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1. Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Lennon L, Whincup PH: Hepatic enzymes, the metabolic syndrome, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older men. Diabetes Care; 2005 Dec;28(12):2913-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic enzymes, the metabolic syndrome, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older men.
  • OBJECTIVE: We have examined the relationship between hepatic enzymes, the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes and assessed the potential of hepatic enzyme measurements in determining diabetes risk.
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 3,500 nondiabetic men aged 60-79 years who were followed-up for a mean period of 5 years and in whom there were 100 incident type 2 diabetes cases.
  • RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome.
  • Prospectively, the risk of type 2 diabetes significantly increased with increasing levels of ALT and GGT even after adjustment for confounders including BMI (top versus bottom quarter ALT: relative risk 2.72 [95% CI 1.47-5.02]; GGT: 3.68 [1.68-8.04]).
  • Additional adjustment for insulin resistance attenuated the effects, but the relationships with ALT and GGT remained significant (1.91 [1.01-3.60] and 2.69 [1.21-5.97], respectively).
  • Further adjustment for inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein) made minor differences.
  • Among high-risk subjects (obese men or those with the metabolic syndrome), elevated GGT and ALT enhanced the prediction of diabetes risk.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of ALT and GGT within the normal range are independent predictors of type 2 diabetes in older men and are useful additional measures in identifying those at high risk of diabetes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology. Liver Function Tests. Metabolic Syndrome X / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Body Mass Index. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology. Diabetic Angiopathies / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. gamma-Glutamyltransferase / blood


2. Massoud W, Devonec M, Decaussin M, Paparel P, Karamanolakis D, Perrin P, Ruffion A: [Well differentiated paratesticular liposarcoma in adults]. Prog Urol; 2005 Dec;15(6):1149-50
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  • [Title] [Well differentiated paratesticular liposarcoma in adults].
  • The authors report a case of well differentiated paratesticular liposarcoma in a 41-year-old patient.
  • This is a rare tumour (about one hundred cases have been reported in the literature), which essentially arises from the spermatic cord.
  • Due to the histological similarities, all specimens of benign lipoma must be examined for the presence of well differentiated liposarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Liposarcoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16429673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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3. Sivan G, Venketasvaran K, Radhakrishnan CK: Characterization of biological activity of Scatophagus argus venom. Toxicon; 2010 Nov;56(6):914-25
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  • The venom induces prominent local tissue damage characterized by pain, edema and necrosis.
  • Administration of S. argus venom caused a significant cell accumulation of neutrophils in to peritoneal cavity as well as foot pad up to 24h with maximal being at 4-6h.
  • Serum enzymes such as AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, LDH and urea were altered significantly which in turn confirmed the damage of vital organ tissue.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20603140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3150
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fish Venoms; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase; EC 3.1.1.7 / Acetylcholinesterase
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4. Zheng JJ, Wang YM, Zhu F, Gu W, Xing YC, Zhou CL, Shen BW: [A study of efficiacy of infliximab treatment for Crohn's disease.]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;48(11):922-5
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  • [Title] [A study of efficiacy of infliximab treatment for Crohn's disease.].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigated the potential and safety of the monoclonal antibody to TNFalpha infliximab (IFX) in the treatment of active Crohn's disease (CD).
  • METHODS: Patients who were confirmed diagnosis of CD and were unresponsive to the conventional treatments, or recurred after surgeries, or discontinued treatment due to drug intolerance, were treated with IFX intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg at week 0, 2, 6 (IFX infusion continued at an interval of every 8 weeks if respond to initial dosing).
  • Clinical assessments, including disease activity, blood biological markers and colonoscopic findings, were performed at baseline (week 0) and each week (4 weeks or later for colonoscopy) after IFX infusion were conducted until the week before 4(th) infusion from initiated.
  • RESULTS: Ten patients (8 male, 2 female) with mean age of 31.4 years (ranged from 15 to 65 years old) were included in the analysis.
  • The mean subjective score from baseline to week 14 was decreased from 2.2 +/- 0.6 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.05).
  • The mean Harvey-Bradshaw index was 6.6 +/- 1.6 at baseline and 2.1 +/- 1.0 at week 14.
  • The levels of ESR, CRP, serum total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) were significantly improved during the 14-week period.
  • Colonoscopy showed a remarkable improvement of Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS).
  • No infusion-related reaction was observed in all patients during the treatment.
  • Mild or transient skin itching and headache were respectively reported in two patients.
  • Transient elevation of serum ALT and AST after 3(rd) infusion in one patient, and severe anemia including leucopenia and thrombocytopenia at week 35 after 1(st) infusion in one male patient were observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with three infusions of IFX in a dose of 5 mg/kg was effective for induction of remission for active and complex CD patients who failed to respond to conventional treatment.
  • Long-term safety of the therapy effect was warranted in further investigations.
  • [MeSH-major] Crohn Disease. Infliximab
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Colonoscopy. Humans. Remission Induction


5. Nalda-Molina R, Valenzuela B, Ramon-Lopez A, Miguel-Lillo B, Soto-Matos A, Perez-Ruixo JJ: Population pharmacokinetics meta-analysis of plitidepsin (Aplidin) in cancer subjects. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Jun;64(1):97-108
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / drug effects. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Nonlinear Dynamics. Time Factors. Tissue Distribution. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18941750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Depsipeptides; EC 1.14.13.67 / CYP3A4 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A; Y76ID234HW / aplidine
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6. Fan ZP, Lin SH, Cai SP, Ji YJ, Gao F, Zhang HY, Luo SQ, Zhang WJ: [An analysis of the clinical characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B superinfected with acute hepatitis E]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Dec;21(4):325-7
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  • [Title] [An analysis of the clinical characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B superinfected with acute hepatitis E].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical features of the patients with hepatitis B superinfected with acute hepatitis E (AHE).
  • METHODS: Totally 625 consecutive patients enrolled from Dec 2002 to Dec 2006 were studied retrospectively.
  • All of the patients were subclassified into acute hepatitis E group (AHE=437 cases) and Superinfected Group (S=188 cases), and S group was further divided into the group of chronic hepatitis B superinfected with acute hepatitis E (CHB+AHE, 130 cases) and the group of liver cirrhosis and hepatitis B superinfected with acute hepatitis E (LCB+AHE, 58 cases).
  • In 32 of the 188 superinfected patients the effects of HEV on HBV were observed by comparing the levels of HBV DNA in acute vs. convalescence stages.
  • RESULTS: Compared with the patients with AHE, the superinfected patients had a higher level of total bilirubin (TBil), an elevated frequency of fulminate hepatitis, mortality and a longer period of the mean hospital stay for the cured patients but significantly lower levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum albumin and prothrombin activity (PA).
  • Furthermore, the group of LCB+AHE had a higher level of TBil and higher incidences of complications such as ascites, peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy and disturbance in glycometabolism than the group of CHB+AHE.
  • The follow-up for the superinfected patients showed that 20 of 32 patients (62.5 percent) had decreased copies of HBV DNA during the recovery phase compared with the acute phase, and the mean decrease of HBV DNA was 2.1 log10.
  • The HBV DNA was in a persistently undetectable level in 6 of 32 (18.8 percent) superinfected patients.
  • However, 4 of 32 patients (12.5 percent) showed an unchanged levels of HBV DNA and 2 cases (6.2 percent) had a slightly increased HBV DNA levels.
  • CONCLUSION: Superinfection with AHE in patients with chronic hepatitis B leads to a more severe hepatic damage and the replication of HBV DNA can be transiently inhibited.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B, Chronic / complications. Hepatitis E / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. DNA, Viral / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Virus Replication

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  • (PMID = 18322591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-9279
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua shi yan he lin chuang bing du xue za zhi = Zhonghua shiyan he linchuang bingduxue zazhi = Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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7. Adeneye AA, Benebo AS: Oral metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration ameliorates alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Nig Q J Hosp Med; 2007 Oct-Dec;17(4):155-9
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  • [Title] Oral metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration ameliorates alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
  • BACKGROUND: Alcoholic liver disease remains a major cause of liver failure worldwide with no available curative or prophylactic therapy as at present.
  • High dose metformin is reported to ameliorate liver injuries in both human and animal models of acute and chronic alcoholic liver injuries.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present in vivo animal study was to determine whether metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration also prevents alcoholic hepatotoxicity in chronic alcohol exposure.
  • METHODS: In the present study, ameliorating effect of 200 mg/ kg/day of ascorbic acid (Asc), 500 mg/kg/day of metformin (Met) and their co-administration (Met-Asc) were investigated in 5 groups of 50% ethanol-treated male Wistar rats for 2 weeks of the experiment.
  • The body weight of each rat was taken on days 1, 7, and 14 of the experiment, respectively.
  • On day 15, fasted blood samples for plasma lipids and liver enzyme markers were collected via cardiac puncture from the rats under diethyl ether anaesthesia.
  • RESULTS: Results showed that administration of graded oral doses of 50% ethanol for 14 days significantly (p<0.001) elevated the plasma liver enzymes--aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotansferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP).
  • Two weeks of ethanol treatment also induced alterations in the plasma triglycerides (PTG), total cholesterol (PTC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-c).
  • However, these elevations were significantly (p<0.05) attenuated by Asc, Met, and Met-Asc after 14 days of oral treatment, with Met-Asc having higher significant (p<0.001) ameliorating effect than Asc alone but with comparative effect to that of Met alone.
  • CONCLUSION: High dose metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration protected the liver against the deleterious effects of chronic high dose alcohol and the hepatoprotective effect of Met-Asc appeared to be due mainly to the metformin molecule of the drug combination.
  • However, further studies would be required to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the observed effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascorbic Acid / therapeutic use. Liver Diseases, Alcoholic / drug therapy. Metformin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Drug Therapy, Combination. Ethanol / adverse effects. Lipids / blood. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 18320763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-2657
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian quarterly journal of hospital medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nig Q J Hosp Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 9100L32L2N / Metformin; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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8. Bilici A, Ozguroglu M, Mihmanli I, Turna H, Adaletli I: A case-control study of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in breast cancer. Med Oncol; 2007;24(4):367-71
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  • This effect known as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease may be associated with the malignancy itself, drugs or some other well-known risk factors that may induce steatosis.
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with breast cancer may be associated with the primary tumor itself or some well-known risk factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, which needs to be explored.

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  • (PMID = 17917083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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9. Yada N, Kudo M, Chung H, Hayaishi S, Takita M, Ueda T, Tatsumi C, Hatanaka K, Kitai S, Ishikawa E, Inoue T, Hagiwara S, Ueshima K: PEG-IFNalpha/RBV combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C patients increases serum ferritin level while it improves sustained viral response rate. Intervirology; 2010;53(1):60-5
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  • [Title] PEG-IFNalpha/RBV combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C patients increases serum ferritin level while it improves sustained viral response rate.
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated the significance of serum ferritin levels in pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and examined its correlation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels during therapy and response to the therapy.
  • METHODS: A total of 175 patients with CHC received the combination therapy.
  • Correlations between serum ferritin levels and serum ALT levels at 12 and 24 weeks of therapy were examined.
  • Differences in serum ferritin levels during therapy between patients with sustained viral response (SVR) and non-SVR were also examined.
  • RESULTS: Only 24 (13.7%) and 20 (11.4%) patients showed elevated serum ALT levels (> or = 70 IU/l) at 12 and 24 weeks of therapy, respectively.
  • There was no correlation between serum ferritin levels and ALT levels.
  • Ninety-five (54.3%) of 175 patients achieved SVR.
  • Serum ferritin levels increased dramatically in both SVR and non-SVR groups after starting the therapy and were significantly higher in the SVR group throughout the therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Serum ferritin level increases during PEG-IFN and RBV combination therapy; however, it did not correlate with either serum ALT level or the total dose of RBV.
  • Higher serum ferritin levels during combination therapy appear to be associated with favorable therapeutic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Ferritins / blood. Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use. Ribavirin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Retrospective Studies. Statistics as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20068343.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Intervirology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intervirology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2b; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin; 9007-73-2 / Ferritins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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10. Aroor AR, James TT, Jackson DE, Shukla SD: Differential changes in MAP kinases, histone modifications, and liver injury in rats acutely treated with ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res; 2010 Sep 1;34(9):1543-51
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  • [Title] Differential changes in MAP kinases, histone modifications, and liver injury in rats acutely treated with ethanol.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute ethanol is known to affect cells and organs but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly explored.
  • Recent developments highlight the potential importance of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs (i.e., ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2) signaling, and histone modifications (i.e., acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation) in the actions of ethanol in hepatocytes.
  • We have therefore investigated significance of these molecular steps in vivo using a model in which rats were acutely administered ethanol intraperitoneally (IP).
  • METHODS: Ethanol was administered IP (3.5 gm/kg body weight) to 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • Liver was subsequently removed at 1 and 4 hours.
  • Serum was used for alcohol and ALT assays.
  • At the time of the removal of liver, small portions of each liver were formalin-fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and used for light microscopy.
  • Western blot analysis was carried out with specific primary antibodies for various parameters.
  • RESULTS: There were clear differences at 1 and 4 hours in blood ethanol, ALT, steatosis, and cleaved caspase 3.
  • Apoptosis at 1 hour was followed by necrosis at 4 hours.
  • Acute alcohol elicited a marked increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and moderate increases in the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK.
  • Temporally different phosphorylation of histone H3 at ser-10 and ser-28 occurred and acetylation of histone H3 at lys 9 increased progressively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There were distinct differences in the behavior of the activation of the 3 MAP kinases and histone modifications after acute short exposure of liver to ethanol in vivo.
  • Although all 3 MAPKs were rapidly activated at 1 hour, the necrosis, occurring at 4 hours, correlated to sustained activation of ERK1/2.
  • Transient activation of p38 is associated with rapid phosphorylation of histone H3, whereas prolonged activation of ERK1/2 is correlated to persistent histone H3 acetylation.

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  • (PMID = 20586759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0277
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA011962; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA11962; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA016347; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA011962-08; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA011962-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS202067; NLM/ PMC2929313
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11. Slotta JE, Laschke MW, Schilling MK, Menger MD, Jeppsson B, Thorlacius H: Simvastatin attenuates hepatic sensitization to lipopolysaccharide after partial hepatectomy. J Surg Res; 2010 Aug;162(2):184-92
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  • Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as well as leukocyte infiltration and hepatocyte apoptosis were examined 6h after LPS challenge.
  • RESULTS: Partial hepatectomy increased the sensitivity of the remnant liver tissue to LPS-provoked tissue injury.
  • TNF-alpha-induced leukocyte adhesion as well as P-selectin expression in endothelial cells and LFA-1 function were inhibited by simvastatin in vitro.
  • One key mechanism appears to be related to the inhibition of TNF-alpha formation and function (P-selectin expression) as well as to direct actions on LFA-1 function.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. DNA Primers. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neutrophils / drug effects. Neutrophils / physiology. P-Selectin / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sepsis / prevention & control. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19631345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / P-Selectin; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; AGG2FN16EV / Simvastatin; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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12. Ferré N, Martínez-Clemente M, López-Parra M, González-Périz A, Horrillo R, Planagumà A, Camps J, Joven J, Tres A, Guardiola F, Bataller R, Arroyo V, Clària J: Increased susceptibility to exacerbated liver injury in hypercholesterolemic ApoE-deficient mice: potential involvement of oxysterols. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol; 2009 Mar;296(3):G553-62
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  • [Title] Increased susceptibility to exacerbated liver injury in hypercholesterolemic ApoE-deficient mice: potential involvement of oxysterols.
  • The contribution of metabolic factors to the severity of liver disease is not completely understood.
  • In this study, apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were evaluated to define potential effects of hypercholesterolemia on the severity of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury.
  • Under baseline conditions, hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- mice showed increased hepatic oxidative stress (SOD activity/4-hydroxy-2-nonenal immunostaining) and higher hepatic TGF-beta1, MCP-1, and TIMP-1 expression than wild-type control mice.
  • After CCl4 challenge, ApoE-/- mice exhibited exacerbated steatosis (Oil Red O staining), necroinflammation (hematoxylin-eosin staining), macrophage infiltration (F4/80 immunohistochemistry), and fibrosis (Sirius red staining and alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry) and more severe liver injury [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase] than wild-type controls.
  • Direct correlations were identified between serum cholesterol and hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and ALT levels.
  • These changes did not reflect the usual progression of the disease in ApoE-/- mice, since exacerbated liver injury was not present in untreated age-paired ApoE-/- mice.
  • Moreover, hepatic cytochrome P-450 expression was unchanged in ApoE-/- mice.
  • To explore potential mechanisms, cell types relevant to liver pathophysiology were exposed to selected cholesterol-oxidized products.
  • Incubation of hepatocytes with a mixture of oxysterols representative of those detected by GC-MS in livers from ApoE-/- mice resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in total lipoperoxides and SOD activity.
  • In hepatic stellate cells, oxysterols increased IL-8 secretion through a NF-kappaB-independent mechanism and upregulated TIMP-1 expression.
  • In macrophages, oxysterols increased TGF-beta1 secretion and MCP-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner.
  • Oxysterols did not compromise cell viability.
  • Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hypercholesterolemic mice are sensitized to liver injury and that cholesterol-derived products (i.e., oxysterols) are able to induce proinflammatory and profibrogenic mechanisms in liver cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Apolipoproteins E / genetics. Hypercholesterolemia / genetics. Hypercholesterolemia / metabolism. Liver Diseases / genetics. Liver Diseases / metabolism. Oxidative Stress / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carbon Tetrachloride / toxicity. Chemokine CCL2 / metabolism. Cholesterol / metabolism. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Hepatic Stellate Cells / metabolism. Hepatic Stellate Cells / secretion. Hydroxycholesterols / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / secretion. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Mutant Strains. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / secretion

