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1. Miyake K, Miyake N, Kondo S, Tabe Y, Ohsaka A, Miida T: Seasonal variation in liver function tests: a time-series analysis of outpatient data. Ann Clin Biochem; 2009 Sep;46(Pt 5):377-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Seasonal variation in liver function tests: a time-series analysis of outpatient data.
  • BACKGROUND: Long-term physiological variations, such as seasonal variations, affect the screening efficiency at medical checkups.
  • This study examined the seasonal variation in liver function tests using recently described data-mining methods.
  • METHODS: The 'latent reference values' of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT), cholinesterase (ChE) and total bilirubin (T-Bil) were extracted from a seven-year database of outpatients (aged 20-79 yr; comprising approximately 1,270,000 test results).
  • After calculating the monthly means for each variable, the time-series data were separated into trend and seasonal components using a local regression model (Loess method).
  • Then, a cosine function model (cosinor method) was applied to the seasonal component to determine the periodicity and fluctuation range.
  • A two-year outpatient database (215,000 results) from another hospital was also analysed to confirm the reproducibility of these methods.
  • RESULTS: The serum levels of test results tended to increase in the winter.
  • The increase in AST and ALT was about 6% in men and women, and was greater than that in ChE, ALP (in men and women) and gammaGT (in men).
  • In contrast, T-Bil increased by 3.6% (men) and 5.0% (women) in the summer.
  • The total protein and albumin concentrations did not change significantly.
  • AST and ALT showed similar seasonal variation in both institutions in the comparative analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The liver function tests were observed to show seasonal variations.
  • These seasonal variations should therefore be taken into consideration when establishing either reference intervals or cut-off values, which are especially important regarding aminotransferases.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Function Tests / standards. Seasons
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Cholinesterases / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Factors. gamma-Glutamyltransferase / blood

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  • (PMID = 19641005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-1001
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 3.1.1.8 / Cholinesterases
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2. Wong VW, Yu J, Cheng AS, Wong GL, Chan HY, Chu ES, Ng EK, Chan FK, Sung JJ, Chan HL: High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Int J Cancer; 2009 Jun 15;124(12):2766-70
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  • Thirty-seven patients developed HCC at a median follow-up of 62 months (interquartile range: 41-110).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / blood. Hepatitis B virus / isolation & purification. Hepatitis B, Chronic / blood. Interleukin-6 / blood. Liver Neoplasms / blood

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 UICC.
  • (PMID = 19267406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-6
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3. Zhang ZP, You TT, Zou LY, Wu T, Wu Y, Cui L: [Effect of a compound Danshen preparation in preventing long-term gastric lipid emulsion administration-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2008 Jul;28(7):1109-13
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  • [Title] [Effect of a compound Danshen preparation in preventing long-term gastric lipid emulsion administration-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preventive effects of a compound Danshen preparation (DSC) on long-term gastric lipid emulsion administration-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats.

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  • (PMID = 18676239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Phenanthrolines; 79483-68-4 / dan-shen root extract
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4. Kerkar N, Annunziato RA, Foley L, Schmeidler J, Rumbo C, Emre S, Shneider B, Shemesh E: Prospective analysis of nonadherence in autoimmune hepatitis: a common problem. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2006 Nov;43(5):629-34
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  • An electronic monitoring device as well as posttransplant trough blood levels of tacrolimus was used to evaluate adherence.

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  • (PMID = 17130740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4801
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K08 MH063755; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH63755
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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5. Teixeira AR, Machado MC, Kubrusly MS, Molan NT, Bellodi-Privato M, Leite KR, D'Albuquerque LA: A new experimental model for acute hepatic failure in rats. Acta Cir Bras; 2010 Jun;25(3):269-74
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  • [Title] A new experimental model for acute hepatic failure in rats.
  • PURPOSE: To develop a reliable surgical model of acute hepatic failure and hyperammonemia in rats that avoids porto-systemic shunt and bile duct ligation, applicable to hepatic encephalopathy research.
  • METHODS: The pedicles of right lateral and caudate lobes were exposed and clamped.
  • One hour later, the animal was reopened, clamps were released and anterior subtotal hepatectomy (resection of median and left lateral lobes) was performed, comprising 75% of liver removal.
  • Four hours after hepatectomy, blood samples and liver tissues were collected from ALF and control groups.
  • RESULTS: Differences between ALF and control groups were significant for ALT, AST, total and direct bilirubin, sodium, potassium, alkaline phosphatasis, gamma-glutamyltransferase and most important, ammonia.
  • Histologically, significant differences were noticed between groups.
  • CONCLUSION: The model is useful for the study of specific aspects of ALF and the development of new therapeutic approaches.

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  • (PMID = 20498940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-2674
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cirurgica brasileira
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cir Bras
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7664-41-7 / Ammonia; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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6. Wang Y, Wang Y, Yin Y, Li S, Yan Q, Wan Z, Han Y: Interaction of olfactory ensheathing cells with nerve repairing scaffolds. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2009 May;34(5):382-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials. Lactic Acid / pharmacology. Olfactory Bulb / cytology. Polyglycolic Acid / pharmacology. Tissue Engineering / methods. Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 19483284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer; 26009-03-0 / Polyglycolic Acid; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid
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7. Tayal V, Kalra BS, Agarwal S, Khurana N, Gupta U: Hepatoprotective effect of tocopherol against isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in albino rabbits. Indian J Exp Biol; 2007 Dec;45(12):1031-6
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  • Results revealed that pretreatment with high dose of tocopherol (100 mg/kg) prevented both biochemical as well as histopathological evidence of hepatic damage induced by INH and RMP combination.

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  • (PMID = 18254208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5189
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of experimental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J. Exp. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 1406-66-2 / Tocopherols; 80061L1WGD / Cimetidine; V83O1VOZ8L / Isoniazid; VJT6J7R4TR / Rifampin
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8. Hong JP, Kim EK, Kim H, Shin HW, Hwang CH, Lee MY: Alternative Regional Flaps When Anterolateral Thigh Flap Perforator is not Feasible. J Hand Microsurg; 2010 Dec;2(2):51-7
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  • [Title] Alternative Regional Flaps When Anterolateral Thigh Flap Perforator is not Feasible.
  • This paper presents the scheme to select alternative flaps limited to the region of the ipsilateral thigh when the perforator of the anterolateral thigh flap is not feasible.
  • Total of 564 consecutive microsurgery cases using anterolateral thigh perforator flap was reviewed from March of 2001 to January of 2009.
  • Total of 12 cases used a contingent flap due to anatomical and technical complications of the anterolateral thigh perforator.
  • The alternatives were skin perforator flaps adjacent to the initial flap (3 cases of upper anterolateral thigh flap, 4 cases of anteromedial thigh flap), vastus lateralis muscle flap with skin graft (2 cases), and anterolateral thigh flap as septocutaneous flap without a prominent perforator on the septum (3 cases).
  • All flaps survived and provided coverage as planned but one case using septocutaneous flap without a prominent perforator was noted with partial necrosis.
  • Adjacent flaps around the anterolateral thigh perforator flap may provide useful alternative flaps in cases of failed elevation.
  • Limiting the contingent secondary flap to this region may reduce further donor site morbidity and still provide an adequate flap for reconstruction.

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  • (PMID = 22282668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-6897
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hand and microsurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Microsurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3122710
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Alternative to anterolatral thigh perforator flap / Perforator flap
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9. Da Silva AS, Costa MM, Cargnelutti JF, Lopes ST, Monteiro SG: [Biochemical changes in rabbits experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi]. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet; 2007 Jan-Mar;16(1):43-6
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  • [Title] [Biochemical changes in rabbits experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi].
  • [Transliterated title] Alterações bioquímicas em coelhos infectados experimentalmente pelo Trypanosoma evansi.
  • The purpose of the present paper has been evaluating the biochemical changes in rabbits experimentally infected by Trypanosome evansi.
  • Six male rabbits, separated in two groups, were used with the group A, the control group, being composed by non-infected animals and the group B composed by rodents infected with a T. evansi stump.
  • The animals were maintained at room temperature and they have been analyzed during 120 days through 5 blood collections on days 1, 20, 40, 60 and 120.
  • The biochemical changes observed in the infected rabbits were hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, increase on the urea levels, and significant decrease on ALT and albumin.
  • The creatinine remained within the normality parameters.
  • The rodents belonging to the group B have shown biochemical changes even after 80 days when the protozoon was not observed in the circulation anymore.
  • [MeSH-major] Rabbits / blood. Rabbits / parasitology. Trypanosomiasis / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Male

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  • (PMID = 17588322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0103-846X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinária = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Órgão Oficial do Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Bras Parasitol Vet
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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10. Borges VC, Rocha JB, Savegnago L, Nogueira CW: Repeated administration of diphenyl ditelluride induces hematological disorders in rats. Food Chem Toxicol; 2007 Aug;45(8):1453-8
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  • [Title] Repeated administration of diphenyl ditelluride induces hematological disorders in rats.
  • In the present study, we investigated potential toxic effects of diphenyl ditelluride, as measured by biochemical and hematological parameters.
  • Rats were given a daily dose of 0.3 micromol/kg diphenyl ditelluride by subcutaneous route and sacrificed at different times (24 and 48 h).
  • Hepatic and renal TBARS levels were changed by diphenyl ditelluride exposure at the dose 0.9 micromol/Kg in rats.
  • Diphenyl ditelluride exposure demonstrated an increase in AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) activities.
  • Plasma creatinine and urea levels increase after diphenyl ditelluride exposure.
  • Diphenyl ditelluride also produced a significant decrease in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels.
  • In contrast, this compound, at all doses tested, induced a marked increase in total leukocyte counts.
  • The present study suggests that diphenyl ditelluride induces hematological disorders and provides evidence for renal and hepatic toxicity in rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzene Derivatives / toxicity. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Kidney Diseases / chemically induced. Organometallic Compounds / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Body Weight / drug effects. Bone Marrow / pathology. C-Reactive Protein / metabolism. Cholesterol / blood. Creatine / blood. Eating / drug effects. Histocytochemistry. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Leukocyte Count. Liver Diseases / blood. Liver Diseases / pathology. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism. Triglycerides / blood. Urea / blood

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  • (PMID = 17397981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-6915
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzene Derivatives; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; 0 / Triglycerides; 0 / diphenylditelluride; 8W8T17847W / Urea; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; MU72812GK0 / Creatine
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11. Zhang X, Xie P, Wang W, Li D, Shi Z: Plasma biochemical responses of the omnivorous crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to crude cyanobacterial extracts. Fish Physiol Biochem; 2008 Dec;34(4):323-9
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  • [Title] Plasma biochemical responses of the omnivorous crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to crude cyanobacterial extracts.
  • Healthy crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of crude cyanobacterial extracts at two doses, 50 and 200 microg MC-LR equiv kg(-1) BW.
  • High mortality (100%) was observed within 60 h post injection in the high-dose group.
  • In the treated fish, activities of four plasma enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), all showed substantial increases, with both dose and time-dependent effects.
  • These increases of enzyme activity indicate severe impairment occurred in the liver of crucian carp over time.
  • Plasma concentrations of energy-related biomolecules including glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), and total protein (TP) showed marked changes in the high-dose group, possibly a nutritional imbalance correlated with the liver injury caused by intraperitoneal exposure to crude cyanobacterial extracts.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Toxins / pharmacology. Cyanobacteria / chemistry. Enzymes / blood. Goldfish / physiology. Liver / drug effects. Marine Toxins / pharmacology. Microcystins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Injections, Intraperitoneal

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  • (PMID = 18958589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-5168
  • [Journal-full-title] Fish physiology and biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fish Physiol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Enzymes; 0 / Marine Toxins; 0 / Microcystins; 0 / cyanobacterial toxin
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12. Lewis JH, Mortensen ME, Zweig S, Fusco MJ, Medoff JR, Belder R, Pravastatin in Chronic Liver Disease Study Investigators: Efficacy and safety of high-dose pravastatin in hypercholesterolemic patients with well-compensated chronic liver disease: Results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Hepatology; 2007 Nov;46(5):1453-63
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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of high-dose pravastatin in hypercholesterolemic patients with well-compensated chronic liver disease: Results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.
  • CONCLUSION: High-dose pravastatin (80 mg/day) administered to hypercholesterolemic subjects with chronic liver disease significantly lowered LDL-C, TC, and TGs in comparison with the placebo and was safe and well tolerated.


13. Gong Z, Yan S, Zhang P, Huang Y, Wang L: Effects of S-adenosylmethionine on liver methionine metabolism and steatosis with ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. Hepatol Int; 2008 Sep;2(3):346-52
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  • Serum homocysteine (Hcy), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) levels were determined.
  • These responses were associated with the increased expression of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 mRNAs in the livers, as well as the existence of hepatocellular necrosis and neutrophil infiltration in the livers.
  • In treatment groups, SAM provided significant protection from the liver injury induced by alcohol, resulting in a decrease in serum TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 levels, lipid peroxidation, and the expressions of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 mRNAs in the livers, as well as an increase in GSH levels.

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  • (PMID = 19669264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716886
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14. Zacharakis G, Koskinas J, Kotsiou S, Pouliou E, Papoutselis M, Tzara F, Vafeiadis N, Maltezos E, Archimandritis A, Papoutselis K: Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in children of different ethnic origins: a cohort study with up to 12 years' follow-up in northern Greece. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2007 Jan;44(1):84-91
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  • [Title] Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in children of different ethnic origins: a cohort study with up to 12 years' follow-up in northern Greece.
  • AIM: To investigate the mode of transmission and the natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children of different ethnicities in Greece.
  • This study was part of the Interreg I-II EC project.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred seventy-three hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)(+) carriers, median age 6.9 (5-12) y, were prospectively followed-up for a mean period of 5.3 (1-12) y for serological markers of HBV infection, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HBV-DNA, alpha-fetoprotein levels and ultrasonography.
  • RESULTS: Vertical transmission predominates (61.8%) in Moslem children and horizontal (44%) in those born in Russia.
  • At entry, 73 of 173 (42%) HBsAg(+) genotype D children were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)(+), ranging from 27% to 67% among ethnic groups; 55 of 173 (32%) had ALT > 2 x upper normal limit (UNL), ranging from 21% to 39%.
  • Of 100 anti-HBe(+) children, 85 (85%) were inactive carriers.
  • During the follow-up period, seroconversion to anti-HBe was observed in 40 of 73 (55%) children with an annual rate of 11%; 35 of 40 (87.5%) had biochemical remission, and 28 of 35 (80%) lost HBV-DNA.
  • In the anti-HBe(+) group, 27 of 100 (27%) lost HBV-DNA and 9 of 100 (9%) lost HBsAg.
  • The annual seroconversion rate for HBeAg was significantly lower: in children with vertical transmission compared with horizontal (7.7% vs 14.8%, respectively, P < 0.001) and in Muslim children compared with both Christian children and those born in Russia (8.6% vs 12%, respectively, P < 0.001).
  • No differences were found among the ethnic groups after adjusting for the mode of infection.
  • Two of 173 children had progression of liver disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The differences in HBeAg(+) status and seroconversion rate among the ethnic groups are related to the time/mode of HBV infection.
  • The majority of children who developed anti-HBe immunity had biochemical remission, and a substantial number of the inactive carriers lost viremia during the observation period of up to 12 y.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B, Chronic / ethnology. Hepatitis B, Chronic / transmission
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Christianity. Disease Progression. Female. Greece. Humans. Islam. Male. Prospective Studies. Russia / ethnology

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  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007 Jan;44(1):14-7 [17204946.001]
  • (PMID = 17204959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4801
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kokoglu OF, Uçmak H, Hosoglu S, Cetinkaya A, Kantarceken B, Buyukbese MA, Isik IO: Efficacy and tolerability of pegylated-interferon alpha-2a in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Mar;21(3):575-80
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  • Twelve of the patients received PEG-IFN alpha-2a at a dose of 135 microg weekly for 48 weeks (Group 1).
  • CONCLUSION: The present study showed that PEG-IFN alpha-2a for 48 weeks is efficacious and well tolerated in hemodialysis patients with HCV.

