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1. Shao L, Newell B, Quintanilla N: Atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in xeroderma pigmentosum. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2007 Mar-Apr;10(2):149-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in xeroderma pigmentosum.
  • Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) have defective DNA repair and a high predisposition to developing abnormalities and neoplasia in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a pleomorphic tumor that arises predominantly in the sun-damaged skin of the head and neck regions of the elderly.
  • We describe a unique case of a 6-year-old African American boy with XP who developed an atypical fibroxanthoma and 2 squamous cell carcinomas in the conjunctiva.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Conjunctiva / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xeroderma Pigmentosum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17378688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vimentin
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2. Mathew RA, Schlauder SM, Calder KB, Morgan MB: CD117 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):34-6
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  • [Title] CD117 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a spindle cell neoplasm of the skin seen typically on sun-damaged skin of the elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Aug;30(4):401-2 [18645317.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2009 Feb;31(1):96-8 [19155737.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Dec;30(6):640-2 [19033951.001]
  • (PMID = 18212542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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3. Prajapati V, Barankin B: Dermacase. Atypical fibroxanthoma. Can Fam Physician; 2008 Apr;54(4):519, 535
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermacase. Atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18411378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-5258
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2294083
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4. Yang A, Hanley A, Velazquez EF, Cassarino DS: Primary cutaneous myxoid spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37(4):465-74
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous myxoid spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study and review of the literature.
  • Here, we report six cases of primary cutaneous and mucocutaneous SCC with prominent extracellular stromal mucin deposition and an epithelial spindle cell component.
  • We also propose a set of histologic and immunohistochemical findings for distinguishing MSC SCC from primary cutaneous and metastatic spindle cell neoplasms including other sarcomatoid carcinomas, myxoid sarcomas and the spindle cell variant of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).
  • Given the small numbers of cases reported to date, the presence of prominent myxoid stroma in primary cutaneous spindle cell SCC has unknown prognostic significance at this time.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


5. Wang M, Khurana RN, Parikh JG, Hidayat AA, Rao NA: Myxofibrosarcoma of the orbit: an underrecognized entity? Case report and review of the literature. Ophthalmology; 2008 Jul;115(7):1237-1240.e2
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  • PURPOSE: To describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of a rare case of myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) involving the orbit.
  • Histologic testing revealed features of MFS with characteristic diffuse proliferation of atypical, spindle-shaped fibroblasts with prominent myxoid stroma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For historical reasons, MFS involving the orbit is likely to be underrecognized and categorized erroneously as malignant fibrous histiocytoma or other soft tissue sarcoma.
  • Although orbital MFS is an extremely rare diagnosis, ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility and consider a diagnosis of MFS when an adult seeks treatment for an orbital tumor with aggressive growth.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiography, Thoracic. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18096231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. New D, Bahrami S, Malone J, Callen JP: Atypical fibroxanthoma with regional lymph node metastasis: report of a case and review of the literature. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Dec;146(12):1399-404
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma with regional lymph node metastasis: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a low-grade sarcoma usually occurring on sun-damaged skin of the head and neck in elderly patients.
  • Our patient was an 87-year-old man with a 7-week history of a rapidly growing AFX presenting as a 1.5-cm sessile nodule on his right mandible.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Atypical fibroxanthoma is a diagnosis of exclusion, and only a small number of metastatic AFX cases have been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neck

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  • (PMID = 20713774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Brown GE, Madray MM, Greene JF Jr, Fiala KH: Atypical fibroxanthoma in an African American woman. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Sep;146(9):1045-7
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma in an African American woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] African Americans. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mohs Surgery / methods. Nose. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20855713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Zaballos P, Puig S, Llambrich A, Malvehy J: Dermoscopy of dermatofibromas: a prospective morphological study of 412 cases. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Jan;144(1):75-83
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  • SETTINGS: Dermatofibromas were collected in the Departments of Dermatology of the Hospital de Sant Pau i Santa Tecla, Tarragona, Spain, and Hospital de Sant Llatzer, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
  • Pigment network was observed in 71.8% (3% atypical pigment network), white scarlike patch in 57.0%, and a white network in 17.7%.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18209171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Gil T, Sabo E, Kerner H, Metanes I, Har-Shai Y: Atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp following hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2010 Oct;63(10):e725-8
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma of the scalp following hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm of the elderly.
  • This case report presents an atypical case of AFX of the scalp 8 years after hair transplantation in a 35-year-old male patient.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first description in the medical literature of development of skin malignancy on a hair-transplanted scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / surgery. Hair / transplantation. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Lasers, Gas / adverse effects. Scalp Dermatoses / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Skin Transplantation / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20673656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. Hanly AJ, Jordà M, Elgart GW, Badiavas E, Nassiri M, Nadji M: High proliferative activity excludes dermatofibroma: report of the utility of MIB-1 in the differential diagnosis of selected fibrohistiocytic tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jun;130(6):831-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High proliferative activity excludes dermatofibroma: report of the utility of MIB-1 in the differential diagnosis of selected fibrohistiocytic tumors.
  • CONTEXT: Dermatofibroma is a benign fibrohistiocytic tumor composed of a mixture of fibroblastic and histiocytic cells.
  • The diagnosis of this tumor is generally uncomplicated; however, rare variants may be difficult to distinguish from malignant fibrohistiocytic tumors.
  • Deep penetrating dermatofibroma may be difficult to distinguish from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and pseudosarcomatous dermatofibroma and dermatofibroma with monster giant cells share morphologic similarities with malignant fibrous histiocytoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To find an immunohistochemical marker or markers that differentiate between fibrohistiocytic lesions of skin.
  • DESIGN: We evaluated the immunophenotypic characteristics of 83 fibrohistiocytic tumors (36 typical dermatofibromas, 16 cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 16 malignant fibrous histiocytomas, and 15 atypical fibroxanthomas) using antibodies against MIB-1 (Ki-67), factor XIIIa, CD34 (HPCA-1), HHF35 (muscle-specific actin), 1A4 (smooth muscle actin), cytokeratin (AE1/AE3, CAM 5.2, and 34betaE12), S100 protein, and desmin.
  • RESULTS: A high proliferative index detected by MIB-1 staining excluded the possibility of dermatofibroma and was diagnostically useful in separating this entity from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Factor XIIIa reactivity was not helpful for the diagnosis of dermatofibroma, whereas CD34 reactivity was statistically significant in the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
  • CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the proliferative index may further assist in distinguishing dermatofibroma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, atypical fibroxanthoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Feb;132(2):160; author reply 160-1 [18251566.001]
  • (PMID = 16740036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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11. Beer TW: CD117 in atypical fibroxanthoma: tumor or stroma? Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):401-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD117 in atypical fibroxanthoma: tumor or stroma?
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Stromal Cells / metabolism

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Feb;30(1):34-6 [18212542.001]
  • (PMID = 18645317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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12. Troxel DB: An insurer's perspective on error and loss in pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Oct;129(10):1234-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sixty-three percent of claims involved failure to diagnose cancer, resulting in delay in diagnosis or inappropriate treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: A false-negative diagnosis of melanoma is the single most common reason for filing a malpractice claim against a pathologist.
  • Nearly one third of misdiagnoses involve melanoma misdiagnosed as Spitz nevus, "dysplastic" nevus, spindle cell squamous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and dermatofibroma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16196510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Alba García JR, Armengot Carceller M, Zapater Latorre E, Pérez Valles A, Basterra Alegría A: Malignant fibrohistiocytoma of the parotid region. Report of a case. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2008 Feb;13(2):E148-50
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  • [Title] Malignant fibrohistiocytoma of the parotid region. Report of a case.
  • Most salivary gland tumors are benign, malignant lesions accounting for 15-30% of the total.
  • We present a case of malignant fibrohistiocytoma with atypical features due to its location (in the parotid region), size and rapid growth.
  • The definitive diagnosis requires microscopic study of the resection piece using immunohistochemical techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous. Parotid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18223534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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14. Kim UR, Arora V, Shanti R, Shah AD: Neglected giant atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 Sep-Oct;25(5):408-9
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  • [Title] Neglected giant atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the superficial soft tissue that occurs in actinically damaged skin of elderly patients.
  • The authors present an unusual case of neglected giant atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid in an elderly patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19966663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Nakamura M, Sugita K, Tokura Y: Expression of Snail1 in the vimentin-expressing squamous cell carcinoma mimicking atypical fibroxanthoma: possible involvement of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Nov;24(11):1365-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of Snail1 in the vimentin-expressing squamous cell carcinoma mimicking atypical fibroxanthoma: possible involvement of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / physiology. Humans. Male. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20384675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / snail family transcription factors
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16. Anderson HL, Joseph AK: A pilot feasibility study of a rare skin tumor database. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Jun;33(6):693-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pilot feasibility study of a rare skin tumor database.
  • BACKGROUND: In the United States melanoma is the only individually reported skin cancer.
  • There are no large state or national registries for nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose was to demonstrate that Mohs surgeons can share data to create a rare skin tumor database.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the surgery logs of five Mohs surgery practices in the Houston, Texas, area for rare-nonmelanoma, nonepithelial-skin cancers.
  • A total of 42,279 biopsy-proven cancers of the skin treated with Mohs micrographic surgery were reviewed.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma was the rare tumor most often treated.
  • This should provide the impetus for a nationwide rare skin tumor database.
  • [MeSH-major] Databases, Factual. Mohs Surgery / statistics & numerical data. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17550446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Thosani MK, Marghoob A, Chen CS: Current progress of immunostains in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Dec;34(12):1621-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mohs micrographic surgery is often considered the treatment of choice for a variety of skin malignancies.
  • In recent years, the application of immunostaining techniques has facilitated the successful removal of a number of common and less common cutaneous malignancies, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, extramammary Paget's disease, and even sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 19018832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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18. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Richards S, Paver R, Selva D: Scalp tumors treated with Mohs micrographic surgery: clinical features and surgical outcome. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Nov;32(11):1369-74
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  • METHODS: This prospective, multicenter study included all patients with scalp tumors who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia.
  • The most common tumors were basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 57.9%; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 35.8%; Bowen's disease (BD), 4.1%; and atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), 1.6%.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery


