagnostic approach by MRI, F-18 FDG and F-18 FDOPA PET/CT.


23. Anim JT, John B, Abdulsathar S SA, Prasad A, Saji T, Akhtar N, Ali V, Al-Saleh M: Relationship between the expression of various markers and prognostic factors in breast cancer. Acta Histochem; 2005;107(2):87-93
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  • A positive relationship was found between ER and PR and lower grades of cancer, and a negative relationship was found with medullary and atypical medullary carcinoma.


24. Tsuda H, Tani Y, Weisenberger J, Kitada S, Hasegawa T, Murata T, Tamai S, Hirohashi S, Matsubara O, Natori T: Frequent KIT and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpressions in undifferentiated-type breast carcinomas with 'stem-cell-like' features. Cancer Sci; 2005 Jun;96(6):333-9
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  • It was hypothesized that four histopathological types or subtypes of breast carcinoma were undifferentiated types characterized by bidirectional differentiation toward both luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells and had characteristic molecular changes: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with a large central acellular zone, atypical medullary carcinoma (a subgroup in Grade 3 solid-tubular carcinoma), matrix-producing carcinoma, and spindle-cell carcinoma (or carcinoma with spindle-cell metaplasia).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Stem Cells

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  • (PMID = 15958055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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25. Honrado E, Benítez J, Palacios J: Histopathology of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2006 Jul;59(1):27-39
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  • BRCA1-associated carcinomas are poorly differentiated infiltrating ductal carcinomas that frequently show morphological features of typical or atypical medullary carcinoma.


26. Divisi D, Di Tommaso S, Imbriglio G, Crisci R: Multiple endocrine neoplasia with pulmonary localization: a new protocol of approach. ScientificWorldJournal; 2008;8:788-92
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  • Two patients presented an atypical MEN 1 and one patient showed an atypical MEN 1 with a familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18690382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Kim SK, Kim DL, Han HS, Kim WS, Kim SJ, Moon WJ, Oh SY, Hwang TS: Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2008 Jun;17(2):118-25
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  • METHODS: A total of 103 surgically confirmed patients' FNA slides were recruited and DNA was extracted after atypical cells were scraped from the slides.
  • In detail, 63 (84.0%) of 75 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples showed positive BRAF mutation, whereas 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma did not show BRAF mutation.


28. Harzallah F, Barlier A, Feki M, Enjalbert A, Slimane H: Unusual presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A in a patient with the C634R mutation of the RET-protooncogene. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Dec;69(6):523-5
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  • The aim of this paper is to report an atypical presentation of MEN2A, in a patient carrying the C634R mutation of the RET-protooncogene.
  • During cervicotomy, the parathyroid adenoma was resected and the thyroid node was suspected to be a carcinoma.
  • Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma and revealed a multifocal and bilateral medullary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics


29. Plon SE, Nathanson K: Inherited susceptibility for pediatric cancer. Cancer J; 2005 Jul-Aug;11(4):255-67
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  • In this article, we review the childhood malignancies that are associated with at least a 10% likelihood of being caused by a genetic susceptibility to cancer and therefore warrant consideration for a genetic evaluation; these malignancies include retinoblastoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, atypical teratoid and malignant rhabdoid tumors, optic pathway tumors, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, vestibular schwannomas, endolymphatic sac tumors, hemangioblastomas, medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas.

