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5. Cîmpean AM, Raica M, Nariţa D: Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):123-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast.
  • METHODS: Our study included 112 female patients with suspect breast masses obtained by surgery or biopsy.
  • RESULTS: We have found normal breast tissue, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenomas, fibrocystic diseases, phyllodes tumor, DCIS, ductal invasive, lobular, squamous, medullary, mucinous, and papillary carcinomas.
  • We also found apocrine metaplasia, florid ductal hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia, papilloma and LCIS associated with the malignant tumors.
  • All the normal breast tissues and most of benign lesions were positive for CD34 and negative for SMA.
  • The exceptions were represented by a case of fibroadenoma and the phyllodes tumor, with CD34 positivity and a focal acquisition of SMA; fibrocystic disease with associated apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a squamous carcinoma with loss of CD34 expression and focal acquisition of SMA.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Muscle, Smooth / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Smad Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16286998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Smad Proteins
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6. Tsuda H, Tani Y, Weisenberger J, Kitada S, Hasegawa T, Murata T, Tamai S, Hirohashi S, Matsubara O, Natori T: Frequent KIT and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpressions in undifferentiated-type breast carcinomas with 'stem-cell-like' features. Cancer Sci; 2005 Jun;96(6):333-9
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  • [Title] Frequent KIT and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpressions in undifferentiated-type breast carcinomas with 'stem-cell-like' features.
  • It was hypothesized that four histopathological types or subtypes of breast carcinoma were undifferentiated types characterized by bidirectional differentiation toward both luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells and had characteristic molecular changes: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with a large central acellular zone, atypical medullary carcinoma (a subgroup in Grade 3 solid-tubular carcinoma), matrix-producing carcinoma, and spindle-cell carcinoma (or carcinoma with spindle-cell metaplasia).
  • The undifferentiated-type breast carcinomas appeared to show mammary epithelial stem cell-like features, and they could be identified by KIT and/or EGFR overexpressions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Stem Cells

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  • (PMID = 15958055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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7. Arun B, Vogel KJ, Lopez A, Hernandez M, Atchley D, Broglio KR, Amos CI, Meric-Bernstam F, Kuerer H, Hortobagyi GN, Albarracin CT: High prevalence of preinvasive lesions adjacent to BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2009 Feb;2(2):122-7
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  • [Title] High prevalence of preinvasive lesions adjacent to BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers.
  • Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer by 43% to 84%.
  • It was originally postulated that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers develop more rapidly than sporadic cancers and may lack preinvasive lesions.
  • More recent studies have found preinvasive lesions in prophylactic mastectomy specimens from mutation carriers; however, there is little information on the presence of preinvasive lesions in tissue adjacent to breast cancers.
  • Our aim is to investigate the role of preinvasive lesions in BRCA-associated breast carcinogenesis.
  • We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of preinvasive lesions [ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ, and atypical lobular hyperplasia] in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers.
  • Pathology was reviewed for 73 BRCA1/2-associated tumors from patients with breast cancer.
  • We selected 146 patients with mutation-negative breast cancer as age-matched controls.
  • Among the BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers, 59% had at least one associated preinvasive lesion compared with 75% of controls.
  • The most common preinvasive lesion in both groups was DCIS; 56% of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and 71% of the sporadic breast cancers had adjacent intraductal disease, respectively.
  • Preinvasive lesions, most notably DCIS, are common in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers.
  • These findings suggest that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers progress through the same intermediate steps as sporadic breast cancers, and that DCIS should be considered as a part of the BRCA1/2 tumor spectrum.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA1 Protein / genetics. BRCA2 Protein / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2009 Feb;2(2):100-3 [19174575.001]
  • (PMID = 19174581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / BRCA2 Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS660771; NLM/ PMC4520422
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8. Sobrino-Mota V, Lagarejos-Bernardo S, Varela-Mezquita B, Castro Y, Segura-González C, Pérez-Milán F: Unusual sonographic findings in a case of atypical medullary inflammatory carcinoma of the breast. J Clin Ultrasound; 2008 Mar-Apr;36(3):166-8
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  • [Title] Unusual sonographic findings in a case of atypical medullary inflammatory carcinoma of the breast.