19. Sakamoto A, Akieda S, Oda Y, Iwamoto Y, Tsuneyoshi M: Mutation analysis of the Gadd45 gene at exon 4 in atypical fibroxanthoma. BMC Dermatol; 2009;9:1
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  • [Title] Mutation analysis of the Gadd45 gene at exon 4 in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) histologically mimics high-grade sarcoma in the skin, although it follows a benign clinical course.
  • AFX occurs in the sun-exposed skin and for this reason, an association with ultraviolet light has long been suspected.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was analyzed in 7 cases of AFX, and in 7 cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) used as a comparison.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19128509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-5945
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / GADD45A protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2628644
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20. Bugatti L, Filosa G: Dermatoscopic features of cutaneous atypical fibroxanthoma: three cases. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;34(8):e898-900
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  • [Title] Dermatoscopic features of cutaneous atypical fibroxanthoma: three cases.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon, low-grade, malignant, spindle-cell tumour of fibrohistiocytic histogenesis, which can mimic other malignant skin tumours, such as basal and squamous cell carcinoma (CC), melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).
  • Three cases of AFX were examined by dermatoscopy, which revealed white areas and an atypical polymorphous vascular pattern characterized by the concurrence of different structures: linear, dotted, hairpin, arborescent and highly tortuous vessels, irregularly distributed over the surface.
  • AFX may be added to the list of slightly pigmented, reddish, malignant cutaneous tumours, such as SCC, MCC, amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma and eccrine porocarcinoma, which display prominent and chaotic dermatoscopic neoangiogenetic features in more advanced stages of proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20055861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Kovach BT, Boyd AS: Melanoma associated with a dermatofibroma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):420-2
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  • BACKGROUND: Dermatofibromas are common benign cutaneous fibrohistiocytic neoplasms, whereas melanomas are potentially aggressive malignancies.
  • METHODS: We report the case of a 56-year-old female presenting with a firm pink papule on the left thigh.
  • RESULTS: Histopathology revealed atypical melanocytes in the epidermis and papillary dermis with numerous mitotic figures and intraepidermal pagetoid spread.
  • The atypical melanocytes stained for MART-1 and S-100, whereas the underlying fibrohistiocytic tumor took up factor XIIIa immunostain, confirming the diagnosis of invasive malignant melanoma occurring in association with a dermatofibroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17448199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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22. Mirza B, Weedon D: Atypical fibroxanthoma: a clinicopathological study of 89 cases. Australas J Dermatol; 2005 Nov;46(4):235-8
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: a clinicopathological study of 89 cases.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is a controversial entity with a disputed histogenesis.
  • It has recently been suggested that most atypical fibroxanthoma are actually variants of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We reviewed 100 purported cases of atypical fibroxanthoma received over 4 years to perform clinical follow up and immunohistochemical markers.
  • A further case was interpreted as a malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Our cases were typical of the usual clinical presentation of atypical fibroxanthoma on the skin of the sun-damaged elderly.
  • We found no cases of recurrent or metastatic atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Two patients developed a second primary atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • CD10 proved to be a useful marker for atypical fibroxanthoma when used on 20 cases in the present study, as was CD99 in seven cases.
  • It had dual features of atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • However, as the majority of atypical fibroxanthoma had no adjacent solar keratosis, our data suggest it is unlikely that atypical fibroxanthoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16197421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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23. Dotto JE, Glusac EJ: p63 is a useful marker for cutaneous spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jun;33(6):413-7
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  • [Title] p63 is a useful marker for cutaneous spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC) is a rare variant of SCC.
  • This lesion is sometimes difficult to diagnose based purely on morphologic features. p63 is a member of the p53 gene family that can be identified in epithelial malignancies.
  • Control cases included desmoplastic melanoma (eight cases), atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) (10 cases), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (eight cases), and cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (LMS) (four cases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the given differential diagnosis, p63 appears relatively specific to SCSCC and adds a useful nuclear marker to the available repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / immunology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leiomyosarcoma / metabolism. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / metabolism. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Xanthomatosis / diagnosis. Xanthomatosis / metabolism


24. Pastor-Nieto MA, Kilmurray LG, Requena L: [Pigmented or hemosiderotic atypical fibroxanthoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 May;100(4):321-4
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  • [Title] [Pigmented or hemosiderotic atypical fibroxanthoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Fibroxantoma atípico pigmentado o hemosiderótico.
  • Pigmented atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare variant of atypical fibroxanthoma and is characterized by extensive areas of hemorrhage, erythrophagocytosis, and hemosiderin accumulation in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells.
  • It affects elderly individuals and presents as irregularly pigmented, dome-shaped nodules or plaques on areas of skin exposed to the sun.
  • We present a case of pigmented atypical fibroxanthoma on the cheek of an 81-year-old man.
  • The 9 cases of pigmented atypical fibroxanthoma reported in the literature are reviewed, and the histopathological features and differential diagnosis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemosiderosis / etiology. Skin Diseases / complications. Xanthomatosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19463236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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25. Machak GN, Polotskiĭ BE, Meluzova OM, Chernov IS, Aliev MD: [Treatment of relapsed osteosarcoma. Role of chemotherapy using ifosamide and carboplatin]. Vopr Onkol; 2010;56(2):220-5
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  • Our investigation involved 27 patients with osteosarcoma and 2--malignant fibrous histiocytoma of long tubular bones treated at the Center's Clinics (2001-2008).
  • Surgical treatment used atypical resection of the lung or precision excision of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20552902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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26. Wilk M, Zelger B: Atypical fibroxanthoma - what is it, what it is not. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1119-20
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma - what is it, what it is not.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / biosynthesis