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  • (PMID = 16197716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08-CA084030; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24-CA78142-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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30. Fernandopulle SM, Cher-Siangang P, Tan PH: Breast carcinoma in women 35 years and younger: a pathological study. Pathology; 2006 Jun;38(3):219-22
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  • [Title] Breast carcinoma in women 35 years and younger: a pathological study.
  • AIMS: To document the pathological features of breast carcinoma diagnosed in women aged 35 years or less.
  • Pathologic parameters of tumour size, histological grade, accompanying ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lymphovascular invasion, nodal status, hormone receptor and c-erbB-2 profiles, were documented.
  • Invasive tumour size ranged from 0.3 to 11.5 cm (mean 2.7 cm, median 2.1 cm), with 84 (92.3%) infiltrative ductal, two (2.2%) lobular, two (2.2%) mucinous, two (2.2%) atypical medullary, and one (1.1%) mixed ductal-lobular.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16753742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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31. Bassarova AV, Nesland JM, Sedloev T, Lilleby W, Hristova SL, Trifonov DY, Torlakovic E: Simultaneous bilateral breast carcinomas: a category with frequent coexpression of HER-2 and ER-alpha, high Ki-67 and bcl-2, and low p53. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jul;13(3):239-46
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  • Six patients had pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in 1 breast.
  • Four of these had invasive ductal carcinoma in the contralateral breast.
  • One patient had atypical medullary carcinoma in both breasts and 1 patient had atypical medullary carcinoma in 1 breast and pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in the other.
  • While strong coexpression of HER-2 and ER-alpha is exceptional in hereditary breast carcinoma and sporadic breast carcinoma, 6/8 (75%) patients in this study had tumors with strong coexpression of HER-2 and ER-alpha.
  • However, in patients with atypical medullary carcinoma there was no expression of ER-alpha or amplification of Her-2.


32. Cheng JX, Tretiakova M, Gong C, Mandal S, Krausz T, Taxy JB: Renal medullary carcinoma: rhabdoid features and the absence of INI1 expression as markers of aggressive behavior. Mod Pathol; 2008 Jun;21(6):647-52
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  • [Title] Renal medullary carcinoma: rhabdoid features and the absence of INI1 expression as markers of aggressive behavior.
  • Renal medullary carcinoma is a rare, well-recognized highly aggressive tumor of varied histopathology, which occurs in young patients with sickle cell trait or disease.
  • Rhabdoid elements, occasionally seen in high-grade renal tumors including renal medullary carcinoma, possibly represent a pathologic marker of aggressive behavior.
  • In humans, the loss of INI1 expression has been reported in pediatric renal rhabdoid tumors, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and epithelioid sarcomas, a possible primary soft tissue rhabdoid tumor.
  • This study compares five renal medullary carcinomas with 10 high-grade renal cell carcinomas (five with rhabdoid features), two urothelial carcinomas and two pediatric renal rhabdoid tumors.
  • All five renal medullary carcinomas, irrespective of histopathology, showed complete loss of INI1 expression similar to that seen in pediatric renal rhabdoid tumors.
  • Clinically, all five of the patients with renal medullary carcinoma and the two patients with rhabdoid tumors presented with extra-renal metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • This study demonstrates that renal medullary carcinoma and renal rhabdoid tumor share a common molecular/genetic alteration, which is closely linked to their aggressive biological behavior.
  • However, the absence of INI1 expression is not necessarily predictive of rhabdoid histopathology but remains associated with aggressive behavior in renal medullary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18327209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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33. Elston CW: Classification and grading of invasive breast carcinoma. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2005;89:35-44
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  • [Title] Classification and grading of invasive breast carcinoma.
  • The main reasons for applying a classification system to invasive breast carcinoma are to obtain a correlation with prognosis and tumour biology.
  • A wide range of histological patterns is recognised in invasive carcinoma of the breast and four broad prognostic groups are recognised: the excellent prognosis group comprises tubular, cribriform, mucinous carcinomas; the good group tubular mixed, mixed ductal NST/special type and classical lobular carcinoma; the average group mixed lobular, medullary and atypical medullary carcinoma and the poor group is composed of ductal NST, mixed ductal and solid lobular carcinoma understanding of the biology of breast cancer.
  • For example, tumours with a medullary phenotype which express basal cytokeratins and are p53 positive and ER and c-erbB-2 negative are strongly predictive of the BRCA-1 gene-mutation carrier state.