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  • [CommentIn] J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Mar;21(3):491-4 [16638088.001]
  • (PMID = 16638102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2a; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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16. Singh P, Pratap K, Amarpal, Kinjavdekar P, Aithal HP, Singh GR: Effects of xylazine, lignocaine and their combination for lumber epidural analgesia in water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). J S Afr Vet Assoc; 2005 Sep;76(3):151-8
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  • The biochemical parameters like glucose, cortisol, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, ALT increased in all the animals.

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  • (PMID = 16300183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-9128
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J S Afr Vet Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 2KFG9TP5V8 / Xylazine; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine
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17. Raghuraman S, Abraham P, Daniel HD, Ramakrishna BS, Sridharan G: Characterization of soluble FAS, FAS ligand and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with chronic HCV infection. J Clin Virol; 2005 Sep;34(1):63-70
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  • [Title] Characterization of soluble FAS, FAS ligand and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with chronic HCV infection.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to assess the susceptibility of the Fas antigen expressed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Fas ligand-induced-death in patients with chronic HCV infection and (2) to investigate the correlation between the plasma levels of soluble Fas (sFas), soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and HCV viral load.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD95 / blood. Hepatitis C, Chronic / blood. Membrane Glycoproteins / blood. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factors / blood

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  • (PMID = 16087126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factors
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18. Wang L, Tao Y, Li S, Chen G, Liu C: [Effects of salvianolic acid B on lipid peroxidation and metalloproteinase-2 activity in fibrotic liver in rat]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi; 2010 Jan;35(1):71-5
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  • METHOD: The liver fibrotic model was induced through intraperitoneally injection of DMN at a dose of 10 microg x kg(-1) for every other day and lasting for 4 weeks.
  • The expressions of alpha-SMA, Col I in liver tissue were analyzed by Western blot.

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  • (PMID = 20349720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-5302
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzofurans; 115939-25-8 / salvianolic acid B; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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19. Kayadibi H, Gültepe M, Yasar B, Ince AT, Ozcan O, Ipcioglu OM, Kurdas OO, Bolat B, Benek YZ, Guveli H, Atalay S, Ozkara S, Keskin O: Diagnostic value of serum prolidase enzyme activity to predict the liver histological lesions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a surrogate marker to distinguish steatohepatitis from simple steatosis. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Aug;54(8):1764-71
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of serum prolidase enzyme activity to predict the liver histological lesions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a surrogate marker to distinguish steatohepatitis from simple steatosis.
  • Determination of the liver histological lesions with noninvasive tests is an important part of the diagnostic work-up of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
  • We aimed to determine the predictive value of noninvasive biochemical markers, serum prolidase enzyme activity (SPEA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and AST/ALT ratio for the liver histological lesions.
  • Fifty-four liver biopsy-proven patients with NAFLD and 37 healthy controls were enrolled to the study.
  • The diagnostic accuracies of biochemical markers were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple linear regression analysis to predict the degree of fatty infiltration, lobular inflammation, NAFLD activity score, and stage of fibrosis.
  • The SPEA of patients with steatohepatitis is significantly increased compared with the patients with simple steatosis and controls (1,338 [1,138-1,624] U/l; 974 [768-1,160] U/l; 972 [862-1,122] U/l, shown as median [25th-75th interquartile range], respectively, P < 0.0001).
  • SPEA was positively correlated with the grade of liver fatty infiltration, lobular inflammation and NAFLD activity score, and stage of fibrosis, (r = 0.377, P < 0.005; r = 0.443, P < 0.001; r = 0.457, P < 0.001; r = 0.321, P < 0.018, respectively).
  • SPEA was the best predictor for distinguishing steatohepatitis from simple steatosis according to the ROC analysis (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.85).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that the most useful single test for predicting lobular inflammation, NAFLD activity score, and fibrosis was SPEA, and for predicting the fatty infiltration, it was ALT (P < 0.00001, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively).
  • This study demonstrated that SPEA can accurately predict the degree and stage of all histological lesions in NAFLD.
  • It could be helpful for distinguishing steatohepatitis from simple steatosis and reducing the need for liver biopsy in the majority of patients with NAFLD.
  • [MeSH-major] Dipeptidases / blood. Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Hepatitis / diagnosis. Liver / enzymology. Liver / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alanine Transaminase / metabolism. Aspartate Aminotransferases / metabolism. Biomarkers / blood. Biopsy. Case-Control Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Linear Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18989777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 3.4.13.- / Dipeptidases; EC 3.4.13.9 / proline dipeptidase
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20. Lazzeri C, Valente S, Tarquini R, Chiostri M, Picariello C, Gensini GF: Prognostic values of admission transaminases in ST-elevation myocardial infarction submitted to primary angioplasty. Med Sci Monit; 2010 Dec;16(12):CR567-74
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  • [Title] Prognostic values of admission transaminases in ST-elevation myocardial infarction submitted to primary angioplasty.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has documented a relation between elevated transaminases and atherosclerosis, independent of classic risk factors, including the metabolic syndrome.
  • No data are thus far available on the prognostic role of transaminases in acute myocardial infarction.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: We assessed whether admission transaminases (alanine aminotransferase--ALT and aspartate aminotransferase--AST) hold a prognostic role for in-intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU) mortality and complications (acute pulmonary edema and/or arrhythmias) in 1000 consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction submitted to mechanical revascularization.
  • RESULTS: ALT and AST were independent predictors for in-ICCU mortality and for in-ICCU complications (when adjusted for age, left ventricular ejection fraction and sex) in the overall population, in diabetic patients but not in non-diabetic ones.
  • ALT showed a significant correlation with NT-pro-BNP, Tn I, uric acid and leukocyte count in the overall population and in non-diabetic STEMI patients.
  • AST showed a significant correlation with Tn I, uric acid and leukocyte count in the overall population and in non-diabetic patients.
  • In diabetic patients, ALT and AST were significantly correlated only with peak Tn I.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In 1000 consecutive STEMI patients submitted to mechanical revascularization, admission ALT and AST were independent predictors for in-ICCU mortality and complications in non-diabetic patients, being strictly related to infarct size (as indicated by peak Tn I), the degree of inflammatory activation (as inferred by leukocytes) and prognostic markers (NT-pro-BNP and uric acid).
  • In diabetic STEMI patients, only ALT results were an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality and complications, being associated with peak Tn I.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Angioplasty. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / diagnosis. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Diabetes Mellitus / blood. Myocardial Infarction / therapy. Pulmonary Edema / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Humans. Italy. Leukocyte Count. Natriuretic Peptide, Brain. Peptide Fragments. Sex Factors. Statistics, Nonparametric. Uric Acid

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  • (PMID = 21119573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / pro-brain natriuretic peptide (1-76); 114471-18-0 / Natriuretic Peptide, Brain; 268B43MJ25 / Uric Acid; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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21. Ng RW, Chan JY, Mok V, Leung MS, Yuen AP, Wei WI: Clinical implications of anterolateral thigh flap shrinkage. Laryngoscope; 2008 Apr;118(4):585-8
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  • RESULTS: Forty-five anterolateral thigh flaps harvested for head and neck soft tissue reconstruction after tumor resection were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Transplantation / methods. Surgical Flaps / pathology. Thigh / surgery. Tissue and Organ Harvesting / methods

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  • (PMID = 18176347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Huang SH, Wu SH, Chang KP, Wang WH, Lai CH, Sun IF, Lin SD, Lai CS: Contour refinements of free flaps for optimal outcome in oral reconstruction: combination of modified liposuction technique and w-plasty in one-stage procedure. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2009 Jun;37(4):201-5
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  • RESULTS: All flaps survived well without any partial skin necrosis.

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  • (PMID = 19195905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-4119
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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23. Yang Z, Xu M, Yi JQ, Jia WD: Clinical characteristics and mechanism of liver damage in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2005 Feb;4(1):60-3
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  • [Title] Clinical characteristics and mechanism of liver damage in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver function was found in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
  • This study was undertaken to explore the clinical characteristics and mechanisms of liver damage.
  • METHODS: The serial laboratory data of liver function test and hepatic histological examination from 168 patients with SARS were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The abnormalities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 52.5%, 71.8%, 85.7% and 85.2%.
  • The average levels of ALT of the patients were 56.07+/-51.57 U/L, 86.46+/-69.93 U/L, 106.69+/-102.50 U/L and 111.32+/-160.24 U/L, and the average levels of serum albumin were 37.25+/-5.37 g/L, 35.82+/-4.74 g/L, 34.49+/-5.04 g/L, and 34.26+/-4.70 g/L, at the day of admission, the first week, second week, and third week after hospitalization, respectively.
  • Significant correlation was not shown among liver damage, blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), degree of fever, and immune functional disorder in this study.
  • Hepatic histological examination of 4 patients demonstrated that non-specific inflammation existed in the liver.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Liver damage of patients with SARS usually occurs in the early stage of the disease with a high occurrence rate and a prolonged profile, which can be characterized by early, obvious decrease of albumin levels and slightly abnormal levels of ALT.
  • The liver damage induced by SARS seems to be caused by SARS virus directly rather than by low SaO2 or high fever.
  • Hepatotoxic drugs may play a role in increasing the severity of liver damage or prolonging the time of liver function recovery.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / epidemiology. Liver Diseases / pathology. SARS Virus / isolation & purification. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / diagnosis. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Alanine Transaminase / analysis. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Biopsy, Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. China / epidemiology. Comorbidity. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Liver Function Tests. Male. Middle Aged. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15730921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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24. Guthikonda B, Hanna EY, Skoracki RJ, Prabhu SS: Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma involving the anterior and middle skull base with intradural extension. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Nov;20(6):2087-90
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  • Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma is a malignant odontogenic tumor that rarely affects the skull base and surrounding regions.
  • We present a case of a 48-year-old man with histologically confirmed malignant transformation of a benign ameloblastic fibroma 10 years after initial presentation of a localized facial mass.
  • Use of a multidisciplinary approach is critical in obtaining the optimal outcome in these complex cases.

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  • (PMID = 19884826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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25. Mohri M, Narenji Sani R, Masoodi R: Plasma biochemistry of ostrich (Struthio camelus): effects of anticoagulants and comparison with serum. Trop Anim Health Prod; 2009 Aug;41(6):845-9
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  • [Title] Plasma biochemistry of ostrich (Struthio camelus): effects of anticoagulants and comparison with serum.
  • The effects of various types of anticoagulants on plasma biochemistry were studied in man and various animals, but limited information is existing for ostrich plasma biochemistry.
  • Ten clinically healthy ostrich were blood sampled in different tubes containing each anticoagulant and plain tube for harvesting plasma and serum.
  • The concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were measured.
  • The concentrations of glucose, uric acid, total protein, and calcium were significantly lower in citrated plasma than that of serum.
  • For dilution corrected citrated plasma significant differences were only seen for the concentration of uric acid.
  • Most parameters did not show any differences, but significant increase were seen for glucose, total protein, albumin, and phosphorus concentrations when heparin was used as an anticoagulant.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticoagulants / pharmacology. Plasma / chemistry. Struthioniformes / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Chemical Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19011988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7438
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical animal health and production
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Anim Health Prod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants
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26. Zhiburt EB: [Alanine aminotransferase is a substitute marker of viral hepatitis]. Vopr Virusol; 2005 Nov-Dec;50(6):18-20
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  • [Title] [Alanine aminotransferase is a substitute marker of viral hepatitis].
  • The incidence of viral hepatitis was compared in donors (n = 184532) with the increased or normal activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) without the specific markers of hepatitis - HbsAg and anti-HCV.
  • The activity of ALT was found to retain its diagnostic values in preventing blood-transmitted diseases only with the insufficient sensitivity of the specific markers of viral hepatitis in donors.
  • A prospective case-control study of the specific markers of the infections may be recommended to assess the quality of work of diagnostic laboratories.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Biomarkers / blood. Blood Donors. Hepatitis, Viral, Human / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Case-Control Studies. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16408624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-4088
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy virusologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr. Virusol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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27. Amarapurka DN, Amarapurkar AD, Patel ND, Agal S, Baigal R, Gupte P, Pramanik S: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with diabetes: predictors of liver fibrosis. Ann Hepatol; 2006 Jan-Mar;5(1):30-3
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  • No factors that determine increasing fibrosis have been well recognized.


28. Kim WR, Flamm SL, Di Bisceglie AM, Bodenheimer HC, Public Policy Committee of the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease: Serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as an indicator of health and disease. Hepatology; 2008 Apr;47(4):1363-70
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  • [Title] Serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as an indicator of health and disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Liver Diseases / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Mass Screening

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  • (PMID = 18366115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Investigator] Di Bisceglie AM; Bodenheimer HC Jr; Lindsay KL; Yee H; Goss J; Kaplan LM; Gish RG; Kim WR; Sanyal A
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29. Hsu CS, Liu CJ, Liu CH, Chen CL, Lai MY, Chen PJ, Chen DS, Kao JH: Metabolic profiles in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a case-control study. Hepatol Int; 2008 Jun;2(2):250-7
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  • [Title] Metabolic profiles in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical implications of metabolic profiles in patients with chronic hepatitis C remain controversial.
  • To study the association of metabolic abnormalities with chronic hepatitis C, we conducted a case-control study with special emphasis on serum lipid pattern, fasting blood glucose, and adiponectin.
  • METHODS: We enrolled 500 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 536 sex and age-matched controls.
  • Unadjusted and adjusted associations of demographic and metabolic variables were estimated.
  • RESULTS: Chronic hepatitis C patients had higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, but lower total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels than controls.
  • Stratifying ALT level according to its upper limit of normal, HCV infection was associated with younger age, female gender, and higher TC levels in chronic hepatitis C patients with normal ALT levels, but with lower TC and lower TG levels in those with abnormal ALT levels.
  • By using multiple linear regression analyses for subjects with available adiponectin data, presence of HCV infection was independently associated with higher serum adiponectin levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic profiles of chronic hepatitis C patients are affected by age, gender, serum adiponectin, and ALT levels.
  • Further longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the complex interplay between HCV infection and metabolic profiles.

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  • (PMID = 19669312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716846
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30. Changchien CS, Chen CL, Yen YH, Wang JH, Hu TH, Lee CM, Wang CC, Cheng YF, Huang YJ, Lin CY, Lu SN: Analysis of 6381 hepatocellular carcinoma patients in southern Taiwan: prognostic features, treatment outcome, and survival. J Gastroenterol; 2008;43(2):159-70
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  • Multivariate analysis revealed that the independent factors influencing survival were the initial treatment modality, degree of liver function impairment, hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, tumor status, and alpha-fetoprotein.
  • Besides these well-known prognostic factors, high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and a high aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ALT ratio were identified as independent poor prognostic factors.