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  • [CommentOn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Aug;36(8):859-64 [19040468.001]
  • (PMID = 20602661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD163 antigen; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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27. Wang HY, Fan QH, Gong QX, Wang Z: [Clinicopathologic characteristics of hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor with giant cells]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Mar;38(3):169-72
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic characteristics of hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor with giant cells].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the pathological characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnoses of hemangiopericytoma-solitary fibrous tumor with giant cells.
  • METHODS: Pathological characteristics of seven cases of orbital and extraorbital hemangiopericytoma-solitary fibrous tumors with giant cells were evaluated by HE and immunohistochemistry (EnVision method).
  • Histologically, the tumors were well-circumscribed and composed of non-atypical, round to spindle cells with collagen deposition in the stroma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hemangiopericytoma-solitary fibrous tumor with giant cells is an intermediate soft tissue tumor.
  • Histologically, the tumor should be distinguished from giant cell fibroblastoma, pleomorphic hyalinzing angiectatic tumor of soft part and angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangiopericytoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumor, Pleural / metabolism. Solitary Fibrous Tumor, Pleural / pathology. Solitary Fibrous Tumor, Pleural / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19575851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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28. Barr KL, Russo JJ, Vincek V: CD117 is not a useful marker for diagnosing atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jul;32(5):528
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  • [Title] CD117 is not a useful marker for diagnosing atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2009 Oct;31(7):649-52 [19652583.001]
  • (PMID = 20526172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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29. Youker SR, Billingsley EM: Combined Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Med Surg; 2005 Jan;9(1):6-9
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  • [Title] Combined Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Although there are reports of squamous cell carcinoma arising within and adjacent to Merkel cell carcinoma, and one report of an atypical fibroxanthoma-like tumor arising in an irradiated recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma, there have previously been no reports of an immunohistochemically verified atypical fibroxanthoma occurring in conjunction with a Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report on a neoplasm with distinct features of both Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • RESULTS: Our results verify the finding of a combined Merkel cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / diagnosis. Lip Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16208439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Perrett CM, Cerio R, Proby CM, Harwood CA: Atypical fibroxanthoma in a renal transplant recipient. Histopathology; 2005 Sep;47(3):326-7
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma in a renal transplant recipient.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Kidney Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD / analysis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16115238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Vimentin
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31. Gleason BC, Calder KB, Cibull TL, Thomas AB, Billings SD, Morgan MB, Hiatt KM, Smoller BR: Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):543-7
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  • [Title] Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC) and spindle cell melanoma are the primary entities in the differential diagnosis of a cytologically atypical spindle cell tumor arising on sun-damaged skin.
  • AFX is generally regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion in this context: in the absence of S100 or keratin reactivity, a diagnosis of AFX is favored.
  • We evaluated 20 AFX and 10 SCSCC with a panel of cytokeratins and p63 to assess the utility of the latter antibody in this differential diagnosis.
  • Two additional cases (excluded from the study) were negative for keratins and S100 on initial shave biopsies, resulting in a favored diagnosis of AFX, but p63 stains performed retrospectively were positive.
  • However, review of the excision specimens in both cases revealed deep subcutaneous extension, excluding AFX. p63 reactivity argues against the diagnosis of AFX and is therefore a useful addition to the standard immunohistochemical panel for cutaneous spindle cell neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2010 Oct;37(10):1123-4 [20175827.001]
  • (PMID = 19476522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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32. Ang GC, Roenigk RK, Otley CC, Kim Phillips P, Weaver AL: More than 2 decades of treating atypical fibroxanthoma at mayo clinic: what have we learned from 91 patients? Dermatol Surg; 2009 May;35(5):765-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] More than 2 decades of treating atypical fibroxanthoma at mayo clinic: what have we learned from 91 patients?
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) typically occurs on the head and neck of elderly white men.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Hospitals, University. Mohs Surgery / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Xanthomatosis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Minnesota / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19389106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Wen J, Wang XY, Luo CY, Jiang GS, Wang LJ, Chen YW: [Benign fibrous histiocytoma involving the skull: a case report and literature review]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2010 Dec;30(12):2752-5
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  • [Title] [Benign fibrous histiocytoma involving the skull: a case report and literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: Benign fibrous histiocytomas (BFH) represent a rare group of tumors with a common origin from the tissue histiocytes, often causing pain and space-occupying effect.
  • BFH of bone causes diagnostic difficulties due to its atypical clinical symptoms, radiographic features and cytological characteristics, which can be easily confused with other benign lesions such as non-ossifying fibroma (NOF), giant cell tumor (GCT), and fibrous dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skull / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21177160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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34. Hartel PH, Jackson J, Ducatman BS, Zhang P: CD99 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a useful diagnostic marker. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Sep;33 Suppl 2:24-8
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  • [Title] CD99 immunoreactivity in atypical fibroxanthoma and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a useful diagnostic marker.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), a benign lesion, and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) are thought to represent points along the same neoplastic spectrum but with different prognoses and treatments.
  • Diagnosis based on histology and clinical parameters alone is sometimes difficult, and a reliable cost-effective immunohistochemical marker to help distinguish these lesions would be beneficial.
  • The diagnosis of AFX or MFH was based upon published clinical and microscopic criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Fibroma / metabolism. Fibroma / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Xanthomatosis / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16972949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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35. Wilsher MJ: Collision tumour: atypical fibroxanthoma and invasive melanoma. Pathology; 2009;41(7):699-701
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Collision tumour: atypical fibroxanthoma and invasive melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Reoperation. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20001356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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36. Gleason BC, Fletcher CD: Deep "benign" fibrous histiocytoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 69 cases of a rare tumor indicating occasional metastatic potential. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Mar;32(3):354-62
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  • [Title] Deep "benign" fibrous histiocytoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 69 cases of a rare tumor indicating occasional metastatic potential.
  • Benign fibrous histiocytoma (FH) is one of the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the skin.
  • Several histologic variants of cutaneous FH have been described, some of which also have distinct clinical features including a propensity for local recurrence.
  • Four cases were classified as atypical deep FH due to the presence of scattered markedly pleomorphic spindle cells within an otherwise histologically typical lesion.
  • In summary, deep FH has many histologic features in common with cutaneous cellular FH; however, it usually has a more diffusely storiform pattern than the latter, is well circumscribed, and may have striking hemangiopericytomalike vessels.
  • Similar to the cellular, aneurysmal, and atypical variants of FH, deep FH recurs in approximately 20% of cases and may rarely metastasize.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Child. Desmin / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18300816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Desmin
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37. Katenkamp K, Katenkamp D: Soft tissue tumors: new perspectives on classification and diagnosis. Dtsch Arztebl Int; 2009 Sep;106(39):632-6
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  • [Title] Soft tissue tumors: new perspectives on classification and diagnosis.
  • The current status of the classification and morphological diagnosis of these tumors is described.
  • Previously established terms such as "malignant fibrous histiocytoma" or "hemangiopericytoma" will be used much less often in future, because these tumor types have been reinterpreted.
  • The WHO recommends that highly differentiated liposarcoma be renamed "atypical lipomatous tumor."
  • CONCLUSIONS: Optimal diagnosis is the prerequisite for effective therapy and can be achieved only with state-of-the-art knowledge of the pathology of soft tissue tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Soft Tissue Neoplasms / classification. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2001 Jun 15;19(12):3045-50 [11408500.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 2008 Dec 15;113(12):3364-71 [18951519.001]
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  • (PMID = 19890408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1866-0452
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsches Ärzteblatt international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch Arztebl Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 21
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2770206
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; biopsy / cancer diagnosis / molecular biology / molecular medicine / soft-tissue sarcoma
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38. Kanner WA, Brill LB 2nd, Patterson JW, Wick MR: CD10, p63 and CD99 expression in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma, spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma and desmoplastic melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jul;37(7):744-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD10, p63 and CD99 expression in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma, spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma and desmoplastic melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a pleomorphic spindle cell lesion of the skin; it is considered in the differential diagnosis with spindle cell malignant melanoma (MM) and sarcomatoid carcinoma/spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • CD10 positivity was preferentially associated with the diagnosis of AFX (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: CD10 positivity is relatively specific in this context for the diagnosis of AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Neprilysin / biosynthesis