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  • (PMID = 18035670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein
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34. Sakurai K, Matsuo S, Enomoto K, Amano S, Shiono M: Atypical medullary carcinoma of the breast. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2009 Dec;36(4):215
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  • [Title] Atypical medullary carcinoma of the breast.

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  • [Cites] Br J Cancer. 1956 Sep;10(3):415-23 [13396090.001]
  • [Cites] Surgery. 1946 Jan;19:74-99 [21022022.001]
  • [Cites] Hum Pathol. 1988 Nov;19(11):1340-6 [2846422.001]
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  • (PMID = 27277443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical medullary carcinoma / Breast cancer / Ultrasonography
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35. Kim SH, Chung HC, Jeong J, Kim JH, Rha SY, Ahn JB, Cho NH, Jeung HC: A locally advanced breast cancer with difficult differential diagnosis of carcinosarcoma and atypical medullary carcinoma, which had poor response to adriamycin- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case report. Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Sep;39(3):134-7
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  • [Title] A locally advanced breast cancer with difficult differential diagnosis of carcinosarcoma and atypical medullary carcinoma, which had poor response to adriamycin- and taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case report.
  • Atypical medullary carcinomas and carcinosarcoma have unique histopathological features.
  • The pathological diagnosis was complicated by an inability to distinguish between atypical medullary carcinoma and carcinosarcoma.
  • In conclusion, atypical medullary carcinoma and carcinosarcoma of the breast have entirely different prognoses and should be managed differently.

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  • (PMID = 19746221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2739326
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical medullary carcinoma / Carcinosarcoma / Metaplastic breast cancer / Neoadjuvant chemotherapy
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36. Chaiwun B, Nakrungsee S, Sukhamwang N, Srisukho S: A study of high-nuclear-grade breast cancer in Thailand: subclassification and correlation with prognostic factors and immunohistochemical study. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):35-41
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  • OBJECTIVES: To classify high-nuclear-grade breast cancer (BC) into typical medullary carcinoma (TMC), atypical medullary carcinoma (AMC), and non-medullary carcinoma (NMC), and luminal A, luminal B, and HER2, and to correlate these tumors with other prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Medullary / classification