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  • (PMID = 18306990.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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31. Okuda M, Kunitsugu I, Yoshitake N, Hinoda Y, Suehiro Y, Okuda Y, Hobara T: Variance in the transaminase levels over the body mass index spectrum in 10- and 13-year-olds. Pediatr Int; 2010 Oct;52(5):813-9
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  • [Title] Variance in the transaminase levels over the body mass index spectrum in 10- and 13-year-olds.
  • BACKGROUND: Transaminase levels increase with body mass index (BMI) and also with an extreme drop in the BMI, as in the case of patients with anorexia nervosa.
  • We examined these levels over the BMI spectrum in Japanese 10- and 13-year-olds.
  • METHODS: Fifth- and eighth-grade students (n= 3747) from all schools in Shunan City, Japan, between 2006 and 2008 were included in the study.
  • BMI z-score and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were measured.
  • RESULTS: The ALT and GGT levels increased with z-BMI values in the boys and 10-year-old girls (P≤ 0.001).
  • In the 13-year-old girls, only the ALT levels increased with the z-BMI values (P= 0.018).
  • Similarly, the proportion of subjects with elevated ALT and GGT levels increased with the z-BMI values (p(trend) < 0.05).
  • The AST levels were negatively associated with BMI in the girls (P < 0.001).
  • Among the boys, these levels were elevated at the highest z-BMI values and slightly elevated at lower values, but not significantly.
  • These associations did not change after adjustments for confounders.
  • Generalized additive model analyses revealed that transaminase had non-linear relationships with z-BMI, except for the AST levels in the girls.
  • CONCLUSION: The elevated ALT and GGT levels were associated with high BMI in both sexes.
  • In the same study population, however, AST increased in the girls with low BMI and in the boys with high BMI.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Obesity / blood. gamma-Glutamyltransferase / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Anthropometry. Biomarkers / blood. Blood Chemical Analysis. Body Mass Index. Child. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Predictive Value of Tests. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sex Factors

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2010 Japan Pediatric Society.
  • (PMID = 20487366.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-200X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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32. Oliveira AM, Oliveira N, Reis JC, Santos MV, Silva AM, Adan L: Triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase as screening markers for suspected fatty liver disease in obese children and adolescents. Horm Res; 2009;71(2):83-8
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  • [Title] Triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase as screening markers for suspected fatty liver disease in obese children and adolescents.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS) and fatty liver disease (FLD) are on the rise.
  • The association between these conditions in Brazilian youth is analyzed.
  • METHODS: 354 subjects (11.2+/-3.1 years) were evaluated.
  • FLD was suspected by ultrasound and computed tomography; weight and MS by BMI z-score and NCEP-ATPIII respectively.
  • RESULTS: Subjects were classified as: group 1 with suspected FLD and group 2 without and group 2 as 'a' (overweight/obese) and 'b' (normal weight).
  • Comparing group 1 with 2a and 2b, differences in age (p=0.016; p=0.075), triglycerides (TG) (p=0.021; p=0.002), insulin (p=0.652; p=0.015) and homeostasis model assessment method of IR (HOMA-IR) (p=0.737; p=0.003) were found.
  • Group 2a was divided into low/high alanine aminotransferase (ALT).
  • A decrease in waist circumference and TG was found going from those with suspicion of FLD to obese with high and low ALT.
  • Insulin and HOMA-IR in group 1 and high ALT were similar.
  • Gender (OR 6.6; CI 1.9-22.5; p=0.025), age (OR 1.3; CI 1.1-1.6; p=0.006), TG (OR 10.4; CI 3.1-34.4; p=0.005) were associated with suspected FLD.
  • For every 10 U/l increase in ALT, there was a 4-fold greater chance of probable FLD (OR 4.01; CI 2.06-9.40; p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Measurements of ALT and TG should be considered as screening for suspected FLD in overweight/obese youth.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Fatty Liver / blood. Triglycerides / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers / blood. Brazil. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Metabolic Syndrome X / blood. Metabolic Syndrome X / diagnosis. Metabolic Syndrome X / pathology. Metabolic Syndrome X / physiopathology. Obesity / blood. Obesity / diagnosis. Obesity / pathology. Obesity / physiopathology. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19129712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Triglycerides; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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33. Ford ES, Schulze MB, Bergmann MM, Thamer C, Joost HG, Boeing H: Liver enzymes and incident diabetes: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Diabetes Care; 2008 Jun;31(6):1138-43
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  • [Title] Liver enzymes and incident diabetes: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the association between plasma concentrations of liver enzymes gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine transaminase (ALT) and incident diabetes, prospectively.
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort analysis of data from participants mainly aged 35-65 years in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study.
  • The analytic sample included 787 participants with incident diabetes and 2,224 participants without diabetes.
  • RESULTS: Concentrations of GGT and ALT were significantly associated with incident diabetes after extensive adjustment.
  • Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of GGT, the adjusted hazard ratios for increasing quintiles were 1.13 (95% CI 0.66-1.93), 1.67 (1.01-2.77), 2.77 (1.71-4.49), and 2.67 (1.63-4.37), respectively (P for linear trend <0.001).
  • Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of ALT, the adjusted hazard ratios for incident diabetes were 0.93 (0.56-1.53) for quintile 2, 1.28 (0.83-1.96) for quintile 3, 1.35 (0.88-2.07) for quintile 4, and 1.93 (1.27-2.92) for quintile 5 (P for linear trend = 0.002).
  • The magnitude of the associations were higher among men than women for GGT (P = 0.004) but did not differ significantly between men and women for ALT (P = 0.307).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of GGT and ALT were significant predictors of incident diabetes in this study, even at concentrations still considered to be within the normal range.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Diabetes Mellitus / enzymology. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Liver / enzymology. gamma-Glutamyltransferase / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / blood. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Life Style. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 18346992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-5548
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetes care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetes Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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34. Korovin MS, Bol'shakov MA, Gridneva VI, El'chaninov AA, Klimov AI, Rostov VV: [Assessment of some metabolic parameters of white rats' liver after exposure to repetitive x-ray or microwave pulses]. Eksp Klin Gastroenterol; 2005;(3):70-3, 101
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  • [Title] [Assessment of some metabolic parameters of white rats' liver after exposure to repetitive x-ray or microwave pulses].
  • Effects of repetitive X-ray and microwave pulses on the rat liver functions were investigated.
  • The action of repetitive nanosecond X-ray is characterized by the metabolic dysfunction of the liver.
  • In particular, it results in a considerable reduction in the ALT activity, augmentation of the AST/ALT ratio and decrease of the total protein content.
  • The most considerable effect is observed at 16 Hz.
  • Microwave pulses render a less significant effect on metabolic functions of the rat liver as compared to X-rays.
  • The effect depends on the frequency of pulses.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / metabolism. Liver / metabolism. Liver / radiation effects. Microwaves
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Chemical Analysis. Male. Rats. Rats, Inbred Strains. X-Rays

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  • (PMID = 16255557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1682-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Ėksperimental'nai︠a︡ i klinicheskai︠a︡ gastroėnterologii︠a︡ = Experimental & clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eksp Klin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins
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35. Huo L, Zhou Y, Li Y: Alkylthio-substituted polythiophene: absorption and photovoltaic properties. Macromol Rapid Commun; 2009 Jun 2;30(11):925-31
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  • [Title] Alkylthio-substituted polythiophene: absorption and photovoltaic properties.
  • Two polythiophene derivatives with electron-donating alkylthio side chains, poly[(3-hexylthio)thiophene] (P3HST) and poly[(3-hexylthio)thiophene-alt-thiophene] (P3HST-co-Th) have been synthesized and characterized.
  • Both P3HST and P3HST-co-Th show broader absorption peaks than poly(3-hexylthiophene).
  • Meanwhile, the alkylthio side chains decrease the HOMO energy level of the polymers, which benefits the higher open circuit voltage of the polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on the polymer as donor.
  • PSCs have been fabricated with the polymers as donor and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester as acceptor (1: 1, w/w).
  • The devices based on P3HST and P3HST-co-Th show an open circuit voltage of 0.63 V, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.34% and 0.5%, respectively, under the illumination of AM1.5, 80 mW · cm(-2) .

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
  • (PMID = 21706550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-1336
  • [Journal-full-title] Macromolecular rapid communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Macromol Rapid Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Cook IF, Murtagh J: Ventrogluteal area--a suitable site for intramuscular vaccination of infants and toddlers. Vaccine; 2006 Mar 20;24(13):2403-8
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  • Safety concerns about buttock injection derived from injections with neurotoxic agents, like penicillin but not vaccines, have become entrenched.
  • These were used in an untrasonographic study of 57 children aged 2-18 months to determine the tissue composition of the ventrogluteal area compared with the recommended anterolateral thigh vaccination site.

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  • (PMID = 16406175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vaccines
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37. Fulco CS, Muza SR, Beidleman B, Jones J, Staab J, Rock PB, Cymerman A: Exercise performance of sea-level residents at 4300 m after 6 days at 2200 m. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2009 Nov;80(11):955-61
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  • In addition, RPE was lower (13 +/- 1 vs.16 +/- 1, P < 0.01) and HR remained at approximately 148 +/- 5 bpm despite performing the TT at a higher power output during ALT-2 than ALT-1 (120 +/- 7 vs.100 +/- 10 W, P < 0.01).

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  • (PMID = 19911519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Fasching CL, Bower K, Reddel RR: Telomerase-independent telomere length maintenance in the absence of alternative lengthening of telomeres-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies. Cancer Res; 2005 Apr 1;65(7):2722-9
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  • Immortal tumor cells and cell lines employ a telomere maintenance mechanism that allows them to escape the normal limits on proliferative potential.
  • Here we describe telomerase-negative human cells with telomeres that contain a substantial proportion of nontelomeric DNA sequences (like telomerase-null Saccharomyces cerevisiae survivor type I cells) and that are maintained in the absence of APBs.

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  • (PMID = 15805271.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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39. Proctor MJ, Talwar D, Balmar SM, O'Reilly DS, Foulis AK, Horgan PG, Morrison DS, McMillan DC: The relationship between the presence and site of cancer, an inflammation-based prognostic score and biochemical parameters. Initial results of the Glasgow Inflammation Outcome Study. Br J Cancer; 2010 Sep 7;103(6):870-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Cancer incidence is increasing in the United Kingdom, as well as on a global basis.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that the systemic inflammatory response is common in a large patient cohort, increased by the presence of cancer and associated with the perturbation of a number of biochemical parameters previously reported to be associated with mortality.

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  • [Cites] Lancet. 2001 Feb 17;357(9255):539-45 [11229684.001]
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  • (PMID = 20717110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Serum Albumin; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966631
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40. Chu B, Jiang LR, Zhou S, Xu YZ, Zhang B, Deng ZH: [Value of the liver function test in differential diagnosis of infantile hepatitis syndrome and biliary atresia]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Dec;11(12):953-6
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  • [Title] [Value of the liver function test in differential diagnosis of infantile hepatitis syndrome and biliary atresia].
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the value of the liver function test in the differential diagnosis of infantile hepatitis syndrome (IHS) and biliary atresia (BA) by analyzing seven conventional serological markers in this test using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
  • METHODS: Serum levels of seven conventional serological markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and serum albumin (ALB) were measured in 103 children with IHS and 60 children with BA.
  • ROC curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and predictive values and optimal cut-off.
  • The united tests (parallel test and serial test) of gamma-GT, TB and CB were performed to elevate diagnostic efficiency.
  • RESULTS: Compared with the IHS group, the BA group had significantly increased serum ALT, AST, gamma-GT, TB and CB levels (p<0.01).
  • The area under ROC (AUCROC) of AST, gamma-GT, CB and TB was 0.77, 0.881, 0.841 and 0.87, respectively. gamma-GT showed the highest AUCROC, specificity, positive predictive value and positive likelihood ratio in the diagnosis of BA, followed by CB, TB and AST in turn.
  • The negative predictive value of CB was the highest, followed by TB.
  • The negative likelihood ratio of CB was the lowest but its Youden index was the highest.
  • The Youden index of gamma-GT and TB was lower than that of CB.
  • After the parallel tests, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of gamma-GT, CB and TB increased to 100%.
  • After the serial tests, the specificity of gamma-GT, CB and TB increased to 90.4% and the positive predictive value increased to 87.5%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of gamma-GT, TB and CB levels are valuable in the differential diagnosis of BA and IHS.
  • An imaging examination is required in the parallel test positive patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Atresia / diagnosis. Hepatitis / diagnosis. Liver Function Tests
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Bilirubin / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. ROC Curve. gamma-Glutamyltransferase / blood


41. Lan Y, Liu J, Cheng H, Zou SL, Gan XL: [Expressions of SHP and CYP7A1 in pregnant rats with intrahepatic cholestasis]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi; 2008 Jun;16(6):453-6
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  • [Title] [Expressions of SHP and CYP7A1 in pregnant rats with intrahepatic cholestasis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expressions of small heterodimer partner (SHP) and target gene cholesterol-7-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in livers of rats with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), and to study the mechanism of ICP.
  • METHODS: Thirty SD rats (pregnant for 15 days) were equally and randomly divided into two groups: an estradiol benzoate (EB) group and a normal saline (NS) group.
  • Two ml blood was drawn from each rat before and on the 5th day after medicine administration to measure the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, TBA, TBIL, and DBIL.
  • After delivery, the histopathological changes of the mother rat livers were studied.
  • The mRNA and protein expressions of SHP and CYP7A1 in the livers were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. RESULTS:.
  • (1) In the EB group, the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, TBA, TBil, and DBil after EB administration increased significantly (P less than 0.01), but there were no significant changes in the NS group (P more than 0.05);.
  • (2) Intrahepatic cholestasis appeared in the EB group, but not in the NS group;.
  • (3) The mRNA expressions of SHP and CYP7A1 were significantly higher in the EB group than in the NS group [(SHPmRNA: NS 0.365+/-0.0317 vs EB 0.4865+/-0.0237, P less than 0.01), (CYP7A1 mRNA: NS 0.3570+/-0.0175 vs EB 0.4802+/-0.0217, P less than 0.01)];.
  • (4) The protein expressions of SHP and CYP7A1 were also higher in the EB group than that in the NS group [(SHP: NS 0.3762+/-0.0284 vs EB 0.5033+/-0.0274, P less than 0.01), (CYP7A1: NS 0.3570+/-0.0175 vs EB 0.4802+/-0.0217, P less than 0.01)].
  • CONCLUSION: Estrogen induces ICP in rats.
  • The mRNA and protein expressions of SHP and CYP7A1 in livers of the ICP rats were increased, which causes more bile acids to be synthesized.
  • This may be one of the mechanisms of ICP.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholestasis, Intrahepatic / metabolism. Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Pregnancy Complications / metabolism. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Estradiol / pharmacology. Female. Liver / metabolism. Pregnancy. Rats

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  • (PMID = 18578998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-3418
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2; 1S4CJB5ZGN / estradiol 3-benzoate; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 1.14.13.17 / CYP7A1 protein, rat; EC 1.14.13.17 / Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase
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42. Birkner E, Zalejska-Fiolka J, Kasperczyk A, Kasperczyk S, Grucka-Mamczar E, Stawiarska-Pieta B, Birkner K: The influence of methionine, selenomethionine, and vitamin E on liver metabolic pathways and steatosis in high-cholesterol fed rabbits. Biol Trace Elem Res; 2007;120(1-3):179-94
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  • Prolonged administration of high-cholesterol diet not only disturbs the structure of cell membranes, which is expressed by decreased activity of enzymes in the liver and the migration of those enzymes to plasma but as well leads to steatosis of the liver, which has been confirmed by histological examinations.