  • We report the case of a 35-year-old woman who complained of a rapid enlargement of a pre-existing breast mass and yellowish nipple discharge.
  • The histopathologic examination revealed an atypical medullary carcinoma with high mitotic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Mastitis / diagnosis. Ultrasonography, Mammary / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18241044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Rakha EA, Aleskandarany M, El-Sayed ME, Blamey RW, Elston CW, Ellis IO, Lee AH: The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Jul;45(10):1780-7
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  • [Title] The prognostic significance of inflammation and medullary histological type in invasive carcinoma of the breast.
  • The new gene expression molecular taxonomy of breast cancer places medullary carcinoma in the basal group.
  • The basal group is considered to have a poor prognosis, but medullary carcinoma is considered to have a better prognosis than other grade 3 carcinomas.
  • The prognostic significance of tumour associated inflammation, an important feature of medullary carcinomas, remains controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic importance of medullary histological type and inflammation in breast cancer.
  • Typical and atypical medullary carcinomas (n=132) did not have significantly different survival and were grouped together.
  • Medullary carcinoma did not have significantly different prognosis than grade 3 ductal carcinoma with prominent inflammation, but both had a better prognosis than grade 3 ductal carcinoma without prominent inflammation (P<0.0001 and P=0.03).
  • These results question the current separation of typical and atypical medullary carcinoma.
  • Prominent inflammation is associated with a better prognosis, and may explain the better prognosis in medullary carcinoma compared with grade 3 ductal carcinoma without prominent inflammation.
  • The good prognosis of medullary carcinoma emphasises the heterogeneity of basal-like breast carcinomas.
  • Further studies are needed to investigate the difference in survival between medullary carcinoma and other forms of basal carcinomas and the role of inflammation in any such differences in behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / complications. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Inflammation / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19286369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Aouni NE, Athanasiou A, Mansouri D, Marsiglia H, Mathieu MC, Suciu V, Vielh P: Medullary breast carcinoma: a case report with cytological features and histological confirmation. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Oct;34(10):701-3
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  • [Title] Medullary breast carcinoma: a case report with cytological features and histological confirmation.
  • We report the case of a 83-year-old woman who presented with a left-breast lump.
  • On physical examination the patient had a well-demarcated mass located in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast with a palpable unilateral axillary lymph node.
  • Cytological examination revealed highly cellular smears containing large atypical cells arranged in syncytial sheets and intimately admixed with lymphocytes and neutrophils.
  • The diagnosis of medullary breast carcinoma, which was strongly suspected by cytology, was confirmed by histological examination of the surgical specimen after a modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16955478.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Akbulut M, Zekioglu O, Kapkac M, Ozdemir N: Fine needle aspiration cytologic features of medullary carcinoma of the breast: a study of 20 cases with histologic correlation. Acta Cytol; 2009 Mar-Apr;53(2):165-73
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytologic features of medullary carcinoma of the breast: a study of 20 cases with histologic correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material from 20 cases of histologically verified medullary carcinoma (MC) of the breast and correlate the cytomorphologic features with histologic appearance to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of FNAC.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the cytologic features of 20 cases of MC of the breast in the archives of Ege University Hospital between 1994 and 2006.
  • RESULTS: Twenty patients with an aspirate and confirmed diagnosis of MC were identified.
  • The initial cytologic diagnoses were positive for cancer in 17 cases, atypical/suspicious for cancer in 2 cases and negative for cancer in 1 case.
  • The cytologic picture was characterized by cellular smears composed of highly atypical epithelial tumor cells in loosely cohesive sheets and lying singly, admixed with polymorphous lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils.