39. Morgan MB, Purohit C, Anglin TR: Immunohistochemical distinction of cutaneous spindle cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Jun;30(3):228-32
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical distinction of cutaneous spindle cell carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous spindle cell squamous carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma in which keratinocytes infiltrate the dermis as single cells with elongated nuclei rather than as cohesive nests or islands, and signs of keratinization of conventional squamous cell carcinoma are insubstantial or nonexistent.
  • Spindle cell carcinoma must be distinguished from spindle cell/desmoplastic melanoma, cutaneous leiomyosarcoma, atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), and scar.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cicatrix / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratinocytes / chemistry. Keratinocytes / pathology. Keratins / analysis. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18496422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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40. Khong JJ, Chen CS, James CL, Huilgol SC, O'Donnell BA, Sullivan TJ, Selva D: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid: differential diagnosis and management. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 Mar;21(2):103-8
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  • [Title] Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid: differential diagnosis and management.
  • PURPOSE: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma that occurs rarely in the periocular region.
  • The purpose of this study was to present a case series of periocular MFH and to discuss the differential diagnosis and management.
  • The initial diagnoses were sarcomatoid carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and leiomyosarcoma that were subsequently reclassified as MFH.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the difficulties in the clinicopathologic diagnosis of periocular MFH and in particular the distinction of more superficial tumors from atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15778662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Kemmerling R, Dietze O, Müller S, Neureiter D: Aspects of the differential diagnosis of clear-cell lesions of the skin in connection with the rare case of a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(5):365-70
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  • [Title] Aspects of the differential diagnosis of clear-cell lesions of the skin in connection with the rare case of a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • We present a clear-cell atypical fibroxanthoma (CCAFX) and describe the morphological and immunohistochemical aspects of this rare skin lesion.
  • Furthermore, we give an overview of the differential diagnoses of clear-cell lesions of the skin for a practical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nose / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19155147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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42. Farhi D, De Lacerda D, Palangié A, Dupin N, Wallach D: Burgeoning nodule on the scalp of a 65-year-old man. Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX). Arch Dermatol; 2007 May;143(5):653-8
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  • [Title] Burgeoning nodule on the scalp of a 65-year-old man. Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17515519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Melendez MM, Xu X, McClain SA, Huang SI: Atypical fibroxanthoma in a young woman: An unusual case presentation. Can J Plast Surg; 2007;15(3):169-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma in a young woman: An unusual case presentation.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon neoplasm, identified as a spindle cell tumour that is generally found in elderly patients on sun-exposed areas.
  • The present case report highlights the importance of correct diagnosis for AFX with adequate excision and by considering the histopathology and immunohisto-chemistry of its clinical differential diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19554152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-2199
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of plastic surgery = Journal canadien de chirurgie plastique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687503
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical fibroxanthoma / Histopathology / Immunohistochemistry / Mohs micrographic surgery
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44. Luzar B, Calonje E: Cutaneous fibrohistiocytic tumours - an update. Histopathology; 2010 Jan;56(1):148-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous fibrohistiocytic tumours - an update.
  • The term 'fibrohistiocytic' tumour is a descriptive designation without histogenetic connotation for a group of heterogeneous lesions that share morphological features of histiocytes and fibroblasts on light microscopy.
  • However, over the years it has become apparent that many so-called 'fibrohistiocytic' tumours are largely composed of relatively undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, but can also show areas of myofibroblastic differentiation.
  • This review focuses on the clinical and histological features as well as differential diagnosis of so-called fibrohistiocytic tumours.
  • Special emphasis is given to more recently described histological variants of fibrous histiocytoma, e.g. cellular, epithelioid, aneurysmal and atypical fibrous histiocytoma, to angiomatous and plexiform fibrous histocytoma (plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumour), lesions that are not true variants of fibrous histiocytomas but have erroneously been designated such, and to atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • The literature on metastasizing fibrous histiocytoma is also reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20055912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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45. Nakamura Y, Abe Y, Ichimiya M, Muto M: Atypical fibroxanthoma presenting immunoreactivity against CD10 and CD99. J Dermatol; 2010 Apr;37(4):387-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma presenting immunoreactivity against CD10 and CD99.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Cheek. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Neprilysin / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20507414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Vimentin; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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46. Cooper JZ, Newman SR, Scott GA, Brown MD: Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma (cutaneous malignant histiocytoma): report of five cases. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Feb;31(2):221-5; discussion 225
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma (cutaneous malignant histiocytoma): report of five cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an unusual malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor of sun-damaged skin.
  • When first described, it was felt to be a reactive tumor of low malignant potential.
  • More recently, it has been shown to be a tumor of intermediate malignant potential.
  • Also, three of the five cases had other aggressive cutaneous malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Face / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Scalp / pathology. Upper Extremity / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15762219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Hiscutt EL, Adams JR, Ryan JM, Langtry JA, Natarajan S: Atypical fibroxanthoma, lentigo maligna melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising in the site of a thermal burn treated with skin grafts. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Mar;47(2):157-8
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma, lentigo maligna melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma arising in the site of a thermal burn treated with skin grafts.
  • We report the first case of atypical fibroxanthoma, lentigo maligna melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma that developed in the site of a thermal burn that had previously been treated with multiple skin grafts.There is a controversy over the question of an increased risk of skin cancer in scars from burns and the various factors which may contribute to this.
  • [MeSH-major] Burns / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / etiology. Melanoma / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cicatrix / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / etiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Skin Transplantation


48. Zaballos P, Puig S, Malvehy J: Dermoscopy of atypical dermatofibroma: central white network. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Jan;142(1):126
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy of atypical dermatofibroma: central white network.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16415404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Dominguez-Malagon H, Valdez-Carrillo Mdel C, Cano-Valdez AM: Dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a comparative ultrastructural study. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2006 Jul-Aug;30(4):283-91
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  • The differential diagnosis in most cases is established in routine H/E sections and may be confirmed by immunohistochemistry, but there are atypical variants of DF with less clear histological differences and non-conclusive immunohistochemical results.
  • In those cases, electron microscopy studies may be useful in establishing the diagnosis.
  • The objective was to establish the ultrastructural features for differential diagnosis, and to identify the possible histogenesis of both neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatofibrosarcoma / ultrastructure. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / ultrastructure. Skin Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Capillaries / ultrastructure. Cell Membrane / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Microscopy, Electron


50. Plaza JA, Torres-Cabala C, Evans H, Diwan HA, Suster S, Prieto VG: Cutaneous metastases of malignant melanoma: a clinicopathologic study of 192 cases with emphasis on the morphologic spectrum. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Apr;32(2):129-36
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastases of malignant melanoma: a clinicopathologic study of 192 cases with emphasis on the morphologic spectrum.
  • Metastatic melanoma represents one of the most common types of cutaneous metastases.
  • For the most part, the histologic diagnosis of metastatic melanoma poses little diagnostic difficulty; however, some metastases may adopt unusual or unfamiliar appearances mimicking other benign and malignant conditions.
  • We present a study of 192 cases of cutaneous metastatic melanomas with special emphasis on their spectrum of morphologic features.
  • One hundred ten cases showed the classic morphologic appearance of melanoma (well-circumscribed epithelioid dermal/subcutaneous nodule), 82 cases showed unusual histologic appearances that mimicked other benign and malignant neoplasms.
  • In 16 patients (8.3%), there was no evidence of primary melanoma and the cutaneous metastasis was the only manifestation of the disease.
  • The histologic diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic melanoma can pose difficulties for diagnosis, especially in the face of an unknown primary neoplasm.
  • Unusual features observed in this series included examples of cutaneous metastatic melanoma that closely simulated metastatic carcinoma, dermatofibroma, leiomyosarcoma, angiosarcoma, nevoid melanoma, halo nevus, blue nevi, and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Immunohistochemical stains plus careful clinical history helped to establish the correct diagnosis.
  • Our series illustrates that the differential diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic melanoma can be broad and difficult.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest series of cutaneous metastatic melanomas reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Desmin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20010406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Desmin; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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51. Bansal C, Sinkre P, Stewart D, Cockerell CJ: Two cases of cytokeratin positivity in atypical fibroxanthoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jun;60(6):716-7
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  • [Title] Two cases of cytokeratin positivity in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Keratins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Neoplasms / metabolism. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 1997 Mar;24(3):176-82 [9085154.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Dermatopathol. 2003 Feb;25(1):1-5 [12544091.001]
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  • (PMID = 17483246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1955050
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52. Lisovsky M, Hoang MP, Dresser KA, Kapur P, Bhawan J, Mahalingam M: Apolipoprotein D in CD34-positive and CD34-negative cutaneous neoplasms: a useful marker in differentiating superficial acral fibromyxoma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Mod Pathol; 2008 Jan;21(1):31-8
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  • [Title] Apolipoprotein D in CD34-positive and CD34-negative cutaneous neoplasms: a useful marker in differentiating superficial acral fibromyxoma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
  • To corroborate these results, we sought to ascertain the utility of Apo D by investigating its sensitivity and specificity in a variety of CD34-positive and CD34-negative cutaneous neoplasms including superficial acral fibromyxoma, sclerotic fibromas, and cellular dermatofibromas.
  • Of interest, we found absence of Apo D expression in all four cases of superficial acral fibromyxoma.
  • Of the remaining CD34-positive lesions, Apo D expression was noted in 35/36 (97%) cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 3/5 (60%) giant-cell fibroblastomas, 4/4 (100%) sclerotic fibromas, 8/8 (100%) neurofibromas, and 1/1 (100%) solitary fibrous tumor.
  • Of the CD34-negative lesions, Apo D expression was noted in 2/22 (9%) regular dermatofibroma, 23/45 (51%) cellular dermatofibroma, 10/10 (100%) malignant fibrous histiocytoma, 9/10 (90%) atypical fibroxanthoma, 7/8 (86%) cellular neurothekeoma, 9/9 (100%) malignant melanoma, 8/8 (100%) melanocytic nevi (100%), 0/2 superficial angiomyxoma, 0/15 fibromatosis, 0/1 nodular fasciitis, and 1/2 (50%) desmoplastic fibroblastomas.
  • Its principal use as an immunohistochemical adjunct lies in its utility in differentiating superficial acral fibromyxoma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
  • Although strong positive staining of Apo D in a markedly atypical fibrohistiocytic lesion is suggestive of atypical fibroxanthoma and/or malignant fibrous histiocytoma, further studies with the inclusion of other atypical spindled cell neoplasms are required to conclusively prove the same.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Apolipoproteins D / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Giant Cell Tumors / chemistry. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / immunology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / chemistry. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / immunology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma / chemistry. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / immunology. Nevus, Pigmented / chemistry. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / immunology. Reproducibility of Results. United States