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  • (PMID = 19136384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1857
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins E; 0 / Ccl2 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Hydroxycholesterols; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; CL2T97X0V0 / Carbon Tetrachloride; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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13. Miyamoto H, Suzuki H, Yokoyama Y, Akizuki S, Hirai N, Ohnishi A: [Relationship between glycated albumin (GA) and glycated hemoglobin (A1c) in 255 patients with liver diseases using cross-sectional laboratory data]. Rinsho Byori; 2008 Sep;56(9):761-6
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  • [Title] [Relationship between glycated albumin (GA) and glycated hemoglobin (A1c) in 255 patients with liver diseases using cross-sectional laboratory data].
  • To investigate how liver disease alter the serum glycated proteins as markers of diabetic control, we studied serum GA, A1c and especially GA/A1c ratio in 255 patients having over 35IU/L in ALT(transaminase) compared with those of 829 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in cross sectional manner.
  • 255 patients with liver diseases were divided into 69 patients with biopsy proven liver cirrhosis (LC), 66 patients with chronic hepatitis(CH) and 120 patients with fatty liver(FL) diagnosed by abdominal echography.
  • The mean GA/A1c ratio (+/-SD) was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in LC group(3.71+/-1.03) than the other groups (3.03+/-0.45 for CH, 3.05+/-0.42 for DM), while the mean GA/A1c ratio in FL group was significantly lower(2.74+/-0.31) (p<0.0001)) than that of DM groups.
  • In LC group the GA/A1c ratio increased significantly depending upon serum albumin and/or platelet reductions.
  • The GA/A1c ratio was significantly correlated with the other laboratory data such as serum albumin, cholinesterase, total cholesterol levels and weakly correlated with serum hemoglobin level.
  • We also followed the serum levels of GA and A1c and the GA/A1c ratio during about 13 months (5 times blood collections) in 18 patients enrolled in this study.
  • Resultantly the coefficient of variation of GA/A1c ratio was the smaller than the others(GA, A1c).
  • The ROC curve of GA/A1c ratio for LC versus FL group was the most reliable between four groups and the cut-off value for LC versus FL was 2.94.
  • Theses results suggest that GA/A1c ratio could be an useful marker for different diagnosis when facing patients with abnormal serum ALT level in a clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated / analysis. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Serum Albumin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diabetes Complications. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Transaminases / blood

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  • (PMID = 18975554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated; 0 / Serum Albumin; 0 / glycosylated serum albumin; EC 2.6.1.- / Transaminases
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14. Hanta I, Ozbek S, Kuleci S, Sert M, Kocabas A: Isoniazid intervention for latent tuberculosis among 86 patients with rheumatologic disease administered with anti-TNFalpha. Clin Rheumatol; 2007 Nov;26(11):1867-70
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  • In this study, we investigated the safety and toxicity of isoniazid (INH) intervention therapy to the patients with latent tuberculosis who were given tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) for the treatment of their rheumatologic diseases.
  • INH at a dosage of 300 mg daily was given for 9 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Isoniazid / therapeutic use. Rheumatic Diseases / complications. Rheumatic Diseases / drug therapy. Tuberculosis / complications. Tuberculosis / drug therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17332973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0770-3198
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; V83O1VOZ8L / Isoniazid
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15. Giakoustidis AE, Giakoustidis DE, Iliadis S, Papageorgiou G, Koliakou K, Kontos N, Taitzoglou I, Botsoglou E, Papanikolaou V, Atmatzidis K, Takoudas D, Antoniadis A: Attenuation of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induced liver and lung injury by intraperitoneal administration of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Free Radic Res; 2006 Jan;40(1):103-10
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  • [Title] Attenuation of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induced liver and lung injury by intraperitoneal administration of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ( - )-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a natural antioxidant, on liver and lungs after warm intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R).
  • Thirty male Wistar rats were equally divided into a sham-operation group, an intestinal I/R group and an intestinal I/R group pretreated with EGCG intraperitoneally.
  • Intestinal ischemia was induced by occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min.
  • Immediately after reperfusion, liver, lung and blood samples were collected and analyzed.
  • Results showed that intestinal I/R increased the levels of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) transaminase in serum to 987 and 752 IU/l, respectively.
  • Malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in liver to 1.524 nmol/g in the group subjected to intestinal I/R compared to 0.995 nmol/g in the sham operation group.
  • MDA was also increased in lungs to 1.581 nmol/g compared to 0.896 nmol/g in the sham operation group.
  • Myeloperoxidase (MPO) increased in liver, after intestinal I/R, to 5.16 U/g compared to 1.59 U/g in the sham operation group.
  • MPO was also increased in lungs to 3.89 U/g compared to 1.65 U/g in the sham operation group.
  • Pretreatment with EGCG decreased serum levels of AST and ALT to 236 and 178 IU/l, respectively.
  • It also decreased mean MDA levels in liver and lungs to 1.061 and 1.008 nmol/g, respectively, and mean MPO levels in liver and lungs to 1.88 and 1.71 U/g, respectively.
  • Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examinations showed significant alteration in liver and lungs and protection of liver and lung parenchyma in the animals treated with EGCG.
  • [MeSH-major] Catechin / analogs & derivatives. Liver / blood supply. Liver / drug effects. Lung / blood supply. Lung / drug effects. Reperfusion Injury / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Intestines / metabolism. Ischemia / metabolism. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Male. Malondialdehyde / metabolism. Microscopy, Electron. Microscopy, Polarization. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 16298765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-5762
  • [Journal-full-title] Free radical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Free Radic. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 8R1V1STN48 / Catechin; BQM438CTEL / epigallocatechin gallate
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16. Figueras J, Llado L, Ruiz D, Ramos E, Busquets J, Rafecas A, Torras J, Fabregat J: Complete versus selective portal triad clamping for minor liver resections: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg; 2005 Apr;241(4):582-90
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  • [Title] Complete versus selective portal triad clamping for minor liver resections: a prospective randomized trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, efficacy, amount of hemorrhage, postoperative complications, and ischemic injury of selective clamping in patients undergoing minor liver resections.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Inflow occlusion can reduce blood loss during hepatectomy.
  • However, Pringle maneuver produces ischemic injury to the remaining liver.
  • Selective hemihepatic vascular occlusion technique can reduce the severity of visceral congestion and total liver ischemia.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients undergoing minor hepatic resection were randomly assigned to complete clamping (CC) or selective clamping (SC).
  • Hemodynamic parameters, including portal pressure and the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), were evaluated.
  • The amount of blood loss, measurements of liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and postoperative evolution were also recorded.
  • RESULTS: No differences were observed in the amount of hemorrhage (671 +/- 533 mL versus 735 +/- 397 mL; P = 0.54) or the patients that required transfusion (10% versus 15%; P = 0.55).
  • There were no differences on postoperative morbidity between groups (38% versus 29%; P = 0.38).
  • Cirrhotic patients with CC had significantly higher ALT (7.7 +/- 4.6 versus 4.5 +/- 2.7 mukat/L, P = 0.01) and AST (10.2 +/- 8.7 versus 4.9 +/- 2.1 mukat/L; P = 0.03) values on the first postoperative day than SC.
  • The multivariate analysis demonstrated that high central venous pressure, HVPG >10 mm Hg, and intraoperative blood loss were independent factors related to morbidity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques of clamping are equally effective and feasible for patients with normal liver and undergoing minor hepatectomies.
  • However, in cirrhotic patients selective clamping induces less ischemic injury and should be recommended.
  • Finally, even for minor hepatic resections, central venous pressure, HVPG, and intraoperative blood loss are factors related to morbidity and should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Loss, Surgical / prevention & control. Hemostasis, Surgical / methods. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Portal System / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Constriction. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemodynamics / physiology. Humans. Intraoperative Complications / prevention & control. Liver Circulation / physiology. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Probability. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15798459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357061
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17. Morcos NY, Hassanein MH, Eliase NY, Bayoumi Eel-D, Mustafa IM: Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence of cryoglobulinemia and renal affection in the Egyptian patients. J Egypt Soc Parasitol; 2010 Aug;40(2):539-50
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  • [Title] Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence of cryoglobulinemia and renal affection in the Egyptian patients.
  • The association between mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), chronic hepatitis C virus (CHC), and renal insufficiency was documented.
  • This paper aimed to determine the prevalence of cryoglobulinemia (CG), and renal affection drug-naïve Egyptian patients suffering from CHC-in a cross-sectional study So, 53 patients with CHC and 20 healthy controls were included.
  • Parameters investigated covered; HCV antibodies, HCV RNA, liver profile (AST, ALT, serum albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time), renal profile (urea, uric acid, creatinine clearance, urinary albumin), CG, C3, C4, & three MDRD equations to calculate the GFR.
  • The results showed that CG was found in all patients, but none in controls.
  • The renal markers showed that none of the patients suffered frank nephropathy, but were at increased risk for developing kidney disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryoglobulinemia / complications. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Kidney Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Egypt / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult


18. Carrión López P, Pastor Navarro H, Martínez Ruiz J, Giménez Bachs JM, Donate Moreno MJ, Polo Ruiz L, Pastor Guzmán JM, Martínez Sanchiz C, Ruiz Mondéjar R, Virseda Rodríguez JA: [Spermatic cord sarcomas: current status and report of four cases]. Arch Esp Urol; 2009 Apr;62(3):242-6
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  • METHODS/RESULTS: We review the Spanish and international literature and report 4 new cases: 2 patients with well-differentiated spermatic cord liposarcomas (1 treated by simple tumorectomy), 1 patient with liposarcomatous degeneration of a previously excised atypical lipoma, and 1 patient operated for a malignant retroperitoneal fibrous histiocytoma with subsequent local recurrence in the paratesticular region.

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  • (PMID = 19554782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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19. Tsai CY, Ali RS, Wei FC, Chang YM: Reducing mandibular height to increase mouth opening in unreleasable trismus. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2010 Jul;68(7):1628-30
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  • We undertook radical release of the left-sided trismus, and covered the resultant soft tissue defect with an anterolateral thigh free flap, but the patient was only able to open his mouth an interincisal distance of 8 mm.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20417016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dental Implants
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20. Zhou JB, Yang XK, Ye QF, Ming YZ, Xia ZJ: [Effect of extract of ginkgo biloba leaves on the precondition of liver graft in rat liver transplantation]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2007 Feb;32(1):54-8
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  • The serum concentrations of ALT and AST were determined and the liver tissue were sampled to observe the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1.
  • RESULTS: After the ischemia/reperfusion the serum concentration of ALT and AST and expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-1 in the hepatic tissue in the NS group significantly increased (p<0.01), and the hepatocytic morphologic change was obvious compared with the SO group.
  • The treatment of ginkgo biloba extract significantly decreased the serum concentration of ALT and AST and the expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-1 in the hepatic tissue in EGb group compared with the NS group (p<0.01), and relieved the hepatocyte swelling and necrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Interleukin-1 / biosynthesis. Liver / blood supply. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Male. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17344587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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21. Ioannou GN: Cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy, and liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol; 2010 Jun;105(6):1364-73
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  • [Title] Cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy, and liver disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cholelithiasis and fatty liver disease share some important risk factors, such as central obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes.
  • We sought to determine whether persons with cholelithiasis or a history of cholecystectomy were more likely to have elevated serum liver enzymes or to develop cirrhosis.
  • METHODS: We used cohort data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), to determine whether persons with a self-reported history of cholecystectomy at baseline (n=466) had a higher incidence of hospitalization or death due to cirrhosis than persons without a history of cholecystectomy (n=8,691) during up to 21 years of follow-up.
  • We also used cross-sectional data from the third NHANES conducted between the years 1988 and 1994 to determine whether persons with cholelithiasis (n=833) or previous cholecystectomy (n=709), as determined by ultrasonography, were more likely to have elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) than persons without cholecystectomy or cholelithiasis (n=8,027).
  • RESULTS: Persons with previous cholecystectomy were two times more likely to be hospitalized for or die of cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.0) and were more likely to have elevated serum ALT (adjusted odds ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5) or GGT (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6) than persons without cholecystectomy.
  • We did not identify an independent association between cholelithiasis and serum ALT or GGT levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cholecystectomy is a predictor of the development cirrhosis and is associated with elevated serum liver enzymes.
  • Cholelithiasis is not independently associated with serum liver enzyme levels; whether cholelithiasis is associated with the development of cirrhosis remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy. Cholelithiasis / surgery. Liver Cirrhosis / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Cohort Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nutrition Surveys. Prospective Studies. United States. gamma-Glutamyltransferase / blood

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  • (PMID = 20068558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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22. George S, Chaturvedi P: A comparative study of the antioxidant properties of two different species of Ocimum of southern Africa on alcohol-induced oxidative stress. J Med Food; 2009 Oct;12(5):1154-8
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  • [Title] A comparative study of the antioxidant properties of two different species of Ocimum of southern Africa on alcohol-induced oxidative stress.
  • The present study investigates the protective effect of methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum (MOEG) and Ocimum canum (MOEC) from Southern Africa on the oxidative stress induced by alcohol consumption.
  • Male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into six groups of six rats each as follows: the normal control group was administered distilled water, the ethanol control was administered ethanol (5 g/kg), and experimental groups EX1 and EX3 were fed ethanol (5 g/kg) plus MOEG and MEOC (100 mg/kg), respectively.
  • Two other experimental groups, EX2 and EX4, were administered MEOG and MEOC (100 mg/kg), respectively, for 30 days.
  • At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to assay thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and vitamins E and C.
  • Results indicated a significant reduction in the levels of TBARS, ALT, and AST and a significant increase in the levels of GSH and vitamins E and C.
  • The level of vitamin E is greater with MOEG treatment, whereas the vitamin C level goes up with MOEC treatment.
  • A marked improvement occurred in the activities of CAT and SOD in groups EX1 and EX3 compared to the levels with group EC.
  • Thus the results indicated a significant protection by these extracts against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity (P <or= .05).
  • Again the groups that were treated with extracts only (EX2 and EX4) showed low levels of TBARS, ALT, and AST, which clearly indicates the extract had no toxic effects on hepatocytes.
  • Comparison of results for these two Ocimum species showed no significant difference except in the levels of vitamins E and C with two treatments.
  • Thus there is a possibility that O. canum might be participating through vitamin C and O. gratissimum through vitamin E.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / prevention & control. Ethanol / adverse effects. Ocimum. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Ascorbic Acid / blood. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Catalase / blood. Glutathione / blood. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Male. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Superoxide Dismutase / blood. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances. Vitamin E / blood

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  • (PMID = 19857083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7600
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal food
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Food
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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23. Hann HW, Chae HB, Dunn SR: Tenofovir (TDF) has stronger antiviral effect than adefovir (ADV) against lamivudine (LAM)-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatol Int; 2008 Jun;2(2):244-9
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  • [Title] Tenofovir (TDF) has stronger antiviral effect than adefovir (ADV) against lamivudine (LAM)-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV).
  • OBJECTIVES: We retrospectively compared the antiviral effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with that of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed resistance to lamivudine (LAM).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred nine patients (86 males), all Asian-American except 1 Caucasian male, with LAM resistance received TDF or ADV.
  • HBV DNA levels were measured every 3 months.
  • The HBeAg loss and ALT normalization were assessed at 12 months on therapy.
  • RESULTS: Forty-four patients (37 males) received TDF (12 with LAM) and 65 (49 males) received ADV (18 with LAM).
  • Median ages (years) for TDF and ADV were 49 (32-68) and 45 (22-68), respectively.
  • Median duration of therapy was 13 months (6-38) and 17 months (6-34) for the TDF and ADV groups.
  • Baseline HBV DNA levels (log(10) copies/ml) were 6.2 +/- 1.7 for the TDF and 6.5 +/- 1.6 for ADV groups.
  • Baseline ALT (IU/l) levels were 77.0 +/- 86.0 and 100 +/- 195 for the TDF and ADV (P = 0.46) groups, respectively.
  • At 12 months, mean levels of log(10) HBV DNA were 1.5 +/- 1.0 and 4.3 +/- 2.2 for TDF and ADV (P = 0.01).
  • HBeAg loss and ALT normalization at 12 months showed no differences.
  • Using a single factor, ANOVA (2-tailed P value), 4 groups, TDF (n = 32), TDF + LAM (12), ADV (47), and ADV + LAM (18), were compared.
  • HBV DNA reduction at 12 months was the greatest for TDF + LAM (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that for LAM-resistant HBV, TDF, alone or combined with LAM exerts greater viral reduction than ADV.
  • However, no difference in HBeAg loss was observed.
  • It appears that stronger HBV DNA reduction may not necessarily accelerate HBeAg loss.

