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1. Okano Y, Inayama M, Hatakeyama N, Hino H, Iwahara Y, Motoki T, Naruse K, Yokota Y, Ogushi F: Autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered with multiple nodular shadows. J Med Invest; 2008 Feb;55(1-2):142-6
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  • [Title] Autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered with multiple nodular shadows.
  • We report an autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered as multiple nodular shadows.
  • Both chest radiography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodules in both the lung and pleural effusion.
  • Samples from the wall-side pleural lesion were obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under local anesthesia, and histological examination led to a diagnosis of atypical carcinoid.
  • The primary site was identified as the lung after autopsy.
  • We believe that early detection is crucial in the treatment of atypical carcinoid due to poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Lung / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18319557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Wurtz A, Benhamed L, Conti M, Bouchindhomme B, Porte H: Results of systematic nodal dissection in typical and atypical carcinoid tumors of the lung. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Mar;4(3):388-94
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  • [Title] Results of systematic nodal dissection in typical and atypical carcinoid tumors of the lung.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine the lymphatic spread frequency and location in patients, who underwent lung resection for carcinoid tumors, associated with systematic nodal dissection.
  • METHODS: From January 1998 to June 2007, 54 patients underwent anatomic lung resection associated with systematic nodal dissection for tumors classified as typical (TC) or atypical carcinoid according to 1999 World Health Organization criteria.
  • In the atypical group (n = 12) 2 patients were classified N1 (16.6%) and 2 N2 (16.6%).Five of the 6 N2 patients showed a single skip metastasis not discovered by preoperative evaluation (83.3%).The lymphatic spread was correlated with age < or = 35 years (p = 0.01) and a tumor size > or = 3 cm (p = 0.002).Median follow-up was 57 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] J Thorac Oncol. 2009 May;4(5):670
  • (PMID = 19247085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Isaka T, Maruno M, Suzuki T, Sato M, Yoshimine T: Skull metastases from atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor in a 19-year-old man. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Dec;46(12):609-13
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  • [Title] Skull metastases from atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor in a 19-year-old man.
  • A 19-year-old man presented with a rare skull metastasis from atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor (APCT) manifesting as headache, diplopia, and cough.
  • Head magnetic resonance imaging showed a skull base tumor extending from the posterior clinoid process to the clivus, and calvarial tumors in the right temporal and occipital bones.
  • Chest and abdominal computed tomography showed a round tumor, 4 cm in diameter, in the lower lobe of the right lung and multiple small tumors in the liver.
  • Surgery for the calvarial tumor in the right temporal bone was performed on June 27, 2003.
  • The histological diagnosis was skull metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Partial resection of the right lower lobe was performed for the lung tumor on August 22, 2003.
  • The histological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • The patient died of progression of the tumors in the lung and liver on April 19, 2004.
  • We must consider APCT in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary tumors in adolescents, and perform follow-up observation or treatment, including surgery, if APCT is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17185889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Tiktinsky E, Horne T, Agranovich S, Lantsberg S: Intramuscular metastasis of carcinoid tumor: a rare manifestation. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jul;33(7):484-5
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  • [Title] Intramuscular metastasis of carcinoid tumor: a rare manifestation.
  • A 43-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of left upper lobectomy due to an atypical lung carcinoid tumor.
  • The scans showed slightly increased diffused tracer uptake in the apex of the left lung, most probably due to postoperative changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Octreotide
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lung / radionuclide imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18580236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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5. Mackley HB, Videtic GM: Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy. Oncology (Williston Park); 2006 Nov;20(12):1537-43; discussion 1544-5, 1549
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy.
  • Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung represent a clinical spectrum of tumors ranging from the relatively benign and slow-growing typical carcinoid to the highly aggressive small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • Resected atypical carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas have a significant risk of localfailure, for which adjuvant radiation likely improves local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17153907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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6. Krüger S, Buck AK, Blumstein NM, Pauls S, Schelzig H, Kropf C, Schumann C, Mottaghy FM, Hombach V, Reske SN: Use of integrated FDG PET/CT imaging in pulmonary carcinoid tumours. J Intern Med; 2006 Dec;260(6):545-50
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  • [Title] Use of integrated FDG PET/CT imaging in pulmonary carcinoid tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners have been recently introduced in the diagnostic work-up of suspected pulmonary malignancy and demonstrate encouraging results in the staging of nonsmall-cell lung cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of integrated FDG PET/CT in pulmonary carcinoid tumours.
  • METHODS: We studied 13 patients (mean age +/- 1 SD, 57 +/- 11 years) with pulmonary carcinoid tumours.
  • Final histological diagnosis confirmed 12 typical and one atypical pulmonary carcinoid.
  • None of the patients had recurrent carcinoid disease or died during follow-up (864 +/- 218 days).
  • Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in typical carcinoids was 3.0 +/- 1.5 (range 1.2 - 6.6); SUV in the atypical carcinoid was remarkably high with a value of 8.5.
  • FDG uptake in pulmonary carcinoid tumours is often lower than expected for malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Division / physiology. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Lung / radiography. Lung / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 17116005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6820
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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7. Rickman OB, Vohra PK, Sanyal B, Vrana JA, Aubry MC, Wigle DA, Thomas CF Jr: Analysis of ErbB receptors in pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 May 15;15(10):3315-24
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  • [Title] Analysis of ErbB receptors in pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the expression of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases in pulmonary typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid tumors and to understand the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in pulmonary carcinoid tumor proliferation.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Surgically resected typical carcinoid (n = 24) and atypical carcinoid (n = 7) tumor tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4.
  • Sequencing of tumor DNA of exons 18 to 21 of the EGFR gene and the KRAS gene was carried out.
  • Biochemical analysis of lung carcinoid cell lines was used to investigate EGFR signal transduction and response to erlotinib inhibition.
  • RESULTS: The analysis showed that 45.8% of typical carcinoid and 28.6% of atypical carcinoid tumors express EGFR, 100% of the tumors lack expression of ErbB2, and 100% have moderate to intense staining for ErbB3 and ErbB4.
  • Sequencing of tumor DNA of exons 18 to 21 of the EGFR gene revealed the absence of tyrosine kinase domain mutations in these tumors.
  • Because EGFR and KRAS mutations tend not to be present at the same time, we sequenced the KRAS gene from pulmonary carcinoid tumor DNA and found that 100% were wild-type.
  • Using a lung carcinoid cell line that expresses EGFR, we found that erlotinib reduced proliferation by inhibiting EGFR signal transduction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest clinical potential for the use of EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors, particularly for patients with EGFR-positive pulmonary carcinoid tumors not amenable to surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-3 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19447869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-3; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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8. Machado MC, Sá SV, Goldbaum TS, Catania M, Campos VC, Corrêa-Giannella ML, Giannella-Neto D, Salgado LR: In vivo response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 in adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome by lung carcinoid tumor is associated with growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a mRNA expression. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Apr;30(4):334-40
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  • [Title] In vivo response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 in adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome by lung carcinoid tumor is associated with growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a mRNA expression.
  • GH secretagogues (GHS) have been used for the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) since 1997 due to their ability to increase ACTH and cortisol levels in Cushing's disease.
  • The aim of this study was to correlate ACTH response to GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) in vivo with GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a) mRNA expression in a patient with lung carcinoid tumor.
  • The patient was a 26-yr-old male with diagnosis of ACTH-dependent CS.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and MRI of thorax/abdomen/cervical were negative and 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy depicted abnormal uptake on the right lung.
  • The patient was submitted to right thoracotomy for exeresis of lung nodule and hilar lymph node which were characterized as atypical lung carcinoid tumor and he presented clinical and laboratorial remission after surgery.
  • GHSR-1a mRNA expression was studied with real-time quantitative PCR and tumor data were compared with fragments of normal lung and pituitary.
  • There was a higher GHSR-1a expression in the lung carcinoid tumor as compared with normal tissues.