  • Histologic examination confirmed that 11 cases were atypical MC and 9 were pure MC.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast MC is a rare, distinct category that appears to have rather characteristic cellular features.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19365969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Orlando L, Renne G, Rocca A, Curigliano G, Colleoni M, Severi G, Peruzzotti G, Cinieri S, Viale G, Sanna G, Goldhirsch A: Are all high-grade breast cancers with no steroid receptor hormone expression alike? The special case of the medullary phenotype. Ann Oncol; 2005 Jul;16(7):1094-9
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  • [Title] Are all high-grade breast cancers with no steroid receptor hormone expression alike? The special case of the medullary phenotype.
  • BACKGROUND: Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the breast is associated with favorable prognosis compared with other histological types, despite high nuclear grade, fast proliferation and lack of steroid hormone receptor expression.
  • We retrospectively evaluated the clinical relevance of selected immunohistochemical features of tumors in three cohorts of patients with typical medullary (MC), 'atypical' medullary (AMC) or ductal (DC) breast carcinoma.
  • Two patients with MC had reappearance of DC in the breast.
  • The lower expression of TN and massive infiltration of T lymphocytes might both indicate a special interaction between tumor cells and microenvironment, important features for conferring improved prognosis through negligible invasive and metastatic potential to MC.


13. Elston CW: Classification and grading of invasive breast carcinoma. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2005;89:35-44
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  • [Title] Classification and grading of invasive breast carcinoma.
  • The main reasons for applying a classification system to invasive breast carcinoma are to obtain a correlation with prognosis and tumour biology.
  • A wide range of histological patterns is recognised in invasive carcinoma of the breast and four broad prognostic groups are recognised: the excellent prognosis group comprises tubular, cribriform, mucinous carcinomas; the good group tubular mixed, mixed ductal NST/special type and classical lobular carcinoma; the average group mixed lobular, medullary and atypical medullary carcinoma and the poor group is composed of ductal NST, mixed ductal and solid lobular carcinoma understanding of the biology of breast cancer.
  • For example, tumours with a medullary phenotype which express basal cytokeratins and are p53 positive and ER and c-erbB-2 negative are strongly predictive of the BRCA-1 gene-mutation carrier state.
  • Histological grading refers to the semi-quantitative evaluation of the morphological structure of breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18035670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein
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4. Rodríguez-Pinilla SM, Rodríguez-Gil Y, Moreno-Bueno G, Sarrió D, Martín-Guijarro Mdel C, Hernandez L, Palacios J: Sporadic invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features display a basal-like phenotype: an immunohistochemical and gene amplification study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):501-8
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  • [Title] Sporadic invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features display a basal-like phenotype: an immunohistochemical and gene amplification study.
  • It is not clear whether invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features (IBCMFs, atypical medullary carcinomas) constitute a specific phenotype of breast cancer that is of biologic significance.
  • Because medullary features are common in BRCA1-associated carcinomas and these tumors frequently show a basal-like phenotype, we examined whether IBCMFs expressed basal/myoepithelial markers and had a basal-like phenotype.
  • We studied the immunohistochemical expression of 15 markers in tissue microarrays containing samples from 35 IBCMFs and 39 grade 3 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCG3s) of no special type.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology


15. Bassarova AV, Torlakovic E, Sedloev T, Hristova SL, Trifonov DV, Nesland JM: Simultaneous bilateral breast carcinoma: Histopathological characteristics and CD44/catenin-cadherin profile. Histol Histopathol; 2005 07;20(3):791-9
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  • [Title] Simultaneous bilateral breast carcinoma: Histopathological characteristics and CD44/catenin-cadherin profile.
  • AIMS: Family history of breast carcinoma, multicentric tumor foci in one breast, and in situ lobular carcinoma increase the risk of bilateral breast cancer (BBC), synchronous or metachronous.