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  • (PMID = 19669311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716857
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24. Radwan NM, El Hay Ahmed NA, Ibrahim KM, Khedr ME, Aziz MA, Khadrawy YA: Effect of infrared laser irradiation on amino acid neurotransmitters in an epileptic animal model induced by pilocarpine. Photomed Laser Surg; 2009 Jun;27(3):401-9
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  • [Title] Effect of infrared laser irradiation on amino acid neurotransmitters in an epileptic animal model induced by pilocarpine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of daily laser irradiation on the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the cortex and hippocampus in an epileptic animal model induced by pilocarpine.
  • BACKGROUND DATA: It has been claimed that at specific wavelengths and energy densities, laser irradiation is a novel and useful tool for the treatment of peripheral and central nervous system injuries and disorders.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male albino rats were divided into three groups: control rats, pilocarpinized rats (epileptic animal model), and pilocarpinized rats treated daily with laser irradiation (90 mW at 830 nm) for 7 d.
  • The following parameters were assayed in cortex and hippocampus: amino acid neurotransmitters (excitatory: glutamic acid and aspartate; and inhibitory: gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA], glycine, and taurine) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), glucose content, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), using a spectrophotometer.
  • RESULTS: Significant increases in the concentrations of glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, and taurine were recorded in the cortices of pilocarpinized rats, and they returned to initial levels after laser treatment.
  • In the hippocampus, a moderate increase in aspartate accompanied by a significant increase in glycine were observed in the epileptic animal model, and these dropped to near-control values after laser treatment.
  • In addition, a significant increase in cortical AST activity and a significant decrease in ALT activity and glucose content were obtained in the pilocarpinized animals and pilocarpinized rats treated with laser irradiation.
  • In the hippocampus, significant decreases in the activity of AST and ALT and glucose content were recorded in the epileptic animals and in the epileptic animals treated with laser irradiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be suggested that nearinfrared laser irradiation may reverse the neurochemical changes in amino acid neurotransmitters induced by pilocarpine.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acids / metabolism. Cerebral Cortex / radiation effects. Epilepsy / radiotherapy. Hippocampus / radiation effects. Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism. Pilocarpine / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / metabolism. Analysis of Variance. Animals. Aspartate Aminotransferases / metabolism. Aspartic Acid / metabolism. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Glutamic Acid / metabolism. Glycine / metabolism. Lasers, Semiconductor. Male. Models, Animal. Rats. Taurine / metabolism. gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19025405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8550
  • [Journal-full-title] Photomedicine and laser surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photomed Laser Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Neurotransmitter Agents; 01MI4Q9DI3 / Pilocarpine; 1EQV5MLY3D / Taurine; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; TE7660XO1C / Glycine
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25. Ozbey O, Esen F: The effects of breeding systems and stocking density on some blood parameters of rock partridges (Alectoris graeca). Poult Sci; 2007 Feb;86(2):420-2
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  • [Title] The effects of breeding systems and stocking density on some blood parameters of rock partridges (Alectoris graeca).
  • In this study, the effects of breeding systems and stocking density on some blood parameters of rock partridges [total protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), sodium, chlorine, potassium, aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alanine amino transferase (ALT)] were investigated.
  • For this purpose, blood samples of 18-wk-old male rock partridges, which were bred on the ground and in cages with 3 different stocking densities (group I: 15 partridges/m(2); group II: 20 partridges/m(2); and group III: 25 partridges/m(2)) were examined.
  • Breeding method of rock partridges was found to have significant effects on blood total protein, (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05), triglyceride (P < 0.01), urea (P < 0.01), glucose (P < 0.05), calcium (P < 0.05), phosphorus (P < 0.01), ALP (P < 0.05), sodium (P < 0.01), chlorine (P < 0.05), and potassium (P < 0.01) levels, whereas it was found to have no significant effect on blood AST and ALT levels (P > 0.05).
  • Stocking density of rock partridges was also found to affect significantly the levels of blood total protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, ALP, sodium, chlorine, and potassium (P < 0.05), whereas it did not have a significant effect on blood AST and ALT levels (P > 0.05).
  • When the breeding method of the partridges was changed from the ground to the cages and the stocking density was increased, it was observed that the levels of blood total cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, glucose, sodium, and chlorine increased, whereas total protein, calcium, phosphorus, ALP, and potassium levels decreased.
  • It was understood that the reactions of partridges toward breeding systems and stocking density were different and passing from ground system to cage system, and the increase in stocking density caused significant changes in blood parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Animal Husbandry / methods. Breeding / methods. Galliformes / blood. Galliformes / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Male

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  • (PMID = 17234860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-5791
  • [Journal-full-title] Poultry science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Poult. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Roy B, Sarkar AK, Sengupta P, Dey G, Das A, Pal TK: Twenty-eight days repeated oral dose toxicity study of gemifloxacin in Wistar albino rats. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 2010 Nov;58(2):196-207
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  • [Title] Twenty-eight days repeated oral dose toxicity study of gemifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential toxicity of gemifloxacin by 28-day repeated oral dose in Wistar albino rats.
  • The test article, was administered daily by gavage to male and female rats at dose levels of 0, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day.
  • At the end of treatment period, 12 rats/sex/group was sacrificed, while six extra rats/sex in the vehicle control and highest dose groups sacrificed after 14 days recovery period.
  • During the treatment and recovery periods, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food and water consumption, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, phototoxicity, hematology, serum biochemistry, synovial fluid biochemistry, electrocardiogram (ECG), gross findings, organ weights, microscopic examination of synovial fluid, and histopathology were examined.
  • Hematological and serum biochemical investigations revealed a dose-dependent increase in the total white blood cell (WBC), total bilirubin (T-BIL), glucose (GLU), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and significant decreases in total protein (TP) were observed in both sexes at the same dose, at the end of treatment period, but the levels returned toward normal during the recovery period.
  • Histopathology of talar joint showed that erosion of the articular surface of that joint in both sexes at the end of treatment period at the dose level of 200 mg/kg/day.
  • Degenerative changes in tendinocytes were observed in Achilles tendon of both sexes at the high dose level at the end of treatment period.
  • In histopathological study shows partial effacement of liver architecture and focal ulceration in gastric mucosa at the high dose level at the end of treatment period.
  • Based on these results, it was concluded that 28 days repeated oral dose of gemifloxacin caused increases in the liver weight, WBC count, T-BIL, glucose level, ALT, decreasing the TP, cause chronic hepatitis and acute gastritis, erosion of the articular surface of joint and histopathologic changes in Achilles tendon in rats at the dose level of 200 mg/kg/day.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / toxicity. Fluoroquinolones / toxicity. Naphthyridines / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / pathology. Female. Gastritis / chemically induced. Male. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Sex Factors. Toxicity Tests

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20580917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Naphthyridines; OKR68Y0E4T / gemifloxacin
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27. Fontanges T, Bailly F, Trepo E, Chevallier M, Maynard-Muet M, Nalet B, Beorchia S, Pillon D, Moindrot H, Froissart B, Slaoui M, Tinel X, Pradat P, Trepo C: Discordance between biochemical markers of liver activity and fibrosis (Actitest-Fibrotest) and liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2008 Oct;32(10):858-65
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  • [Title] Discordance between biochemical markers of liver activity and fibrosis (Actitest-Fibrotest) and liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine in routine practice and in comparison with liver biopsy the limitations of two blood tests, Actitest and Fibrotest, for the evaluation of hepatic activity and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
  • METHODS: Routine blood tests, Actitest and Fibrotest, and liver biopsy were performed in 96 patients with chronic hepatitis C attending routine outpatient clinics.
  • Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to assess the diagnostic value of the biochemical tests in comparison with the METAVIR classification.
  • RESULTS: The study population was predominantly male (63.5%) with a mean age of 48 years; 83.3% of the patients had genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection.
  • Treatment status was naive (62.5%), nonresponders (17.7%), relapsers (7.3%), or unknown (12.5%).
  • The comparison of F0-F2 versus F3-F4 estimated the negative predictive value at 92% and the positive predictive value at 52% for a cut-off of 0.455.
  • Discrepancies in activity score were more frequently due to a higher score of the biochemical test compared to biopsy (18 cases out of 19).
  • Discrepancies for fibrosis were observed in 18 patients with a higher score for biochemical test in eight and a higher score for liver biopsy in 10 cases.
  • A significant increase of gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) (p=0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p<0.0001) was observed in case of biochemical test overestimation of activity, and a significant increase of alpha2-macroglobulin (p=0.006) and GGT (p=0.018) in case of biochemical test overestimation of fibrosis.
  • CONCLUSION: This prospective study confirms the good diagnostic value of biochemical tests for necrotico-inflammatory activity and fibrosis as compared with the histological analysis of liver biopsy.
  • Clinicians must interpret Actitest and Fibrotest results with caution in patients with a significant elevation of ALT, and/or GGT and/or alpha2-macroglobulin which could overestimate hepatic injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis C, Chronic / blood. Hepatitis C, Chronic / pathology. Liver / pathology. Liver Cirrhosis / blood. Liver Cirrhosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / blood. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18775614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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28. Singh P, Pratap K, Kinjavdekar P, Aithal HP, Singh GR, Pathak R: Xylazine, ketamine and their combination for lumbar epidural analgesia in water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med; 2006 Oct;53(8):423-31
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  • The biochemical parameters like glucose, cortisol, BUN, creatinine, and ALT increased in all the animals.

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  • (PMID = 16970633.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-184X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Agonists; 0 / Analgesics; 2KFG9TP5V8 / Xylazine; 690G0D6V8H / Ketamine
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29. Pedersen M, Hammer K: Mutational analysis of the activator of late transcription, Alt, in the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1. Arch Virol; 2007 Feb;152(2):305-20
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  • By combining sequence analysis with experimental data we suggest that the C-terminal half of the Alt protein contains a helix-turn-helix-like motif involved in DNA binding.

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  • (PMID = 17066250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-8608
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Viral Proteins
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30. Huang W, Sun R, Zhang Z: ["Dose-time-toxicity" relationship study on hepatotoxicity caused by multiple dose of total Bupleurum saponin crude extracts to rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi; 2010 Dec;35(24):3344-7
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  • And the morphological changes of liver tissue were observed under light microscope.
  • 2 and 125.0 g x kg(-1) dose could cause the obvious hepatotoxicity to rats in 15 days' administration, which was represented by that ALT and AST in serum increased significantly with the dose increased, the ratio of liver to body increased, and under light microscope, the different doses' liver tissue of mice all had edema in different degree and fatty degeneration in liver cells, and the high-dose and long time administration group appeared to be necrosis, lobular structure unclear.

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  • (PMID = 21438404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-5302
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Complex Mixtures; 0 / Saponins; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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31. Woo G, Tomlinson G, Nishikawa Y, Kowgier M, Sherman M, Wong DK, Pham B, Ungar WJ, Einarson TR, Heathcote EJ, Krahn M: Tenofovir and entecavir are the most effective antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review and Bayesian meta-analyses. Gastroenterology; 2010 Oct;139(4):1218-29
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  • [Title] Tenofovir and entecavir are the most effective antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review and Bayesian meta-analyses.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relative efficacies of licensed antiviral therapies for treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in randomized controlled trials have not been determined.
  • We evaluated the relative efficacies of the first 12 months of CHB treatments.
  • METHODS: Drugs evaluated were lamivudine, pegylated interferon, adefovir, entecavir, telbivudine, and tenofovir, as monotherapies and combination therapies, in treatment-naive individuals.
  • Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of the first 12 months of therapy in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and/or HBeAg-negative patients with CHB published in English before October 31, 2009.
  • Bayesian mixed treatment comparisons were used to calculate the odds ratios, including 95% credible intervals and predicted probabilities of surrogate outcomes to determine the relative effects of each treatment.
  • RESULTS: In HBeAg-positive patients, tenofovir was most effective in inducing undetectable levels of HBV DNA (predicted probability, 88%), normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (66%), HBeAg seroconversion (20%), and hepatitis B surface antigen loss (5%); it ranked third in histologic improvement of the liver (53%).
  • Entecavir was most effective in improving liver histology (56%), second for inducing undetectable levels of HBV DNA (61%) and normalization of ALT levels (70%), and third in loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (1%).
  • In HBeAg-negative patients, tenofovir was the most effective in inducing undetectable levels of HBV DNA (94%) and improving liver histology (65%); it ranked second for normalization of ALT levels (73%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the first year of treatment for CHB, tenofovir and entecavir are the most potent oral antiviral agents for HBeAg-positive patients; tenofovir is most effective for HBeAg-negative patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenine / analogs & derivatives. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Organophosphonates / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Hepatitis B e Antigens / analysis. Humans. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Tenofovir