  • The ACTH response to GHRP-6 in a patient with ectopic ACTH production by a lung carcinoid tumor was associated with GHSR-1a expression in the tumor tissue, suggesting an association between GHSR-1a mRNA overexpression and the in vivo response to GHS.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin

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  • (PMID = 17556872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; 4H7N4I6X6A / growth hormone releasing hexapeptide
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9. Vigg A, Mantri S, Swarnalata G, Mulay K: Atypical carcinoid tumour. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci; 2005 Jul-Sep;47(3):213-5
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid tumour.
  • Carcinoid tumour is a rare entity accounting for less than two percent of bronchial neoplasms.
  • More offten, it presents as a central endobronchial tumour.
  • The peripheral type of carcinoid tumour is relatively rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16022152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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10. Kiratli H, Yilmaz PT, Yildiz ZI: Metastatic atypical carcinoid tumor of the inferior rectus muscle. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Nov-Dec;24(6):482-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic atypical carcinoid tumor of the inferior rectus muscle.
  • A 74-year-old man who had been treated for pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor 3 years earlier developed diplopia.
  • Incisional biopsy of the affected muscle revealed metastatic atypical carcinoid tumor infiltration that immunostained positively for epithelial membrane antigen, synaptophysin, and chromogranin.
  • Systemic chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide was prescribed to address the orbital tumor and a contemporaneously discovered hepatic locus.
  • Although metastatic bronchogenic carcinoid tumor in the orbit, and in the inferior rectus muscle in particular, is highly unusual, this condition must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated extraocular muscle enlargement in a patient with a history of systemic carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Oculomotor Muscles
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 19033849.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. McIntire M, Shah ND, Kim AW, Gattuso P, Liptay MJ: Cytologic imprints of giant atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor of the lung with extensive oncocytic component. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):887-90
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  • [Title] Cytologic imprints of giant atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor of the lung with extensive oncocytic component.
  • Bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors are found in less than 2 of 100,000 people yearly and comprise approximately 1-2% of all lung neoplasms.
  • Diagnosis is usually made by bronchoscopy with bronchial brushings or biopsy.
  • We present the cytologic imprint findings of a case of a 66-year-old man with an atypical giant bronchopulmonary carcinoid with extensive oncocytic component, who underwent a total right pneumonectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18855906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. García-Yuste M, Matilla JM, Cueto A, Paniagua JM, Ramos G, Cañizares MA, Muguruza I, Spanish Multi-centric Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung for the Spanish Society of Pneumonology and Thoracic Surgery (EMETNE-SEPAR): Typical and atypical carcinoid tumours: analysis of the experience of the Spanish Multi-centric Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2007 Feb;31(2):192-7
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  • [Title] Typical and atypical carcinoid tumours: analysis of the experience of the Spanish Multi-centric Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung.
  • BACKGROUND: This study examines the experience of the Spanish Multi-centric Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung with patients treated surgically for typical and atypical carcinoid tumours.
  • METHODS: From 1980 to 2002, 661 patients were treated surgically for 569 typical carcinoid tumours and 92 atypical carcinoid tumours.
  • Three hundred and four cases were studied retrospectively from 1980 to 1997 (261 typical carcinoid and 43 atypical carcinoid tumours); the other 357 new cases (308 typical carcinoid and 49 atypical carcinoid tumours) were collected prospectively from 1998 to 2002.
  • Tumours were classified according the 1999 classification from the WHO and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC).
  • RESULTS: In the total of the patients, 5-year survival for different tumours was as follows: typical carcinoid: overall survival 97%; with nodal involvement 100%; atypical carcinoid: overall 78%; with nodal involvement 60%.
  • A significant difference in survival was found between patients in the retrospective and prospective groups with atypical carcinoid and nodal involvement.
  • The comparative analysis of several factors in typical and atypical carcinoid tumours showed a significant difference for mean age, tumour size, nodal involvement and distant metastases.
  • Adequate lung resection and systematic radical mediastinal lymphadenectomy should always be performed.
  • Sleeve resection could be performed in central typical and atypical carcinoid tumours, avoiding pneumonectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17196822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Jonnakuty CG, Mezitis SG: Pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor with metastatic involvement of the pituitary gland causing functional hypopituitarism. Endocr Pract; 2007 May-Jun;13(3):291-5
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  • [Title] Pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor with metastatic involvement of the pituitary gland causing functional hypopituitarism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a unique case of a peripherally located pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor with metastatic involvement of the pituitary, manifesting with evidence of functional hypopituitarism and compressive symptoms of dysarthria, bitemporal loss of vision, and ataxia.
  • METHODS: We present a case report, including detailed laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings in a 50-year-old woman with a peripherally located pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor and a lesion metastatic to the pituitary gland.
  • RESULTS: A 50-year-old woman with a medical history of metastatic pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor presented with symptoms of bitemporal hemianopia, ataxia, and dysarthria.
  • Findings on pathology examination were consistent with a lesion metastatic from the primary pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: This case of metastatic involvement of the pituitary gland from a peripherally located pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor manifesting with evidence of functional hypopituitarism is highly uncommon.
  • Therefore, heightened awareness of the possibility of a pituitary lesion metastatic from a pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor is important.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17599862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Nannini N, Bertolini F, Cavazza A, Casali C, Mengoli MC, Rossi G: Atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma: a hitherto unreported variant of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):120-4
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma: a hitherto unreported variant of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the lung may show several growth patterns and cell types.
  • We report here a previously undescribed case of primary pulmonary atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma, an exceedingly rare variant of carcinoid tumor so far reported only in the thymus.
  • The tumor was discovered in a 50-year-old, non-smoker woman, and pursued an aggressive behavior.
  • The lack of TTF-1 expression and the positive staining with hormonal receptors made the diagnosis very challenging.
  • Differential diagnosis with other primary and metastatic mucin-rich tumors is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mucus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 1998 Aug;22(8):934-44 [9706973.001]
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  • (PMID = 20195926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  •  go-up   go-down


15. Blochin E, Stein JA, Wang NS: Atypical carcinoid metastasis to the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Oct;32(7):735-9
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid metastasis to the skin.
  • Carcinoid tumors are derived from neuroendocrine cells, and are most frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system.
  • Cutaneous involvement of carcinoid tumors is relatively rare, with isolated case reports in the literature.
  • We detail a patient with stage IV pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor with skin metastasis.
  • On biopsy, the tumor cells had cytologic features of a carcinoid tumor, but were arranged as infiltrating cords, small aggregates and single units, rather than the organoid or trabecular pattern seen in the primary tumor.
  • Further, along with neuroendocrine markers, the tumor cells had the staining pattern of cytokeratin 7+/cytokeratin 20-/thyroid transcription factor-1+, supporting a carcinoid tumor of lung origin.
  • Thus, this case of skin metastasis from an atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor illustrates a unique clinical and histologic presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20595888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Olgac G, Peirovi F, Yilmaz A, Kutlu CA: Giant carcinoid tumor mimicking pulmonary sequestration. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Oct;84(4):1375-6
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  • [Title] Giant carcinoid tumor mimicking pulmonary sequestration.
  • A 42-year-old woman who previously underwent two consecutive thoracotomies for a lower lobe mass in her right lung was referred to our clinic for further management.
  • Then a right lower lobectomy was undertaken through a hemi-clamshell incision, and histopathology revealed an atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bronchoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Pneumonectomy / methods. Reoperation. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17889003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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17. Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Fröss-Baron K, Gołkowski F, Sowa-Staszczak A, Mikołajczak R, Huszno B: 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate in detection of atypical bronchial carcinoid. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Jan;115(1):47-9
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  • [Title] 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate in detection of atypical bronchial carcinoid.
  • We present a case of a 40-year-old women operated on because of lung carcinoid tumour in 2002.
  • The thorax spiral CT revealed the focal lesion beneath carina. (111)In-Octreoscan and (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate SRS revealed two focal lesions in the mediastinum. (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate detected two additional lesions in the lower part of the right lung.
  • Owing to severe bone pains and carcinoid symptoms the patient was referred for the 90Y-DOTA-octreotate treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SRS with a new 99mTc marked somatostatin analogue - octreotate allows for a more sensitive detection of metastatic leasions in carcinoid tumours.