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  • (PMID = 17916970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-4984
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological trace element research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol Trace Elem Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Triglycerides; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; 964MRK2PEL / Selenomethionine; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine; EC 1.1.1.14 / L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.4.1.2 / Glutamate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 4.1.2.13 / Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase
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43. Eichstädt H: [Horst Schmutzler, 80 years old]. Z Kardiol; 2005 Jun;94(6):419-20
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  • [Title] [Horst Schmutzler, 80 years old].
  • [Transliterated title] Horst Schmutzler 80 Jahre alt.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiology / history. Cardiovascular Diseases / history
  • [MeSH-minor] Germany. History, 20th Century. History, 21st Century. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15940444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Kardiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Kardiol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Schmutzler H
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44. Madhoun MF, Bader T: Statins improve ALT values in chronic hepatitis C patients with abnormal values. Dig Dis Sci; 2010 Mar;55(3):870-1
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  • [Title] Statins improve ALT values in chronic hepatitis C patients with abnormal values.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Hepatitis C, Chronic / enzymology. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentOn] Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Jan;55(1):190-5 [19731022.001]
  • [Cites] Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Jan;55(1):190-5 [19731022.001]
  • (PMID = 20108117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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45. Bardag-Gorce F, Li J, Oliva J, Lu SC, French BA, French SW: The cyclic pattern of blood alcohol levels during continuous ethanol feeding in rats: the effect of feeding S-adenosylmethionine. Exp Mol Pathol; 2010 Jun;88(3):380-7
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  • [Title] The cyclic pattern of blood alcohol levels during continuous ethanol feeding in rats: the effect of feeding S-adenosylmethionine.
  • S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the major methyl donor for DNA and histone methylation was fed with ethanol for 1month in order to modify the effects of ethanol on rat liver.
  • The following parameters were studied to determine the effects of SAMe; liver histology, the blood alcohol cycle (BAL), changes in gene expression mined from microarray analysis, changes in histone methylation, changes in liver SAMe levels and its metabolites and ADH.
  • SAMe changed the type of fatty liver, reduced liver ALT levels and prevented the BAL cycle caused by intragastric ethanol feeding.
  • Microarray analysis showed that SAMe feeding prevented most of the changes in gene expression induced by ethanol feeding, presumably by inducing H3K27me3 and gene silencing.
  • H3K27me3 was significantly increased by SAMe with or without ethanol feeding.
  • It is concluded that SAMe feeding stabilized global gene expression so that the changes in gene expression involved in the blood alcohol cycle were prevented.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20303346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0945
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA011999-100002; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA011999-099002; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / P50 AA011999-099002; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA011999-109002; United States / PHS HHS / / 8116; United States / PHS HHS / / PA50-11999; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA008116-15; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA008116; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / P50 AA011999-109002; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / P50 AA011999; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / P50 AA011999-100002
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 7LP2MPO46S / S-Adenosylmethionine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS190886; NLM/ PMC2888598
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46. Kee KM, Hung CM, Wang JH, Hung CH, Chen PF, Lin KS, Lu SN: Low accuracy of the national reporting system of acute hepatitis C infection in Taiwan, 1995-2004. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Jul;25(7):1289-94
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  • Greater efforts are needed to establish appropriate reporting systems, as well as more supplemental methods to distinguish between prevalent and incident cases.

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  • (PMID = 20594258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis C Antibodies; 0 / RNA, Viral; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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47. Miller AM, Wang H, Park O, Horiguchi N, Lafdil F, Mukhopadhyay P, Moh A, Fu XY, Kunos G, Pacher P, Gao B: Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic roles of endothelial cell STAT3 in alcoholic liver injury. Alcohol Clin Exp Res; 2010 Apr;34(4):719-25
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  • [Title] Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic roles of endothelial cell STAT3 in alcoholic liver injury.
  • BACKGROUND: It is generally believed that the hepatoprotective effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6) is mediated via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in hepatocytes.
  • IL-6-deficient mice are more susceptible to alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and steatosis and elevation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT); however, whereas hepatocyte-specific STAT3 knockout mice are more susceptible to alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis, they have similar hepatocyte apoptosis and serum ALT after alcohol feeding compared with wild-type mice.
  • This suggests that the hepatoprotective effect of IL-6 in alcoholic liver injury may be mediated via activation of STAT3-independent signals in hepatocytes, activation of STAT3 in nonparenchymal cells, or both.
  • We have previously shown that IL-6 also activates STAT3 in sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs).
  • Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether STAT3 in endothelial cells also plays a protective role in alcoholic liver injury.
  • METHODS: Wild-type and endothelial cell-specific STAT3 knockout (STAT3(E-/-)) mice were pair-fed and fed ethanol containing diet for 4 weeks.
  • Liver injury and inflammation were determined.
  • RESULTS: Feeding mice with ethanol-containing diet for 4 weeks induced greater hepatic injury (elevation of serum ALT) and liver weight in STAT3(E-/-) mice than wild-type control groups.
  • In addition, ethanol-fed STAT3(E-/-) mice displayed greater hepatic inflammation and substantially elevated serum and hepatic levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha compared with wild-type mice.
  • Furthermore, ethanol-fed STAT3(E-/-) mice displayed a greater abundance of apoptotic SECs and higher levels of serum hyaluronic acid than wild-type controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that endothelial cell STAT3 plays important dual functions of attenuating hepatic inflammation and SEC death during alcoholic liver injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / physiology. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Hepatitis, Alcoholic / metabolism. Inflammation Mediators / physiology. STAT3 Transcription Factor / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Ethanol / toxicity. Interleukin-6 / deficiency. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / metabolism. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / pathology. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / prevention & control. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Transgenic

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  • (PMID = 20102572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0277
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 AA999999; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA AA000369-08
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Stat3 protein, mouse; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161087; NLM/ PMC2858250
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48. Lv X, Li Q, Huang SD, Wu FX, Yang LQ, Yu WF: [Isoflurane pretreatment reduced liver injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion combined with lipopolysaccharide in rats]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue; 2008 May;20(5):271-4
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  • The pathological changes in the liver tissue were assessed.
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in liver tissue, hepatic and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were determined.
  • RESULTS: Compared with Sham group, ALT, AST, TNF-alpha in serum and MPO activity in liver tissue, hepatic and serum TNF-alpha were increased significantly in all injury groups (all P<0.01).
  • Compared with ISO group alone, hepatic I/R combined with LPS resulted in severer liver injury, with the levels of ALT, AST in serum, MPO activity in the liver tissue, and hepatic and serum TNF-alpha level were all increased (all P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Lipopolysaccharides / poisoning. Male. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18471356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-0603
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue = Chinese critical care medicine = Zhongguo weizhongbing jijiuyixue
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; CYS9AKD70P / Isoflurane; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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49. Wang L, Xu JB, Tian Y, Wu HS, Liu YL: [Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against lipopolysaccharide injury in hepatocytes of neonatal mice]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan;45(1):30-3
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  • [Title] [Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against lipopolysaccharide injury in hepatocytes of neonatal mice].
  • OBJECTIVE: N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a sulfhydryl donor molecule with antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects.
  • A major role has been described for inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase in several inflammatory liver diseases.
  • NAC attenuates NO generation following lipopolysaccharide injection in rats.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NAC against lipopolysaccharide injury in hepatocytes of neonatal mice and the molecular mechanisms by which NAC influences inflammatory responses of the hepatocytes.
  • METHODS: The liver of neonatal mouse was digested by collagenase to dissociate the hepatocytes.
  • The hepatocytes were cultured and isolated.
  • After 7 days of culture the normal hepatocytes were divided into two groups: LPS group and NAC group.
  • In LPS group, 10 microg/ml LPS was added into the culture medium.
  • In NAC group, 5 mmol/L NAC was added into the culture medium firstly, 10 microg/ml LPS was added after 1 h of culture.
  • There were 12 mice in each group.
  • The cell supernatants and the hepatocytes were collected at 0, 6 and 12 hours after adding LPS.
  • The cell supernatants were taken to measure the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and nitric oxide (NO) production by the biochemical methods.
  • The cells were taken to analyze the gene expression of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by the RT-PCR.
  • RESULTS: In LPS group, the levels of ALT, NO and iNOS mRNA increased significantly at the time points 6 h and 12 h compared with the time point 0, (P < 0.01).
  • Compared with the LPS group, the levels of ALT, NO and iNOS mRNA of NAC group were lower at the time points 6 h and 12 h (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: NAC may play a protective role in the hepatocytes injury caused by LPS in the neonatal mice.
  • The protective mechanism works partially through the inhibition of iNOS activation by LPS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylcysteine / pharmacology. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology. Hepatocytes / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / metabolism. Animals. Animals, Newborn. Cells, Cultured. Lipopolysaccharides. Mice. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17349145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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50. Yang BK, Kim GN, Jeong YT, Jeong H, Mehta P, Song CH: Hypoglycemic Effects of Exo-biopolymers Produced by Five Different Medicinal Mushrooms in STZ-induced Diabetic Rats. Mycobiology; 2008 Mar;36(1):45-9
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  • [Title] Hypoglycemic Effects of Exo-biopolymers Produced by Five Different Medicinal Mushrooms in STZ-induced Diabetic Rats.
  • Hypoglycemic effects of exo-biopolymers (EBP) produced by submerged mycelial cultures of Coriolus versicolor, Cordyceps sinensis, Paecilomyces japonica, Armillariella mellea, and Fomes fomentarius were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
  • The rats from each experimental group were orally administered with EBPs (100 mg/kg BW) daily for 2 weeks.
  • Though the hypoglycemic effect was achieved in all the cases, however, C. versicolor EBP proved as the most potent one.
  • The administration of the C. versicolor EBP substantially reduced (29.9%) the plasma glucose level as compared to the saline administered group (control).
  • It also reduced the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 9.22, 23.83, 16.93, and 27.31%, respectively.
  • The sugar and amino acid compositions of this EBP were also analyzed in detail.

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  • (PMID = 23997607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-8093
  • [Journal-full-title] Mycobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mycobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3755251
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Exo-biopolymer / Hypoglycemic effect / Mushrooms
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51. Xue J, Arbique G, Hatef D, Brown S, Saint-Cyr M, Gao JX: Four-dimensional vascular tree reconstruction using moving grid deformation. Acad Radiol; 2007 Dec;14(12):1540-53
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  • [Title] Four-dimensional vascular tree reconstruction using moving grid deformation.
  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Thinned perforator flaps have been widely used in plastic surgery for greater survivability and decreased morbidity.
  • However, quantitative analysis of three-dimensional (3D) blood flow direction and location has not been examined yet.
  • Such information will benefit and guide the surgical thinning and dissection process.
  • Toward this goal, this study was performed for 3D vascular tree reconstruction with the incorporation of temporal contrast-agent propagation information (three spatial dimensions plus one temporal dimension; ie, 4D).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A novel computational framework by adopting a moving grid deformation method is presented.
  • To take advantage of temporal information of the bolus propagating, a sequential segmentation procedure is proposed.
  • Moreover, the temporal evolution of the vascular tree (4D vascular tree) is reconstructed during the procedure.
  • RESULTS: Eight anterolateral thigh perforator flaps from eight cadavers were used for this study.
  • The age range is 60-80 years old and the gender includes four males and four females.
  • The 3D nature of the vascular structure and 4D vascular tree evolving process are showed in comparison with maximum intensity projection images.
  • CONCLUSION: The proposed computational framework demonstrates effectiveness in the modeling of 4D vascular tree.
  • Furthermore, it reveals the ability to detect small vessel tree structures that are beyond the limit of image resolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiography / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Models, Cardiovascular. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Blood Vessels / pathology. Cadaver. Contrast Media. Fascia / blood supply. Fascia / transplantation. Female. Femoral Artery / radiography. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Regional Blood Flow / physiology. Surgical Flaps / blood supply. Thigh / blood supply. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18035283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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52. Lee BH, Koh WJ, Choi MS, Suh GY, Chung MP, Kim H, Kwon OJ: Inactive hepatitis B surface antigen carrier state and hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis chemotherapy. Chest; 2005 Apr;127(4):1304-11
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  • STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers are at a higher risk of drug-induced hepatotoxicity than control subjects during antituberculosis treatment with standard short-course regimens of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and/or pyrazinamide.

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  • (PMID = 15821209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3692
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 2KNI5N06TI / Pyrazinamide; 8G167061QZ / Ethambutol; V83O1VOZ8L / Isoniazid; VJT6J7R4TR / Rifampin
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53. Khan AA, Sarwar S: Response to combination therapy in hepatitis virus C genotype 2 and 3. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2009 Aug;19(8):473-7
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  • [Title] Response to combination therapy in hepatitis virus C genotype 2 and 3.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine Sustained Viral Response (SVR) to Interferon (IFN) and ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients of genotype 2 and 3.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Case series.
  • PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Garden Clinic, Lahore, from June 1997 to August 2007.
  • METHODOLOGY: All patients of both genotypes 2 and 3 receiving combination therapy were included.
  • Standard IFN with ribavirin was started in 648 (90%) patients of genotype 2 and 3, whereas 73 (10%), all genotype 3 received pegylated IFN.
  • Outcome parameters including End of Treatment Response (ETR) [negative PCR at the end of therapy], sustained viral response (SVR) [negative PCR both at the end of treatment and 6 months later] and relapse (PCR negative at the end of treatment but positive 6 months later) were determined.
  • Data were analyzed using student's t-test and Chi-square.
  • RESULTS: A total of 721 patients of genotype 2 and 3 were evaluated with male to female ratio of 1.78:1 and mean age 39.8 +/- 9.17 years.
  • Twenty six (3.6%) patients were of genotype 2, while 695 (96.4%) had genotype 3.
  • Six hundred and ten patients (84.6%) completed therapy, as per protocol, whereas 58 (8.04%) had therapy beyond 6 months.
  • SVR was 72.7% with better outcome in genotype 2 (80%) than in 3 (72%) and in those on pegylated IFN and ribavirin (85%) than patients on standard IFN-based therapy (71.1%).
  • Relapse was seen in 116 (16.1%) and 80 (11.1%) were non-responders.
  • Patients with baseline ALT 2-4 x UNL had better SVR than patients with ALT < 2x UNL (p-value 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Genotype 3 was the predominant type of virus in the studied patients.
  • SVR patients was 72.7%.
  • Outcome was better with high baseline ALT and pegylated interferon combination therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy. Interferons / therapeutic use. Ribavirin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Databases, Factual. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19651007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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54. Hemmingsson E, Uddén J, Neovius M: No apparent progress in bioelectrical impedance accuracy: validation against metabolic risk and DXA. Obesity (Silver Spring); 2009 Jan;17(1):183-7
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  • Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is quick, easy, and safe when quantifying fat and lean tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Absorptiometry, Photon. Adipose Tissue / anatomy & histology. Electric Impedance. Insulin Resistance