  • Synchronous tumors are designated as simultaneous breast carcinoma if they appear at the same time.
  • Rare types of breast carcinoma were frequent in this group of patients.
  • There were 6 pleomorphic lobular, 5 invasive ductal of usual type, 3 atypical medullary carcinomas, 2 mucinous and one invasive micropapillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15944928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44 protein, human; 0 / CD44V3,8-10; 0 / CD44v5 antigen; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin
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16. Liu F, Cui L, Zhang Y, Chen L, Wang Y, Fan Y, Lei T, Gu F, Lang R, Pringle GA, Zhang X, Chen Z, Fu L: Expression of HAb18G is associated with tumor progression and prognosis of breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Dec;124(3):677-88
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  • [Title] Expression of HAb18G is associated with tumor progression and prognosis of breast carcinoma.
  • However, its role in the tumor progression of breast cancer has not been explored.
  • HAb18G expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in pathological sections of 1,637 breast tissue samples and by in situ hybridization in 41 cases of invasive breast carcinomas (BC).
  • While not detected in any cases of tumor-like conditions or benign tumors of breast, and only rarely in normal tissue (4.4%), HAb18G expression was gradually up-regulated from atypical ductal hyperplasia (27.3%), to ductal carcinoma-in situ (59.8%), and to BC (61.4%) (P < 0.01).
  • Significant differences of expression were also identified among the subgroups of BC examined: in decreasing order from invasive micropapillary carcinoma, ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, to mucinous adenocarcinoma (P = 0.001), corresponding to their known clinical aggressiveness.
  • Further evaluation of this new marker in breast cancer is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD147 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoma / immunology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20213083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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17. Fernandopulle SM, Cher-Siangang P, Tan PH: Breast carcinoma in women 35 years and younger: a pathological study. Pathology; 2006 Jun;38(3):219-22
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  • [Title] Breast carcinoma in women 35 years and younger: a pathological study.
  • AIMS: To document the pathological features of breast carcinoma diagnosed in women aged 35 years or less.
  • METHODS: The files of the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, were searched for cases of breast cancer diagnosed in individuals aged 35 years or less between January 1993 and December 2004.
  • Pathologic parameters of tumour size, histological grade, accompanying ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lymphovascular invasion, nodal status, hormone receptor and c-erbB-2 profiles, were documented.
  • RESULTS: Of 112 cases of breast cancer, 91 (81.3%) were invasive carcinomas, 17 (15.2%) pure DCIS, three (2.7%) were diagnosed on needle aspirates.
  • Invasive tumour size ranged from 0.3 to 11.5 cm (mean 2.7 cm, median 2.1 cm), with 84 (92.3%) infiltrative ductal, two (2.2%) lobular, two (2.2%) mucinous, two (2.2%) atypical medullary, and one (1.1%) mixed ductal-lobular.
  • CONCLUSION: The majority of breast carcinomas in young women are invasive, with T2 disease at presentation, and of poor histological grade.
  • The recent rise in numbers suggests increased detection, plausibly due to improved awareness of breast disease among the younger female population.
  • Pathogenetic causes that differ from breast carcinogenesis in older women have to be further clarified.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16753742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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18. Sasaki Y, Tsuda H: Clinicopathological characteristics of triple-negative breast cancers. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(4):254-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological characteristics of triple-negative breast cancers.
  • Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as a group of breast carcinomas that are negative for expression of hormone receptors and HER2.
  • DNA microarray analyses have proved that TNBCs are composed of the basal-like subtype and normal breast (or unclassified) subtype, the former being correlated with an aggressive clinical course.
  • Histological types of TNBCs are reported to be common with those of basal-like subtype, comprising high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, no special type [solid-tubular carcinoma (or atypical medullary carcinoma), invasive ductal carcinoma with a large central acellular zone], typical medullary carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis


19. Khilko N, Bourne P, Qi Yang, Ping Tang: Mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 may not play an essential role in breast carcinogenesis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):233-41
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  • [Title] Mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 may not play an essential role in breast carcinogenesis.
  • Breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies in women, and its carcinogenesis is still unknown.
  • The role of microsatellite instability (MSI) in breast carcinogenesis has been inconsistent in the literature.
  • Here we studied the expression of 2 mismatch repair genes, hMLH1 and hMSH2, in 211 cases of intraductal (DCIS; 90 cases) and invasive ductal carcinoma (121 cases) of the breast by immunohistochemical analysis; and evaluated its relationship with cytokeratin (CK) subtypes, along with expression of ER-alpha (138 cases positive, 73 cases negative); PR (118 cases positive, 93 cases negative), and HER-2/neu (47 cases positive, 164 cases negative); and clinical features such as patient age (157 cases>50 years, 54 cases<50 years), tumor size (31 cases of IDC>2 cm, 90 cases of IDC<2 cm), tumor grade (87 cases high nuclear grade, 124 case non-high grade), and lymph node metastasis (38 cases of IDC positive, 74 cases of IDC negative, 9 cases of IDC with no available data on lymph node status).
  • No typical or atypical medullary carcinoma was included in this study.
  • Our results showed that no loss of nuclear expression of either hMLH1 or hMSH2 was identified in any of the 211 cases of DCIS or IDC regardless of the various pathological and clinical factors, suggesting that hMLH1 or hMSH2 may not play an essential role in the majority of cases of the breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. DNA Mismatch Repair. MutS Homolog 2 Protein / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17652529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
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20. Honrado E, Benítez J, Palacios J: Histopathology of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2006 Jul;59(1):27-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathology of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer.
  • Hereditary breast carcinomas that are attributable to BRCA1/2 mutations have their own morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics.
  • BRCA1-associated carcinomas are poorly differentiated infiltrating ductal carcinomas that frequently show morphological features of typical or atypical medullary carcinoma.
  • BRCA2-associated breast carcinomas tend to be of higher grade than sporadic age-matched controls.
  • In addition, BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast carcinomas show a low frequency of HER2 expression.
  • Most BRCA1 breast carcinomas are characterized by the expression of basal (myoepithelial) markers, such as cytokeratin 5/6 and or P-cadherin.
  • These features could be used to distinguish patients who are likely to carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation, thus indicating which gene should be screened for first in families with a high incidence of breast and ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2


21. Chaiwun B, Nakrungsee S, Sukhamwang N, Srisukho S: A study of high-nuclear-grade breast cancer in Thailand: subclassification and correlation with prognostic factors and immunohistochemical study. Breast Cancer; 2010;17(1):35-41
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  • [Title] A study of high-nuclear-grade breast cancer in Thailand: subclassification and correlation with prognostic factors and immunohistochemical study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To classify high-nuclear-grade breast cancer (BC) into typical medullary carcinoma (TMC), atypical medullary carcinoma (AMC), and non-medullary carcinoma (NMC), and luminal A, luminal B, and HER2, and to correlate these tumors with other prognostic factors.
  • The patients' age, histologic types, various histologic features, axillary lymph node (ALN) status, and results of immunohistochemical (IHC) study were recorded and analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Carcinoma, Lobular / classification. Carcinoma, Medullary / classification

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  • (PMID = 19789946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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22. Anim JT, John B, Abdulsathar S SA, Prasad A, Saji T, Akhtar N, Ali V, Al-Saleh M: Relationship between the expression of various markers and prognostic factors in breast cancer. Acta Histochem; 2005;107(2):87-93
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  • [Title] Relationship between the expression of various markers and prognostic factors in breast cancer.
  • The immunohistochemical detection of six markers of breast cancer has been compared in the present study with known prognostic factors of the disease to establish locally a standard panel of markers for the management of breast cancer.