  • The usefulness of 18F-FDG PET, widely used as a powerful imaging technique in clinical oncology, is limited in detection of carcinoid tumours due to the low proliferative activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiography. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17286235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid; 0 / Hydrazines; 0 / Nicotinic Acids; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 5657-17-0 / EDDA; 9G34HU7RV0 / Edetic Acid; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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18. Bode-Lesniewska B, Hodler J, von Hochstetter A, Guillou L, Exner U, Caduff R: Late solitary bone metastasis of a primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma with SYT-SSX1 translocation type: case report with a long follow-up. Virchows Arch; 2005 Mar;446(3):310-5
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  • One of the rarest primary locations is the lung.
  • We describe a 73-year-old female patient who presented with a solitary malignant bone tumor 8 years after the resection of a lung neoplasm.
  • The bone tumor was classified as an osteosarcoma and the lung tumor as an atypical carcinoid tumor at their first respective diagnostic work-ups.
  • Reevaluation of the tumor samples at the time of the local recurrence of the bone tumor 6 years following the initial symptoms of the bone tumor lead to the reclassification of both specimens as synovial sarcomas.
  • The patient died 14 years after the resection of the primary synovial sarcoma of the lung and 6 years following the occurrence of the bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Synovial / genetics. Sarcoma, Synovial / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion. Osteosarcoma / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 15668803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / SYT-SSX fusion protein
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19. Ito T, Kim K, Taira M, Kinoshita M, Ikeda N: [Atypical carcinoid of the lung with abnormal elevation of serum ProGRP level; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Jun;63(6):505-7
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  • [Title] [Atypical carcinoid of the lung with abnormal elevation of serum ProGRP level; report of a case].
  • We report a rare case of an atypical carcinoid of the lung with the elevation of serum ProGRP.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid was pathologically suggested by a transbronchial lung biopsy.
  • Pathological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 20533746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98)
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20. Pelosi G, Rodriguez J, Viale G, Rosai J: Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor overdiagnosed as small-cell carcinoma on biopsy specimens: a major pitfall in the management of lung cancer patients. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Feb;29(2):179-87
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  • [Title] Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor overdiagnosed as small-cell carcinoma on biopsy specimens: a major pitfall in the management of lung cancer patients.
  • Seven patients with typical or atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumors overdiagnosed as small-cell carcinoma on bronchoscopic biopsies are described.
  • Bronchial biopsies from 9 consecutive small-cell lung carcinoma patients were used as control group for histologic and immunohistochemical studies (cytokeratins, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, Ki-67 [MIB-1], and TTF-1).
  • The carcinoid tumors presented as either central or peripheral lesions composed of tumor cells with granular, sometimes coarse chromatin pattern, high levels of chromogranin A/synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and low (<20%) Ki-67 (MIB-1) labeling index.
  • The tumor stroma contained thin-walled blood vessels.
  • Small-cell carcinomas always showed central tumor location, finely dispersed nuclear chromatin, lower levels of chromogranin A/synaptophysin, and high (>50%) Ki-67 (MIB-1) labeling index.
  • Judging from this study, overdiagnosis of carcinoid tumor as small-cell carcinoma in small crushed bronchial biopsies remains a significant potential problem in a worldwide sample of hospital settings.
  • Careful evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin sections remains the most important tool for the differential diagnosis, with evaluation of tumor cell proliferation by Ki-67 (MIB-1) labeling index emerging from our review as the most useful ancillary technique for the distinction.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged


21. Detterbeck FC: Management of carcinoid tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2010 Mar;89(3):998-1005
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  • [Title] Management of carcinoid tumors.
  • Primary bronchopulmonary carcinoids comprise a significant proportion of carcinoid tumors.
  • The clinical presentation allows prediction of the diagnosis and cell type and directs evaluation and treatment.
  • Young age, central tumor, and no nodal enlargement are highly suggestive of typical carcinoid.
  • All bronchopulmonary carcinoids are malignant (though indolent), and surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment.
  • Mediastinoscopy is suggested when there is moderate suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN1 or peripheral cN0), with lobectomy and lymphadenectomy if the mediastinal nodes are benign.
  • For a high suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN2, peripheral cN1, 2), imaging for distant metastases and mediastinoscopy is suggested, with multimodality treatment for an atypical carcinoid with N2 involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Lung Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20172187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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22. Uchino K, Okada M, Sakamoto T, Yuki T, Mimura T, Tsubota N: Bronchoplasty for bronchial carcinoid tumor without removing lung parenchyma. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2006 Aug;54(8):345-7
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  • [Title] Bronchoplasty for bronchial carcinoid tumor without removing lung parenchyma.
  • A 15-year-old boy was admitted with a pneumothorax of the left lung.
  • Computed tomographic scans demonstrated a tumor 20 mm in diameter situated on the left main to upper lobar bronchus that eventually was proved to be a typical carcinoid tumor by transbronchial biopsy.
  • We performed bronchial resection with atypical bronchoplasty, which preserves lung parenchyma in cases of s-T1N0M0 disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchi / surgery. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pulmonary Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 16972641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Davini F, Gonfiotti A, Comin C, Caldarella A, Mannini F, Janni A: Typical and atypical carcinoid tumours: 20-year experience with 89 patients. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino); 2009 Dec;50(6):807-11
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  • [Title] Typical and atypical carcinoid tumours: 20-year experience with 89 patients.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective clinical and pathological analysis of the authors' 20-year experience on treatment of typical and atypical carcinoid tumours.
  • METHODS: A retrospective clinical and pathological analysis was conducted on 89 patients treated for bronchial carcinoid neoplasms at the Division of Thoracic Surgery, Hospital of Florence (Italy) between January 1986 and January 2006.
  • Diagnosis was made with radiological methods such as plain chest roentgenography, computed tomography (CT), and bronchoscopy.
  • In 38 cases of central lesion the diagnosis was obtained by endobronchial biopsy.
  • A correct pathological diagnosis was obtained before surgery in 58 patients; in the others resected cases the correct diagnosis was determined by intraoperative histology during surgery.
  • RESULTS: There were 63 (70.8%) typical carcinoid (TC) and 26 (29,2%) atypical carcinoid (AC).
  • On the basis of the hystopatological documentation of all patients operated before 1999 (60 patients) the authors observed that in 4 cases (6.6%) the diagnosis has changed from AC to TC while only 1 case (1.6%) of AC was classified as TC with new criterias.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anatomical resection, including formal lobectomy (or pneumonectomy when indicated) and radical mediastinal lymphadenectomy, should be performed in carcinoid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Bronchoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19935614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9509
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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24. Endo T, Hasegawa T, Tezuka Y, Kanai Y, Otani S, Yamamoto S, Tetsuka K, Sato Y, Endo S, Sohara Y: [Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor with abnormal elevation of serum gastrin-releasing peptide precursor: report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2008 Oct;61(11):993-5
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  • [Title] [Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor with abnormal elevation of serum gastrin-releasing peptide precursor: report of a case].
  • We report a rare case of atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor accompanied by elevation of serum gastrin-releasing peptide precursor (ProGRP).
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a solitary pulmonary tumor in the left lower lobe with sub-carinal lymph node enlargement.
  • Transbronchial lung biopsy showed a pulmonary carcinoid, therefore left lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Histopathological diagnosis showed an atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 18939440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98)
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25. Stević R, Jovanović D, Masulović D, Pesut D, Vasić N, Stojić J: [Clinico-radiological characteristics of bronchial carcinoid]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2009;56(4):51-5
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  • [Title] [Clinico-radiological characteristics of bronchial carcinoid].
  • OBJECTIVES: To review clinical and radiological characteristics of a patients with bronchial carcinoid.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical, pathological and imaging findings in 42 patients diagnosed with bronchial carcinoid during the seven years period.
  • Thirty patients had typical and 12 atypical bronchial carcinoid.
  • Tumor was localized in 28 patients in the left, and 14 in the right lung.
  • On radiographs carcinoid manifested as tumor shadow in 40.5%, nodule and atelectasis in 21.4% cases each respectively, pleural effusion and pneumonia in 7.1% each respectively and hyperinflation in 2.4% of the cases.
  • Computerized tomography revealed endoluminal tumor in 30.9% patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Major imaging findings are central, tumor mass or nodule and obstruction signs like atelectasis.