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  • (PMID = 18997678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-7381
  • [Journal-full-title] Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obesity (Silver Spring)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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55. Deuffic-Burban S, Abiteboul D, Lot F, Branger M, Bouvet E, Yazdanpanah Y: Costs and cost-effectiveness of different follow-up schedules for detection of occupational hepatitis C virus infection. Gut; 2009 Jan;58(1):105-10
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  • [Title] Costs and cost-effectiveness of different follow-up schedules for detection of occupational hepatitis C virus infection.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the costs and cost-effectiveness (C/E) of early hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing (alternative-US recommendations) after occupational exposure to HCV with existing follow-up strategies:.
  • (1) French, anti-HCV antibodies and alanine transaminase (ALT) activity at months 1, 3 and 6;.
  • (2) European, monthly ALT activity for 4 months and anti-HCV antibodies at month 6;.
  • (3) and baseline-US, anti-HCV antibodies and ALT activity at month 6.
  • METHODS: A decision tree simulated each strategy for 7300 healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to HCV each year in France, taking into account the impact of early diagnosis on the response to antiviral treatment and the deterioration of HCW quality of life after exposure.
  • RESULTS: For a HCV transmission risk of 0.5% after exposure, the French strategy led to the highest costs/person (181.40 euros) and the baseline-US strategy to the lowest (126.60 euros) (178.50 euros) for alternative-US).
  • The shortest mean time to HCV infection diagnosis (1 month) and the lowest number of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients (1.9/7300 HCWs exposed) was obtained with the alternative-US strategy (vs 6 months and 7.9 CHC, respectively with baseline-US).
  • Compared with the alternative-US, the French strategy was associated with higher costs and lower utilities, and the European with a higher incremental C/E ratio.
  • Compared with the baseline-US strategy, the alternative-US strategy C/E ratio was 2020 euros per quality-adjusted life year saved.
  • CONCLUSION: In HCWs exposed to HCV, a strategy based on early HCV RNA testing shortens the period during which the HCW's wait for his HCV status, leads to lower risk of progression to CHC and is reasonably cost-effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data. Health Personnel. Hepatitis C / diagnosis. Hepatitis C / economics. Occupational Diseases / diagnosis. Occupational Diseases / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers / blood. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Early Diagnosis. Europe. Health Services Research / methods. Hepacivirus / genetics. Hepacivirus / isolation & purification. Hepatitis C Antibodies / blood. Humans. Long-Term Care / economics. Long-Term Care / methods. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Quality of Life. RNA, Viral / blood. United States

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  • (PMID = 18824553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3288
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Hepatitis C Antibodies; 0 / RNA, Viral; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2597690
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56. Zhong F, Lan Y, Zhao C, Xu B, Liu S: [Repair of soft tissue defect in extremities with anterolateral thigh perforator flap]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Apr;24(4):455-7
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  • [Title] [Repair of soft tissue defect in extremities with anterolateral thigh perforator flap].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical effect of anterolateral thigh pedicle or free perforator flap in repairing soft tissue defect in the extremities.
  • METHODS: From March 2000 to January 2009, 32 cases of soft tissue defect were treated with pedicle or free anterolateral thigh perforator flap.
  • Soft tissue defects included left radial side in 3 cases, the left lateral elbow in 1 case, knee in 5 cases, calf in 14 cases, dorsalis pedis in 5 cases, and plantae pedis in 4 cases.
  • The flaps survived well and the wounds healed by first intention in 29 cases, 3 flaps necrosed and cured after symptomatic management.
  • It is an effective method to repair soft tissue defect of the extremities.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Transplantation. Soft Tissue Injuries / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 20459010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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57. Selimoglu MA, Ertekin V, Altinkaynak S: Hyper-CK-emia in pediatric celiac disease: prevalence and clinical importance. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2007 Aug;41(7):667-70
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  • Hyper-transaminasemia (HT) is a well-known laboratory sign of celiac disease (CD); however, hyper-creatine phosphokinase (CK)-emia (HCK) is not so familiar.
  • Of patients, 77 (61.1%) had classic form, 49 (38.9%) had atypical form.


58. Winzer M, Grässler J, Aringer M: [Crystal-induced arthritis--old but important]. Z Rheumatol; 2007 Jul;66(4):317-24; quiz 325
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  • [Title] [Crystal-induced arthritis--old but important].
  • [Transliterated title] Kristallarthropathien--alt, aber wichtig.
  • Gout is the most common inflammatory arthropathy for men.
  • Asymptomatic hyperuricemia, which should lead to diet, but not to medication, is much more common still.
  • Increased uric acid levels mostly result from diminished renal excretion, which is more commonly familiar than secondary (renal failure, diuretics).
  • With the first episode of often typical (red, hot, exquisitely painful first MTP joint) acute arthritis or with urate nephrolithiasis, increased uric acid turns pathological.
  • Attacks are treated with NSAIDs or corticosteroids.
  • More common attacks, chronic gout, or urate nephropathy are definite indications for long-term (at least 5 years) therapy with allopurinol or febuxostat.
  • Additional anti-inflammatory medication will be necessary during the first months.
  • Calcium pyrophosphate deposition arthropathy, the second common crystal-induced arthritis, is diagnosed by synovial fluid analysis or for chondrocalcinosis.
  • Treatment for attacks resembles therapy of acute gout; causal therapy is possible in case of secondary forms (e.g. hypothyroidism. hyperparathyroidism, hemochromatosis).
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Gout / diagnosis. Gout / drug therapy. Gout Suppressants / therapeutic use. Uric Acid / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans

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  • (PMID = 17562056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-1855
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Gout Suppressants; 268B43MJ25 / Uric Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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59. Croagh CM, Bell SJ, Slavin J, Kong YX, Chen RY, Locarnini S, Desmond PV: Increasing hepatitis B viral load is associated with risk of significant liver fibrosis in HBeAg-negative but not HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Liver Int; 2010 Sep;30(8):1115-22
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  • [Title] Increasing hepatitis B viral load is associated with risk of significant liver fibrosis in HBeAg-negative but not HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the association between demographical features, serum ALT and HBV DNA and the prevalence of significant fibrosis and inflammation on liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
  • METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of patients on St Vincent's Hospital HBV database, patients were classified into three groups on the basis of HBeAg status and HBV DNA level and the prevalence of significant (F2/3/4) fibrosis and (A2/3) inflammation in each group was established.
  • Patients were also divided into HBeAg-positive and -negative groups and examined for the prevalence of significant fibrosis/inflammation in the strata of HBV DNA and ALT.
  • Predictors of significant fibrosis and inflammation in HBeAg-positive and -negative patients were examined by logistic regression.
  • RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety four patients (HBeAg positive=198; HBeAg negative=196) with liver biopsy were identified.
  • Fifty-eight percent of HBeAg-negative patients with HBV DNA >25,000 IU/ml had F2/3/4 fibrosis.
  • HBV DNA and F2/3/4 were positively correlated in HBeAg-negative patients [odds ratio (OR) 1.42, P=0.001] but inversely correlated in HBeAg-positive patients (OR 0.71, P=0.03).
  • HBV DNA was an independent predictor of significant fibrosis in HBeAg negative (P=0.03) but not HBeAg-positive patients.
  • In HBeAg-positive patients, age was the only predictor of significant fibrosis (P=0.001) and ALT the only predictor of significant inflammation (P=0.003).
  • In the whole cohort there was a close positive association between inflammation and fibrosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Increasing levels of HBV DNA are associated with increasing prevalence of significant fibrosis only in patients with HBeAg-negative CHB.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B e Antigens / metabolism. Hepatitis B virus / physiology. Hepatitis B, Chronic / epidemiology. Hepatitis B, Chronic / pathology. Hepatitis B, Chronic / virology. Liver / pathology. Viral Load / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / metabolism. Analysis of Variance. Biopsy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Odds Ratio. Statistics, Nonparametric. Victoria / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Liver Int. 2010 Sep;30(8):1085-6 [20492519.001]
  • [CommentIn] Liver Int. 2012 Apr;32(4):689; author reply 689-90 [22133082.001]
  • (PMID = 20492511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-3231
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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60. Acquaviva R, Lanteri R, Li Destri G, Caltabiano R, Vanella L, Lanzafame S, Di Cataldo A, Li Volti G, Di Giacomo C: Beneficial effects of rutin and L-arginine coadministration in a rat model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; 2009 Mar;296(3):G664-70
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  • Plasmatic and hepatic levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lipid peroxides (LOOH), and thiol groups (RSH) were examined, as well as DNA fragmentation and liver histopathology.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. (L)-ARGININE .
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  • (PMID = 19109403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1857
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Sulfhydryl Compounds; 5G06TVY3R7 / Rutin; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nos2 protein, rat; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing); EC 1.14.99.3 / Hmox1 protein, rat; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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61. Mansoori B, Nodeh H, Modirsanei M, Kiaei MM, Farkhoy M: Influence of dietary tannic acid and polyethylene glycol on growth and intestinal D-xylose absorption of broiler cockerels and activity of serum enzymes. Br Poult Sci; 2007 Aug;48(4):489-95
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  • 4. The results showed that TA significantly reduced BWG and FCR, as well as the activity of LDH, AST and ALT.

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  • (PMID = 17701502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1668
  • [Journal-full-title] British poultry science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. Poult. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tannins; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; A1TA934AKO / Xylose; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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62. Straatman LV, van den Hoogen FJ, Hartman EH: A new function of the monitor skin island: repair of a pharyngocutaneous fistula with a monitor skin island of the anterolateral thigh flap. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2008 Sep;61(9):1132-4
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  • [Title] A new function of the monitor skin island: repair of a pharyngocutaneous fistula with a monitor skin island of the anterolateral thigh flap.

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  • (PMID = 18490211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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63. Whitfield RM, King D, Rossi P, Loffredo M: Pedicle anterolateral thigh flap reconstruction after pelvic tumor resection: a case report. Plast Surg Int; 2010;2010:684806
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  • [Title] Pedicle anterolateral thigh flap reconstruction after pelvic tumor resection: a case report.
  • A 47-year-old female with a locally advanced urologic malignancy previously managed with resection, diversion, and postoperative radiation therapy presented for management of her recurrent cancer that had eroded through the soft tissues of the left inner thigh and vulva.
  • On all staging studies the tumor involved the left common femoral artery, and vein, both above and below the inguinal ligament.
  • The difficulty with such tumors is the availability of tissue to reconstruct the defect.
  • An anterolateral thigh flap from the opposite thigh was used to reconstruct the soft tissue deficit in this patient.

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  • (PMID = 22567231.001).
  • [ISSN] 2090-1461
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast Surg Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3335610
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64. Bairwa NK, Sethiya NK, Mishra SH: Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Pharmacognosy Res; 2010 Jan;2(1):26-30
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  • [Title] Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
  • The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats.
  • The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg).
  • Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control.
  • High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents.
  • A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

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  • (PMID = 21808535.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-8490
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacognosy research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacognosy Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3140124
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ceiba pentandra / hepatoprotective / hepatotoxicity / paracetamol
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65. Mansour HH, Hafez HF, Fahmy NM: Silymarin modulates Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. J Biochem Mol Biol; 2006 Nov 30;39(6):656-61
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  • Hepatotoxicity was determined by changes in serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST], nitric oxide [NO] levels, albumin and calcium levels, and superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GSHPx] activities, glutathione content, malondialdehyde [MDA] and nitric oxide [NO] levels in liver tissue of rats.
  • ), whereas animals in the third group were i.p. injected with silymarin at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days.
  • CDDP hepatotoxicity was manifested biochemically by an increase in serum ALT and AST, elevation of MDA and NO in liver tissues as well as a decrease in GSH and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including SOD, GSHPx in liver tissues.

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  • (PMID = 17129399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1225-8687
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protective Agents; 0 / Silymarin; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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66. Chen HH, Lin MS, Chou EK, Chang SC, Chen HC, Xu E, Wu CI: Anterolateral thigh perforator flap: varying perforator anatomy. Ann Plast Surg; 2009 Aug;63(2):153-5
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  • [Title] Anterolateral thigh perforator flap: varying perforator anatomy.
  • The anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap is based on the septocutaneous or musculocutaneous perforators from the lateral circumflex femoral vessels.
  • Each perforator artery should be accompanied by 2 veins.
  • Anomalies of the perforator anatomy in the subfascia and intramuscular layer are rarely reported.
  • This study analyzed 6 anatomic perforator variations from subfascial to intramuscular level out of 1043 ALT perforator flaps performed from 2005 to 2007 in China Medical University Hospital in Taichung, Taiwan and from 2004 to 2007 in E-Da Hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
  • The perforator flaps included (1) 1 perforator artery and 4 accompanying veins, (2) 1 perforator artery and 1 accompanying vein, (3) 1 tortuous perforator artery and 1 accompanying vein, (4) 1 perforator artery with no accompanying vein, (5) 2 veins with no accompanying perforator artery, and (6) 1 vein only.
  • These variations in perforator anatomy were believed to be the causes of total or partial flap failure after excluding all the other possibilities such as vessel kinking or perforator injury during intramuscular dissection.
  • Further, the nearby anteromedial thigh or tensor fasciae lata flaps were considered alternative flaps in cases of unusual perforator anatomy.
  • The contralateral ALT flap was also necessary in some cases.
  • However, anatomic variations in perforators from subfascial to intramuscular layer must be considered if the flap is to be used safely and reliably.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Artery / anatomy & histology. Femoral Vein / anatomy & histology. Surgical Flaps / blood supply. Thigh / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Laser-Doppler Flowmetry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19593112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3708
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Chayanupatkul M, Honsawek S, Vejchapipat P, Chongsrisawat V, Poovorawan Y: Elevated serum bone morphogenetic protein 7 levels and clinical outcome in children with biliary atresia. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;19(4):246-50
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  • [Title] Elevated serum bone morphogenetic protein 7 levels and clinical outcome in children with biliary atresia.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Biliary atresia (BA) is one of the most serious liver disorders in children.
  • The purposes of the present study were to investigate serum levels of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) in BA children compared with healthy controls and to evaluate the association between serum BMP7 and the clinical outcome of BA patients post Kasai operation.
  • METHODS: Sixty-two BA patients post Kasai operation and 14 healthy controls were enrolled.
  • The patients were divided into two groups according to their serum total bilirubin levels (TB<2, no jaundice vs. TB> or =2 mg/dL, persistent jaundice) and alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT<45, normal ALT vs. ALT> or =45 IU/L, elevated ALT).
  • Serum BMP7 levels were determined by commercial enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay.
  • RESULTS: The mean serum BMP7 was higher in BA patients compared with that of healthy controls (35.4+/-3.6 vs. 20.6+/-2.7 pg/mL, p=0.002).
  • The BA patients with persistent jaundice had more elevated serum BMP7 levels than those without jaundice (59.5+/-6.5 vs. 20.3+/-1.6 pg/mL, p=0.001).
  • There was also a correlation between serum total bilirubin and serum BMP7 levels (r=0.57, p<0.001).
  • Moreover, the levels of serum BMP7 in BA patients with elevated ALT were significantly higher than those with normal ALT (41.6+/-4.7 vs. 22.4+/-4.2 pg/mL, p=0.003).
  • Additionally, BA patients with portal hypertension had higher increased serum BMP7 levels compared to those without portal hypertension (45.3+/-4.9 vs. 18.7+/-2.8 pg/mL, p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The significant increment of serum BMP7 was associated with a deterioration of hepatic function and the progression of liver fibrosis.
  • Serum BMP7 could be used as a prognostic marker to reflect disease severity and monitor disease progression in BA patients post Kasai operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Atresia / blood. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / blood. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Predictive Value of Tests. Severity of Illness Index