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20600036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Organophosphonates; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine; 5968Y6H45M / entecavir; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; 99YXE507IL / Tenofovir; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
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32. Jeng WJ, Sheen IS, Liaw YF: Hepatitis B virus DNA level predicts hepatic decompensation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Jun;8(6):541-5
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  • [Title] Hepatitis B virus DNA level predicts hepatic decompensation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute exacerbations of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to hepatic decompensation.
  • It is important to identify factors that predict the development of hepatic decompensation during exacerbation so that antiviral therapy can be initiated immediately.
  • METHODS: Acute exacerbation, defined by an abrupt increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to >5-fold the upper limit of normal, occurred in 110 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-seropositive non-cirrhotic patients (138 episodes).
  • The patients were monitored every 1 to 2 weeks for serum levels of ALT, bilirubin, albumin, and prothrombin.
  • Sex, age, HBV genotype, ALT level, HBV viral load, and the causes (spontaneous or relapse from antiviral treatment) of exacerbation were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses.
  • The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify the optimal cut-off value of serum HBV DNA level to identify patients at risk for decompensation.
  • RESULTS: Seven of the 138 episodes of acute exacerbation (5.1%) resulted in hepatic decompensation; serum HBV DNA level was the only significant risk factor (P = .003).
  • The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 88.6% (P < .001).
  • A serum HBV DNA cut-off value of 1.55 x 10(9) copies/mL predicted decompensation with a sensitivity of 85.7%, a specificity of 85.5%, a negative prediction value of 99.1%, and positive prediction value of 24.0%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: During acute exacerbation of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B, a serum HBV DNA cut-off value of 1.55 x 10(9) copies/mL can be used to identify patients in need of immediate antiviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / blood. Hepatic Insufficiency / diagnosis. Hepatitis B virus / isolation & purification. Hepatitis B, Chronic / pathology. Hepatitis B, Chronic / virology. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Bilirubin / blood. Female. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prothrombin / analysis. ROC Curve. Serum Albumin / analysis. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20298811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Serum Albumin; 9001-26-7 / Prothrombin; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
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33. Qiu YW, Jiang XH, Huang LH, Hu TH, Ding H, Jiang YM, Dai YX, Zhou M: [A study on the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with YMDD mutation]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi; 2009 Mar;17(3):171-4
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  • [Title] [A study on the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with YMDD mutation].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the strategy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with YMDD mutation.
  • METHODS: A total of 120 chronic hepatitis B patients with YMDD mutation were randomly assigned into four groups.
  • In group A, patients received adefovir dipivoxil for 48 weeks.
  • In group B, patients received adefovir dipivoxil in combination with lamivudine during the first 12 weeks and adefovir dipivoxil only for the following 36 weeks.
  • In group C, patients received adefovir dipivoxil in combination with lamivudine for 48 weeks.
  • In group D, patients received entecavir for 48 weeks.
  • RESULTS: The rate of rebound of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 30.0% (9/30), 10.0% (3/30), 6.7% (2/30), 10.0% (3/30) (P < 0.05) during the first 12 weeks, and one patient with severe hepatitis was found in group A.
  • The positive rate of YMDD mutation was 17.9%, 0, 0, 0 at week 12.
  • There was no significant difference in the level of ALT and the rate of HBeAg seroconversion after 48-week treatment (P > 0.05).
  • At week 48, there was significant difference in the ALT normalization rate and undetectable HBV DNA rate between group C and group A, and also between group D and group A, and the rate of drug resistant genotype was 6.9%, 6.7%, 0, 0.
  • Two patients had rtN236T mutation in group A, and one patient had rtN236T mutation and another one had rtA181V mutation in group B.
  • CONCLUSION: Adefovir dipivoxil in combination with lamivudine or entecavir are safe and effective therapies for chronic hepatitis B patients with YMDD mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. DNA, Viral / blood. Hepatitis B virus / genetics. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Hepatitis B, Chronic / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenine / administration & dosage. Adenine / analogs & derivatives. Adenine / therapeutic use. Adult. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Drug Resistance, Viral. Drug Therapy, Combination / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Guanine / therapeutic use. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Humans. Lamivudine / administration & dosage. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Organophosphonates / administration & dosage. Organophosphonates / therapeutic use. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19335977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-3418
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine; 5968Y6H45M / entecavir; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; JAC85A2161 / Adenine; U6Q8Z01514 / adefovir dipivoxil
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34. Kato J, Miyanishi K, Kobune M, Nakamura T, Takada K, Takimoto R, Kawano Y, Takahashi S, Takahashi M, Sato Y, Takayama T, Niitsu Y: Long-term phlebotomy with low-iron diet therapy lowers risk of development of hepatocellular carcinoma from chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol; 2007 Oct;42(10):830-6
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  • BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), iron depletion improves serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels as well as hepatic oxidative DNA damage.

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  • [CommentIn] J Gastroenterol. 2007 Nov;42(11):923-6 [18008038.001]
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  • (PMID = 17940836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iron, Dietary; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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35. Lizaso MT, Martínez A, Asturias JA, Algorta J, Madariaga B, Labarta N, Tabar AI: Biological standardization and maximum tolerated dose estimation of an Alternaria alternata allergenic extract. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol; 2006;16(2):94-103
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  • OBJECTIVES: To select the most adequate antigenic source of A. alternata extracts and determine its maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to be used in a subsequent immunotherapy efficacy clinical trial.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one patients monosensitized to A. alternata were involved in a biological standardization process of A. alternata extracts.

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  • (PMID = 16689182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-9068
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ALTA1 protein, Alternaria alternata; 0 / Allergens; 0 / Antibodies, Fungal; 0 / Antigens, Fungal; 0 / Antigens, Plant; 0 / Fungal Proteins; 37341-29-0 / Immunoglobulin E
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36. Lim SG, Wai CT, Lee YM, Dan YY, Sutedja DS, Wee A, Suresh S, Wu YJ, Machin D, Lim CC, Fock KM, Koay E, Bowden S, Locarnini S, Ishaque SM: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of thymosin-alpha1 and lymphoblastoid interferon for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. Antivir Ther; 2006;11(2):245-53
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  • [Title] A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of thymosin-alpha1 and lymphoblastoid interferon for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.
  • Combination therapy between two immunomodulators used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B was explored based on reported therapeutic efficacy of interferon-alpha, and thymosin-alpha1 as monotherapeutic agents to determine if combination therapy was superior to interferon alone.
  • This double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial compares the addition of thymosin-alpha1, 1.6 microg taken three times per week (combination therapy) or thymosin placebo (monotherapy) to lymphoblastoid interferon (Wellferon), 5 million international units (MIU) taken three times per week, for 24 weeks.
  • Entry criteria included positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg); alanine aminotransferease (ALT) > or = 1.5 x upper normal limit, but < or = 10 x upper normal limit; positive HBV DNA; absence of cirrhosis; treatment naivety and no co-morbid factors.
  • A total of 98 HBeAg-positive patients were recruited, of which 48 were randomized to combination therapy and 50 to monotherapy.
  • The primary endpoint was the loss of HBeAg at 72 weeks.
  • The secondary endpoints were HBeAg seroconversion, normalization of ALT, loss of HBV DNA and improvement in histology.
  • The HBeAg loss was 45.8% and 28.0% for combination therapy and monotherapy, respectively (difference, 17.8%; 95% CI -1.2%-35.3%, P = 0.067).
  • There was a trend towards HBeAg loss when using combination therapy.
  • There were also no statistically significant differences between the different therapies with respect to the secondary endpoints of HBeAg seroconversion, changes in histology, normalization of ALT or loss of HBV DNA.
  • In conclusion, this trial showed a 17.8% improvement in HBeAg loss rates using combination therapy over interferon monotherapy.
  • This could clinically indicate a potential important difference that would need confirmation in subsequent trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Thymosin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Double-Blind Method. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Placebos

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  • (PMID = 16640105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Placebos; 0 / thymalfasin; 61512-21-8 / Thymosin
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37. McMahon BJ: The natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology; 2009 May;49(5 Suppl):S45-55
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  • Future studies should include prospective follow-up of established population-based cohorts as well as new cohorts recruited from multiple centers stratified by HBV genotypes/subgenotypes and clinical phase to determine the incidence of the various HBV phases, HCC, and cirrhosis.

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  • (PMID = 19399792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference, NIH; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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38. Bajt ML, Yan HM, Farhood A, Jaeschke H: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 limits liver injury and facilitates regeneration after acetaminophen overdose. Toxicol Sci; 2008 Aug;104(2):419-27
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  • Our data indicate that PAI activation limits liver injury and mortality during APAP hepatotoxicity by preventing excessive hemorrhage and thereby facilitating tissue repair.

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  • (PMID = 18469330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0929
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR 021940; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016475; United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / R01 AA12916; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK070195
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Serpin E2; 0 / Serpine2 protein, mouse; 0 / Serpins; 362O9ITL9D / Acetaminophen; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2734297
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39. Vo Thi Diem H, Bourgois A, Bontems P, Goyens P, Buts JP, Nackers F, Tonglet R, Sokal EM: Chronic hepatitis B infection: long term comparison of children receiving interferon alpha and untreated controls. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2005 Feb;40(2):141-5
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  • [Title] Chronic hepatitis B infection: long term comparison of children receiving interferon alpha and untreated controls.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the virological outcome of chronic hepatitis B (CH-B) in children who received interferon alpha (IFN) compared with no treatment.
  • METHODS: Seventy-four children with CH-B (median age, 6.1 years; 44 boys) selected from a cohort of 158 cases were included and divided into two groups: IFN-treated (n = 37) and control (n = 37).
  • The controls were matched with the treated children by baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, sex and age.
  • The Kaplan-Meier method was performed to estimate the time to clearance of hepatitis B e antigen (HbeAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg).
  • RESULTS: Mean duration of follow-up was comparable in two groups (5.2 +/- 3.8 years in treatment group versus 5.2 +/- 3.7 years in control group, NS).
  • HBeAg and HBsAg loss occurred in 20 (54.1%) and three treated children versus 13 (35.1%) and one untreated children (NS), respectively.
  • The 7-year cumulative HBeAg and HBsAg clearance rates were 47.5% and 8.9% after the first visit in the treatment group versus 33.5% and 4.0% in untreated children (NS), respectively.
  • Elevated baseline ALT (two times upper limit of normal) had a significant effect on the long-term cumulative rate of HBeAg seroconversion in treated patients (P = 0.01) but not in the untreated group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the overall long-term virological outcome does not differ significantly between IFN-treated and untreated children but that a significant benefit of treatment on the long term rate of HBeAg seroconversion is obtained in children with higher baseline ALT levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / blood. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15699686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Interferon-alpha; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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40. Sakaida I, Kawaguchi K, Kimura T, Tamura F, Okita K: D-Penicillamine improved laparoscopic and histological findings of the liver in a patient with Wilson's disease: 3-year follow-up after diagnosis of Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia of Wilson's disease. J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jun;40(6):646-51
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  • [Title] D-Penicillamine improved laparoscopic and histological findings of the liver in a patient with Wilson's disease: 3-year follow-up after diagnosis of Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia of Wilson's disease.
  • We report a 13-year-old girl who presented with hepatic failure and hemolytic anemia.
  • Laboratory findings showed a normal serum copper level (104 microg/dl), high urinary copper level (2370 microg/dl), and low serum ceruloplasmin level (14.3 microg/dl).
  • Slit-lamp examination revealed Kayser-Fleischer rings on her cornea, and she was diagnosed with Wilson's disease.
  • Plasma exchange and continuous hemodiafiltration relieved the serious condition, after that laparoscopic examination was performed.
  • Administration of D-penicillamine and restriction of dietary copper (<1 mg/day) were started, leading to a normalized serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) level.
  • After 3 years, she again underwent laparoscopic examination, and the laparoscopic and histological findings of her liver were obviously improved.
  • Management of the copper level can reverse severe liver fibrosis in Wilson's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Hemolytic / complications. Antidotes / therapeutic use. Coombs Test. Hepatolenticular Degeneration / pathology. Laparoscopy. Liver Failure / drug therapy. Penicillamine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Copper / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemodiafiltration. Humans. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Photomicrography. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16007400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidotes; 789U1901C5 / Copper; GNN1DV99GX / Penicillamine
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41. Blagaić V, Houra K, Turcić P, Stambuk N, Konjevoda P, Boban-Blagaić A, Kelava T, Kos M, Aralica G, Culo F: The influence of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone on acetaminophen induced liver lesions in male CBA mice. Molecules; 2010 Mar;15(3):1232-41
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  • [Title] The influence of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone on acetaminophen induced liver lesions in male CBA mice.
  • Research over the past decade has indicated that melanocortin peptides are potent inhibitors of inflammation and a promising source of new anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective therapies.
  • The purpose of the present paper is to compare protective effects of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone on acetaminophen induced liver lesions in male CBA mice.
  • Acetaminophen was applied intragastrically in a dose of 150 mg/kg, and tested substances were applied intraperitoneally 1 hour before acetaminophen.
  • Mice were sacrificed after 24 hours and intensity of liver injury was estimated by measurement of plasma transaminase activity (AST and ALT) and histopathological grading of lesions.
  • It was found that alpha-, beta-, and gamma-MSH decrease intensity of lesions by both criteria in a dose-dependent manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetaminophen / toxicity. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / prevention & control. alpha-MSH / pharmacology. beta-MSH / pharmacology. gamma-MSH / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / chemistry. Alanine Transaminase / blood. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred CBA. Molecular Sequence Data

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  • (PMID = 20335976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-3049
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Molecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / beta-MSH; 0 / gamma-MSH; 362O9ITL9D / Acetaminophen; 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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42. Sen K, Lye D: Importance of flagella and enterotoxins for Aeromonas virulence in a mouse model. Can J Microbiol; 2007 Feb;53(2):261-9
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  • [Title] Importance of flagella and enterotoxins for Aeromonas virulence in a mouse model.
  • A genetic characterization of eight virulence factor genes, elastase, lipase, polar flagella (flaA/flaB, flaG), lateral flagella (lafA), and the enterotoxins alt, act, and ast, was performed using polymerase chain reaction with 55 drinking water and nine clinical isolates.
  • When 16 Aeromonas hydrophila strains, seven Aeromonas veronii strains, and seven Aeromonas caviae strains exhibiting different combinations of virulence factor genes were tested in immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal injection, only those strains that had one or more of the enterotoxins flaA, flaB, and either flaG or lafA showed signs of being virulent.
  • The correlation was seen in 97% (29/30) of the strains, which included strains from drinking water.
  • Thus, Aeromonas water isolates have the potential to be pathogenic in immunocompromised hosts.
  • [MeSH-major] Aeromonas / pathogenicity. Enterotoxins / toxicity. Flagella / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Mice. Virulence

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  • (PMID = 17496975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-4166
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enterotoxins
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43. Zhang W, Zhu JH, Cheng LB, Li YH: [Experimental pathological study of acute intoxication by Chloranthus serratus Roem. Et Schalt]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Feb;22(1):15-7
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  • [Title] [Experimental pathological study of acute intoxication by Chloranthus serratus Roem. Et Schalt].
  • OBJECTIVE: To find out the pathological change and the toxic mechanism of Chloranthus serratus Roem. et Schalt in mice.
  • METHODS: Mice were intoxicated by oral administration with extracts of Chloranthus serratus Roem. et Schalt followed by pathological, serum biochemical, and coagulation mechanism examination.
  • RESULTS: The LD50 in mice was 41.12 g/kg; All poisoned mice serum BUN and ALT increased markedly; Thrombocyte decreased and coagulation time increased; The organ index of liver, spleen and kidneys increased significantly; The cells of liver, kidney and heart were degeneration and necrosis, There were extensive hyperemia and hemorrhage in many organs.
  • CONCLUSION: The experiment suggests that the target organs were liver, kidney, heart and blood vessels; The toxic mechanism was the damage on the mitochondrional, endoplasmic reticulum and coagulation system.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiosperms / chemistry. Kidney / pathology. Liver / pathology. Myocardium / pathology. Plant Extracts / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers / blood. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Endoplasmic Reticulum / drug effects. Female. Forensic Pathology. Lethal Dose 50. Male. Mice. Mitochondria, Heart / drug effects. Mitochondria, Liver / drug effects. Random Allocation

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  • (PMID = 16524177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1004-5619
  • [Journal-full-title] Fa yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Plant Extracts
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44. Moon JM, Chun BJ: Predicting acute complicated glyphosate intoxication in the emergency department. Clin Toxicol (Phila); 2010 Aug;48(7):718-24
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  • Predicting which patient will need intensive medical treatment might help reduce mortality by providing prompt treatment, as well as triage those patients not likely to develop complications.

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  • (PMID = 20849329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-9519
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Toxicol (Phila)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Herbicides; 4632WW1X5A / glyphosate; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; TE7660XO1C / Glycine
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45. Riley P, Sudarshi D, Johal M, Benedict A, Panteli J, Crook M, O'Donohue J: Weight loss, dietary advice and statin therapy in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a retrospective study. Int J Clin Pract; 2008 Mar;62(3):374-81
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  • [Title] Weight loss, dietary advice and statin therapy in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that weight loss can have a favourable effect upon non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
  • However, the most effective means of achieving weight loss and safety profile of lipid-lowering drugs in the presence of NAFLD is unknown.
  • AIM: To investigate the effect of dietary advice and lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, on patients with NAFLD and dyslipidaemia.
  • DESIGN: Observational records based study.
  • METHODS: We studied 71 patients with NAFLD and dyslipidaemia diagnosed and treated between 1996 and 2002 at University Hospital Lewisham.
  • Some were referred to a dietician for weight loss advice as part of their management.
  • After treatment all patients were assessed for changes in weight, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and serum lipids including serum cholesterol, serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum triglycerides.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-seven male and 34 female patients with NAFLD and dyslipidaemia were followed up for a mean period of 440 +/- 374 days (median 335).
  • Regression analysis revealed a significant association between changes in weight and changes in serum ALT (p < 0.039).
  • Dietary advice failed to reduce body weight but significantly lowered the serum cholesterol to HDL ratio (p = 0.05).
  • Only 15.4% of patients taking statins experienced a rise in serum ALT > or = 40 U/l, and in each case the rise was transient, returning near baseline or below without discontinuation of statin treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss appears to improve NAFLD, and dietary advice and lipid-lowering drugs may be beneficial for patients with NAFLD and dyslipidaemia even if weight loss is not achieved.
  • Statins appear to be safe and efficacious in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Dyslipidemias / diet therapy. Dyslipidemias / drug therapy. Fatty Liver / diet therapy. Fatty Liver / drug therapy. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Life Style. Lipids / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Weight Loss / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18201181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Lipids; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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46. Glantz A, Marschall HU, Lammert F, Mattsson LA: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial comparing dexamethasone and ursodeoxycholic acid. Hepatology; 2005 Dec;42(6):1399-405
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  • In a subgroup analysis of ICP women with serum bile acids > or =40 micromol/L at inclusion (n = 34), UDCA had significant effects on pruritus (-75%), bile acids (-79%), ALT (-80%), and bilirubin (-50%) as well, but not on fetal complication rates.