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  • (PMID = 19789946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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37. Fontaine JF, Mirebeau-Prunier D, Franc B, Triau S, Rodien P, Houlgatte R, Malthièry Y, Savagner F: Microarray analysis refines classification of non-medullary thyroid tumours of uncertain malignancy. Oncogene; 2008 Apr 3;27(15):2228-36
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  • [Title] Microarray analysis refines classification of non-medullary thyroid tumours of uncertain malignancy.
  • Conventional histology failed to classify part of non-medullary thyroid lesions as either benign or malignant.
  • The group of tumours of uncertain malignancy (T-UM) concerns either atypical follicular adenomas or the recently called 'tumours of uncertain malignant potential'.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / classification. Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cluster Analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Thyroid Nodule / classification. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17968324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Akbulut M, Zekioglu O, Kapkac M, Ozdemir N: Fine needle aspiration cytologic features of medullary carcinoma of the breast: a study of 20 cases with histologic correlation. Acta Cytol; 2009 Mar-Apr;53(2):165-73
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytologic features of medullary carcinoma of the breast: a study of 20 cases with histologic correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material from 20 cases of histologically verified medullary carcinoma (MC) of the breast and correlate the cytomorphologic features with histologic appearance to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of FNAC.
  • The initial cytologic diagnoses were positive for cancer in 17 cases, atypical/suspicious for cancer in 2 cases and negative for cancer in 1 case.
  • The cytologic picture was characterized by cellular smears composed of highly atypical epithelial tumor cells in loosely cohesive sheets and lying singly, admixed with polymorphous lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils.
  • Histologic examination confirmed that 11 cases were atypical MC and 9 were pure MC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19365969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Li F, Zhong Z, Li R, Huang H, Wang L, Zheng D, Zhang D: [Expression and clinicopathologic significance of human achaete-scute homolog 1 in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2010 Apr;13(4):317-21
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Human achaete-scute homolog 1 (hASH1) gene plays a critical role in development of the central nervous system, automatic nervous system, adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, thyroid C cells and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells.
  • METHODS: hASH1, Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin and CD56 expression were examined in lung tumor specimens (lung inflammatory pseudotumor, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinomas, large cell carcinoma, typical carcinoids, atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell lung carcinoma and corresponding normal lung specimens) using immunohistochemistry (S-P method).
  • RESULTS: hASH1 expression was positive in 2/16 (12.5%) typical carcinoids, 15/20 (75%) atypical carcinoids, 6/10 (60%) large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and 31/40 (77.5%) small cell lung carcinoma, respectively, but not in any normal lung tissue (0/10), lung inflammatory pseudotumor (0/49), squamous cell carcinoma (0/30), adenocarcinomas (0/30) or large cell carcinoma (0/20).
  • There was a significant difference in hASH1 expression between typical carcinoids and atypical carcinoids (P < 0.01), but not in large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell lung carcinoma (P > 0.05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / genetics. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / metabolism. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20677557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3419
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ASCL1 protein, human; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
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40. Chang TC, Wu SL, Hsiao YL: Medullary thyroid carcinoma: pitfalls in diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology and relationship of cytomorphology to RET proto-oncogene mutations. Acta Cytol; 2005 Sep-Oct;49(5):477-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medullary thyroid carcinoma: pitfalls in diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology and relationship of cytomorphology to RET proto-oncogene mutations.
  • OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the pitfalls in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and the relationship of cytomorphology to RET proto-oncogene mutations.
  • The main reason for misdiagnosis was overlooking the slight angular shape of the nuclei or atypical changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16334022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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41. Sasaki Y, Tsuda H: Clinicopathological characteristics of triple-negative breast cancers. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(4):254-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histological types of TNBCs are reported to be common with those of basal-like subtype, comprising high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, no special type [solid-tubular carcinoma (or atypical medullary carcinoma), invasive ductal carcinoma with a large central acellular zone], typical medullary carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinomas.


42. Ogilvie JB, Piatigorsky EJ, Clark OH: Current status of fine needle aspiration for thyroid nodules. Adv Surg; 2006;40:223-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • FNA should also be performed on nodules with suspicious ultrasonographic features (microcalcifications, rounded shape, predominantly solid composition); dominant or atypical nodules in multinodular goiter; complex or recurrent cystic nodules; or any nodule associated with palpable or ultrasonographically abnormal cervical lymph nodes.

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  • (PMID = 17163105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-3411
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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43. Aouni NE, Athanasiou A, Mansouri D, Marsiglia H, Mathieu MC, Suciu V, Vielh P: Medullary breast carcinoma: a case report with cytological features and histological confirmation. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Oct;34(10):701-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medullary breast carcinoma: a case report with cytological features and histological confirmation.
  • Cytological examination revealed highly cellular smears containing large atypical cells arranged in syncytial sheets and intimately admixed with lymphocytes and neutrophils.
  • The diagnosis of medullary breast carcinoma, which was strongly suspected by cytology, was confirmed by histological examination of the surgical specimen after a modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16955478.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Papacharalampous GX, Korres S, Tzagaroulakis M, Segas I, Ferekidis E: Paraganglioma of the larynx: a case report. Med Sci Monit; 2007 Dec;13(12):CS145-8
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  • The differential diagnosis of laryngeal paraganglioma includes typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 18049441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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45. Böttger C, Warth A, Nawroth PP, Isermann B: [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge]. Med Klin (Munich); 2010 Apr;105(4):237-41
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].
  • The diagnosis was corrected, and an atypical neuroendocrine bronchial carcinoma was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / pathology. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / secondary. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology






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