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 19387926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-359X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7
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68. Chang KC, Tsai PS, Hsu MC, Hung SF, Tsai CC, Lu SN: Chronic hepatitis C increased the mortality rates of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and diabetes mellitus in a triple hepatitis virus endemic community. J Gastroenterol; 2010 Jun;45(6):636-45
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  • [Title] Chronic hepatitis C increased the mortality rates of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and diabetes mellitus in a triple hepatitis virus endemic community.
  • BACKGROUND: To elucidate the factors associated with mortality rates among older subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in a triple hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) endemic community.
  • METHODS: A total of 2,909 residents aged>or=45 years were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in 1997.
  • Anti-HDV was detected in HBsAg-positive subjects.
  • Those who expired from HCC and DM were identified from official mortality data sets (1997-2003).
  • Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve with log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazard model.
  • RESULTS: Forty-one patients died of HCC and 25 of DM during the study period.
  • Multivariate analysis indicated that age>or=65 years (hazard ratio 3.4; 95% confidence interval 1.8-6.4), HBsAg (3.3; 1.7-6.7), anti-HCV (3.8; 1.7-8.5) and ALT>or=40 IU/L (3.7; 1.9-7.0) were independent predictors of HCC mortality, while age>or=65 years (4.8; 2.1-11.0) and anti-HCV (4.2; 1.7-10.6) were two independent predictors of DM mortality.
  • There were synergistic effects of dual viral infections for HCC, but not for DM mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Old age and chronic HCV infection increase the risk of HCC and DM mortality.
  • HBsAg and ALT levels are also risk factors for HCC mortality, but not DM.
  • The synergistic effects of dual hepatitis viral infections are demonstrable and warrant further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Diabetes Mellitus / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Female. Hepatitis B / complications. Hepatitis B / epidemiology. Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / blood. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Hepatitis C, Chronic / epidemiology. Hepatitis D / complications. Hepatitis D / epidemiology. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Taiwan / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20054698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-5922
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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69. Tang S, Lai FM, Lui YH, Tang CS, Kung NN, Ho YW, Chan KW, Leung JC, Lai KN: Lamivudine in hepatitis B-associated membranous nephropathy. Kidney Int; 2005 Oct;68(4):1750-8
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  • Lamivudine was well tolerated and not associated with any adverse events.

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  • [CommentIn] Kidney Int. 2006 Feb;69(4):776 [16518335.001]
  • [CommentIn] Kidney Int. 2006 Sep;70(6):1187-8 [16957748.001]
  • (PMID = 16164651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-2538
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine
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70. Morales-Molina JA, Mateu-de Antonio J, Grau S, Segura M, Acosta P: [Stability: a factor to consider in antibiotic-lock solutions]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin; 2010 Feb;28(2):104-9
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  • All solutions were fairly stable except for ciprofloxacin at a concentration of 10mg/mL.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19409671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Solutions; 9005-49-6 / Heparin
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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71. Furuta M, Ekuni D, Yamamoto T, Irie K, Koyama R, Sanbe T, Yamanaka R, Morita M, Kuroki K, Tobe K: Relationship between periodontitis and hepatic abnormalities in young adults. Acta Odontol Scand; 2010 Jan;68(1):27-33
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  • [Title] Relationship between periodontitis and hepatic abnormalities in young adults.
  • OBJECTIVE: Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor for periodontitis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
  • In NAFLD, elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is associated with obesity.
  • Although a possible interrelationship between liver function and periodontitis has been reported among the middle-aged population, the correlation in young adults is little known.
  • This study was designed to investigate the relationship between ALT and the presence of periodontitis in university students in Japan.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical and oral health data were collected in a cross-sectional examination conducted by the Health Service Center of Okayama University.
  • Systemically healthy, non-smoking students aged 18 and 19 years old (n = 2225) were included.
  • The protocol of the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was applied.
  • Subjects with probing pocket depth >or= 4 mm were defined as having periodontitis.
  • Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between ALT, body mass index and periodontitis.
  • RESULTS: The number of subjects with periodontitis was 104 (4.7%).
  • In males, having periodontitis was significantly associated with an increased level of ALT (>or= 41 IU/l) in logistic regression analysis (adjusted odds ratio 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.0-5.2; p < 0.05).
  • However, there was no significant association between periodontitis and ALT in female students.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Elevated ALT could be a potential risk indicator for periodontitis among young males.
  • Monitoring hepatic abnormalities to prevent periodontitis must be better understood, even in the young adult population.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Fatty Liver / epidemiology. Periodontitis / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Blood Pressure / physiology. Body Mass Index. Cholesterol / blood. Cross-Sectional Studies. DMF Index. Female. Gingival Hemorrhage / epidemiology. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Obesity / epidemiology. Overweight / epidemiology. Periodontal Index. Periodontal Pocket / epidemiology. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19878045.001).
  • [ISSN] 1502-3850
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta odontologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Odontol. Scand.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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72. Schindhelm RK, Diamant M, Bakker SJ, van Dijk RA, Scheffer PG, Teerlink T, Kostense PJ, Heine RJ: Liver alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridaemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Invest; 2005 Jun;35(6):369-74
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  • Alanine aminotransferase levels were negatively associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity as well as with FMD (both P = 0.03, in multivariate analyses; regression coefficients beta [95%CI]: -0.76 [-1.4 to -0.08] and -0.31 [-0.58 to -0.03] respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In metabolically well-controlled patients with DM2, ALT levels are related to decreased insulin-sensitivity and an impaired conduit vessel vascular function.


73. Fraser A, Thinggaard M, Christensen K, Lawlor DA: Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and all-cause mortality: results from a population-based Danish twins study alanine aminotransferase, GGT and mortality in elderly twins. Liver Int; 2009 Nov;29(10):1494-9
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  • None of these studies controlled for genetic variation as well as fetal and early life exposure, whether environmental or genetic.

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  • (PMID = 19686309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-3231
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0600705; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01 AG008761; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P01-AG08761; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Twin Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS454954; NLM/ PMC3633107
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74. Selden MA, Helzberg JH, Waeckerle JF, Browne JE, Brewer JH, Monaco ME, Tang F, O'Keefe JH: Elevated alanine aminotransferase in current national football league players: correlation with cardiometabolic syndrome markers, obesity, and insulin resistance. South Med J; 2009 Oct;102(10):1003-6
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  • [Title] Elevated alanine aminotransferase in current national football league players: correlation with cardiometabolic syndrome markers, obesity, and insulin resistance.
  • OBJECTIVES: Media reports suggest increased cardiovascular mortality in former National Football League (NFL) players.
  • We previously demonstrated that current heavier players already have cardiometabolic syndrome markers: blood pressure (BP) >or=130/85 mm Hg, fasting glucose >or=100 mg/dL, triglycerides >or=150 mg/dL, waist circumference >or=100 cm, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <or=40 mg/dL.
  • METHODS: A prospective study including 69 of 91active players (76%) from one NFL team was performed.
  • We evaluated the presence of an elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the players.
  • We also analyzed the association of an increased ALT with cardiometabolic syndrome markers, waist-to-height ratio, and triglyceride-to-HDL ratio in current NFL players.
  • RESULTS: ALT >or=30 IU/L was significantly correlated with mean body mass index (BMI), BMI >or=30 kg/m, BP >or=130/85 mm Hg, waist circumference >or=100 cm, and triglycerides-to-HDL ratio >3.5.
  • An elevated ALT was significantly more common in linemen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An elevated ALT was significantly associated with visceral obesity, hypertension, cardiometabolic syndrome markers, and insulin resistance in current NFL players.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Football / physiology. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Metabolic Syndrome X / physiopathology. Obesity / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers. Blood Glucose / analysis. Body Mass Index. Humans. Hypertension / physiopathology. Lipoproteins, HDL / blood. Male. Prospective Studies. Triglycerides / blood. United States. Waist Circumference / physiology

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  • [CommentIn] South Med J. 2010 Apr;103(4):386 [20224503.001]
  • [CommentIn] South Med J. 2009 Oct;102(10):991-2 [19738529.001]
  • [CommentIn] South Med J. 2010 Sep;103(9):966 [20689473.001]
  • (PMID = 19738528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Lipoproteins, HDL; 0 / Triglycerides; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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75. Karonidis A, Yao SF: Chimeric anterolateral thigh free flap for head and neck reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2009 May;62(5):e85-6
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  • [Title] Chimeric anterolateral thigh free flap for head and neck reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19054723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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76. Rodríguez-Vegas JM, Angel PA, Manuela PR: Refining the anterolateral thigh free flap in complex orbitomaxillary reconstructions. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Feb;121(2):481-6
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  • [Title] Refining the anterolateral thigh free flap in complex orbitomaxillary reconstructions.
  • [MeSH-major] Maxilla / surgery. Maxillary Neoplasms / surgery. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Orbit / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Fascia Lata / transplantation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / surgery. Quadriceps Muscle / transplantation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18300966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Alwakeel SS: The effect of mycotoxins found in some herbal plants on biochemical parameters in blood of female albino mice. Pak J Biol Sci; 2009 Apr 15;12(8):637-42
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  • [Title] The effect of mycotoxins found in some herbal plants on biochemical parameters in blood of female albino mice.
  • In this study, twenty five samples ofwell-known herbs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were collected and analyzed for Total Fungi Count (TFC).
  • Mycotoxins were extracted and screened using SMKY liquid medium.
  • One hundred and thirty adult female albino mice were grouped into three wherein one group (n = 110) was fed with an aqueous extract from herbal plants.
  • The second group (n = 15) was fed with an aqueous extract of the isolated fungal species.
  • The third group comprised the control group which was given water only (n = 5).
  • All mice were fed with mice breeding diet by Pillsbury, UK.
  • After 5 weeks, mice were fasted and blood was withdrawn for biochemical analysis including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), serum creatinine and urea.
  • Calligonum comosum with 2 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) fungus spore, grained mixed herbs (24 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) and Salvia officinalis (23 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) were the most contaminated samples.
  • The genus Aspergillus was the most dominant genus recovered (142 isolates) followed by Penicillium (14 isolates) and these two genera were found in 85.0 and 11.0% of the samples analyzed.
  • Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus were the most dominant and frequently isolated (47.3, 46.5 and 18.1%, respectively), followed by Aspergillus citrinum (11.0%).
  • Aspergillus ochraceus had 21.7 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 7.25 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A, whereas Aspergillus flavus had 7.45 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and Aspergillus fumigatus had 3.5 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 3.8 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A.
  • Mean creatinine, urea, ALT, AST and GGT were higher in mice fed or treated with herbal and fungal extracts group than the control group.
  • This study confirms previous studies demonstrating the predominance of Aspergillus species in herbal and medicinal plants and its capability in the production of aflatoxin with induction of nephrotoxicity and hepatoxicity in animals and even in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood / drug effects. Mycotoxins / pharmacology. Plants, Medicinal / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Aspergillus / isolation & purification. Aspergillus / metabolism. Female. Food Contamination / analysis. Food Microbiology. Humans. Kidney / drug effects. Liver / drug effects. Mice. Saudi Arabia

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  • (PMID = 19634489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mycotoxins
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78. Lee SH, Clemens MG, Lee SM: Role of Kupffer cells in vascular stress genes during trauma and sepsis. J Surg Res; 2010 Jan;158(1):104-11
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  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Endothelin-1 / genetics. Gadolinium. Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) / genetics. Liver Circulation. Male. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Receptor, Endothelin A / genetics. Receptor, Endothelin B / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19500797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing); EC 1.14.99.3 / Hmox1 protein, rat; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; P7082WY76D / gadolinium chloride
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79. Abdel Aziz MT, Atta HM, Mahfouz S, Fouad HH, Roshdy NK, Ahmed HH, Rashed LA, Sabry D, Hassouna AA, Hasan NM: Therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on experimental liver fibrosis. Clin Biochem; 2007 Aug;40(12):893-9
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  • Liver tissue was examined histopathologically and liver functions (ALT and serum albumin) were estimated for all groups.
  • Y-chromosome gene (sry) was assessed by PCR in liver tissue of the female rats to confirm uptake of the male stem cells.
  • Hydroxyproline content in liver tissue was assessed by chemical methods and expression of the collagen gene (type I) was detected as a marker for liver fibrosis.
  • Results of the present study showed that MSC have a significant antifibrotic effect as evidenced by the significant decrease in liver collagen gene expression as well as the decrease in hydroxyproline content in the CCl4/MSC group (p<0.001) compared to the CCl4 group.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy. Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental / therapy. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17543295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9120
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Sex-Determining Region Y Protein; 0 / Sry protein, mouse; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; RMB44WO89X / Hydroxyproline
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80. Al-Hathlol K, Al-Madani A, Al-Saif S, Abulaimoun B, Al-Tawil K, El-Demerdash A: Ursodeoxycholic acid therapy for intractable total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in surgical very low birth weight infants. Singapore Med J; 2006 Feb;47(2):147-51
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  • Indeed, the majority of infants with TPN-associated cholestasis (TPNAC) respond very well to TPN withdrawal and full enteral feeding, yet some of them do not respond and have the potential for development of intractable cholestasis.