  • Diagnosis is confirmed by pathological examination of samples taken by bronchoscopy or surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20419997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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26. Vidal A, Lorenzo MJ, Isidro ML, Cordido F: Atypical thymic carcinoid in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jul-Aug;30(7):601-2
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  • [Title] Atypical thymic carcinoid in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.
  • An asymptomatic, non-smoker patient carrier of a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1) mutation was diagnosed with invasive atypical thymic carcinoid tumor.
  • After surgical treatment the tumor reappeared albeit without metastasis.
  • Thymic carcinoid is a well-known cause of mortality in MEN1, and usually metastatic disease is present at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Pericardium / pathology


27. Divisi D, Crisci R: Carcinoid tumors of the lung and multimodal therapy. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Jun;53(3):168-72
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the lung and multimodal therapy.
  • Diagnosis was obtained in 28 patients with fibre-optic bronchoscopy and in 14 patients with CT-guided trans-thoracic needle biopsy.
  • RESULTS: There were 26 typical and 16 atypical carcinoids.
  • The 3-year and the 5-year survival rates in the typical and atypical carcinoid groups were 100 % and 96 % vs. 81 % and 68 %, respectively (p < 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 15926097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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28. Buonerba C, Gallo C, Di Lorenzo G, Romeo V, Marinelli A: Ten-year adjuvant treatment with somatostatin analogs in a patient with atypical carcinoid of the lung. Anticancer Drugs; 2010 Apr;21(4):465-8
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  • [Title] Ten-year adjuvant treatment with somatostatin analogs in a patient with atypical carcinoid of the lung.
  • Both typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid (AC) of the lung are surgically curable, but AC carries a considerably worse prognosis because of a relatively high rate of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20075713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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29. Ampollini L, Carbognani P, Rusca M, Bobbio A: Resection of giant typical carcinoid tumor with cardiopulmonary bypass support. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Dec;58(8):500-2
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  • [Title] Resection of giant typical carcinoid tumor with cardiopulmonary bypass support.
  • Carcinoids, defined as well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, are classified as typical or atypical based on their microscopic pathological features.
  • We present the surgical strategy used to achieve a left pneumonectomy and the indications for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support in a patient with a huge typical carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 21110279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1902
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Kurabayashi T, Minamikawa T, Nishijima S, Tsuneki I, Tamura M, Yanase T, Hashidate H, Shibuya H, Motoyama T: Primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary with multiple bone and breast metastases. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Jun;36(3):567-71
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  • [Title] Primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary with multiple bone and breast metastases.
  • Although primary carcinoid tumor of the ovary is an extremely rare neoplasm, survival is excellent if the disease is confined to one ovary.
  • Herein, we present a case of primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary, stage IA, borderline malignancy, in a 34-year-old woman.
  • Histological findings of the right ovary indicated higher atypical nuclei, higher mitotic rate and focal necrosis of tumorous cells in some areas, findings that are compatible with atypical carcinoid of the lung.
  • The results in the present case indicate that an ovarian carcinoid tumor found to be 'atypical carcinoid' according to pulmonary carcinoid criteria or immunohistochemical staining (i.e. highly positive for topoisomerase IIalpha and Ki-67) may have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / secondary


31. Ciment A, Gil J, Teirstein A: Late recurrent pulmonary typical carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature. Mt Sinai J Med; 2006 Oct;73(6):884-6
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  • [Title] Late recurrent pulmonary typical carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature.
  • Carcinoid tumors are uncommon pulmonary neoplasms.
  • They are classified histologically as either atypical or typical.
  • Atypical carcinoids are aggressive malignancies that require radical surgical resection and have a guarded prognosis with a propensity to metastasize and recur.
  • Recurrence of a typical pulmonary carcinoid tumor more than a decade after initial resection is very rare.
  • A patient with recurrence of a typical carcinoid tumor 11 years after resection of the primary lesion with one involved lymph node is reported here.
  • Late recurrences are rare in both atypical and typical varieties, but are much more common in atypical carcinoids.
  • The patient reported here represents the fifth case of recurrence of a typical carcinoid tumor more than ten years after resection.
  • This suggests that, after resection of a typical carcinoid neoplasm, patients should be monitored carefully, especially if lymph node metastases are present at the time of surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / physiopathology. Lung Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17117316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-2507
  • [Journal-full-title] The Mount Sinai journal of medicine, New York
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mt. Sinai J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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32. Naccini B, Fitting JW, Letovanec I: [Current approach to bronchial carcinoid tumors]. Rev Med Suisse; 2007 Nov 21;3(134):2655-6, 2658-60, 2662
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current approach to bronchial carcinoid tumors].
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise typical and atypical carcinoids, as well as large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas.
  • However carcinoid tumours differ from the latter two by their clinical presentation, radiographic, histological appearances, and treatment modalities as well as prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18159699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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33. de Matos LL, Trufelli DC, das Neves-Pereira JC, Danel C, Riquet M: Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review. Lung Cancer; 2006 Sep;53(3):381-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review.
  • Bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors have been associated with a variety of endocrine disorders including Cushing's syndrome (CS), which is caused by ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion.
  • We report two cases of CS secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • Chest computed tomography and Octreoscan showed a peripheral nodule in the left-superior lobe of the lung.
  • After lobectomy, a typical bronchopulmonary carcinoid was diagnosed.
  • After lobectomy, an atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid was diagnosed.
  • Neither of these patients had hypophysary microadenomas, adrenal adenomas or recurrence of CS after surgical treatment, demonstrating that CS was caused solely by the presence of the bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis


34. Otake Y, Aoki M, Nakanishi T, Hashimoto K: Atypical carcinoid of thymus associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Oct;58(10):534-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid of thymus associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1.
  • Thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1) is a rare tumor.
  • We report a case of MEN-1-related thymic carcinoid.
  • She underwent thymectomy with partial resection of the left innominate vein and lung.
  • Histological examination revealed atypical carcinoid with infiltration.
  • MEN-1-related thymic carcinoid is often insidious with a poor prognosis.
  • We suggest chest computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging for MEN-1 patients and serological or genetic screening for patients with thymic carcinoid to screen for MEN-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis


35. Gomard-Mennesson E, Sève P, De La Roche E, Collardeau-Frachon S, Lombard-Bohas C, Broussolle C: [Thymic carcinoid tumor revealed by a Cushing's syndrome: usefulness of positron emission tomography]. Rev Med Interne; 2008 Sep;29(9):751-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Thymic carcinoid tumor revealed by a Cushing's syndrome: usefulness of positron emission tomography].
  • Ectopic adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) syndrome is a rare condition, generally due to lung or carcinoid tumors.
  • A thymic tumor was suspected and the patient had a thymectomy that revealed an atypical carcinoid tumor with pleural carcinosis.


36. Mendes S, Gallego J, Caldeira J, Palhano M, Cruz J, Cravino J: [Pulmonary carcinoid tumors--ten years experience]. Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc; 2005 Jan-Mar;12(1):21-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pulmonary carcinoid tumors--ten years experience].
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are rare, accounting for as many as 2% of all pulmonary neoplasms and for 10% of carcinoid tumors overall.
  • They have a subclassification into typical classed as low-grade malignant neoplasm and atypical more aggressive, with more potential to cause local invasion.
  • In this paper, the authors report a retrospective study of 25 patients, who had the diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors and had been operated between January of 1994 and August of 2004.
  • We conclude that this tumors must be considered malignant in the surgical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15895123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-7215
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-torácica e vascular : órgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Torácica e Vascular
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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37. Kuczma JA, Grzywa M: [Broncho-pulmonary carcinoid with the cardiac arrhythmia manifestation]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2006 Oct;116(4):971-3
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  • [Title] [Broncho-pulmonary carcinoid with the cardiac arrhythmia manifestation].
  • We are presenting the case of a 60-year-old woman (OM ) with a bronchial-pulmonary carcinoid which the only, first and dominating symptom was paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, as well as ventricular group extrasystoles.
  • In the imaging examinations of the thorax, a cavernous structure of 36 x 47 mm in the III segment of the left lung was discovered.