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  • (PMID = 17885669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Apolipoproteins D; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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53. Jensen KJ, Peterson SR: Multiple recurrent atypical fibroxanthomas/superficial malignant fibrous histiocytomas of the forehead excised with Mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Apr;32(4):588-91
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  • [Title] Multiple recurrent atypical fibroxanthomas/superficial malignant fibrous histiocytomas of the forehead excised with Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16681672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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54. McGregor DH, Cherian R, Romanas MM, Ulusarac O, Mathur SC, Feldman MM: Amelanotic malignant melanoma: two collision tumors presenting as basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2008;38(2):157-62
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  • [Title] Amelanotic malignant melanoma: two collision tumors presenting as basal cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Collision (contiguous) tumors of the skin can result in misleading clinicopathological presentations, and the choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques may prevent incomplete diagnosis and management.
  • We report 2 cases of collision tumors involving amelanotic malignant melanoma of the back.
  • This lesion was composed of 2 distinct contiguous neoplastic infiltrates, the predominant component being an atypical fibroxanthoma and the smaller component an amelanotic melanoma (primary vs metastatic), with diagnostic confirmation requiring multiple immunohistochemical stains.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Melanoma, Amelanotic / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18469362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-8080
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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55. Pajak J, Ograbek-Król M, Dobrosz Z, Pierzchała W: [Primary cardiac malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 47-year-old woman]. Wiad Lek; 2005;58(5-6):345-9
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  • [Title] [Primary cardiac malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 47-year-old woman].
  • A case of pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the right atrium and right ventricle is presented.
  • Primary cardiac malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is extremely rare and its etiology and clinical course are not precisely known.
  • Microscopically, atypical fibroblast-like cells, pleomorphic and multinucleated giant tumor cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm were observed within the myxoid and fibrous stroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous

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  • (PMID = 16238131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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56. Farley R, Ratner D: Diagnosis and management of atypical fibroxanthoma. Skinmed; 2006 Mar-Apr;5(2):83-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • What is your diagnosis?
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16603840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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57. González-García R, Nam-Cha SH, Muñoz-Guerra MF, Sastre-Pérez J, Rodríguez-Campo FJ, Naval-Gías L: Atypical fibroxanthoma of the head and neck: report of 5 cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Mar;65(3):526-31
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma of the head and neck: report of 5 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Ear Neoplasms / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Ear, External / pathology. Ear, External / surgery. Humans. Scalp / pathology. Scalp / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17307603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Muenster MR, Hoang MP: Left facial mass in an elderly man. Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma of the skin. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 May;130(5):735-6
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  • [Title] Left facial mass in an elderly man. Metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16683896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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59. Sakamoto A: Atypical fibroxanthoma. Clin Med Oncol; 2008;2:117-27
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a nodular dermal ulcerative lesion with a favorable prognosis.
  • AFX most commonly occurs on sun-exposed skin in elderly individuals.
  • Making a diagnosis of AFX is challenging, and it is important to differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.
  • Histological features and combined immunohistochemical markers are necessary for a definitive diagnosis (i.e., an absence of immunostaining for cytokeratins, S100 and HMB45 in AFX is helpful for excluding both squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma).
  • AFX, as well as MFH (malignant fibrous histiocytoma), is a fibrohistiocytic lesion with myofibroblastic differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 21892274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-9314
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3161641
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; atypical fibroxanthoma / malignant fibrous histiocytoma / malignant melanoma / squamous cell carcinoma
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60. Sahn RE, Lang PG: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancers. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Jul;33(7):786-92; discussion 792-3
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Although the utility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the staging of melanoma is well established, its usefulness in high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is yet to be determined.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to report our experience with patients who underwent SLNB for the staging of a high-risk NMSC.
  • RESULTS: Of 13 patients, 9 had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2 had sebaceous gland carcinoma, 1 had porocarcinoma, and 1 had atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Compared to melanoma, SCC of the skin are much less predictable as regards their tendency to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17598843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Hultgren TL, DiMaio DJ: Immunohistochemical staining of CD10 in atypical fibroxanthomas. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 May;34(5):415-9
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining of CD10 in atypical fibroxanthomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The histologic diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) may be difficult at times with a differential diagnosis including spindle cell/desmoplastic melanoma and a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • While there are immunohistochemical stains that may be used to support a diagnosis of either melanoma or carcinoma, the diagnosis of AFX tends to be one of exclusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neprilysin / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17448198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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62. Daigeler A, Lehnhardt M, Sebastian A, Belyaev O, Steinstraesser L, Steinau HU, Kuhnen C: Metachronous bilateral soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2008 Mar;393(2):207-12
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  • RESULTS: All tumours were located at the extremities and were diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma in two patients, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and clear cell sarcoma in one patient each.
  • In two patients a second primary sarcoma of the same entity was considered the most likely diagnosis, whereas in one patient a contralateral lymph node metastasis and in one other patient an atypical soft tissue metastasis had to be taken into account.
  • A positive family history with a father with malignant fibrous histiocytoma may indicate a hereditary predisposition in one patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / surgery. Humans. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Necrosis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Sarcoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17242894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
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63. Castillo M, Sanjuán A, Pérez N, Zanón G, Bons N, Vilanova M, Vanrell JA, Merino MJ, Fernández PL: Fibrous Histiocytoma-like Spindle-Cell Proliferation in the Nipple After Body-Piercing. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Jan;14(1):89-93
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  • [Title] Fibrous Histiocytoma-like Spindle-Cell Proliferation in the Nipple After Body-Piercing.
  • We report the case of a 19-year-old pregnant woman who presented with a nipple tumor.
  • The lesion consisted in a spindle-cell proliferation with histologic features similar to those of fibrous histiocytoma, with a highly vascularized stroma.
  • Although it showed low mitotic activity, scattered marked atypical cells with prominent nucleoli were identified, thus raising concern about the benign nature of the tumor.
  • To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a lesion of this type in the nipple after body-piercing.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Piercing / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / etiology. Nipples / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Int J Surg Pathol 14(1):89-93, 2006.
  • (PMID = 16501844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vimentin
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64. Koch M, Dimmler A, Alexiou C: [Recurrent and metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma]. HNO; 2008 Oct;56(10):1046-51
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  • [Title] [Recurrent and metastasizing atypical fibroxanthoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Rezidivierendes und metastasierendes atypisches Fibroxanthom.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare skin tumor that arises particularly on sun-exposed skin.
  • The accurate classification of aggressive processes of atypical fibroxanthoma is currently still the subject of discussion.
  • The case of an 81-year-old patient with relapsing atypical fibroxanthoma of the right auricle is presented.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma and the appropriate therapy for it are described, and the newest discoveries regarding this disease are discussed on the basis of the current literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18210006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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65. Sugitani M, Aramaki O, Kikuchi K, Sheikh A, Oinuma T, Mamiya T, Takayama T, Nemoto N: Two cases of primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the liver: immunohistochemical expression of ezrin and its relationship with prognosis. Acta Histochem Cytochem; 2009 Jun 27;42(3):83-8
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  • [Title] Two cases of primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the liver: immunohistochemical expression of ezrin and its relationship with prognosis.
  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) as soft tissue sarcoma would not be especially noteworthy, but primary hepatic MFH reports are extremely rare.
  • Microscopically, the tumors of these two cases were similar and showed proliferation of atypical cells, including spindle, pleomorphic and multi-nucleated giant cells arranged in storiform, sheet and/or fascicle patterns, with scattered foci of inflammatory cells, indicating MFH.