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  • (PMID = 16435058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholagogues and Choleretics; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
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81. Bahrami H, Daryani NE, Haghpanah B, Moayyeri A, Moghadam KF, Mirmomen S, Kamangar F: Effects of indomethacin on viral replication markers in asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol; 2005 Apr;100(4):856-61
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  • [Title] Effects of indomethacin on viral replication markers in asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
  • OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested some benefits of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use in patients with chronic viral hepatitis.
  • We evaluated potential effects of indomethacin in asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg).
  • DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial.
  • METHODS: One hundred and twelve patients who were confirmed to be HBsAg carriers for at least 6 months and had normal liver function tests, normal abdominal sonography, and no sign of cirrhosis were randomly assigned into two groups.
  • One group (56 participants, mean age (+/-SD) 31.7 (+/-9.6) yr, 29 male, mean serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (+/-SD) 24.9 (+/-9.2)) received indomethacin capsules (25 mg) three times daily and the other group (56 participants, mean age (+/-SD) 33.8 (+/-10.2) yr, 33 male, mean serum ALT (+/-SD) 24.5 (+/-8.7)) took placebo capsules with identical package and appearance.
  • All participants were under treatment for 6 months and were followed 3 months thereafter.
  • Statistical analyses were performed both by intention-to-treat and on-treatment methods.
  • RESULTS: Nine participants in the indomethacin group (16%) and 8 in the placebo group (14%) did not complete the trial.
  • HBsAg seroconversion did not differ by treatment group (2 subjects in each group became seronegative).
  • Hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV-DNA) became negative in sera of 7 participants in the indomethacin group but only in 1 in the placebo group (intention-to-treat p= 0.06; on-treatment p= 0.03).
  • Seroconversion of HBeAg to anti-HBe occurred only in 5 participants in the indomethacin group (intention-to-treat p= 0.06; on-treatment p= 0.03).
  • Adverse events included one case of hepatotoxicity and two cases of gastritis in the indomethacin group and one suspected gastritis in the placebo group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest use of indomethacin only in the subgroup of asymptomatic HBsAg carriers who have detectable HBV-DNA or HBeAg in their sera.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Carrier State / drug therapy. Hepatitis B virus / drug effects. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Indomethacin / therapeutic use. Virus Replication / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. DNA, Viral / blood. Double-Blind Method. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatitis B Antibodies / blood. Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / blood. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Humans. Liver Function Tests. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15784032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B Antibodies; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin
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82. Shao J, Wei L, Wang H, Sun Y, Zhang LF, Li J, Dong JQ: Relationship between hepatitis B virus DNA levels and liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis B. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Apr 14;13(14):2104-7
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  • [Title] Relationship between hepatitis B virus DNA levels and liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
  • AIM: To study the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels and liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and to determine the prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative patients.
  • METHODS: A total of 213 patients with CHB were studied, and serum HBV DNA levels were measured by the COBAS Amplicor HBV Monitor test.
  • All patients were divided into two groups according to the HBeAg status.
  • The correlation between serum HBV DNA levels and liver damage (liver histology and biochemistry) was explored.
  • RESULTS: Of the 213 patients with serum HBV DNA levels higher than 10(5) copies/mL, 178 (83.6%) were HBeAg positive, 35 (16.4%) were HBeAg negative.
  • The serum HBV DNA levels were not correlated to the age, history of CHB, histological grade and stage of liver disease in either HBeAg negative or HBeAg positive patients.
  • There was no correlation between serum levels of HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferanse (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in HBeAg positive patients.
  • In HBeAg negative patients, there was no correlation between serum levels of HBV DNA and AST, while serum DNA levels correlated with ALT (r=0.351, P=0.042).
  • The grade (G) of liver disease correlated with ALT and AST (P<0.05, r=0.205, 0.327 respectively) in HBeAg positive patients.
  • In HBeAg negative patients, correlations were shown between ALT, AST and the G (P<0.01, and r=0.862, 0.802 respectively).
  • HBeAg negative patients were older (35 +/- 9 years vs 30 +/- 9 years, P<0.05 ) and had a longer history of HBV infection (8 +/- 4 years vs 6 +/- 4 years, P<0.05) and a lower HBV DNA level than HBeAg positive patients (8.4 +/- 1.7 Log HBV DNA vs 9.8 +/- 1.3 Log HBV DNA, P<0.001).
  • There were no significant differences in sex ratio, ALT and AST levels and liver histology between the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Serum HBV DNA level is not correlated to histological grade or stage of liver disease in CHB patients with HBV DNA more than 10(5) copies/mL.
  • Compared to HBeAg positive patients, HBeAg negative patients are older and have a lower HBV DNA level and a longer HBV infection history.
  • There is no significant difference in sex ratio, ALT and AST levels and liver histology between the two groups.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / blood. Hepatitis B virus / genetics. Hepatitis B, Chronic / blood. Hepatitis B, Chronic / pathology. Liver / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Female. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17465456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4319133
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83. Lai X, Sun C, Tian H, Zhao W, Gao L: Evaluation of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-ethanol as enteric coating material. Int J Pharm; 2008 Mar 20;352(1-2):66-73
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  • The polymer was further characterized for film coating by evaluating the release of erythromycin tablets in vitro, tablets coated with SMA-ethanol can satisfy the drug release requests of USP when the film weight gains were between 4 and 6%; tablets coated with both a subcoat and the polymer showed excellent gastro-resistance, less than 0.2% drug release occurred even with weight gains as less as 2% after 2h exposure to acid (pH 1), while over 90% drug release occurred in pH 6.8 sodium phosphate buffer within 45 min, regardless of weight gains of coating material, moreover, we confirmed that the application of a subcoat could decrease the amount of required coating polymer.

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  • (PMID = 18054184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Maleates; 0 / Plasticizers; 0 / Polystyrenes; 0 / Tablets, Enteric-Coated; 0 / poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride); 059QF0KO0R / Water; 2286E5R2KE / Dibutyl Phthalate; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 63937KV33D / Erythromycin
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84. Möller P, Mayer S, Mattfeldt T, Müller K, Wiegand P, Brüderlein S: Sex-related differences in length and erosion dynamics of human telomeres favor females. Aging (Albany NY); 2009 Aug;1(8):733-9
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  • [Title] Sex-related differences in length and erosion dynamics of human telomeres favor females.
  • Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at chromosomal ends contributing to genomic integrity.
  • In somatic cells, telomeres are shortened during DNA reduplication.
  • Thus, telomere erosion has been regarded as a biological clock.
  • Applying the telomere/centromere (T/C)-FISH technique to human peripheral blood lymphocytes, we showed that pangenomically, telomere shortening is linear in centenarians and that this attrition is delayed in females.
  • Statistics reveal a greater skewness in telomere length distribution in females.
  • As the morphological correlate, we find abnormally long telomeres distributed at random.
  • This "erratic extensive elongation" (EEE) of telomeres is a hitherto unrecognized phenomenon in non-neoplastic cells, and females are more successful in this respect.
  • As evidenced by endoreduplication, EEE is transmitted to the cells' progeny.
  • The mechanism involved is likely to be the alternative pathway of telomere elongation (ALT), counteracting erosion and already known to operate in neoplastic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / genetics. Telomere / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Infant, Newborn. Lymphocytes / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20195387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-4589
  • [Journal-full-title] Aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aging (Albany NY)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2830083
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; T/C-FISH / alternative pathway / telomere length
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85. Spyropoulou A, Jeng SF: Microsurgical coverage reconstruction in upper and lower extremities. Semin Plast Surg; 2010 Feb;24(1):34-42
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  • Then, the evolution of free tissue transfer is reviewed with particular attention to the use of anterolateral thigh flap in reconstruction of upper- and lower-limb trauma cases.
  • The recently acquired perforator flap concept will gradually become the most popular method of microsurgical reconstruction, as it minimizes donor-site morbidity and replaces "like tissue with like tissue. "

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  • (PMID = 21286303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887005
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Upper-limb reconstruction / anterolateral thigh flap / free-style perforator flap / lower-limb reconstruction / microsurgical reconstruction
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86. Korolenko TA, Cherkanova MS, Savchenko NG, Klishevich MS: [The role of changes in matrix metalloproteases and chitotriosidase in the mechanism of protective effect of atorvastatin in experimental murine lipemia]. Eksp Klin Farmakol; 2009 Jul-Aug;72(4):25-7
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  • [Title] [The role of changes in matrix metalloproteases and chitotriosidase in the mechanism of protective effect of atorvastatin in experimental murine lipemia].
  • The effect of atorvastatin on the activity of chitotriosidase (CTO) and total matrix metalloproteases (MMPs)-new markers of cardiovascular disorder-was studied on the model of murine lipemia induced by single administration of Triton WR 1339 in two doses, 500 mg/kg (mild lipemia) and 850 mg/kg (severe lipemia).
  • A hypolipidemic effect of atorvastatin was observed in mice with mild lipemia, but not in those with severe lipemia.
  • In both mild and severe lipemia cases, the serum CTO activity was increased upon the combined administration of atorvastatin and Triton WR 1339, correlating with cholesterol and triglyceride concentration.
  • The total serum MMP activity decreased only in experiments with atorvastatin administration to intact mice.
  • In mice with experimental lipemia induced by Triton WR 1339, the administration of atorvastatin also increased the ALT and AST activity in the blood serum.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticholesteremic Agents / pharmacology. Heptanoic Acids / pharmacology. Hexosaminidases / blood. Hyperlipidemias / blood. Hyperlipidemias / prevention & control. Matrix Metalloproteinases / blood. Pyrroles / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Atorvastatin Calcium. Cholesterol / blood. Detergents / adverse effects. Detergents / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Polyethylene Glycols / adverse effects. Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacology. Triglycerides / blood

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  • (PMID = 19803366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0869-2092
  • [Journal-full-title] Eksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia farmakologiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eksp Klin Farmakol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticholesteremic Agents; 0 / Detergents; 0 / Heptanoic Acids; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Triglycerides; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 48A5M73Z4Q / Atorvastatin Calcium; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 3.2.1.- / Hexosaminidases; EC 3.2.1.- / chitotriosidase; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; Y27PUL9H56 / tyloxapol
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87. de Villalaín L, de Vicente JC, Astudillo A, Peña I, Rosado P: Management of facial dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: case report, justification of aggressive surgical treatment, and reconstruction with an anterolateral thigh flap. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2010 Aug;68(8):1994-9
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  • [Title] Management of facial dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: case report, justification of aggressive surgical treatment, and reconstruction with an anterolateral thigh flap.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatofibrosarcoma / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Thigh / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20542615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Rozen WM, Wagstaff MJ, Grinsell D, le Roux CM, Ashton MW: The course of anterolateral thigh perforators does not correlate between sides of the body: the role for preoperative imaging. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Mar;125(3):132e-4e
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  • [Title] The course of anterolateral thigh perforators does not correlate between sides of the body: the role for preoperative imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Surgical Flaps / blood supply. Thigh / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiography / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20195103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Akuta N, Suzuki F, Kawamura Y, Yatsuji H, Sezaki H, Suzuki Y, Hosaka T, Kobayashi M, Kobayashi M, Arase Y, Ikeda K, Kumada H: Efficacy of low-dose intermittent interferon-alpha monotherapy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b who were predicted or failed to respond to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy. J Med Virol; 2008 Aug;80(8):1363-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of low-dose intermittent interferon-alpha monotherapy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b who were predicted or failed to respond to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy.
  • The efficacy of interferon (IFN) monotherapy for non-responders to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy is still unclear.
  • To evaluate the impact of IFN monotherapy on biochemical response, 200 consecutive patients infected with HCV genotype 1b, who received low-dose intermittent IFN-alpha monotherapy, were investigated.
  • A median IFN dose per day of 3 million units was administered during a median period of 74 weeks.
  • As a whole, the ALT normalization rates were 50.5, 65.9, 58.4, and 61.7% at 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks, respectively.
  • In 40 patients, who had abnormal AFP levels at the start of treatment, 52.5% achieved normalization of AFP within 48 weeks.
  • Multivariate analysis identified indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min as the parameter that influenced significantly and independently ALT normalization.
  • ALT normalization rates of patients who were predicted to be poor responders to PEG-IFN plus RBV combination therapy (but not substitutions of amino acid 70 and/or 91 in the HCV core region, female sex, and lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were similar to others.
  • Furthermore, the ALT normalization rates in non-responders to combination therapy were 29.2, 60.9, 60.0, and 40.0% at 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks, respectively.
  • The results suggest that low-dose intermittent IFN monotherapy is an efficacious therapeutic regimen for patients unsuitable for PEG-IFN plus RBV, including non-responders, because it can lead to ALT normalization and thus a reduced risk of hepatocarcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Hepacivirus / genetics. Hepatitis C / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use. Predictive Value of Tests. Ribavirin / therapeutic use. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18551610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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90. Abreu-Silva AL, Lima TB, De Macedo AA, Moraes-Júnior Fde J, Dias EL, Batista Zda S, Calabrese KS, Moraes JL, Rebêlo JM, Guerra RM: [Seroprevalence, clinical and biochemical data of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania and phlebotominae sandfly fauna in an endemic area in São Luis Island, Maranhão State, Brazil]. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet; 2008 Sep;17 Suppl 1:197-203
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  • [Title] [Seroprevalence, clinical and biochemical data of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania and phlebotominae sandfly fauna in an endemic area in São Luis Island, Maranhão State, Brazil].
  • [Transliterated title] Soroprevalência, aspectos clínicos e bioquímicos da infecção por Leishmania em cães naturalmente infectados e fauna de flebotomíneos em uma área endêmica na Ilha de São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence, clinical and biochemical profile of Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs naturally infected and identify the phlebotominae fauna in an endemic area of São Luis Island.
  • In this present study, 62 household mongrel dogs were sampled for antibodies anti-Leishmania.
  • The seroprevalence was 51.61%.
  • In the clinical evaluation, 36.68% dogs were symptomatic, 38.41% were oligosymptomatic and 26.13% were asymptomatic.
  • The most frequent signs were onychogryphosis and lymphadenomegaly.
  • In 29.41% animals were observed anemia.
  • In the biochemical analysis hepatic function showed changes in relation to alaninoaminotransferase (ALT) and aspartato aminotransferase (AST).
  • Urea values were higher than the references ones for canine specie.
  • The following phlebotominae sandflies were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (86.9%), L. evandroi (9.6%), L. choti (2.1%), L. umbratilis (0.7%) e L. whitmani (0.7%).
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / epidemiology. Dog Diseases / parasitology. Endemic Diseases / veterinary. Leishmaniasis, Visceral / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brazil. Dogs. Psychodidae. Seroepidemiologic Studies

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  • (PMID = 20059848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1984-2961
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinária = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Órgão Oficial do Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Bras Parasitol Vet
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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91. Kim EK, Evangelista M, Evans GR: Use of free tissue transfers in head and neck reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg; 2008 Nov;19(6):1577-82
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  • [Title] Use of free tissue transfers in head and neck reconstruction.
  • The high success rate and improved functional outcomes seen with free-tissue transfers have made them the workhorse for oromandibular defects (Plast Reconstr Surg.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Transplantation / methods. Esophagus / surgery. Fascia / transplantation. Fibula. Forearm. Humans. Ilium. Jejunum / transplantation. Mandible / surgery. Mouth / surgery. Muscle, Skeletal / transplantation. Radius. Rectus Abdominis / transplantation. Scapula. Skin Transplantation / methods. Tissue and Organ Harvesting / methods

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  • (PMID = 19098555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Zhao KK, Wang Q, Miao XH, Xu WS: [Dynamic detection of duck hepatitis B virus cccDNA in serum of ducks with liver injury]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Sep 21;90(35):2509-13
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  • The occurrence of DHBV cccDNA in serum was significantly correlated with the degree of liver injury while no significant association with serum ALT level and DHBV load as well as with the level of intrahepatic total DHBV DNA and DHBV cccDNA was observed.