  • The patient underwent urgent surgery after an episode of massive pulmonary haemorrhage--surgery included excision of the upper lobe of the left lung containing the tumour and mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • On microscopic examination, an atypical carcinoid was diagnosed.
  • The current imaging examinations and determinations of 5-HIO uringexcretion acid do not indicate relapse of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Arrhythmias, Cardiac / etiology. Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Lung Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18416299.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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38. Liao H, Rao H, Zhang X, Lin Y, Jie M, Fu J, Long H, Rong T, Lin P: [Retrospective study of clinicopathological characteristics in bronchopulmonary carcinoid]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2010 Jun;13(6):591-7
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  • [Title] [Retrospective study of clinicopathological characteristics in bronchopulmonary carcinoid].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchopulmonary carcinoid (BPC) account for less than 2% of all primary lung malignant tumors, but few related studies were reported.
  • First, the corresponding paraffin blocks reexamined, slice up and stained, multiple pathologists re-consulted, and its subsets (typical carcinoid, TC; atypical carcinoid, AC) defined.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of BPC was better than other types of primary lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20681445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3419
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / TTF1 protein, human
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39. Travis WD, Giroux DJ, Chansky K, Crowley J, Asamura H, Brambilla E, Jett J, Kennedy C, Rami-Porta R, Rusch VW, Goldstraw P, International Staging Committee and Participating Institutions: The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: proposals for the inclusion of broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Nov;3(11):1213-23
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  • [Title] The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: proposals for the inclusion of broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: In the 2003 Supplement for tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) Staging classification it states that TNM staging "applies to all types of carcinoma including small cell carcinoma; however, it does not apply to carcinoids."
  • Despite this caveat, most publications on typical and atypical carcinoids use the TNM staging system for nonsmall cell carcinoma and are able to demonstrate prognostic significance for the different stages.
  • For this reason, as the next TNM Staging proposal is being considered, we sought to investigate the carcinoid cases submitted to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) database, as well as the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER).
  • A total of 1619 broncho-pulmonary carcinoid cases diagnosed over the period 1990-2002 were analyzed from the SEER database, including 1437 surgical cases.
  • We found that all three T, N, and M categories as defined for non-small cell lung cancer are generally useful for staging of pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the IASLC proposals for the 7th edition of TNM are helpful in predicting prognosis for broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • It is the recommendation of the IASLC Staging project that TNM be applied to broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / classification. Lung Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 18978555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Goldstraw P; Asamura H; Ball D; Bolejack V; Brambilla E; Bunn PA; Carney D; Chansky K; Le Chevalier T; Crowley J; Ginsberg R; Giroux D; Groome P; Hansen HH; Van Houtte P; Im JG; Jett JR; Kato H; Kennedy C; Krasnik M; van Meerbeeck J; Naruke T; Patz EF; Postmus PE; Rami-Porta R; Rusch V; Sculier JP; Shaikh Z; Shepherd FA; Shimosato Y; Sobin L; Travis W; Tsuboi M; Tsuchiya R; Vallieres E; Vansteenkiste J; Watanabe Y; Yokomise H; Visser O; Tsuchiya R; Naruke T; Van Meerbeeck JP; Bülzebruck H; Allison R; Tripcony L; Wang X; Watson D; Herndon J; Stevens RJ; Depierre A; Quoix E; Tran Q; Jett JR; Mandrekar S; Schiller JH; Gray RJ; Duque-Medina JL; Lopez-Encuentra A; Crowley JJ; Crowley JJ; Pisters KM; Strand TE; Swann S; Choy H; Damhuis R; Komaki R; Allen PK; Sculier JP; Paesmans M; Wu YL; Pesek M; Krosnarova H; Le Chevalier T; Dunant A; McCaughan B; Kennedy C; Shepherd F; Whitehead M; Jassem J; Ryzman W; Scagliotti GV; Borasio P; Fong KM; Passmore L; Rusch VW; Park BJ; Baek HJ; Perng RP; Yung RC; Gramatikova A; Vansteenkiste J; Brambilla C; Colonna M; Hunt J; Park A; Sculier JP; Berghmans T; Cangir AK; Subotic D; Rosell R; Aberola V; Vaporciyan AA; Correa AM; Pignon JP; Le Chevalier T; Komaki R; Orlowski T; Ball D; Matthews J; Tsao M; Darwish S; Pass HI; Stevens T; Wright G; Legrand C; van Meerbeeck JP
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40. Hamad AM, Rizzardi G, Marulli G, Rea F: Nodal recurrence of pulmonary carcinoid 30 years after primary resection. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jun;3(6):680-1
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  • [Title] Nodal recurrence of pulmonary carcinoid 30 years after primary resection.
  • We present a case of nodal recurrence of carcinoid tumor in a 48-year-old male patient, 30 years after resection of primary tumor.
  • Octreoscan was used for diagnosis and localization of the mass.
  • Surgical resection was successful and histopathologic examination revealed lymph node infiltrated with atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18520814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Bednaríková M, Valík D, Vyzula R: [Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of carcinoid]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2008;147(4):233-5
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  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of carcinoid].
  • The patient--born in 1960, was first diagnosed in 1981 as having malignant carcinoid of the right lung.
  • According to tumor histology--atypical carcinoid--this patient was initially treated with palliative systemic chemotherapy, specifically with cisplatin and etoposid.
  • The symptoms disappeared, except a persisting ocular disorder due to periorbital infiltration.
  • This case study illustrates the necessity of cautious and individual approach to the choice of treatment strategy in patients with malignant carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18578378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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42. Bini A, Brandolini J, Cassanelli N, Davoli F, Dolci G, Sellitri F, Stella F: Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids: our institutional experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2008 May;7(3):415-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids: our institutional experience.
  • Pulmonary carcinoids are rare malignant neoplasms, accounting for 2-5% of all lung tumors, with an approximate annual incidence of 2.3-2.8 cases per million of the population.
  • All the patients underwent preoperative fibrobronchoscopy: preoperative diagnosis was made in 28 patients (52%).
  • Surgical treatment consisted of: 31 standard lobectomies, 6 pneumonectomies, 5 bilobectomies, 2 sleeve lobectomies, 2 anatomic segmentectomies, 6 wedge resections; two patients were managed with sleeve bronchial procedure of the left main bronchus without lung resection.
  • Overall, 5-year survival was 91%, 10 years 83%: 5-year survival was 91% for typical carcoinoids (TC) vs. 88% for atypical (AC), 10 years 91% for TC and 44% for AC (significant value, P=0.0487).
  • Carcinoid tumors are a distinct group of neuroendocrine tumors with a good prognosis in most cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor

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  • (PMID = 18349148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Capovilla M, Kambouchner M, Bernier M, Soulier A, Tissier F, Saintigny P: Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid. Clin Lung Cancer; 2007 Mar;8(5):339-41
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  • [Title] Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid.
  • The most frequent histologic subtype is well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, or carcinoid.
  • They have a variable biologic behavior, ranging from benign to malignant tumors capable of very late recurrence or metastasis.
  • Liver and lung are frequent sites of carcinoid metastasis, and the central nervous system is exceptionally involved.
  • We report the case of a child with a pulmonary carcinoid initially considered typical, who presented with relapse in the cerebellum and mediastinum 16 years later.
  • After review of the pathology slides, primary and metastatic tumors were reclassified as atypical carcinoid according to the criteria of the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors.
  • This unusual case emphasizes the value of reviewing pulmonary carcinoids diagnosed before 1998 in order to distinguish typical from atypical lesions and to define follow-up modalities more clearly.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17562235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Deb SJ, Nichols FC, Allen MS, Deschamps C, Cassivi SD, Pairolero PC: Pulmonary carcinoid tumors with Cushing's syndrome: an aggressive variant or not? Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Apr;79(4):1132-6; discussion 1132-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumors with Cushing's syndrome: an aggressive variant or not?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pulmonary carcinoid is considered an aggressive variant of carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: All patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) resulting from pulmonary carcinoid (PC) who underwent pulmonary resection at our institution from November 1966 through April 1998 were reviewed.
  • Typical carcinoid was identified in 21 patients (91%) and atypical carcinoid was identified in 2 patients (9%).