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  • (PMID = 16317669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-9139
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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47. Craparo FJ, Bonati F, Gementi P, Nicolini U: The effects of serial intravascular transfusions in ascitic/hydropic RhD-alloimmunized fetuses. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Feb;25(2):144-8
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  • [Title] The effects of serial intravascular transfusions in ascitic/hydropic RhD-alloimmunized fetuses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of serial intravascular transfusions on RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion by measuring multiple hematological/biochemical blood variables.
  • METHODS: Thirty-one singleton pregnancies were referred for management of RhD alloimmunization.
  • Seven fetuses had hydrops on presentation and were transfused immediately.
  • The remainder underwent weekly ultrasound examinations, and fetal blood sampling and transfusion were performed on development of ascites.
  • In the 104 samples collected overall from the 31 fetuses, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase, pseudocholinesterase (PCHE), creatine kinase, triglycerides and cholesterol were measured and compared with a reference range for non-anemic fetuses.
  • RESULTS: The median gestational age at first transfusion was 26 (range, 18-34) weeks.
  • There were three fetal losses after the first transfusion, two of which were due to procedure-related complications; one further loss occurred.
  • At the first transfusion fetal hematocrit, pO2, total protein, PCHE, creatinine and urea concentrations were significantly decreased compared to reference data, while total and direct bilirubin, AST, ALT, amylase, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations were increased.
  • In all surviving fetuses ascites/hydrops had disappeared by the second transfusion.
  • Fetal pO2, total protein, AST, ALT and PCHE concentrations had normalized by the third transfusion.
  • Correction of fetal anemia did not affect the other variables.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RhD-alloimmunized fetuses with ascites/hydrops at the time of the first transfusion had a survival rate of 87%.
  • Alterations of several biochemical fetal blood indices are present at the first sampling/transfusion, but most variables normalize with intravascular transfusions.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / therapy. Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine / methods. Hydrops Fetalis / therapy. Rh Isoimmunization / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / blood. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Pregnancy. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 ISUOG.
  • (PMID = 15660441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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48. Cheung YS, Chan HL, Wong J, Lee KF, Poon TC, Wong N, Lai PB: Elevated perioperative transaminase level predicts intrahepatic recurrence in hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatectomy. Asian J Surg; 2008 Apr;31(2):41-9
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  • RESULTS: An elevated perioperative ALT level (p = 0.021), multiple tumour nodules in the resected specimen (p < 0.001), and a tumour size greater than 5 cm (p = 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for tumour recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 18490213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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49. Kumar S, Lopez AJ: Negative feedback regulation among SR splicing factors encoded by Rbp1 and Rbp1-like in Drosophila. EMBO J; 2005 Jul 20;24(14):2646-55
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  • [Title] Negative feedback regulation among SR splicing factors encoded by Rbp1 and Rbp1-like in Drosophila.
  • We show that genes Rbp1 and Rbp1-like, which encode Drosophila homologs of mammalian SRp20, negatively autoregulate and crossregulate at the level of alternative 3' splice site selection.
  • The effects of RBP1-ALT on splicing of doublesex and Rbp1-like are opposite to those of RBP1-RS and RBP1L-RS.
  • These results provide the first example of a feedback-regulated SR protein network with evidence of an active homeostatic role for alternative isoforms.

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  • (PMID = 15961996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0261-4189
  • [Journal-full-title] The EMBO journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] EMBO J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K02-HD01155; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01-HD28664
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RBP1 protein, Drosophila; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Rbp1-like protein, Drosophila; 0 / Ribonucleoproteins; 0 / tra2 protein, Drosophila; 0 / transformer protein, Drosophila
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1176452
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50. Yoshida WB, El Dib RP, Yoshida Rde A, Maffei FH: Ximelagatran versus warfarin for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in major orthopedic surgery: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Sao Paulo Med J; 2006 Nov 7;124(6):355-61
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  • DATA SYNTHESIS: We included three well-conducted clinical trials involving 4,914 participants.

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  • (PMID = 17322960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Azetidines; 0 / Benzylamines; 49HFB70472 / ximelagatran; 5Q7ZVV76EI / Warfarin
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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51. Gramenzi A, Andreone P, Loggi E, Foschi FG, Cursaro C, Margotti M, Biselli M, Bernardi M: Cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with different outcomes of hepatitis C virus infection. J Viral Hepat; 2005 Sep;12(5):525-30
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  • [Title] Cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with different outcomes of hepatitis C virus infection.
  • SUMMARY: The relationship between the balance of helper T-cell type 1 (Th1) or type 2 (Th2) cytokines and the clinical course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is unclear.
  • We evaluated Th1 [interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)] and Th2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-10) and 2,5-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS, an IFN-induced antiviral protein) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 10 healthy anti-HCV-positive individuals (group A), 10 HCV-RNA-positive with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (group B), 10 HCV-RNA-positive with abnormal ALT (group C) and 10 uninfected healthy controls.
  • IL-2 production was significantly increased in group B when compared with all the other groups.
  • No difference was found for IFN-gamma.
  • IL-4 was significantly higher in group C than in both group B (P = 0.0006) and controls (P = 0.004).
  • Compared with controls, IL-10 was significantly decreased in group A (P = 0.013) and B (P = 0.004).
  • The production of 2,5-OAS was significantly higher in group B than in A (P = 0.04) and in C (P = 0.004).
  • Finally, in all HCV-RNA-positive patients, a significant correlation was found between ALT and both IL-2 (r = -0.78; P = 0.0008) and IL-4 (r = 0.75; P = 0.0008).
  • IN CONCLUSION: (i) subjects who cleared HCV showed a cytokine profile similar to controls;.
  • (ii) a preferential shift towards a Th1 profile seems associated with a more favourable clinical outcome in chronic hepatitis C; and (iii) a prevalent Th2 profile seems implicated in HCV pathogenesis and severity of liver disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytokines / blood. Hepatitis C / blood. Hepatitis C / pathology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Hepacivirus / immunology. Humans. Interferon-gamma / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

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  • (PMID = 16108769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1352-0504
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of viral hepatitis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Viral Hepat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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52. Rana T, Bera AK, Das S, Pan D, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhattacharya D, De S, Sikdar S, Das SK: Effect of ascorbic acid on blood oxidative stress in experimental chronic arsenicosis in rodents. Food Chem Toxicol; 2010 Apr;48(4):1072-7
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  • [Title] Effect of ascorbic acid on blood oxidative stress in experimental chronic arsenicosis in rodents.
  • Ascorbic acid is a sugar acid and an essential vital food nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ascorbic acid against arsenic induced oxidative stress in blood of rat.
  • In rat, treatment with ascorbic acid prevented the increased serum enzymatic activity of AST, ALT, ALP, ACP and LDH.
  • In addition, treatment with ascorbic acid prevented elevated production of LPO, PC and NO and restored the depletion of reduced SOD and CAT activities.
  • Interestingly, ascorbic acid markedly upregulated lymphocytes relative mRNA expression of lymphocytes SOD2 gene corresponding to GAPDH, house keeping candidate gene in arsenic-treated rat, which might provide anti-oxidative activity in the blood.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Arsenic Poisoning / prevention & control. Ascorbic Acid / pharmacology. Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers / blood. Catalase / metabolism. Chronic Disease. Disease Models, Animal. Enzymes / blood. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / genetics. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Lymphocytes / chemistry. Lymphocytes / drug effects. Male. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Superoxide Dismutase / genetics. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Up-Regulation / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20122981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Enzymes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.15.1.1 / superoxide dismutase 2; EC 1.2.1.- / Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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53. Kim CY, Lee HS, Han SC, Heo JD, Kwon MS, Ha CS, Han SS: Hematological and serum biochemical values in cynomolgus monkeys anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride. J Med Primatol; 2005 Apr;34(2):96-100
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  • [Title] Hematological and serum biochemical values in cynomolgus monkeys anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride.
  • The effects of ketamine anesthesia on both hematological and serum biochemical variables were investigated in 19 male and 15 female cynomolgus monkeys.
  • Blood samples were obtained from the cephalic vein within 30 minutes of an intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg).
  • Ketamine anesthesia caused a reduction in leukocyte counts and a significant reduction in lymphocytes percentages.
  • Ketamine anesthesia also increased the serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), but reduced the serum concentrations of glucose, inorganic phosphate, sodium and potassium.
  • The alterations of hematological and serum biochemical values will be discussed.
  • These alterations should be considered when designing studies for and interpreting data from cynomolgus monkeys.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia / veterinary. Anesthetics, Dissociative / adverse effects. Ketamine / adverse effects. Macaca fascicularis / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Blood Glucose / analysis. Creatine Kinase / blood. Female. Leukocyte Count. Lymphocyte Count. Male. Phosphates / blood. Potassium / blood. Sodium / blood

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  • (PMID = 15860116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical primatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Primatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Dissociative; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Phosphates; 690G0D6V8H / Ketamine; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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54. Maida I, Soriano V, Barreiro P, Rivas P, Labarga P, Núñez M: Liver fibrosis stage and HCV genotype distribution in HIV-HCV coinfected patients with persistently normal transaminases. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses; 2007 Jun;23(6):801-4
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  • [Title] Liver fibrosis stage and HCV genotype distribution in HIV-HCV coinfected patients with persistently normal transaminases.
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with normal transaminases may show significant liver damage.
  • The proportion of subjects with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels within normal limits was examined in HIV-infected patients never exposed to interferon and with detectable plasma HCV-RNA on regular follow-up at one single institution.
  • Liver fibrosis was evaluated using transient elastography (FibroScan).
  • Out of 281 coinfected patients, 25 (8.9%) had persistently normal ALT levels.
  • Patients with HCV genotypes 2 (1/5; 20%) and 4 (10/50; 20%), more often had significantly normal ALT than patients with HCV-1 (13/158; 8%) (p = 0.01) and HCV-3 (1/49; 2%) (p = 0.01).
  • Liver fibrosis stages in these patients were as follows: F0-F1 in 13 (59.1%), F2 in 4 (18.2%), F3 in 2 (9.1%), and F4 in 3 (13.6%).
  • Advanced liver fibrosis (F3-F4) tended to be more frequent in patients infected with HCV-4 than HCV-1 (33.3% versus 9.1%; p = 0.2).
  • Of HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C 8.9% show persistently normal ALT levels.
  • Nearly 25% of HIV-HCV-coinfected patients with persistently normal ALT show advanced liver fibrosis.
  • Therefore, HCV-HIV-coinfected patients with normal ALT levels should be closely monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. HIV Infections / complications. Hepacivirus / genetics. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Genotype. Humans. Male. RNA, Viral / blood

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  • (PMID = 17604543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-2229
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS research and human retroviruses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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55. Billing V, Mertens F, Domanski HA, Rydholm A: Deep-seated ordinary and atypical lipomas: histopathology, cytogenetics, clinical features, and outcome in 215 tumours of the extremity and trunk wall. J Bone Joint Surg Br; 2008 Jul;90(7):929-33
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  • [Title] Deep-seated ordinary and atypical lipomas: histopathology, cytogenetics, clinical features, and outcome in 215 tumours of the extremity and trunk wall.
  • Deep-seated lipomas are often atypical histologically and are considered by some to have a high risk of recurrence after excision.
  • We classified tumours with atypical features and/or ring chromosomes as atypical lipomas.
  • The annual incidence was estimated as ten per million inhabitants and the ratio of atypical to ordinary lipomas was 1:3.
  • In total, six tumours (3%), recurred locally after a median of eight years (1 to 16); of these, four were classified as atypical.
  • The low recurrence rate of deep-seated lipomas of the extremity or trunk wall, irrespective of histological subtype, implies that if surgery is indicated, the tumour may be shelled out, that atypical lipomas in these locations do not deserve the designation well-differentiated liposarcoma, and that routine review after surgery is not required.
  • [MeSH-major] Extremities / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Thoracic Wall / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18591605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-620X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Br
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Mizuno Y, Sumi Y, Nachi S, Ito Y, Marui T, Saji S, Matsutomo H: A case of a large retroperitoneal liposarcoma presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia. Hernia; 2006 Oct;10(5):439-42
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  • [Title] A case of a large retroperitoneal liposarcoma presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia.
  • We report a rare case of retroperitoneal liposarcoma developing within an incarcerated inguinal hernia.
  • Preoperative computed tomography revealed an intraabdominal huge mass, and a clinical diagnosis of liposarcoma.
  • Physical findings except for the inguinal mass and laboratory examination, including tumor markers (CEA, CA19-9), were within normal range.
  • We performed a radical tumor resection, including a left orchiectomy.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as a well-differentiated liposarcoma, and originated from retroperitoneum.
  • The patient is well and shows no evidence of recurrence four months after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hernia, Inguinal / etiology. Liposarcoma / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16924396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1265-4906
  • [Journal-full-title] Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hernia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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57. Mikurube H, Kaneko M, Murata C, Komaki Y, Ishikawa N, Higashiyama R, Fukasawa K, Watanabe T: Association of change in the type of job with prevalence of components of the metabolic syndrome-special reference to job stress. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi; 2005 Nov;52(11):987-93
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  • OBJECTIVE: It is well established that job stress is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease.


58. Unsal-Tuna E, Oksüzler O, Ozbek C, Ozdem C: [Surgical management of lower lip cancers]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2008 May-Jun;18(3):148-52
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  • Data were reviewed on clinical features, risk factors, localization of the lesion, regional lymph node status, tumor staging, results of surgical treatment and pathological examination, locoregional recurrence, and prognosis.
  • Tumor differentiation was good in 39 patients (83%), moderate in seven patients (15%), and poor in one patient (2%).
  • Stage 1 tumor was seen in 29 patients (61%).

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  • (PMID = 18984995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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59. Tanyeri H, Boyaci Z: [Reduction of the inferior turbinates with a microdebrider]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2008 Mar-Apr;18(2):69-73
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  • [Title] [Reduction of the inferior turbinates with a microdebrider].
  • [Transliterated title] Alt konkanin mikrodebrider ile redüksiyonu.
  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the results of submucosal microdebrider turbinate reduction in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 503 patients (190 females, 313 males; mean age 28 years; range 18-68 years) who underwent turbinate reduction by a microdebrider for inferior turbinate hypertrophy.
  • The inferior turbinates were examined by anterior rhinoscopy and nasal endoscopy before and three weeks after surgery and their size was graded from I to III.
  • Preoperatively, 384 patients had grade II, 119 patients had grade III inferior turbinates.
  • Of the study group, 116 patients completed a follow-up of two years.
  • RESULTS: At three weeks after surgery, none of the patients had grade III turbinates; 435 patients and 68 patients were evaluated as grade I and II, respectively.
  • At the end of two years, none had grade III turbinates; 76 patients were grade I, 40 patients were grade II.
  • Complaints of nasal obstruction disappeared in three weeks in 95% of patients and it did not recur in all 116 patients at the end of two years.
  • In the early postoperative period, crusting was not observed and recovery was quick.
  • The most common complication was mucosal tears (n=114, 22.6%).
  • Bleeding was seen in only one patient (0.2%).
  • CONCLUSION: Submucosal microdebrider turbinate reduction is a safe alternative procedure and provides rapid healing with low complication rates, especially postoperative crusting.
  • [MeSH-major] Debridement / instrumentation. Nasal Obstruction / surgery. Turbinates / pathology. Turbinates / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Endoscopy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertrophy / complications. Hypertrophy / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18628639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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60. Anand SS, Mumtaz MM, Mehendale HM: Dose-dependent liver tissue repair after chloroform plus trichloroethylene binary mixture. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol; 2005 Jun;96(6):436-44
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  • [Title] Dose-dependent liver tissue repair after chloroform plus trichloroethylene binary mixture.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that liver tissue repair induced by exposure to chloroform (CHCl(3))+trichloroethylene binary mixture (BM) is dose-dependent similar to that elicited by exposure to these compounds individually.
  • Liver tissue repair was measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation into hepatonuclear DNA.
  • On the other hand, tissue repair elicited by the binary mixture was dose-dependent.
  • The interactive toxicity of this binary mixture of CHCl(3) and trichloroethylene led to subadditive initial liver injury because of a combined effect of higher elimination of TCE and mitigated progression of liver injury was prevented by timely dose-dependent stimulation of compensatory tissue repair.