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  • (PMID = 21092483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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93. Ding JJ, Liu YH, Wang M: [A study of hepatitis B virus subtypes in patients chronically infected with genotype B or C of hepatitis B virus in Guizhou]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;15(10):725-8
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  • [Title] [A study of hepatitis B virus subtypes in patients chronically infected with genotype B or C of hepatitis B virus in Guizhou].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate hepatitis B virus (HBV) subtypes in patients chronically infected with genotype B or C of hepatitis B virus in Guizhou and to study the relationship between the subtypes and the progression of their liver diseases.
  • METHODS: Using PCR, 309 bp gene fragments in the HBV p region were amplified.
  • The products of PCR were digested by VspI, NciI, BstEII and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis.
  • The subtypes of C1 and C2 were detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).
  • B subtype was determined by direct sequencing of PCR product.
  • One hundred seventy-eight patients with genotype B or C HBV infection in Guizhou, including 50 asymptomatic carriers (ASC), 100 chronic hepatitis (CHB), 14 liver cirrhosis (LC), and 14 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were examined.
  • The relationship between HBV C subtypes and the progression of their liver diseases was studied by analyzing the HBeAg positivity, HBV DNA loads and ALT levels of the patients.
  • RESULTS: Of 84 patients with HBV genotype C, 27 (32.14%) and 56 (66.67%) were subtype C1 and C2, respectively.
  • In 94 genotype B, 93 (98.94%) were subtype Ba and only one was subtype Bj.
  • Subtype C1 showed a trend of gradual decrease from ASC and CHB to LC/HCC groups.
  • In contrast, subtype C2 showed a gradual increase (trend) in the same order.
  • The HBeAg positivity was significantly lower in subtype C1 than that in subtype C2.
  • The ALT levels and HBV DNA loads were higher in patients with subtype C2 than those in subtype C1, however no statistical significance was found in these primes (t=0.95, 0.79).
  • CONCLUSION: Subtype Ba is major and subtype C2 is more common in Guizhou.
  • The distribution of subtype C1 and C2 are different in various stages of liver disease.
  • The PCR-RFLP method is simple and accurate and can be used in a large-scale survey.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B virus / genetics. Hepatitis B, Chronic / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. China / epidemiology. DNA, Viral. Female. Gene Frequency. Genome, Viral. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Protein Isoforms. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17963595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-3418
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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94. Gonzalez EA, Kozar RA, Suliburk JW, Weisbrodt NW, Mercer DW, Moore FA: Conventional dose hypertonic saline provides optimal gut protection and limits remote organ injury after gut ischemia reperfusion. J Trauma; 2006 Jul;61(1):66-73; discussion 73-4
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  • [Title] Conventional dose hypertonic saline provides optimal gut protection and limits remote organ injury after gut ischemia reperfusion.
  • BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation prevents neutrophil mediated injury after shock.
  • The optimal dose is not known, but appears as a result of osmotic stress.
  • We hypothesized that a dose dependent effect exists related to increasing tonicity and that the optimal gut protective dose would provide better protection against remote organ injury than large volume isotonic crystalloids.
  • METHODS: In experiment 1, rats were assigned to controls (sham/no resuscitation, sham/4 mL/kg 7.5% HS, superior mesenteric artery occlusion [SMAO]/no resuscitation), SMAO/equal volume (4 mL/kg 0.9% NS, 4 mL/kg 2.5% HS, 4 mL/kg 5% HS, 4 mL/kg 7.5% HS and 4 mL/kg 10% HS) or SMAO/equal sodium (33 mL/kg 0.9% NS, 12 mL/kg 2.5% HS, 6 mL/kg 5% HS, 4 mL/kg 7.5% HS, and 3 mL/kg 10% HS).
  • In experiment 2, rats were assigned to the same control groups, and to either SMAO/NS (33 mL/kg 0.9% NS, equal salt load) or SMAO/HS (4 mL/kg 7.5% HS).
  • The SMAO was clamped for 60 minutes and boluses given 5 minutes before clamp removal.
  • After 6 hours of reperfusion, ileum and lungs were harvested for analysis of histologic injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) as an index of neutrophil mediated injury, and serum ALT and AST drawn as markers of liver injury.
  • RESULTS: In experiment 1, equal volume and equal sodium decreased injury and inflammation with increasing tonicity in a dose dependent fashion, with the optimal effect seen at 7.5%.
  • In experiment 2, NS resuscitation resulted in minimal improvement of SMAO-induced lung injury and inflammation or increases in serum ALT and AST whereas HS resuscitation significantly decreased these parameters.
  • CONCLUSION: The protective effect of HS is related to increased tonicity.
  • While NS had little effect on SMAO-induced remote organ injury, optimal dose HS resuscitation was quite protective.
  • This supports the growing evidence that HS protection may be because of its gut protective effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluid Therapy / methods. Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control. Saline Solution, Hypertonic / pharmacology. Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy. Splanchnic Circulation / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Ileum / blood supply. Ileum / drug effects. Ileum / pathology. Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Isotonic Solutions / pharmacology. Isotonic Solutions / therapeutic use. Lung / blood supply. Lung / drug effects. Lung / pathology. Male. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 16832251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5282
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P50 GM-38529; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM 08792
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isotonic Solutions; 0 / Saline Solution, Hypertonic; 0 / crystalloid solutions
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95. Kwon HJ, Hyun SH, Choung SY: Traditional Chinese Medicine improves dysfunction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein on abnormalities in lipid metabolism in ethanol-fed rats. Biofactors; 2005;23(3):163-76
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  • [Title] Traditional Chinese Medicine improves dysfunction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein on abnormalities in lipid metabolism in ethanol-fed rats.
  • We report the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats.
  • TCM consists of Astragalus membranaceus, Morus alba, Crataegus pinnatifida, Alisma oriental, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Pueraria lobata.
  • The rats were separated randomly into five groups; the CD group (n=10), which was fed a control diet for 10 weeks, the ED group (n=10), which was fed an isocaloric liquid diet containing ethanol for 10 weeks and given daily oral doses of TCM (0.222 g/kg/day; TCM222, 0.667 g/kg/day; TCM667, and 2.000 g/kg/day; TCM2000, n=10, respectively) over the last four weeks of the study.
  • The ED group developed fatty livers, as determined by their lipid profiles and liver histological findings.
  • Compared with the control group, liver/body weight, plasma triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), liver TG and TC, plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartic aminotransferase (AST) significantly increased in the ED group.
  • Also, free fatty acids (FFA) levels increased in both plasma and liver during the administration of ethanol.
  • On the other hand, when rats were administrated with TCM, their liver/body weight, plasma TG, TC and FFA, liver TG, TC and FFA, plasma ALT and AST decreased significantly and the degree of hepatic lipid droplets was markedly improved compared with those in the ED group.
  • Proper function of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is essential for the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism.
  • Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is essential for the secretion of triglycerides from the liver. mRNAs for PPARalpha and MTP were reduced in the livers of ethanol-fed rats.
  • TCM restored the mRNA levels of PPARalpha and MTP, and prevented development of fatty livers in ethanol-fed rats.
  • Impairment of PPARalpha and MTP function during ethanol consumption contributes to the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver, which can be overcome by TCM.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / physiology. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / therapeutic use. Ethanol / administration & dosage. Fatty Liver, Alcoholic / drug therapy. Lipid Metabolism / drug effects. PPAR alpha / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Cholesterol / analysis. Cholesterol / blood. Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / analysis. Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood. Liver / chemistry. Liver / pathology. Male. Medicine, Chinese Traditional. Microsomes, Liver / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Triglycerides / analysis. Triglycerides / blood

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  • (PMID = 16410638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-6433
  • [Journal-full-title] BioFactors (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biofactors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; 0 / PPAR alpha; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Triglycerides; 0 / microsomal triglyceride transfer protein; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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96. Yang L, Ren AM, Feng JK, Wang JF: Theoretical investigation of optical and electronic property modulations of pi-conjugated polymers based on the electron-rich 3,6-dimethoxy-fluorene unit. J Org Chem; 2005 Apr 15;70(8):3009-20
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  • [Title] Theoretical investigation of optical and electronic property modulations of pi-conjugated polymers based on the electron-rich 3,6-dimethoxy-fluorene unit.
  • Poly(fluorene)-type materials are widely used in polymer-based emitting devices.
  • One of the drawbacks of light-emitting diodes based on polyfluorene derivatives is the injection of holes from the anode due to the high ionization potential (IP) of most derivatives.
  • Substitution by electron-donating alkoxy substituents or by adding charge carriers on the conjugated polymer's backbone produces a remarkable influence on its electrical and optical properties.
  • In this contribution, we apply quantum-chemical techniques to investigate a family of pi-conjugated polymers with substituted dimethoxy groups at the 3,6 positions of the fluorene ring, namely, poly(2,7-(3,6-dimethoxy-fluorene)(PDMOF), poly(2,7-(3,6-dimethoxy-fluorene)-co-alt-fluorene (PDMOFF), and poly(2,7-(3,6-dimeth-oxy-fluorene)-co-alt-2,5-thiophene (PDMOFT).
  • The electronic properties of the neutral molecules, HOMO-LUMO gaps (Delta(H)(-)(L)), in addition to the positive and negative ions, are studied using the B3LYP functional.
  • The lowest excitation energies (E(g)) and the maximal absorption wavelength lambda(abs) of PDMOF, PDMOFF, and PDMOFT are studied by employing time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and the ZINDO semiempirical method.
  • The IP, EA, and E(g) values of each polymer were obtained by extrapolating those of the oligomers to the inverse chain length equal to zero ((1)/(n)() = 0).
  • The influence of the presence of methoxy groups on the fluorene moiety on the ionization potential is especially emphasized.
  • The outcomes show that the HOMO energies of these systems under study increase by about 0.4 eV and the IP values decrease by about 0.3 eV compared to those of the corresponding polyfluorene.
  • Both effects result in a reduction of the energy barrier for the injection of holes in related polymeric light-emitting devices and should contribute to the enhancement of their performances.
  • Because of the cooperation with thiophene in PDMOFT, which results in a good planar conformation, both the hole-creating and electron-accepting abilities are improved.


97. Kato M, Sawada T, Kita J, Shimoda M, Kubota K: Erythropoietin ameliorates early ischemia-reperfusion injury following the Pringle maneuver. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Oct 14;16(38):4838-45
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  • Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactate, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured before and just after (Day 0) surgery, and on postoperative days 1, 3, 7 and 14.
  • Epo at a dose of 30,000 U, administered before PM and just after surgery, yields better results.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Animals. Female. Hematocrit. Hemoglobins / metabolism. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Lactic Acid / metabolism. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • [Cites] Nature. 2001 Aug 9;412(6847):641-7 [11493922.001]
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  • (PMID = 20939113.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955254
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98. Hollinger FB, Sood G: Occult hepatitis B virus infection: a covert operation. J Viral Hepat; 2010 Jan;17(1):1-15
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  • This is another reason for optimal collection of a specimen (e.g. two passes with a 16-guage needle under ultrasound guidance).

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  • [ErratumIn] J Viral Hepat. 2010 Aug;17(8):600
  • (PMID = 20002296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of viral hepatitis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Viral Hepat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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99. Gao SC, Gui XE, Deng LP, Zhang YX, Yan YJ, Rong YP, Liang K, Yang RR: [Nevirapine related hepatotoxicity: the prevalence and risk factors in a cohort of ART naive Han Chinese with AIDS]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;18(9):689-93
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  • [Title] [Nevirapine related hepatotoxicity: the prevalence and risk factors in a cohort of ART naive Han Chinese with AIDS].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of hepatotoxicity in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) containing nevirapine (NVP) and to assess the risk factors and its impact on cART.
  • METHODS: 330 AIDS patients from March 2003 to June 2008 at local county were enrolled and a retrospective study using Kaplan-meier survival and Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted.
  • RESULTS: 267 out of 330 patients received NVP based cART and 63 cases received EFV-based cART.
  • The deference of prevalences of hepatotoxicity between the two groups is statistically significant (Chi2 = 6.691, P = 0.01).
  • 133 out of 267 (49.8%) patients on NVP based cART had at least one episode of ALT elevation during a median 21 months (interquartile ranges, IQR 6, 37) follow-up time, amounts for 28.5 cases per 100 person-years.
  • Baseline ALT elevation (OR = 14.368, P = 0.017)and HCV co-infection (OR = 3.009, P = 0.000) were risk factors for cART related hepatotoxicity, while greatly increased CD4+ T(CD4) cell count was protective against hepatotoxicity development (OR = 0.996, P = 0.000).
  • Patients co-infected with HCV received NVP-based cART had the higher probability of hepatotoxicity than those without HCV co-infection (Log rank: Chi2 = 16.764, P = 0.000).
  • 23 out of the 133 subjects (17.3%) with NVP related hepatotoxicity discontinued cART temporarily or shifted NVP to efavirenz.
  • CONCLUSION: NVP related hepatotoxicity was common among ARV naive HIV infected subjects in our cohort.
  • Baseline ALT elevation and HCV co-infection were associated statistically with the development of hepatotoxicity.
  • Hepatotoxicity led to discontinuing cART temporarily or switching to other regimens in some subjects.
  • It suggested that NVP should be used with caution in patients co-infected with HCV among whom anti-HCV therapy before cART initiation may contribute to minimizing the probability of NVP associated hepatotoxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / metabolism. Anti-Retroviral Agents / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / epidemiology. Liver / drug effects. Nevirapine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20943082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-3418
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 99DK7FVK1H / Nevirapine
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100. Salam OM, Sleem AA, Omara EA, Hassan NS: Hepatoprotective effects of misoprostol and silymarin on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol; 2009 Apr;23(2):179-88
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  • [Title] Hepatoprotective effects of misoprostol and silymarin on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of misoprostol, silymarin or the co-administration of misoprostol + silymarin on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatic injury in rats.
  • Misoprostol (10, 100, 1000 microg/kg), silymarin (25 mg/kg) or misoprostol (100 microg/kg) + silymarin (25 mg/kg) was given once daily orally simultaneously with CCl(4) and for 15 days thereafter.
  • The results showed that misoprostol (10, 100 or 1000 microg/kg) conferred significant protection against the hepatotoxic actions of CCl(4) in rats, reducing serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 24.7%, 42.6% and 49.4%, respectively compared with controls.
  • Misoprostol, given at 100 or 1000 microg/kg, decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) by 28 and 43.6% and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 19.3% and 53.4% respectively.
  • Meanwhile, silymarin reduced ALT, AST and ALP levels by 62.7%, 66.1% and 65.1% respectively.
  • The co-administration of misoprostol (100 microg/kg) and silymarin (25 mg/kg) resulted in 61.4%, 66.1% and 57.5% reduction in ALT, AST and ALP levels respectively.
  • Histopathological alterations and depletion of hepatocyte glycogen and DNA content by CCl(4) were markedly reduced after treatment with misoprostol, silymarin or misoprostol + silymarin.
  • Image analysis of liver specimens revealed a marked reduction in liver necrosis; area of damage: 32.4%, 24% and 10.2% after misoprostol (10, 100 or 1000 microg/kg), 7.2% after silymarin and 10.9% after treatment with misoprostol 100 microg/kg + silymarin, compared with CCl(4) control group (46.7%).
  • These results indicate that treatment with misoprostol protects against hepatocellular necrosis induced by CCl(4).
  • This study suggests a potential therapeutic use for misoprostol in liver injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / prevention & control. Misoprostol / pharmacology. Protective Agents / pharmacology. Silymarin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carbon Tetrachloride / toxicity. DNA / drug effects. DNA / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Female. Glycogen / metabolism. Liver Function Tests. Male. Necrosis / chemically induced. Necrosis / prevention & control. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 19298238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-8206
  • [Journal-full-title] Fundamental & clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fundam Clin Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protective Agents; 0 / Silymarin; 0E43V0BB57 / Misoprostol; 9005-79-2 / Glycogen; 9007-49-2 / DNA; CL2T97X0V0 / Carbon Tetrachloride
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