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  • (PMID = 19617955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-5991
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta histochemica et cytochemica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Histochem Cytochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2711395
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; ezrin / liver / malignant fibrous histiocytoma / prognosis
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66. Fernandez-Flores A: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of different grades: variation of the expression of CD10. Cesk Patol; 2008 Oct;44(4):100-2
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  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of different grades: variation of the expression of CD10.
  • Although it has been claimed that invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) does not express CD10, very few examples have been investigated regarding this matter.
  • 2) lack of cytoplasmic expression of CD10 by cutaneous SCC can be considered as an additional prognosis factor to investigate in the future;.
  • 3) our results seem contradictory to the current view that has defended atypical fibroxanthoma as an anaplastic type of SCC, since the former expresses CD10 in virtually 100 % of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neprilysin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


67. Marcet S: Atypical fibroxanthoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Dermatol Ther; 2008 Nov-Dec;21(6):424-7
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma/malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an unusual spindle cell tumor occurring on actinically damaged skin of the head and neck.
  • Although initially thought to be a diagnosis of exclusion histologically, newer immunostains have helped in the identification of AFX.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local


68. Patton A, Page R, Googe PB, King R: Myxoid atypical fibroxanthoma: a previously undescribed variant. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Nov;36(11):1177-84
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  • [Title] Myxoid atypical fibroxanthoma: a previously undescribed variant.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) are dermal-based cutaneous tumors typically found in sun-damaged skin of the elderly.
  • Histologically all tumors demonstrated a well-circumscribed, cellular lesion centered in the dermis and composed of a mix of atypical pleomorphic and spindle cells in a prominent myxomatous background.
  • Myxoid change may be a prominent finding in benign and malignant cutaneous tumors and awareness of this variant of AFX will avoid misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19320792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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69. Paramanathan N, Gal A, Benger R: Paraffin histology sections and delayed repair in recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid. Orbit; 2009;28(6):380-2
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  • [Title] Paraffin histology sections and delayed repair in recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma of the eyelid.
  • We present a report of a recurrent atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), a tumour known rarely to involve the eyelid.
  • A 61 year-old male was referred after reappearance of a lower eyelid AFX within two months of resection.

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  • (PMID = 19929664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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70. Kohlhof JK, Müller-Richter U, Driemel O, Sachs H: [Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the periorbital region]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2007 Mar;224(3):203-6
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  • [Title] [Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the periorbital region].
  • BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytomas (undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas) belong to the soft tissue tumours and are more likely in elder patients.
  • About 3 % percent of all pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytomas arise in the head and neck region.
  • PATIENT: A 91 year old female patient presented because of a prominent tumour in the upper right periorbital region.
  • A biopsy was classified as a malignant fibrous tumour with the subclassification of an atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Therefore the tumour classification was changed to pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma (undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma).
  • The defect was closed with a full skin graft on the basis of a galea periosteal flap.
  • CONCLUSION: The histopathological examination could not provide the correct diagnosis initially.
  • In the process of finding the right diagnosis sometimes a change from benign to malignant occurs and alters the treatment regime.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / radiography. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / radiography


71. Tran TA, Muller S, Chaudahri PJ, Carlson JA: Cutaneous carcinosarcoma: adnexal vs. epidermal types define high- and low-risk tumors. Results of a meta-analysis. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):2-11
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  • [Title] Cutaneous carcinosarcoma: adnexal vs. epidermal types define high- and low-risk tumors. Results of a meta-analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report four cases of cutaneous carcinosarcoma (CS) and perform a meta-analysis of the cutaneous CS literature.
  • RESULTS: CS occurred in elderly patients (mean of 80 years) on sun-damaged skin, and were keratotic papules of short duration.
  • CS exhibited basal cell carcinoma mixed with atypical fibroxanthoma cell populations.
  • Literature review identified 38 cases of cutaneous CS that could be broadly classified into two distinct groups.
  • Epidermal-derived (basal or squamous cell carcinoma epithelial component) CS arose on the sun-damaged skin of the head and neck of elderly males (mean age 72 years) and had a 70% 5-year disease-free survival.
  • Age less than 65 years, recent growth, long-standing skin tumor, and tumor size greater than 2 cm significantly correlated with poor outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous CS is an aggressive skin cancer with high risk for advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. PubMed. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15660649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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72. Luzar B, Calonje E: Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of atypical fibroxanthoma with a special emphasis on potential diagnostic pitfalls: a review. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):301-9
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  • [Title] Morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of atypical fibroxanthoma with a special emphasis on potential diagnostic pitfalls: a review.
  • The present manuscript gives emphasis on recognizing different morphological variants of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), on validation of immunohistochemical markers and on discussing potential diagnostic pitfalls.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Histological features analyzed in 66 AFXs were: ulceration, morphological variants, growth pattern, location in the skin and vascular/perineural invasion.
  • All developed on sun damaged skin.
  • An expansile (36.4%) rather than infiltrative (6.1%) growth into superficial subcutis was also noted.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of AFX is still made by exclusion of other malignant neoplasms with similar morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Arm / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibrosis / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp / pathology. Sex Factors


73. Amico P, Vecchio GM, Bisceglia M, Vasquez E, Magro G: Atypical dermatofibroma with predominant epithelioid/deciduoid-like cell component. Histogenetic considerations in the wide spectrum of fibrohistiocytic dermal tumours. Pathologica; 2010 Jun;102(3):115-8
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  • [Title] Atypical dermatofibroma with predominant epithelioid/deciduoid-like cell component. Histogenetic considerations in the wide spectrum of fibrohistiocytic dermal tumours.
  • Atypical and epithelioid cell variants of dermatofibroma may represent a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • Only rarely atypical dermatofibroma may show focal epithelioid cell features.
  • We herein report a rare case of dermatofibroma composed of a predominant (> 90%) epithelioid/deciduoid-like cell component, in which rare multinucleated bizarre cells and atypical mitoses were additional findings.
  • Tumour was classified as "atypical dermatofibroma with predominant epithelioid/deciduoid-like cell component".
  • The coexistence of at least two different variants, i.e. epithelioid and atypical variants, in the same dermatofibroma suggests that dermal fibrohistiocytic tumours belong to a continuous morphological spectrum.
  • Differential diagnosis with other epitheliod cell dermal tumour- and tumour-like lesions is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21171517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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74. Garrido-Ruiz MC, Carrillo R, Enguita AB, Peralto JL: Signet-ring cell dermatofibroma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Feb;31(1):84-7
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  • Dermatofibroma or cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma is a common benign skin lesion with multiple, distinct histologic variants, including cellular, aneurismal, epithelioid, atypical, lipidized "ankle-type," palisading, and cholesterotic.
  • Indeed, although extremely rarely, metastases have been associated with the cellular and aneurysmal/atypical variants.
  • The finding of signet-ring cells in a skin neoplasm always raises the suspicion of metastatic adenocarcinoma, although a number of reports have shown their occurrence in primitive cutaneous neoplasms as well.
  • We present, for the first time, a new, distinctive variant of dermatofibroma, so-called signet-ring cell dermatofibroma, in a 16-year-old man with a slowly growing skin tumor on the lateral side of his right leg.
  • Histologic examination demonstrated a striking signet-ring cell appearance of most of the cells in an otherwise fibrohistiocytic looking proliferation.
  • Histochemical and immunohistochemical stainings confirmed the diagnosis of dermatofibroma.
  • The phenomenon described in this case enlarges the histologic spectrum of cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma and may cause substantial differential diagnostic problems.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19155733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Orrock JM, Abbott JJ, Gibson LE, Folpe AL: INI1 and GLUT-1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma and its cutaneous neoplastic and nonneoplastic mimics. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):152-6
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  • [Title] INI1 and GLUT-1 expression in epithelioid sarcoma and its cutaneous neoplastic and nonneoplastic mimics.
  • The morphological features of epithelioid sarcoma may closely mimic those of epithelial neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma, mesenchymal tumors, such as benign fibrous histiocytoma, and nonneoplastic lesions, such as granuloma annulare.
  • Immunohistochemistry, particularly for epithelial markers and CD34, thus plays a valuable role in the differential diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma.
  • We examined the utility of immunohistochemistry for INI1 and GLUT-1 in the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma and various cutaneous mimics.
  • Twenty-four cases of epithelioid sarcoma, 13 cases of granuloma annulare, 10 cases of rheumatoid nodule, 19 cases of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, 7 cases of atypical fibroxanthoma, 9 cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma (dermatofibroma), and 3 cases of nodular fasciitis were immunostained for GLUT-1 and INI1 using commercially available antibodies, heat-induced epitope retrieval, and the Dako Envision detection system.
  • GLUT-1 was positive in 40%-50% of epithelioid sarcomas, all cases of granuloma annulare and rheumatoid nodules, 67% of benign fibrous histiocytomas, and in all squamous cell carcinomas.
  • In contrast, atypical fibroxanthomas and cases of nodular fasciitis were consistently GLUT-1 negative.
  • We conclude that immunohistochemistry for INI1 expression should be included as part of the routine immunohistochemical panel for the diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma, along with established markers such as wide-spectrum cytokeratins, cytokeratin 5/6, p63, and CD34.
  • In this clinical context, loss of INI1 expression seems to be an entirely specific marker of epithelioid sarcoma and this finding may be of great value in distinguishing CD34-negative epithelioid sarcoma from squamous cell carcinoma and in the distinction of rare cytokeratin-negative epithelioid sarcomas from necrobiotic processes, nodular fasciitis, and benign fibrous histiocytomas.
  • In contrast, there does not seem to be a role for GLUT-1 immunohistochemistry in this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism. Granuloma Annulare / metabolism. Sarcoma / metabolism. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Fasciitis / metabolism. Fasciitis / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Humans. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Rheumatoid Nodule / metabolism. Rheumatoid Nodule / pathology. Xanthomatosis / metabolism. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19318800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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76. Beer TW, Haig D: CD117 is not a useful marker for diagnosing atypical fibroxanthoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Oct;31(7):649-52
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  • [Title] CD117 is not a useful marker for diagnosing atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare skin tumor that generally pursues an indolent course despite its alarming histological appearances.
  • It is important for the pathologist to distinguish this neoplasm from more aggressive lesions that may show very similar histological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2010 Jul;32(5):528 [20526172.001]
  • (PMID = 19652583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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77. Berk DR, Lind AC, Tapia B, Kane AA, Bayliss SJ: Atypical fibroxanthoma in a child without xeroderma pigmentosum. Pediatr Dermatol; 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):450-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma in a child without xeroderma pigmentosum.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