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  • (PMID = 15910407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-7835
  • [Journal-full-title] Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 290YE8AR51 / Trichloroethylene; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid; 7V31YC746X / Chloroform; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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61. Başoğlu OK, Atasever A, Gündüz Telli C, Ozol D, Aşçi G, Ardeniz O, Güzelant A, Bacakoğlu F, Sayiner A: [T-lymphocyte subgroups and tuberculin skin test reactivity in patients with chronic renal failure]. Tuberk Toraks; 2006;54(1):5-10
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  • [Title] [T-lymphocyte subgroups and tuberculin skin test reactivity in patients with chronic renal failure].
  • [Transliterated title] Kronik böbrek yetmezlikli olgularda tüberkülin cilt testi yaniti ve T-lenfosit alt gruplari.
  • As anergy is common in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), the use of tuberculin skin test (TST) is controversial.
  • Therefore, determination of the factors that affect the TST reactivity would increase the diagnostic value of the test.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors affecting TST reactivity and evaluate the relationship between T-lymphocyte subsets and TST reactivity.
  • We thus examined 44 patients (mean age 46.6 +/- 15.6 years, 25 males, duration of CRF 5.6 +/- 5.2 years), performed TST (an induration with a diameter of 5 mm or more was considered as positive) and measured Tlymphocyte subsets and biochemical parameters.
  • Twenty-three patients were on hemodialysis, six were on peritoneal dialysis, seven were transplant recipients, and eight were on medical treatment.
  • Eleven patients (25%) had immunosuppressive treatment.
  • Eleven patients (25%) had two, 29 patients (66%) had one, and four patients (9%) had no BCG scars.
  • Five patients (11%) had low body mass index (BMI).
  • T-lymphocyte subsets were as follows: CD4= 40.7 +/- 7.6%, CD8= 32 +/- 8.9%, CD4/CD8= 1.7 +/- 2.5%, CD3= 71.4 +/- 9.4%, CD19= 6.3 +/- 5.1%, NK= 9.7 +/- 5.9.
  • Twenty-two patients had positive TST reactivity.
  • No relation was found between TST reactivity and age, gender, co-morbidity, BCG vaccination, BMI, immunosuppressive therapy, duration and treatment of CRF.
  • Similarly, TST reactivity was not related to the biochemical parameters and Tlymphocyte subsets.
  • These data provide that tuberculin reactivity does not seem to be associated with T-lymphocyte dysfunction and clinical features in patients with chronic renal failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Failure, Chronic. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology. Tuberculin Test. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 16615011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0494-1373
  • [Journal-full-title] Tüberküloz ve toraks
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tuberk Toraks
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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62. Kim WR, Flamm SL, Di Bisceglie AM, Bodenheimer HC, Public Policy Committee of the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease: Serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as an indicator of health and disease. Hepatology; 2008 Apr;47(4):1363-70
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  • [Title] Serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as an indicator of health and disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Liver Diseases / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Mass Screening

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  • (PMID = 18366115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Investigator] Di Bisceglie AM; Bodenheimer HC Jr; Lindsay KL; Yee H; Goss J; Kaplan LM; Gish RG; Kim WR; Sanyal A
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63. Najmi AK, Pillai KK, Pal SN, Aqil M: Free radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activity of jigrine against galactosamine induced hepatopathy in rats. J Ethnopharmacol; 2005 Mar 21;97(3):521-5
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  • Biochemical parameters like AST, ALT and urea in serum, TBARS and glutathione in liver and whole blood glutathione were estimated to assess liver function.

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  • (PMID = 15740890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 7535-00-4 / Galactosamine
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64. Kim JH, Yu SK, Seo YS, Yim HJ, Yeon JE, Park JJ, Kim JS, Bak YT, Lee CH, Byun KS: Clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently detectable serum hepatitis B virus DNA during lamivudine therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Aug;22(8):1220-5
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  • [Title] Clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently detectable serum hepatitis B virus DNA during lamivudine therapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: A small proportion of chronic hepatitis B patients have persistently detectable serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA despite lamivudine therapy.
  • The incidence and clinical outcomes of patients who persistently have detectable serum HBV-DNA during lamivudine therapy was investigated.
  • METHOD: We enrolled 221 chronic hepatitis B patients who underwent lamivudine therapy for more than 6 months.
  • Among them, 180 were HBeAg positive.
  • Serum HBV-DNA, HBeAg, anti-HBe and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were serially monitored.
  • The study groups were defined, using a hybridization assay, as patients with reductions in serum HBV-DNA below the detectable level (group I) or patients with persistently detectable serum HBV-DNA (group II) during the initial 6 months of lamivudine therapy.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of patients who had persistently detectable HBV-DNA was 7.7%.
  • After the first year, the rates of viral breakthrough, HBeAg loss and serum ALT normalization of group I versus group II were 21% versus 63%, 38% versus 0%, and 71% versus 28%, respectively (P < 0.001).
  • The log(10) reduction of serum HBV-DNA at 6 months was -4.58 log(10) for group I and -1.97 log(10) for group II (P < 0.001, bDNA assay).
  • There were no pretreatment lamivudine-resistant mutants in group II.
  • CONCLUSION: Lamivudine had little effect on serum HBV-DNA suppression, viral breakthrough suppression and rate of HBeAg loss and ALT normalization in chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently detectable serum HBV-DNA during the initial 6 months of therapy.
  • Early termination of lamivudine therapy is advocated for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. DNA, Viral / blood. Hepatitis B virus / isolation & purification. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Lamivudine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17532786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine
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65. Zheng RD, Lu LG, Meng JR, Huang JD, Rao RC, Xu CR, Zeng MD: [A clinical and pathological study of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;14(6):449-52
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  • [Title] [A clinical and pathological study of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the pathological and clinical features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
  • METHODS: Grades and stages of liver lesions in 41 patients with NAFLD were analyzed.
  • The relationships between pathohistological features of the livers, serum biochemical parameters, ultrasound examination and other clinical data of the patients were studied.
  • RESULTS: Among the 41 patients with NAFLD (there were 21 with their liver fatty degeneration in grade 1, 15 in grade 2, and 5 in grade 3).
  • There were 2 of grade 0, grade 1 had 25, grade 2 had 10, grade 3 had 3, and grade 4 had 1.
  • Stage 0 of fibrosis was 20, stage 1 was 14, stage 2 was 4, stage 3 was 2, and stage 4 was 1.
  • Degree of fatty degeneration was not positively associated with the body mass index (BMI) of the patients and the ultrasound findings in their livers.
  • Grading of the inflammation was positively related to the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the blood and ultrasound findings in their livers, but negatively to the platelet counts.
  • Staging of fibrosis of the livers was positively related to the blood ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP, and negatively to triglyceride levels and platelet counts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Degree of liver fatty degeneration was not associated with grades of inflammation and staging of fibrosis of the liver.
  • BMI, ALT and AST level, platelet counts, and ultrasound grades of fatty liver were associated with the liver histopathological changes of NAFLD patients.
  • Liver biopsy is the essential way to make a diagnosis of NAFLD.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Liver / pathology. Liver / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16792871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-3418
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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66. van Vliet M, von Rosenstiel IA, Schindhelm RK, Brandjes DP, Beijnen JH, Diamant M: The association of elevated alanine aminotransferase and the metabolic syndrome in an overweight and obese pediatric population of multi-ethnic origin. Eur J Pediatr; 2009 May;168(5):585-91
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  • [Title] The association of elevated alanine aminotransferase and the metabolic syndrome in an overweight and obese pediatric population of multi-ethnic origin.
  • We studied the association between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and features of the metabolic syndrome in a cohort of overweight and obese children aged 3-18 years.
  • An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 443 consecutive children from an obesity out-patient clinic (median age 11.2, range 3.1-18.0 years; n=240 boys) of multi-ethnic origin.
  • The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, elevated ALT (>30 IU/L), and the association of ALT with (components of) the metabolic syndrome was assessed.
  • The metabolic syndrome was present in 26.9%.
  • Elevated ALT levels were found in 20.3%, with a higher prevalence in boys than in girls (25.8% versus 13.8%, P<0.001).
  • ALT was associated with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, high triglycerides, and low HDL-cholesterol after adjustment for gender, age, and BMI.
  • In conclusion, elevated ALT levels were highly prevalent and associated with the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, high triglycerides, and low HDL-cholesterol in an obese multiethnic pediatric population.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / metabolism. Ethnic Groups / statistics & numerical data. Metabolic Syndrome X / enzymology. Metabolic Syndrome X / ethnology. Obesity / enzymology. Obesity / ethnology. Overweight
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Fatty Liver / enzymology. Fatty Liver / ethnology. Female. Heart Diseases / ethnology. Humans. Hypertension / ethnology. Insulin Resistance / physiology. Male. Population Surveillance / methods. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18696112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1076
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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67. Ma M, Ma ZH: Effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2008 Jun;7(3):296-9
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  • [Title] Effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rats with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in rats with hepatic I/R injury and promote the recognition of I/R injury in the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression. Liver / blood supply. Liver Diseases / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reperfusion Injury / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18522885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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68. Kim JK, Hwang SG, Park H, Choi HY, Cho HJ, Ko KH, Hong SP, Park PW, Kim NK, Rim KS: [Clinical outcomes after discontinuation of Lamivudine in chronic hepatitis B patients with Lamivudine resistant HBV mutant]. Korean J Hepatol; 2005 Sep;11(3):227-42
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  • [Title] [Clinical outcomes after discontinuation of Lamivudine in chronic hepatitis B patients with Lamivudine resistant HBV mutant].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The therapeutic strategies of applying adefovir for treating lamivudine resistant HBV mutants are controversial.
  • Thus, we observed the clinical outcomes after discontinuation of lamivudine to establish the timing to initiate adefovir therapy.
  • METHODS: Fifty chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with lamivudine resistant HBV mutants who had received lamivudine for more than 12 months were included in the study.
  • We investigated the clinical outcomes at 6 months after the end of treatment (EOT).
  • We compared the serial clinical outcomes among respective groups based on serum ALT at the EOT and the clinical characteristics of patients with or without acute exacerbation (AE) and the HBeAg loss.
  • We also investigated the predictive parameters of AE and HBeAg loss.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen patients (30%) had experienced AE at 6 months after the EOT.
  • Four patients received antiviral agents because of their hepatic decompensation.
  • Patients with AE had higher serum ALT values and lower HBV DNA titers at EOT compared with those patients without AE.
  • Serum ALT at the EOT was the predictive parameter of AE.
  • Eight patients (21.6%) had newly developed HBeAg loss at 6 months after EOT.
  • The total bilirubin at EOT was the predictive parameter of HBeAg loss.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CHB patients with lamivudine resistant HBV mutants had favorable clinical outcomes at 6 months after EOT.
  • Therefore, we can consider observing the clinical courses after discontinuation of lamivudine and it is not always required to overlap the adefovir for treating lamivudine resistant HBV mutants except for the treatment of patients with a high risk of developing decompensation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Viral. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Lamivudine / administration & dosage. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenine / administration & dosage. Adenine / analogs & derivatives. Adult. Female. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Hepatitis B virus / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organophosphonates / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16177549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hepatol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine; 6GQP90I798 / adefovir; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
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69. Zhang Q, Qiao Q, Chen G: [Clinical application of the anterolateral thigh flap in 112 patients]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 May;20(5):540-3
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  • CONCLUSION: ALT flap is a versatile soft-tissue flap.
  • [MeSH-major] Soft Tissue Injuries / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Tissue Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 16752844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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70. Abraham P, Sugumar E: Increased glutathione levels and activity of PON1 (phenyl acetate esterase) in the liver of rats after a single dose of cyclophosphamide: a defense mechanism? Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2008 Mar;59(5):301-6
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  • [Title] Increased glutathione levels and activity of PON1 (phenyl acetate esterase) in the liver of rats after a single dose of cyclophosphamide: a defense mechanism?
  • The clinical utility of cyclophosphamide (CYP) as an anticancer drug is limited by its urotoxicity and nephrotoxicity and to a lesser extent by its hepatotoxicity.
  • The present study was undertaken in order to find out the reason why liver is least susceptible of the three organs to CYP-induced damage although it is the major site for drug activation and metabolism.
  • Adult female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were administered single intraperitoneal injection of CYP at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight and sacrificed at various time intervals 6, 16 or 24h after the dose of CYP.
  • The control rats were administered saline alone.
  • Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and histopathology of the liver.
  • Liver was used for the assay of reduced glutathione; activity of paraoxonase (PON1) malondialdehyde - marker of lipid peroxidation.
  • Serum was used for the assay of ALT activity and PON1 activity.
  • The level of reduced glutathione in the liver CYP treated rat was increased by 22% and 57% at 16 and 24h, respectively.
  • Interestingly, a marked increase in the activity of PON1 (122%) was observed in the livers of CYP treated rats 24h after treatment.
  • This was accompanied by significant increase in PON1 activity (23%) in the serum.
  • No significant alteration in hepatic malondialdehyde level was observed at any time period after treatment.
  • Serum ALT activity was increased slightly 24h after treatment with CYP.
  • Mild liver damage was observed histologically only 24h after treatment with the drug.
  • The present investigation shows for the first time that an increase in antioxidant levels in the liver may be a defense mechanism to prevent/minimize CYP-induced liver damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / toxicity. Aryldialkylphosphatase / drug effects. Cyclophosphamide / toxicity. Glutathione / drug effects. Liver / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Female. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Malondialdehyde / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 18032000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 3.1.8.1 / Aryldialkylphosphatase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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71. Chen GY, He JQ, Lu GC, Li MW, Xu CH, Fan WW, Zhou C, Chen Z: Association between TRAIL expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and liver damage in chronic hepatitis B. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jul 14;11(26):4090-3
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  • AIM: To explore a novel mechanism for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), upregulation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes participating in the patho-physiological process of chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B, Chronic / physiopathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / blood. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15996036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4502107
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72. Gazdik F, Gazdikova K, Laktis K, Okruhlica L, Fejdiova K, Danis D, Pijak MR, Wsolova L, Kajaba I, Kratky A: High virologic sustained response for former young intravenous drug users with chronic hepatitis C treated by pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2009;110(2):77-84
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  • [Title] High virologic sustained response for former young intravenous drug users with chronic hepatitis C treated by pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin.
  • AIMS: The aim of this clinical study was to assess virological response at end-of -treatment (ETR), sustained virological (SVR) and biochemical response in former drug users with chronic hepatitis C treated with PEG-IFN-alpha and R.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety two former drug users (21 F, 71 M) average age 27 years (18 to 41 years) and previously not treated with IFN-alpha and R (naive patients, pts) were evaluated for their virological and biochemical response.
  • Standard treatment regimen of either 24 or 48 weeks was applied in patients with genotype 3 or genotype 1, respectively.
  • SVR was considered if viral tests (HCV RNA) were negative 24 weeks after the end of treatment.
  • RESULTS: Overall SVR was attained in 87 (95%) of 92 treated patients, and therapy failed in 5 pts with genotype 1.
  • In genotype 1 patients ETR and SVR were 81% and 86%, respectively (p < 0.001).
  • In genotype 3 patients ETR and SVR were 98% and 100%, respectively (p < 0.001).
  • ALT levels decreased significantly after 12 weeks of therapy (ALT 1.61 vs 0.64 micro/kat/l, p < 0.001) and were at normal levels during follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Crucial predictive factors resulting in high SVR were the younger age in combination with low stage of liver fibrosis, relatively short duration of viral infection, high proportion of genotype 3 and excellent adherence of patients to treatment regimen than previously not treated with IFN-alpha and R (naive patients).
  • High proportion of SVR in former drug users has been achieved in patients with genotype 3 (100%) and genotype 1 (86%).
  • The most decisive prognostic factor which favors high therapeutic efficacy appears to be young age and early onset of anti-HCV treatment (Tab. 3, Fig.
  • 1, Ref. 33). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Ribavirin / administration & dosage. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Hepacivirus / isolation & purification. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. RNA, Viral / blood. Recombinant Proteins. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19408838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase IV; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2a; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2b; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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73. Ozcelik D, Uzun H: Copper intoxication; antioxidant defenses and oxidative damage in rat brain. Biol Trace Elem Res; 2009 Jan;127(1):45-52
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  • Even though Cu is essential to life, it can become toxic to cells, at elevated tissue concentrations.
  • In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of excess Cu on oxidative and anti-oxidative substances in brain tissue in a rat model.
  • In brain tissue, Cu concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined.
  • Our results showed that SOD activities and GSH levels in brain tissue of the Cu-intoxicated animals were significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.01 and p < 0,001, respectively).