  • The median tumor diameter was 1.3 cm (range: 0.3-10).
  • Although rare these tumors do not seem to be as aggressive a variant of typical carcinoid tumors as previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery


45. Stoll LM, Johnson MW, Burroughs F, Li QK: Cytologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung carcinoid tumors a retrospective study of 63 Cases with histologic correlation. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Dec 25;118(6):457-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung carcinoid tumors a retrospective study of 63 Cases with histologic correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms of the lung are a spectrum of tumors including typicalcarcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (ACT), small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and large cell NEcarcinoma (LCNEC).
  • The cytology specimens were comprised of 49 cases of lung fine-needle aspiriation specimens and 14 cases of lung brushings/washings.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21243734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Ricci A, Graziano P, Mariotta S, Cardillo G, Sposato B, Terzano C, Bronzetti E: Neurotrophin system expression in human pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Growth Factors; 2005 Dec;23(4):303-12
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  • [Title] Neurotrophin system expression in human pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • Neurotrophin (NT) and NT receptor expression was assessed in 12 typical (TC) and 8 atypical (AC) human pulmonary carcinoids by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.
  • TC and AC carcinoid express to different extent NT and NT receptor proteins.
  • Contrarily to the BDNF/TrkB, expression of the NGF/TrkA signaling may overcome aggressiveness of carcinoid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Nerve Growth Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16338793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0897-7194
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Factors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Neurotrophin 3; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkB; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkC
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47. Belak J, Kudlac M, Zak V, Cavarga I, Kocan P, Böör A, Stebnicky M, Somos A, Tkacova R: Surgical management of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: experience over 8 years and review of the literature. Tumori; 2010 Jan-Feb;96(1):84-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: experience over 8 years and review of the literature.
  • Our purpose was to study the characteristics, surgical approaches and outcome in patients with primary bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: Between 2001 and 2007, bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors were removed in 11 of a total of 287 patients who underwent surgery for primary lung malignancies in our tertiary referral center.
  • Histological findings revealed typical carcinoid in 10 patients and atypical carcinoid in one.
  • The surgical approach included 8 lung resections (6 lobectomies, 1 bilobectomy, 1 segmentectomy), and 3 bronchoplastic tumor removals.
  • In 2008, clinical examination and chest X-ray revealed no recurrence of the carcinoid and no long-term postoperative complications in any patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the light of our study and the review of the literature we conclude that early recognition of primary bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors followed by adequate surgical removal of the malignancy are essential for complete remission of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20437863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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48. Daniels CE, Lowe VJ, Aubry MC, Allen MS, Jett JR: The utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the evaluation of carcinoid tumors presenting as pulmonary nodules. Chest; 2007 Jan;131(1):255-60
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  • [Title] The utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the evaluation of carcinoid tumors presenting as pulmonary nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is sensitive for detection of neoplastic solitary pulmonary nodules but may have decreased sensitivity for detection of carcinoid tumors.
  • Our purpose was to determine the sensitivity of FDG-PET to detect pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of our institutional results regarding FDG-PET in the setting of thoracic carcinoid neoplasms.
  • We identified 16 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of bronchial carcinoid who had an antecedent FDG-PET (from 2000 to 2004).
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients had a diagnosis of carcinoid tumor, typical in 11 patients and atypical in 5 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET imaging is useful for evaluation of typical and atypical thoracic carcinoid tumors.
  • Although overall PET sensitivity for detection of carcinoid tumors is somewhat reduced as compared to non-small cell lung cancer, it is much higher than prior reports suggest.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17218584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3692
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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49. Xu H, Bourne PA, Spaulding BO, Wang HL: High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung express K homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer but carcinoid tumors do not. Hum Pathol; 2007 Apr;38(4):555-63
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  • [Title] High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung express K homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer but carcinoid tumors do not.
  • KOC, known as L523S and IGF messenger RNA-binding protein 3, was shown to be frequently expressed in high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung in our immunohistochemical studies using a monoclonal antibody against human KOC.
  • Specifically, all 10 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) exhibited strong cytoplasmic staining, 9 with diffuse positivity and 1 with focal positivity.
  • In contrast, no KOC was detected in 21 typical and atypical carcinoids, except for one atypical carcinoid with oncocytic cells showing weak cytoplasmic staining.
  • Interestingly, our immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that IGF-II, reportedly regulated by KOC, was comparably expressed in SCLC, LCNEC, and typical and atypical carcinoids, irrespective of KOC expression status of the tumors.
  • In addition, detection of KOC expression may be diagnostically useful in distinguishing high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas from carcinoid tumors.
  • Our findings of equivalent IGF-II expression in KOC-positive SCLC and LCNEC and KOC-negative carcinoid tumors suggest different regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of IGF-II expression in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17316760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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50. Nogales FF, Buriticá C, Regauer S, González T: Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Sep;29(9):1247-51
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  • [Title] Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors.
  • We present, for the first time, two yolk sac tumors (YST) in women 37 and 18 years of age, one with a typical parietovisceral pattern and the other with a glandular pattern, which were associated with extensive areas of mucinous carcinoid (MC).
  • The tumor in the first case had numerous nodules of tubulopapillary YST that merged with well-differentiated MC.
  • The tumor in the second case consisted of an AFP-positive glandular YST, with a glandulopapillary pattern closely resembling fetal lung type adenocarcinoma, coexisting with an AFP-negative, cytokeratin 20-positive, atypical MC; transitional areas between the two components were also seen.
  • In the material from the recurrences and metastases; however, no YST was present, the atypical MC having become the predominant component including areas that had become carcinomatous.
  • The patient died 1 year after diagnosis.
  • It is important to differentiate the yolk sac and carcinoid components due to their different responses to chemotherapy and to evaluate the possibility of mucinous carcinoid developing into a highly aggressive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16096416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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51. Wong M, Isa SH, Kamaruddin NA, Khalid BA: ACTH producing pulmonary carcinoid and pituitary macroadenoma: a fortuitous association? Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):168-70
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  • [Title] ACTH producing pulmonary carcinoid and pituitary macroadenoma: a fortuitous association?
  • A routine chest radiography done preoperatively revealed a right lung nodule which was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) of the thorax.
  • Transfrontal hypophysectomy was performed while a conservative approach was taken for the lung nodule.
  • Histological examination revealed an atypical carcinoid.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an ectopic ACTH secreting pulmonary carcinoid found in association with a non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18705457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5283
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Malaysia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Malaysia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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52. Rea F, Rizzardi G, Zuin A, Marulli G, Nicotra S, Bulf R, Schiavon M, Sartori F: Outcome and surgical strategy in bronchial carcinoid tumors: single institution experience with 252 patients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2007 Feb;31(2):186-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome and surgical strategy in bronchial carcinoid tumors: single institution experience with 252 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate type of surgery, long-term survival and factors influencing outcome in pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed data of 252 patients who underwent surgery for carcinoid tumor in 1968-1989 (Group A) and in 1990-2005 (Group B).
  • All cases were reviewed and classified as typical (TC) or atypical carcinoid (AC) according to WHO criteria (1999).
  • Surgery consisted of 163 (64.7%) formal lung resections (121 lobectomies, 18 bilobectomies, 14 segmentectomies, 10 pneumonectomies), 76 (30.1%) sleeve or bronchoplastic resections and 13 (5.2%) wedge resections.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Typical histology and N0 status were important prognostic factors in carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17140801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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53. Thomas R, Christopher DJ, Balamugesh T, Shah A: Clinico-pathologic study of pulmonary carcinoid tumours--a retrospective analysis and review of literature. Respir Med; 2008 Nov;102(11):1611-4
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  • [Title] Clinico-pathologic study of pulmonary carcinoid tumours--a retrospective analysis and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristic clinico-pathologic features of pulmonary carcinoid tumours in India.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the clinico-pathologic and radiologic data of patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumours from the department of Pulmonary Medicine of the Christian Medical College, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India, over a study period of 3 years (2001-2004).
  • RESULTS: There were 25 cases of pulmonary carcinoid tumours: typical 22 (88%) and atypical 3 (12%).
  • There were 3 smokers (all of whom were males) in the typical carcinoid group and none in the atypical carcinoid group.