78. Vlodavsky E, Konstantinesku M, Soustiel JF: Gliosarcoma with liposarcomatous differentiation: the new member of the lipid-containing brain tumors family. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Mar;130(3):381-4
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  • Gliosarcoma is a rare malignant, biphasic brain tumor composed of glioblastoma multiforme and sarcomatous components.
  • Various types of sarcomatous differentiation are described in this tumor: fibrosarcomatous, malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like, chondrosarcomatous and osteosarcomatous types.
  • Fat cells were presented by atypical multivacuolar and monovacuolar lipoblasts, stained positive for S100. p53 that was positive in both glial and mesenchymal cells of the tumor were negative in the lipoblasts.

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  • (PMID = 16519569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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79. Mochizuki K, Yamada T, Mori Y, Sawada A, Mori I, Ohnishi Y: Case of atypical fibroxanthoma in the palpebral conjunctiva. Jpn J Ophthalmol; 2008 Sep-Oct;52(5):404-6
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  • [Title] Case of atypical fibroxanthoma in the palpebral conjunctiva.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of atypical fibroxanthoma that developed in the palpebral conjunctiva.
  • From these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as an atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An atypical fibroxanthoma in the palpebral conjunctiva is very rare.
  • The clinical presentation and histological and immunohistochemical studies are helpful in distinguishing between an atypical fibroxanthoma and a malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Conjunctival Diseases. Cryosurgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Xanthomatosis

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 2007 May;34(5):415-9 [17448198.001]
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  • (PMID = 18991043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5155
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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80. Akbulut M, Zekioglu O, Ozdemir N, Kapkac M: Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammary carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous features: a report of 2 cases. Acta Cytol; 2008 Jan-Feb;52(1):99-104
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  • BACKGROUND: Neoplasms of the breast containing multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) include both benign and malignant entities, such as benign soft tissue giant cell tumors, atypical fibrous histiocytoma, sarcomas, metaplastic carcinomas and the uncommon carcinomas containing osteoclast-like giant cells (OGC).
  • Although rare, FNAC of breast cancer with pleomorphic MGC requires careful search for differential diagnosis; breast carcinoma with giant cell features (choriocarcinomatous features, OGC features) must be differentiated from metastatic tumors and other breast lesions containing giant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18323284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Jain M, Singh S, Agarwal K: Spindle cell neoplasm of skin: diagnostic dilemma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):814-6
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  • [Title] Spindle cell neoplasm of skin: diagnostic dilemma.
  • Poorly differentiated, spindle cell malignancies, on sun damaged skin frequently pose a diagnostic challenge for pathologists.
  • The vast majority of these neoplasms ultimately are diagnosed as either atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX), spindle cell melanoma (SCM), and very rarely as spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma (SCSCC), leiomyosarcoma or angiosarcoma.
  • Light microscopic clues may suggest one of these neoplasms, but subtle and overlapping characteristics often render precise diagnosis impossible based on morphological features alone.
  • Immunohistochemistry therefore is necessary to firmly and accurately diagnose the majority of spindle cell malignancies on sun damaged skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Melanoma / pathology. S100 Proteins / analysis. Vimentin / analysis. Xanthomatosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18306566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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82. Leinweber B, Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Kaddu S, McCalmont TH: Procollagen 1 and Melan-A expression in desmoplastic melanomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):173-6
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  • The histopathologic diagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is usually based on typical conventional microscopic findings coupled with expression of S100 protein by neoplastic cells.
  • Important differential diagnostic considerations include atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and spindle cell squamous carcinoma.
  • Spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by positivity for cytokeratin, whereas the diagnosis of AFX has been one of exclusion.
  • Melan-A offers little for the diagnosis of DM, as less than a quarter of lesions exhibit a strong reaction with this antibody.
  • It is critical to employ a broad panel of antibodies, including S100 protein, Melan-A, cytokeratin, PC1, and others, in the immunohistochemical evaluation of spindle cell neoplasms of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Procollagen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19318805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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83. Guillou L: [Mesenchymal tumors of the skin. Atypical fibrous histiocytoma]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Oct;29(5):411-5
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  • [Title] [Mesenchymal tumors of the skin. Atypical fibrous histiocytoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs conjonctives de la peau. Cas n(o) 7. Histiocytome fibreux atypique.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20004844.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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84. Weinreb I, Rubin BP, Goldblum JR: Pleomorphic angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: a case confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for EWSR1 rearrangement. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Sep;35(9):855-60
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: a case confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for EWSR1 rearrangement.
  • Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is a neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with intermediate malignant potential.
  • It occurs in superficial soft tissues in any age group and at any body site, although the typical example occurs on extremities in children/young adults.
  • The neoplasm is usually composed of a bland histiocytoid proliferation of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm forming a syncytium, often surrounded by a dense fibrous pseudocapsule and lymphoid infiltrate, with abundant intralesional hemorrhage forming blood-filled spaces.
  • AFH may show striking pleomorphism and mitotic activity, and such cases can lead to confusion with other atypical mesenchymal lesions, including pleomorphic sarcomas.
  • We present a diagnostically challenging case of AFH with pleomorphic features and minimal lymphoid and angiomatoid changes involving the superficial subcutis and deep dermis on the scalp of an 8-year-old boy.
  • "Areas with typical AFH morphology were identified and the diagnosis confirmed with identification of an EWSR1..." rearrangement detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • Pleomorphic AFH should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical mesenchymal tumors of skin and superficial subcutis and molecular testing may prove helpful in this regard.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. RNA-Binding Protein FUS / genetics. RNA-Binding Protein FUS / metabolism. Scalp

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  • (PMID = 18422688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / EWS-ATF1 fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / RNA-Binding Protein FUS; 0 / Transcription Factors
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85. Fernandez-Flores A: Mast cell population in atypical fibroxanthoma as a finding with CD117 immunostaining. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Dec;30(6):640-2
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  • [Title] Mast cell population in atypical fibroxanthoma as a finding with CD117 immunostaining.
  • [MeSH-major] Mast Cells / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Skin Diseases / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2008 Feb;30(1):34-6 [18212542.001]
  • (PMID = 19033951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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86. Beer TW, Drury P, Heenan PJ: Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Aug;32(6):533-40
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: a histological and immunohistochemical review of 171 cases.
  • The clinical and histological features of 171 atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) from a single institution in Western Australia are outlined.
  • In conclusion, AFX may show a wide range of histological appearances, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers is essential to make the correct diagnosis.
  • Specific diagnosis is important because there seems to be a very low risk of recurrence or metastasis despite the frequently alarming histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged


87. Rieske P, Zakrzewska M, Biernat W, Bartkowiak J, Zimmermann A, Liberski PP: Atypical molecular background of glioblastoma and meningioma developed in a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(1):27-30
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  • [Title] Atypical molecular background of glioblastoma and meningioma developed in a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • We observed three neoplasms with completely different histologies: malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), atypical meningioma (AM), and glioblastoma (GB), developing in a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Germ-Line Mutation. Glioblastoma / genetics. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / genetics. Li-Fraumeni Syndrome / genetics. Meningioma / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. DNA / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Genetic Testing. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / therapy


88. Richmond HM, Duvic M, Macfarlane DF: Primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the scalp: an update. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2010;11(4):233-46
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  • [Title] Primary and metastatic malignant tumors of the scalp: an update.
  • In recent years there have been a number of interesting advances in several topics relating to the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous lesions with particular applicability to primary and metastatic malignancies of the scalp.
  • In this article we provide a general update of advances in this field, and cover the more salient points relating to a variety of malignant tumors that have been reported to appear on the scalp as primary or metastatic lesions.
  • A search and review of the literature on PubMed was made to identify and discuss relevant points relating to diagnosis and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors of the scalp.
  • We describe the anatomy of the scalp, epidemiology of scalp tumors, theories of field cancerization and field therapy, photodynamic therapy, excisional surgical techniques and reconstruction, lymphoscintigraphy, chemoprevention, as well as details relating to atypical fibroxanthoma, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, nevus sebaceus, cutaneous lymphoma, and metastatic disease.
  • There is a very broad differential diagnosis for scalp nodules, which includes many different benign and malignant diseases, and treatment should be tailored accordingly.
  • Given the potential for poor prognosis with some of the more aggressive malignancies that can be found in this anatomic area, the importance of a thorough physical examination cannot be emphasized enough, and early detection is critical to provide patients with the best chance for a favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoprevention / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20509718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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89. Scalvenzi M, Balato A, De Natale F, Francia MG, Mignogna C, De Rosa G: Hemosiderotic dermatofibroma: report of one case. Dermatology; 2007;214(1):82-4
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  • Dermatofibroma (DF) is a common benign fibrohistiocytic lesion which presents with a wide variety of clinicopathological features.
  • Generally, the clinical diagnosis is easy, but differentiating it from other cutaneous tumors could be difficult in atypical cases and rare variants.
  • The differential diagnosis may comprise melanoma as well as other melanocytic and nonmelanocytic tumors.
  • We report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with a hemosiderotic DF on the abdomen.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemosiderosis / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17191053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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90. Seavolt M, McCall M: Atypical fibroxanthoma: review of the literature and summary of 13 patients treated with mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Mar;32(3):435-41; discussion 439-41
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  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma: review of the literature and summary of 13 patients treated with mohs micrographic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16640694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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91. Espino-Ardila C, Goldberg LH: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX). Dermatol Nurs; 2005 Jun;17(3):207
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX).

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  • (PMID = 16035424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-3441
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Nurs
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Choi YJ, Kim KW, Cha EY, Song JS, Yu E, Lee MG: Case report. Sclerosing liver haemangioma with pericapillary smooth muscle proliferation: atypical CT and MR findings with pathological correlation. Br J Radiol; 2008 Jun;81(966):e162-5
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  • [Title] Case report. Sclerosing liver haemangioma with pericapillary smooth muscle proliferation: atypical CT and MR findings with pathological correlation.
  • Because the tumour showed atypical features on CT and MRI, a correct diagnosis could not be made until surgery.
  • In this report, the atypical radiological findings are illustrated and correlated with pathological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18487382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Stefanato CM, Robson A, Calonje JE: The histopathologic spectrum of regression in atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Mar;37(3):310-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The histopathologic spectrum of regression in atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) with prominent fibrosis, sclerosis and hyalinization, and near-total tumor regression is rare.
  • Advanced fibrosis, in the absence of a history of prior trauma or surgery, may indicate spontaneous regression.
  • These cases emphasize the importance of recognizing this subset of AFX in order to avoid misinterpretation, particularly in cases with few residual atypical cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology


94. Balegno S, Ceroni M, Corato M, Franciotta D, Giometto B, Marinu-Aktipu K, Nano R: Antibodies to cerebellar nerve fibres in two patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia. Anticancer Res; 2005 Sep-Oct;25(5):3211-4
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  • The aim of this study was to characterize two new atypical anti-neuronal antibodies using an immunohistochemical method on rat cerebellum and Western blot techniques with primate cerebellar tissue and with recombinant neuronal proteins.
  • Atypical sera from two patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes associated with different tumours were detected.
  • Case number 1 presented cerebellar degeneration and Merkel cell carcinoma and case number 2 paraneoplastic brainstem encephalitis and malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • By immunohistochemistry, the two new atypical antibodies showed a similar fibrillar positivity in the molecular and granular layers and around the Purkinje cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Axons / immunology. Axons / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / blood. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / immunology. Dendrites / immunology. Dendrites / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Skin Neoplasms / blood. Skin Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16101129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies
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95. Hong SB, Yang MH, Lee MH, Haw CR: Dermatofibroma-like atypical granular cell tumour. Acta Derm Venereol; 2005;85(2):179-80
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  • [Title] Dermatofibroma-like atypical granular cell tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Groin. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15868643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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96. Chen JT, Hsu JD, Yao CC, Han LW, Han CP: Anti-cytokeratin CAM 5.2 does not act as a surrogate of the cytokeratin 8/18 monoclonal antibody. Comment on: "Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma", in J Cutan Pathol 2009; 36: 543. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1123-4
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  • [Title] Anti-cytokeratin CAM 5.2 does not act as a surrogate of the cytokeratin 8/18 monoclonal antibody. Comment on: "Utility of p63 in the differential diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma and spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma", in J Cutan Pathol 2009; 36: 543.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Immunohistochemistry / standards. Keratin-18 / biosynthesis. Keratin-8 / biosynthesis. Keratins / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 May;36(5):543-7 [19476522.001]
  • (PMID = 20175827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Keratin-8; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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97. Gómez de la Fuente E, Sols M, Pinedo F, Alvarez-Fernández JG, Vicente FJ, Naz E, López-Estebaranz JL: [Atypical fibroxanthoma. Clinical/pathological study of 10 cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Apr;96(3):153-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Atypical fibroxanthoma. Clinical/pathological study of 10 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Fibroxantoma atípico. Estudio clinicopatológico de 10 casos.
  • INTRODUCTION: Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is a rare tumor of unknown histogenesis, considered by most authorities as a superficial form of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH).
  • Clinical (age, onset-diagnosis time, location, accompanying pathology, outcome), histological (architectural pattern, cell type, ulceration, vascular or perineural invasion, subcutis involvement, pleomorphism, mitosis, inflammatory infiltrate) and immunohistochemical variable were analyzed.
  • CASES REPORT: Clinical and epidemiological features coincide with those previously reported: onset late in life, short time onset-diagnosis, involvement of skin with notable sun damage and a good outcome.
  • DISCUSSION: The diagnosis of AXF is always of exclusion.
  • Other spindle-cell tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, leyomiosarcoma or dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans must be ruled out by immunohistochemical techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16476356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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98. Moosavi C, Jha P, Fanburg-Smith JC: An update on plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor and addition of 66 new cases from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, in honor of Franz M. Enzinger, MD. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Oct;11(5):313-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An update on plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor and addition of 66 new cases from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, in honor of Franz M. Enzinger, MD.
  • The seminal article of Drs Franz Enzinger and Renyuan Zhang in 1988 defined plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor (PFHT) as a distinctive entity.
  • Although increased cytologic atypia and mitotic activity were noted in a few cases, an atypical mitosis was only observed in 1 case.
  • Overall, the findings were very similar to the original observations made by Dr Enzinger and his colleague, with the minor exceptions of roughly equal sex distribution (possibly due to timely referral bias), and additional morphologic features of myxoid change, adnexal sparing, increased inflammation, and microfat similar to recently described lipofibromatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neurothekeoma / diagnosis. Neurothekeoma / metabolism. Neurothekeoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17870015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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99. Cai JP, Randall B: HMB-45 expression in a clear cell variant of atypical fibroxanthoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Feb;33(2):186-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HMB-45 expression in a clear cell variant of atypical fibroxanthoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / metabolism. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] J Cutan Pathol. 2004 Mar;31(3):284-6 [14984584.001]
  • (PMID = 16420318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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