  • Sections of tissue of 114 consecutive breast cancer cases were studied immunohistochemically, using antibodies against oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor, c-erbB2, cathepsin D, and cyclin D.
  • A positive relationship was found between ER and PR and lower grades of cancer, and a negative relationship was found with medullary and atypical medullary carcinoma.
  • Our study confirms the association between ER and PR and histological type and grade of breast cancer, both known parameters of good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology


23. Putti TC, El-Rehim DM, Rakha EA, Paish CE, Lee AH, Pinder SE, Ellis IO: Estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinomas: a review of morphology and immunophenotypical analysis. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jan;18(1):26-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinomas: a review of morphology and immunophenotypical analysis.
  • Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers are a group of tumors with poor prognosis and fewer cancer prevention and treatment strategies compared to ER-positive tumors.
  • In total, 291 consecutive ER-negative cases available from our primary breast cancer series were examined.
  • ER-negative tumors constituted 30% of the primary operable breast cancer series.
  • The majority of tumors were grade 3 (94%) and the commonest histological types were ductal/no specific type (85%), and atypical medullary carcinoma (8%).
  • High-grade comedo-type necrosis, lymphoid stroma, central necrosis/fibrosis and pushing margins were the most common morphological features.
  • ER-negative breast cancers are a distinct group of tumors with several common morphological features.
  • ER-negative tumors show a higher expression of p53, CerbB2 and epidermal growth factor receptor compared to ER-positive breast cancer.
  • These unique features support the concept that ER-negative tumors are a morphologically and phenotypically distinct entity and provide a rationale for the study and use of newer promising agents in the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15332092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins v-erbB; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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24. Bassarova AV, Nesland JM, Sedloev T, Lilleby W, Hristova SL, Trifonov DY, Torlakovic E: Simultaneous bilateral breast carcinomas: a category with frequent coexpression of HER-2 and ER-alpha, high Ki-67 and bcl-2, and low p53. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jul;13(3):239-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous bilateral breast carcinomas: a category with frequent coexpression of HER-2 and ER-alpha, high Ki-67 and bcl-2, and low p53.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes of simultaneous bilateral adenocarcinomas of the breast and their axillary metastases.
  • Six patients had pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in 1 breast.
  • Four of these had invasive ductal carcinoma in the contralateral breast.
  • One patient had atypical medullary carcinoma in both breasts and 1 patient had atypical medullary carcinoma in 1 breast and pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in the other.
  • While strong coexpression of HER-2 and ER-alpha is exceptional in hereditary breast carcinoma and sporadic breast carcinoma, 6/8 (75%) patients in this study had tumors with strong coexpression of HER-2 and ER-alpha.
  • P53 protein expression was found in only 2/15 (13%) primary tumors, which is in contrast to BRCA1-related hereditary bilateral breast carcinomas, which often express p53 protein.
  • However, in patients with atypical medullary carcinoma there was no expression of ER-alpha or amplification of Her-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 16086078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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25. Buła G, Waler J, Niemiec A, Koziołek H, Bichalski W, Gawrychowski J: Diagnosis of metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):427-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis of metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • RESULTS: Among 7 patients with thyroid metastases from renal clear cell carcinoma, as diagnosed postoperatively, cytology of the thyroid material obtained through FNA revealed follicular tumour in 3 (43%) patients, tumour cells in 2 (28.5%) and atypical cells in the other 2 (28.5%).
  • Intraoperative histopathology confirmed the presence of metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma (1) and indicated thyroid medullary cancer (1), follicular tumour (4), or trabecular adenoma with necrosis (1).
  • Among two patients with thyroid metastases from breast cancer, cytology confirmed a metastasis from breast cancer in one (the woman was disqualified for surgical treatment) and indicated follicular tumour in one.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Follicular tumour diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients after treatment for other cancers, especially renal clear cell carcinoma, should alert the surgeon to the possibility that it could be a metastasis of this cancer to the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods

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  • (PMID = 21049452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
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