  • Carcinoid syndrome was not present in any patient.
  • Diagnosis was made by flexible bronchoscopy and bronchial biopsy in 23 patients (92%).
  • The tumour bled significantly following biopsy in most patients; however, there was no mortality, and only 1 patient required blood transfusion.
  • CONCLUSION: The clinico-pathologic and radiologic features of pulmonary carcinoid tumours are presented.
  • We report the first series of pulmonary carcinoid tumours from India.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18614346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3064
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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54. Jang BG, Kim SY, Park SH: Multiple pulmonary atypical carcinoids presenting with long-standing Cushing syndrome masked by pulmonary tuberculosis. Pathol Int; 2009 Jun;59(6):399-404
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  • [Title] Multiple pulmonary atypical carcinoids presenting with long-standing Cushing syndrome masked by pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • This CS was due to the ectopic ACTH produced by the pulmonary atypical carcinoids, which were recognized at the disseminated stage 5 years after the initial presentation of CS.
  • Microscopically, multiple whitish nodules (up to 1.0 cm in diameter) of the wedge-resected lung were composed of small round cells appearing to be typical neuroendocrine but were diagnosed as atypical carcinoid, based on the findings of focal necrosis, high mitotic rates and multiple endolymphatic tumor emboli.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells robustly stained for ACTH.
  • The delay of diagnosis is, in part, attributable to the pulmonary tuberculosis (one of the complications of hypercortisolism), because the pulmonary tuberculosis presented in the form of multiple nodules throughout the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications


55. Machuca TN, Cardoso PF, Camargo SM, Signori L, Andrade CF, Moreira AL, Moreira Jda S, Felicetti JC, Camargo JJ: Surgical treatment of bronchial carcinoid tumors: a single-center experience. Lung Cancer; 2010 Nov;70(2):158-62
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of bronchial carcinoid tumors: a single-center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Bronchial carcinoid is an infrequent neoplasm with a neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Surgical treatment is the gold standard therapy, with procedures varying from sublobar resections to complex lung sparing broncoplastic procedures.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 126 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for bronchial carcinoid tumors between December 1974 and July 2007.
  • Preoperative bronchoscopic diagnosis was obtained in 74 cases (58.7%).
  • The procedures performed were: 19 sublobar resections (14,9%), 58 lobectomies (46%), 8 bilobectomies (6.3%), 6 pneumonectomies (4.7%), 2 sleeve segmentectomies (1.5%), 26 sleeve lobectomies (20.6%) and 9 bronchoplastic procedures without lung resection (7.1%).
  • Five and 10-year survival for typical and atypical carcinoids were 91, 89% and 56, 47%, respectively.
  • Overall disease-free survival at 5 years was 91.9% Statistical analysis showed that overall disease-free survival correlated with histology--typical vs. atypical--(p = 0.04) and stage (p = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery provides safe and adequate treatment to bronchial carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Bronchoscopy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20223552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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56. Gupta R, Dastane A, McKenna RJ Jr, Marchevsky AM: What can we learn from the errors in the frozen section diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors? An evidence-based approach. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jan;40(1):1-9
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  • [Title] What can we learn from the errors in the frozen section diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors? An evidence-based approach.
  • The intraoperative diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors can be difficult.
  • Frozen section diagnosis was requested on 87 neuroendocrine tumors including 58 typical carcinoids, 8 atypical carcinoids, 18 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 3 small cell carcinomas from 2405 patients that underwent frozen section diagnosis at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center from 2002 to 2007.
  • The deferral and error rate for carcinoid tumors was 4.13% and 7.5%, respectively, and resulted in 4 unnecessary lobectomies and 2 second thoracotomies.
  • Thirty one pathologic features were evaluated in the 66 carcinoid tumors and 10 frozen sections each of lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Positive likelihood ratios identified 11 pathologic features that were useful for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor from other neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Evidence-Based Medicine. Frozen Sections. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bayes Theorem. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18973920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies.
  • We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions.
  • Two patients had carcinoid syndrome including diarrhea, hot flashes, and palpitations.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • Mitotic figures were rare in primary carcinoid tumors with only 3 cases showing more than 2 per 10 HPF; necrosis was found in only 1 case.
  • Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The other 2 patients with atypical carcinoid and follow-up had no evidence of disease at 68 and 114 months.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.
  • However, lesions with the morphology of atypical carcinoid can occasionally exhibit metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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58. Dham A, Truskinovsky AM, Dudek AZ: Thymic carcinoid responds to neoadjuvant therapy with sunitinib and octreotide: a case report. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jan;3(1):94-7
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  • [Title] Thymic carcinoid responds to neoadjuvant therapy with sunitinib and octreotide: a case report.
  • Carcinoids are malignant neuroendocrine tumors consisting of a spectrum of neoplasms from low-grade typical carcinoid to high-grade small cell carcinoma.
  • We report a case of atypical thymic carcinoid that responded to neoadjuvant therapy with octreotide and sunitinib, an oral multikinase inhibitor.
  • After 3 weeks of treatment, tumor size significantly decreased to allow for a safe surgical resection with clear margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18166847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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59. Fainstein Day P, Frohman L, Garcia Rivello H, Reubi JC, Sevlever G, Glerean M, Fernandez Gianotti T, Pietrani M, Rabadan A, Racioppi S, Bidlingmaier M: Ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion by a metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor: a case with a non hypophysial intracranial tumor that shrank during long acting octreotide treatment. Pituitary; 2007;10(3):311-9
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  • [Title] Ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion by a metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor: a case with a non hypophysial intracranial tumor that shrank during long acting octreotide treatment.
  • Although clinical improvement is common after treatment with somatostatin (SMS) analogs, the biochemical response and tumor size of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-producing tumor and its metastases are less predictable.
  • He had undergone lung surgery in 1987 for a "benign" carcinoid tumor.
  • Methods Measurement of circulating GHRH levels by fluorescence immunoassay levels and immunohistochemical study of the primary lung tumor and metastatic tissue with anti-GHRH and anti-somatostatin receptor type 2 (sst2A) antibodies.
  • Pathological study of liver and bone biopsy material and lung tissue removed 19 years earlier was consistent with an atypical carcinoid producing GHRH and exhibiting sst2A receptor expression.
  • No changes were observed in lung and liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Bronchial Neoplasms / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Hormones, Ectopic / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17373589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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60. Travis WD: Advances in neuroendocrine lung tumors. Ann Oncol; 2010 Oct;21 Suppl 7:vii65-71
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  • [Title] Advances in neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors include a spectrum of tumors from the low-grade typical carcinoid (TC) and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid (AC) to the high-grade large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • Nodular NE proliferations ≥ 0.5 cm are classified as carcinoid tumors and smaller ones are called tumorlets.
  • Carcinoid tumors have significant clinical, epidemiologic and genetic differences from the high-grade SCLC and LCNEC.
  • Also both LCNEC and SCLC can demonstrate histologic heterogeneity with other major histologic types of lung carcinoma such as adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, but is not characteristic of TC or AC.
  • The diagnosis of SCLC, TC and AC can be made by light microscopy without the need for special tests in most cases, but for LCNEC it is required to demonstrate NE differentiation by immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy.

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  • (PMID = 20943645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Zatelli MC, Maffei P, Piccin D, Martini C, Rea F, Rubello D, Margutti A, Culler MD, Sicolo N, degli Uberti EC: Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr;90(4):2104-9
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  • [Title] Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid.
  • The patient underwent left lung upper lobectomy, and histopathology disclosed a bronchial atypical carcinoid.
  • Cultured tumor cells were treated with SRIH, lanreotide (BIM-23014), or SRIH analogs selective for SSTR2 (BIM-23120), SSTR5 (BIM-23206), or SSTR1 (BIM-23926).
  • Our data show SSTR expression in a GHRH-secreting bronchial carcinoid and provide evidence that, in vitro, selective SSTR activation differently inhibit ectopic GHRH secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists

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  • (PMID = 15671091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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62. Pankiewicz W, Minarowski L, Niklińska W, Naumnik W, Nikliński J, Chyczewski L: Immunohistochemical markers of cancerogenesis in the lung. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2007;45(2):65-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical markers of cancerogenesis in the lung.