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  • (PMID = 18784908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological trace element research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol Trace Elem Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 789U1901C5 / Copper; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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74. Frige' F, Laneri M, Veronelli A, Folli F, Paganelli M, Vedani P, Marchi M, Noe' D, Ventura P, Opocher E, Pontiroli AE: Bariatric surgery in obesity: changes of glucose and lipid metabolism correlate with changes of fat mass. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis; 2009 Mar;19(3):198-204
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  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Bariatric Surgery / methods. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Body Mass Index. Intestinal Absorption. Jejunoileal Bypass. Lipid Metabolism. Obesity / blood. Obesity / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18684601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-3729
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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75. Ryu SY, Kim KS, Park J, Kang MG, Han MA: [Serum ferritin and risk of the metabolic syndrome in some Korean rural residents]. J Prev Med Public Health; 2008 Mar;41(2):115-20
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  • [Title] [Serum ferritin and risk of the metabolic syndrome in some Korean rural residents].
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum ferritin and the metabolic syndrome (MS).
  • METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,444 adults over age 40 and under age 70 that lived in a rural area and participated in a survey conducted as part of the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study (KRGCS).
  • The MS was defined as the presence of at least three of the followings: elevated blood pressure, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated serum triglycerides, elevated plasma glucose, or abdominal obesity.
  • After adjustment for age, alcohol intake, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), odds ratios (ORs) for the prevalence of the MS by sex were calculated for quartiles of serum ferritin using logistic regression analysis.
  • RESULTS: The MS was more common in those persons with the highest levels of serum ferritin, compared to persons with the lowest levels, in men (37.1% vs. 22.4%, p=0.006) and women (58.8% vs. 34.8, p<0.001).
  • In both sexes, the greater the number of MS components presents, the greater the serum ferritin levels.
  • After adjustment for age, alcohol intake, and menopausal status, the OR for metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile of ferritin with the first quartile, was 2.21 (95% confidence interval; CI=1.26-3.87; p-trend=0.024) in men and 2.10 (95% CI=1.40-3.17; p-trend=0.001) in women.
  • However, after further adjustment for BMI, hs-CRP, and ALT, the ORs were statistically attenuated in both sexes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Moderately elevated serum ferritin levels were not independently associated with the prevalence of the MS after adjusting for other risk factors.
  • Further studies are needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between serum ferritin levels and the MS.
  • [MeSH-major] Ferritins / blood. Metabolic Syndrome X / epidemiology. Rural Health
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Glucose. Blood Pressure. Body Weights and Measures. Cohort Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Health Behavior. Humans. Korea / epidemiology. Lipids / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18385552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1975-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Ŭihakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Prev Med Public Health
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Lipids; 9007-73-2 / Ferritins
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76. Li J, Zhang S, Wu Y, Guo W, Zhang Y, Zhai W: Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine on the liver of brain-dead Ba-Ma mini pig. Transplant Proc; 2010 Jan-Feb;42(1):195-9
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  • At 6, 12, and 24 hours after the initial brain death, we determined the levels of serum aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6.
  • At the same times, hepatic tissue samples were obtained to assess morphological changes in hepatic tissues and the expression of NF-kappaB mRNA and protein was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Animals. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Brain Death. DNA Primers. Interleukin-1beta / blood. Interleukin-6 / blood. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Swine. Swine, Miniature. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood

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  • (PMID = 20172312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Interleukin-1beta; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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77. Andreadou I, Sigala F, Iliodromitis EK, Papaefthimiou M, Sigalas C, Aligiannis N, Savvari P, Gorgoulis V, Papalabros E, Kremastinos DT: Acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is successfully treated with the phytochemical oleuropein through suppression of oxidative and nitrosative stress. J Mol Cell Cardiol; 2007 Mar;42(3):549-58
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  • Hearts were used for general histology, iNOS immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis, and for determination of tissue concentrations of lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls (PCs), and nitrotyrosine (NT).
  • Furthermore, it reduced DXR induced lipid peroxidation, PCs content, NT concentration and iNOS induction in myocardial tissue (P<0.05).

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  • (PMID = 17223128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2828
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iridoids; 0 / Nitrates; 0 / Pyrans; 2O4553545L / oleuropein; 3604-79-3 / 3-nitrotyrosine; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
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78. Zheng L, Liu LJ, Hu YY, Wang YL, Wen ZM, Zhang Y, Chen HC, Zhang QY, Jiang JJ: [IgM to recombinant antigen E2 of HEV envelope protein is a sensitive and specific serological marker in diagnosis of acute hepatitis E]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;13(8):590-3
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  • [Title] [IgM to recombinant antigen E2 of HEV envelope protein is a sensitive and specific serological marker in diagnosis of acute hepatitis E].
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of IgM to recombinant antigen E2 of HEV envelope protein in the diagnosis of acute sporadic hepatitis E.
  • METHODS: anti-E2 IgM was detected in sera samples from 176 cases of acute sporadic hepatitis E and 191 cases of acute non A-E hepatitis by ELISA and was compared with HEV IgM detected by some domestic and Genelabs (GL) kits.
  • HEV RNA was also detected in sera positive for anti-E2 IgM.
  • Logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with the detection of anti-E2 IgM and HEV RNA.
  • RESULTS: Anti-E2 IgM was found in 68.75% of the serum samples from the 176 patients of acute hepatitis E and the positive rate of HEV IgM detection by domestic kits was 56.25% (chi2 IgM = 6.49, P < 0.05).
  • There were 37 (19.37%) anti-E2 IgM positive cases in those 191 sera of the acute non A-E hepatitis, out of which 11 cases were also detected as positive by the GL kit.
  • Of the 158 anti-E2 IgM positive sera, HEV RNA was found in 81 (51.27%), among which 57.02% was positive in acute hepatitis E and 32.43% in acute non A-E hepatitis.
  • No HEV RNA was found in the anti-E2 IgM negative sera from the cases of acute hepatitis E.
  • By logistic regression analysis, no variance relative to the detection of anti-E2 IgM was found with the time interval from onset to hospitalization, age, levels of bilirubin, ALT and AST of the serum.
  • Only the level of serum ALT was found being significantly associated with the detection of HEV RNA (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS:.
  • (1) anti-E2 IgM is a sensitive and specific serological maker for diagnosing an acute infection of HEV. (2) HEV is still the pathogen of some cases diagnosed clinically as non-A-E hepatitis. (3) Persistent HEV viremia is possibly an important factor influencing the severity of acute hepatitis E.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis E / diagnosis. Hepatitis E virus / immunology. Immunoglobulin M. Viral Envelope Proteins
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16092982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-3418
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins
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79. Eichstädt H: [Horst Schmutzler, 80 years old]. Z Kardiol; 2005 Jun;94(6):419-20
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  • [Title] [Horst Schmutzler, 80 years old].
  • [Transliterated title] Horst Schmutzler 80 Jahre alt.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiology / history. Cardiovascular Diseases / history
  • [MeSH-minor] Germany. History, 20th Century. History, 21st Century. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15940444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Kardiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Kardiol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Schmutzler H
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80. Madhoun MF, Bader T: Statins improve ALT values in chronic hepatitis C patients with abnormal values. Dig Dis Sci; 2010 Mar;55(3):870-1
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  • [Title] Statins improve ALT values in chronic hepatitis C patients with abnormal values.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Hepatitis C, Chronic / enzymology. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentOn] Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Jan;55(1):190-5 [19731022.001]
  • [Cites] Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Jan;55(1):190-5 [19731022.001]
  • (PMID = 20108117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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81. Orito E, Fujiwara K, Tanaka Y, Yuen MF, Lai CL, Kato T, Sugauchi F, Kusakabe A, Sata M, Okanoue T, Niitsuma H, Sakugawa H, Hasegawa I, Mizokami M: A case-control study of response to lamivudine therapy for 2 years in Japanese and Chinese patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus of genotypes Bj, Ba and C. Hepatol Res; 2006 Jun;35(2):127-34
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  • By the multiple logistic regression analysis, however, the significant factor of a favorable response was a higher pretreatment ALT level and negative HBeAg status and the significant factor of the emergence of the YMDD mutation was HBV/C.

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  • (PMID = 16621686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6346
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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82. Uberti-Foppa C, De Bona A, Galli L, Sitia G, Gallotta G, Sagnelli C, Paties C, Lazzarin A: Liver fibrosis in HIV-positive patients with hepatitis C virus: role of persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2006 Jan 1;41(1):63-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis requiring treatment in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values (PNAL) is currently not well defined; in this study clinical and histologic features of PNAL were compared with those of subjects with elevated ALT (EAL).

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  • (PMID = 16340475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / RNA, Viral; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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83. Canbaz H, Akca T, Tataroglu C, Caglikulekci M, Dirlik M, Ayaz L, Ustunsoy AB, Tasdelen B, Aydin S: The effects of exogenous l-carnitine on lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in an experimental warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp; 2007 Jan;68(1):32-46
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  • [Title] The effects of exogenous l-carnitine on lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in an experimental warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model.
  • Malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels of both plasma and liver tissue, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in plasma, and histopathologic examination were analyzed to assess lipid peroxidation and damage in liver tissue.
  • The TWHIR procedure performed in group B was associated with significant increases versus baseline in ALT, AST, MDA, and MPO in plasma, and MDA and MPO in liver tissue, but a significant decrease of TAOC in plasma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this experimental study, administration of exogenous l-carnitine was associated with significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver tissue when administered prior to a TWHIR procedure.
  • In addition, l-carnitine seemed to be more effective with regard to decreasing lipid peroxidation in liver tissue when administered before warm hepatic ischemia. l-Carnitine was associated with significantly decreased leukocyte sequestration in plasma and liver tissue.
  • These observations suggest that l-carnitine might have a protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat liver tissue.

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  • (PMID = 24678117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-393X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current therapeutic research, clinical and experimental
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Ther Res Clin Exp
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3965977
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; experimental / ischemia / l-carnitine / liver / reperfusion
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84. Ouyang W, Duan KM, Zuo XH: [Effect of lidocaine precondition on hepatocytes calcium overload and apoptosis induced by cell hypoxia-reoxygenation]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2007 Aug;32(4):590-3
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  • [Title] [Effect of lidocaine precondition on hepatocytes calcium overload and apoptosis induced by cell hypoxia-reoxygenation].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and possible mechanism of lidocaine precondition on calcium overload and apoptosis of the hepatocytes induced by cell hypoxia-reoxygenation.
  • METHODS: The cultured L02 hepatocytes were randomly divided into 3 groups: a hypoxia-reoxygenation group (Group I), a lidocaine precondition group (Group II), and a normal control group (Group III).
  • After 4 hours of cell hypoxia and 10 hours of reoxygenation, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in the nutritive medium were detected.
  • The cytoplasm ionic calcium concentration was measured by fluoro spectrophotometer.
  • The apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscope.
  • The appearance and ultra-microstructure changes of hepatocytes were observed by inverted microscope and electronic microscope.
  • RESULTS: Cytoplasm ionic calcium concentration and apoptosis was positively correlated (r=0.7652, R(2)=0.5855, P< 0.05).
  • The ALT concentration in the nutritive medium, AST concentration in the nutritive medium, cytoplasm ionic calcium concentration and the ratio of apoptosis of Group I and II were significantly higher than those of Group III(P< 0.05).The appearance and ultra-microstructure changes of Group I and II were worse than those of Group III.
  • The ALT concentration in the nutritive medium, AST concentration in the nutritive medium, cytoplasm ionic calcium concentration and the ratio of apoptosis of Group II were significantly lower than those of Group I (P< 0.05).
  • The ultra-microstructure injury of hepatocytes of Group II were less serious than those of Group I.
  • CONCLUSION: Precondition with lidocaine can attenuate calcium overload of hepatocytes induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in vitro,and decrease the ratio of apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Calcium / metabolism. Hepatocytes / drug effects. Lidocaine / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Hypoxia / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Humans. Oxygen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17767047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 98PI200987 / Lidocaine; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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85. Arcaini L, Merli M, Passamonti F, Bruno R, Brusamolino E, Sacchi P, Rattotti S, Orlandi E, Rumi E, Ferretti V, Rizzi S, Meli E, Pascutto C, Paulli M, Lazzarino M: Impact of treatment-related liver toxicity on the outcome of HCV-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Am J Hematol; 2010 Jan;85(1):46-50
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  • [Title] Impact of treatment-related liver toxicity on the outcome of HCV-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • We studied 160 Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive patients with NHL (59 indolent NHL, 101 aggressive).
  • Median age was 67 years.
  • HCV-RNA was present in 146.
  • HBsAg was positive in seven patients.
  • At diagnosis, ALT value was above UNL in 67 patients.
  • One hundred and twenty patients received an anthracycline-based therapy, alkylators, 28 received chemotherapy plus rituximab.
  • Cytotoxic drugs dose was reduced in 63 patients.
  • Among 93 patients with normal ALT at presentation, 16 patients developed WHO grade II-III liver toxicity.
  • Among 67 patients with abnormal ALT, eight patients had a 3.5 times elevation during treatment.
  • Among 28 patients treated with rituximab and chemotherapy, five patients (18%) developed liver toxicity.
  • Thirty four patients (21%) did not complete treatment (eight for liver toxicity).
  • Median progression-free survival (PFS) for patients who experienced liver toxicity is significantly shorter than median PFS of patients without toxicity (respectively, 2 years and 3.7 years, P = 0.03).
  • After a median F-UP of 2 years, 32 patients died (three for hepatic failure).
  • A significant proportion of patients with HCV+ NHL develop liver toxicity often leading to interruption of treatment.
  • This could be a limit to the application of immunochemotherapy programs.
  • HCV+ lymphomas represent a distinct clinical subset of NHL that deserves specific clinical approach to limit liver toxicity and ameliorate survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cytotoxins / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / virology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Biological Factors / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rituximab

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19957347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-8652
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biological Factors; 0 / Cytotoxins; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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86. Park BK, Park YN, Ahn SH, Lee KS, Chon CY, Moon YM, Park C, Han KH: Long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B based on histological grade and stage. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Mar;22(3):383-8
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  • The development of cirrhosis correlated well with the grade of porto-periportal activity and stage of fibrosis.

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  • (PMID = 17295771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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87. Chang ML, Chien RN, Yeh CT, Liaw YF: Virus and transaminase levels determine the emergence of drug resistance during long-term lamivudine therapy in chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol; 2005 Jul;43(1):72-7
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  • [Title] Virus and transaminase levels determine the emergence of drug resistance during long-term lamivudine therapy in chronic hepatitis B.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The results of earlier studies on determinants for the emergence of tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) mutants (rtM204 I/V) were controversial.
  • The aim was to evaluate the impact of viral factors, host factors, host-viral interaction and drug factor on the emergence of rtM204 I/V.
  • METHODS: 56 non-cirrhotic and 58 cirrhotic patients received lamivudine therapy for a median of 34 (12-60) months.
  • RESULTS: rtM204 I/V emerged in 37 noncirrhotic and 36 cirrhotic patients.
  • Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that baseline hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status [odds ratio (OR), 7.728; 95% confidental interval (CI), 2.886-12.957; P=0.0026], HBV-DNA level (OR, 3.756; 95% CI, 1.058-5.089; P=0.0202), alanine transaminase (ALT) level (OR, 6.285; 95% CI, 1.057-11.990; P=0.00246) and treatment duration (OR, 19.88; 95% CI, 8.652-31.762; P<0.0004) were independent determinants for the emergence of rtM204 I/V.
  • Further categorical analysis and correlation test disclosed that patients with HBeAg positivity, HBV-DNA>500 pg/ml and ALT <5x upper limit of normal had significantly higher mutation rates.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HBeAg status, HBV-DNA, ALT levels and treatment duration are the major determinants for the YMDD mutation during lamivudine therapy, and should be considered in designing the therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Drug Resistance, Viral. Hepatitis B virus / drug effects. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Lamivudine / administration & dosage. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amino Acid Motifs / genetics. DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / genetics. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 15896869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase; EC 2.7.7.7 / DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
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88. Veríssimo C, Matos T, Dutschman L, Rocha I: [Postpartum portal venous system thrombosis in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome]. Acta Med Port; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):921-6
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  • [Title] [Postpartum portal venous system thrombosis in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Trombose do sistema venoso porta após o parto numa doente com síndrome de anticorpos antifosfolípidos.
  • INTRODUCTION: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an immune thrombophylia of unknown etiology which leads to vascular thrombosis and gestational complications.
  • CLINICAL REPORT: A 27-year old woman who had been diagnosed APS four years before was admitted in the Emergency Room five days after a spontaneous delivery due to [corrected] pain in the upper right abdominal quadrant.
  • Blood analysis revealed AST and ALT rise and thrombocytopenia.
  • CT scan was suggestive of liver infarction due to venous ischemia.
  • Abdominal eco-doppler diagnosed vena porta left branch thrombosis and compensatory arterial circulation.
  • Treatment included low molecular weight heparin and corticosteroids which led to progressive clinical, laboratory and imagiological recovery.
  • DISCUSSION: Portal venous system thrombosis is extremely rare in the absence of local risk factors and the most common and catastrophic complication is intestinal necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiphospholipid Syndrome / complications. Portal System. Puerperal Disorders / etiology. Thrombosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans


89. Lin H, Zhu G, Xing J, Gao B, Qiu S: Polymer-mesoporous silica materials templated with an oppositely charged surfactant/polymer system for drug delivery. Langmuir; 2009 Sep 1;25(17):10159-64
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  • Using the materials as the host and ibuprofen (IBU)/captopril (CapH(2)) as the model drugs, the system revealed well-sustained release profiles.

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  • (PMID = 19552374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-7463
  • [Journal-full-title] Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langmuir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cations; 0 / Ions; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; 9G64RSX1XD / Captopril; N762921K75 / Nitrogen; WK2XYI10QM / Ibuprofen
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90. Güler A, Sahin MA, Karabacak K, Küçükaslan N, Yokuşoğlu M, Tatar H: [Accompanying embolectomy and closed fasciotomy in the same session for the delayed arterial thromboembolic occlusions in lower extremity]. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg; 2009 Oct;9(5):407-10
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  • [Title] [Accompanying embolectomy and closed fasciotomy in the same session for the delayed arterial thromboembolic occlusions in lower extremity].
  • [Transliterated title] Alt ekstremite gecikmiş tromboembolik arteriyel tikanmalarda ayni seansta embolektomi ve kapali fasiyotomi beraberliği.
  • OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the postoperative complications in patient with acute lower extremity arterial occlusion who admitted in the late period in whom accompanying embolectomy and fasciotomy in the same session and fasciotomy following embolectomy were applied, because of development of compartment syndrome.
  • METHODS: A total of 36 patients (13 female, 23 male) with acute lower extremity arterial occlusion, who admitted to our clinic at least 12 hours after onset of symptoms were enrolled to the study and investigated retrospectively.
  • While embolectomy was performed in all cases, the cases in which mini fasciotomy was performed after development of compartment syndrome constitute the group 1 (n=21) and the ones in whom accompanying embolectomy and closed mini fasciotomy in the same session constitute the group 2 (n=15), groups were formed randomly.
  • Groups were compared in regard of extremity amputation, renal failure, hypoesthesia in lower extremity, paresthesia in fingers in their clinical course.
  • In statistical analysis t test, Chi-square test and Mann Whitney U test were used for comparison of groups, and a p<0.05 was considered as significant.
  • RESULTS: While cardiac originating embolus was the most frequent etiologic factor, femoropopliteal artery was the most frequent involved area in both groups.
  • Morbidity rates were 66.6% in group 1 and 13.3% in group 2 (p<0.002).
  • Amputation below the knee was performed in two patients in group 1.
  • CONCLUSION: In order to reduce the unfavorable effects of reperfusion injury, accompanying fasciotomy and embolectomy in the same session, may have an important role in decreasing the postoperative mortality rate in patients who admitted in the late stage of lower extremity acute arterial occlusions.
  • [MeSH-major] Arterial Occlusive Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Amputation. Embolectomy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Lower Extremity / blood supply. Lower Extremity / surgery. Male. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19819793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1308-0032
  • [Journal-full-title] Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi : AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anadolu Kardiyol Derg
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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91. Gao YQ, Yao Y, Li M: [Effect of bushen recipe on the immune effector molecules of natural killer cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi; 2010 Jul;30(7):710-3
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  • And the expressions of immune effector molecules of nature killer (NK) cell, including perforin (PF), granzyme B (GrB), granulysin (GNLY), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN), were detected using flow cytometry.

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  • (PMID = 20929127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-5370
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal
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92. Sonder GJ, Prins JM, Regez RM, Brinkman K, Mulder JW, Veenstra J, Claessen FA, van den Hoek A: Comparison of two HIV postexposure prophylaxis regimens among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam: adverse effects do not influence compliance. Sex Transm Dis; 2010 Nov;37(11):681-6
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  • [Title] Comparison of two HIV postexposure prophylaxis regimens among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam: adverse effects do not influence compliance.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare 2 regimens for HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) as to safety, adherence, outcome, and follow-up in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam.
  • METHODS: Since 2000, all MSM starting HIV PEP in Amsterdam have been followed in 1 location.
  • The regimen was comprised of zidovudine or lamivudine and nelfinavir (regimen 1) until 2005, when nelfinavir was replaced by atazanavir (regimen 2).
  • All patient data, including data on PEP side effects and testing for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), were systematically recorded and compared between the 2 regimens from 2000 to 2007.
  • RESULTS: HIV PEP was prescribed 309 times to MSM.
  • Of the 261 who were followed up, 237 (91%) completed their 28-day course.
  • Although fewer patients had diarrhea on regimen 2 than on regimen 1 (P = 0.00), the proportion completing either course was the same: 98 of 110 (89%) and 139 of 151 (92%), respectively (P = 0.42).
  • Only 1 patient with severely elevated ALT was advised to stop PEP, he also had serious illness.
  • MSM at least 30 years of age and MSM who had sex with a partner known to be HIV-positive completed their course significantly more often than those under 30 and those who had sex with a partner of unknown HIV status (P < 0.005).
  • Of MSM who completed PEP, 5 seroconverted for HIV despite good adherence to PEP.
  • None of their viruses were resistant to the PEP regimen used.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No difference in adherence was found between the 2 regimens, even though fewer adverse effects were reported on regimen 2.
  • ALT need not be routinely tested to monitor adverse effects.
  • The 5 seroconversions were not likely caused by PEP failure, but rather by ongoing HIV exposures.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / prevention & control. Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Atazanavir Sulfate. Chemoprevention. Drug Therapy, Combination. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Lamivudine / adverse effects. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Nelfinavir / adverse effects. Nelfinavir / therapeutic use. Netherlands. Oligopeptides / adverse effects. Oligopeptides / therapeutic use. Pyridines / adverse effects. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Sexual Behavior. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20644499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4521
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine; 4MT4VIE29P / Atazanavir Sulfate; HO3OGH5D7I / Nelfinavir
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93. Küçköztaş MF, Ozgünes N, Yazici S: [Investigation of the relationship between hepatitis c virus (HCV) genotypes with HCV-RNA and alanine aminotransferase levels in chronic hepatitis c patients]. Mikrobiyol Bul; 2010 Jan;44(1):111-5
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  • [Title] [Investigation of the relationship between hepatitis c virus (HCV) genotypes with HCV-RNA and alanine aminotransferase levels in chronic hepatitis c patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Kronik hepatit c'li hastalarda hepatit c virusu (HCV) genotipleri ile alanin aminotransferaz ve HCV-RNA düzeyleri arasindaki ilişkinin araştirilmasi.
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are of particular importance owing to its high frequency of chronicity, leading to hepatic failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection at our region and to investigate the relation between genotypes and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HCV-RNA levels.
  • Serum samples from 52 patients (26 females, 26 males; mean age: 51.07 +/- 13.13 years) with chronic HCV infection were analyzed in this study.
  • Viral genotypes were determined by using the Versant HCV genotype assay (LiPA) 2.0 system (Bayer HealthCare LLC, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions.
  • Quantitative HCV-RNA assay was performed by a commercial real-time PCR method (Abbott Molecular Inc., USA).
  • Genotype 1b was observed in 76.9% (n = 40), genotype 3a in 9.6% (n = 5), genotype 4e in 5.7% (n = 3), genotype 2a/2c in 3.8% (n = 2), genotype 1a in 1.9% (n = 1) and genotype 4 in 1.9% (n = 1) of the 52 patients.
  • No statistically significant difference was detected between HCV genotypes and HCV-RNA quantities (p = 0.840; p > 0.05) and serum ALT levels (p = 0.512; p > 0.05).
  • The mean age of the patients infected with genotype 1 (51.4 +/- 12.6 years) we e statistically significantly higher than the mean age of the patients infected with type 2 and 3 (37.8 +/- 12.3 years), (p = 0.023).
  • However, no statistically significant difference was detected for the mean age of genotype 4 infected patients (41.7 +/- 4.5 years), (p > 0.05).
  • These results indicated that the HCV genotype distribution observed in this study was similar to the other results obtained in Turkey and there were no association between HCV genotypes and serum ALT and HCV-RNA quantities.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Hepacivirus / genetics. Hepatitis C, Chronic / enzymology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / virology. RNA, Viral / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20455406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0374-9096
  • [Journal-full-title] Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mikrobiyol Bul
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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94. Chen H, Yan X, Zhu P, Lin J: Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of agaro-oligosaccharides in vitro and in vivo. Nutr J; 2006;5:31
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  • Results from intracellular test indicated that agaro-oligosaccharides could significantly scavenge the level of oxidants in the hepatocytes, more beneficially, also associated with the improvement of cell viability In vivo studies of the antioxidant effects on tissue peroxidative damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rat model indicated that agaro-oligosaccharides could elevate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decrease the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT) significantly.

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  • (PMID = 17140450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-2891
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Oligosaccharides; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 9002-18-0 / Agar; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1698930
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95. Molina-Pérez E, Castroagudín JF, Aguilera-Guirao A, Otero-Antón E, Tomé-Martínez-de-Rituerto S, Mera-Calviño J, Rodríguez-Calviño JJ, Domínguez-Muñoz JE: Viral and host factors related with histopathologic activity in patients with chronic hepatitis B and moderate or intermittently elevated alanine aminotransferase levels. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2010 Sep;102(9):519-25
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  • Other factors like age, gender or genotype can help to indicate biopsy in individual cases.

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  • (PMID = 20883067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-0108
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Enferm Dig
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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96. Ioannou GN, Boyko EJ, Lee SP: The prevalence and predictors of elevated serum aminotransferase activity in the United States in 1999-2002. Am J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jan;101(1):76-82
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  • [Title] The prevalence and predictors of elevated serum aminotransferase activity in the United States in 1999-2002.
  • OBJECTIVES: The presence of elevated serum aminotransferase activity is a sign of possible underlying liver disease.
  • We aimed to describe the prevalence and associations of elevated serum aminotransferase activity in a recent, nationally representative U.S. survey.
  • METHODS: We described the prevalence and predictors of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT >43 IU/L) or elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST >40 IU/L) activity among 6,823 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted between 1999 and 2002.
  • We compared our findings to the results already published based on the NHANES conducted between 1988 and 1994.
  • RESULTS: In NHANES 1999-2002, the prevalences of elevated ALT, AST, or either ALT or AST were 8.9%, 4.9%, and 9.8%, respectively, in the entire population and 7.3%, 3.6%, and 8.1%, respectively, after excluding participants who tested positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody or reported excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Strong predictors of elevated ALT activity included increasing waist circumference and body mass index, alcohol consumption, male sex, Mexican American ethnicity, decreasing age, and presence of HCV antibody.
  • In NHANES 1988-1994, which employed a different assay methodology, the prevalences of elevated aminotransferases were approximately half of the prevalences we describe in NHANES 1999-2002, but the predictors of elevated ALT activity were similar.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current prevalence of elevated ALT activity in the United States (8.9%) is more than double that of previously available estimates.
  • This prevalence is very high (7.3%) even among persons without viral hepatitis C or excessive alcohol consumption and is strongly associated with risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Alanine Transaminase / blood. Aspartate Aminotransferases / blood. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Liver Function Tests. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Sex Distribution. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16405537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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97. Vardar R, Gunsar F, Sertoz R, Ozacar T, Nart D, Barbet FY, Karasu Z, Ersoz G, Akarca US: The relationship between HBV-DNA level and histology in patients with naive chronic HBV infection. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Jul-Aug;57(101):908-12
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  • Correlation between the prognosis of the CHB and the level of hepatitis-B virus DNA (HBV-DNA) is well considered in recent years.

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  • (PMID = 21033250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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98. Mizoguchi K, Tanaka Y, Tabira T: Anxiolytic effect of a herbal medicine, yokukansan, in aged rats: involvement of serotonergic and dopaminergic transmissions in the prefrontal cortex. J Ethnopharmacol; 2010 Jan 8;127(1):70-6
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  • [Title] Anxiolytic effect of a herbal medicine, yokukansan, in aged rats: involvement of serotonergic and dopaminergic transmissions in the prefrontal cortex.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19799980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7573
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Anxiety Agents; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Yi-Gan San; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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99. Inglot M, Szymczak A, Gładysz A, Małyszczak K, Zalewska M: [Chronic hepatitis C in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection with high CD4+ lymphocytes count]. Przegl Epidemiol; 2007;61(3):535-43
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  • [Title] [Chronic hepatitis C in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection with high CD4+ lymphocytes count].
  • [Transliterated title] Obraz przewlekłego zapalenia watroby typu C u pacjentów zakazonych HIV z wysoka liczba limfocytów CD4+.
  • AIM: analysis of data characterizing HCV infection in patients infected with HIV.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 37 persons (29 male and 8 female) aged 23-49 years (mediana 34), with HIV/HCV coinfection, treated (n=25) and untreated (n=12) with antiretroviral therapy.
  • HAART was effective in treated patients; CD4+ count >350 cells/microl.
  • Viral load of HIV and HCV, HCV genotypes, CD4/CD8, biochemical tests, histopathological examination were measured.
  • Results were analyzed statistically.
  • RESULTS: the majority of patients were former IVDUs (n=31.84%), 3 persons (8%)--MSM, 3 (8%)--route of infection unknown.
  • Duration of HCV infection 1-10 years, mediana 5.
  • All patients were in A1 or A2 stage of HIV infection.
  • Among patients treated with HAART (n=25) mediana of CD4+ count before treatment was 263 (69-595) cells/micro, mediana of HIV viral load 75000 copies/ml (n=7); 2040-263414 copies/ml.
  • 17 patients were currently treated with PI, 17 with NNRTI, and 2 patients with NRTI only.
  • HCV genotype was determined in 32 patients: 3a--n=19 (59%), 1--n= 9 (28%) 4--n=4 (13%).
  • HCV viral load: 2.4 x 10(5)-7.73 x 10(6) IU/ml, mediana 1.6 x 10(6).
  • Levels of ALT: 21-358 IU/ml, mediana 102, AST: 20-195 IU/ml, mediana 62, GGTP--9-463 IU/ml, mediana 58.
  • ALT level was significantly higher in HCV genotype 3a infection (p=0.0214).
  • Fibrosis stage above 2 was revealed in 3 patients and in majority (62%) was below 2.
  • None patient had liver cirrhosis.
  • Fibrosis was significantly higher in patients with low CD4+ nadir (p=0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Progression of liver fibrosis is slow in patients coinfected with HIV/HCV with high CD4+ count.
  • High percentage of HCV genotype 3 and mild fibrosis are good prognostic factors for effectiveness of HCV infection treatment in HIV infected persons.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / immunology. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Hepatitis C, Chronic / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / virology. Male. Poland. RNA, Viral / blood. Viral Load


100. Małyszczak K, Inglot M, Pawłowski T, Czarnecki M, Rymer W, Andrzej K: [Depressive symptoms during treatment with interferon alpha for HCV infection--preliminary report]. Psychiatr Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;40(4):799-808
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  • All of them underwent liver biopsy to assess liver inflammation, fibrosis, and steatosis as well as completed Eysenck's neuroticism questionnaire.

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  • (PMID = 17068951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2674
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychiatria polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychiatr. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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