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for people of both sexes worldwide.
  • Early diagnosis of precancer lesions may be of crucial significance to lowering lung cancer mortality.
  • The World Health Organization has defined three preneoplastic lesions of the bronchial epithelium: squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia.
  • These lesions are believed to progress to squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors, respectively.
  • In this review we summarize the data of morphological and cell cycle related proteins changes in both central and peripheral compartments of lung.

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  • (PMID = 17597018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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63. Rizzardi G, Marulli G, Calabrese F, Rugge M, Rebusso A, Sartori F, Rea F: Bronchial carcinoid tumours in children: surgical treatment and outcome in a single institution. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;19(4):228-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bronchial carcinoid tumours in children: surgical treatment and outcome in a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors are low grade, malignant, neuroendocrine neoplasms.
  • The aim of our study was to analyse the long-term survival and surgical treatment outcome in our young patients operated for carcinoid tumour.
  • RESULTS: We performed 10 (66.7%) parenchyma-saving procedures (5 sleeve lobectomies, 3 sleeve resections of the main bronchus, 2 bronchoplasties associated with lung resection) and 5 (33.3%) standard resections (3 bilobectomies and 2 lobectomies).
  • There were 13 typical and 2 atypical carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 19513967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-359X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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64. Lal DR, Clark I, Shalkow J, Downey RJ, Shorter NA, Klimstra DS, La Quaglia MP: Primary epithelial lung malignancies in the pediatric population. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):683-6
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  • [Title] Primary epithelial lung malignancies in the pediatric population.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary epithelial lung malignancies are rare in childhood and adolescence.
  • We reviewed the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with these tumors to better understand their histology, time to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.
  • PROCEDURE: A retrospective review was performed on all patients 21 years of age or younger at diagnosis, treated for primary epithelial lung malignancies at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1980 and 2001.
  • RESULTS: We identified 11 patients with primary epithelial lung malignancy.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 19 (range: 12-21) years.
  • Seven patients (64%) were initially diagnosed as having pneumonia which contributed to a delay in diagnosis.
  • Final pathologic diagnoses included adenocarcinoma (four), carcinoid tumor (three typical, one atypical), basaloid carcinoma (two), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (one).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When children and adolescents present with primary epithelial lung malignancy a majority will have advanced disease and experience a delay in diagnosis.
  • The histologic types of tumors encountered are similar to lung tumors occurring in adults, although the frequency of the various types differs.
  • Carcinoid tumors are more frequent, and less common subtypes of bronchogenic carcinoma are also more prevalent in the pediatric age group.
  • Patients with carcinoid tumors seem to have the best prognosis, followed by adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Child. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Pneumonia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15714450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Vazquez MF, Koizumi JH, Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF: Reliability of cytologic diagnosis of early lung cancer. Cancer; 2007 Aug 25;111(4):252-8
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  • [Title] Reliability of cytologic diagnosis of early lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Baseline screening for lung cancer of 2968 high-risk men and women utilizing HRCT enrolled in ELCAP (Early Lung Cancer Action Project) was performed between 1993-2002.
  • Among them, 65 people had surgical resection of their screen-diagnosed lung cancer, 53 of them on the basis of a diagnosis of malignancy or atypical bronchioloalveolar proliferation (ABP) on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy at Weill Medical College of Cornell University (WMC) prior to surgery.
  • The authors compared the diagnosis obtained from the FNA with the subsequent diagnosis from the surgical specimen to assess the reliability of a cytologic diagnosis of lung cancer on FNA of these screen-diagnosed lung cancers.
  • ), with preliminary on-site as well as final diagnosis rendered by a cytologist (M.V., J.K.).
  • These results were correlated with histologic diagnoses obtained as a result of consensus diagnosis by a panel of 5 expert pulmonary pathologists.
  • RESULTS: Of the 53 cases of lung cancer resected following FNA, 4 were diagnosed as atypical bronchioloalveolar proliferation (ABP), 14 as adenocarcinoma with bronchioloalveolar features (ADC-BAC), 28 as adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (ADC-NOS), 1 as squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC), 4 as nonsmall-cell carcinoma (NSCC), and 2 as typical carcinoid.
  • In the 49 cases with a malignant cytology and 4 cases of ABP, lung cancer was confirmed histologically.
  • The tumor sizes ranged from 4 mm to 40 mm, mean size 13mm.
  • The final expert panel histologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 47 cases; of these, 42 were invasive (mixed subtype or acinar subtype), and 5 were a noninvasive (bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, BAC).
  • Three of the 42 invasive adenocarcinoma that had a predominant BAC component and 1 case of BAC were diagnosed as ABP on FNA; all were sampled at the periphery of the tumor.
  • Two cases of typical carcinoid on histology were also diagnosed as typical carcinoid on FNA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative diagnosis of lung cancer detected by screening with HRCT could be reliably made by FNA.
  • A diagnosis of ABP on FNA may be indicative of noninvasive BAC or an invasive adenocarcinoma with prominent BAC features, usually sampled at its periphery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Humans. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2008 May 15;112(10):2329-30 [18407546.001]
  • (PMID = 17614298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Wistuba II, Gazdar AF: Lung cancer preneoplasia. Annu Rev Pathol; 2006;1:331-48
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  • [Title] Lung cancer preneoplasia.
  • From histological and biological perspectives, lung cancer is a complex neoplasm.
  • Although the sequential preneoplastic changes have been defined for centrally arising squamous carcinomas of the lung, they have been poorly documented for the other major forms of lung cancers, including small cell lung carcinoma and adenocarcinomas.
  • There are three main morphologic forms of preneoplastic lesions recognized in the lung: squamous dysplasias, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia.
  • However, these lesions account for the development of only a subset of lung cancers.
  • Several studies have provided information regarding the molecular characterization of lung preneoplastic changes, especially for squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Two different molecular pathways have been detected in lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis: smoking-associated activation of RAS signaling, and nonsmoking-associated activation of EGFR signaling; the latter is detected in histologically normal respiratory epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Bronchi / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, erbB-1. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18039118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4006
  • [Journal-full-title] Annual review of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Annu Rev Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA70907; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA8497102
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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67. Farhat CA, Parra ER, Rogers AV, Elian SN, Sheppard MN, Capelozzi VL: Using electron microscopy and multivariate cluster analysis to determine diagnosis and prognosis in cases of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma. J Bras Pneumol; 2008 Oct;34(10):804-11
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  • [Title] Using electron microscopy and multivariate cluster analysis to determine diagnosis and prognosis in cases of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish reproducible electron microscopic criteria for identifying the four major types of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: carcinoid; atypical carcinoid; large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; and small cell carcinoma.
  • Sixteen morphometric variables related to tumor cell differentiation were assessed in 27 tumors.
  • The tumors fell into three well-defined clusters, which represent the spectrum of neuroendocrine differentiation: typical carcinoid (cluster 1); atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (cluster 2); and small cell carcinoma (cluster 3).
  • Cluster 2 represents an intermediate step in neuroendocrine carcinogenesis, between typical carcinoid tumors and small cell carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that electron microscopy is useful in making the diagnosis and prognosis in cases of lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Large Cell / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / ultrastructure. Lung Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrastructure. Cluster Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Microscopy, Electron. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19009213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça̋o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Pneumol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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68. Pelosi G, Leon ME, Veronesi G, Spaggiari L, Pasini F, Viale G: Decreased immunoreactivity of CD99 is an independent predictor of regional lymph node metastases in pulmonary carcinoid tumors. J Thorac Oncol; 2006 Jun;1(5):468-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Decreased immunoreactivity of CD99 is an independent predictor of regional lymph node metastases in pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: We evaluated CD99 immunoreactivity in lung tissues, pulmonary neuroendocrine hyperplasias, and 136 consecutive pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors of diverse histological types.
  • RESULTS: By immunohistochemistry, a membranous and/or cytoplasmic immunoreactivity was seen in 60 of 136 (44%) tumors, whereas both normal and hyperplastic neuroendocrine cells of the lung were consistently nonreactive.
  • A steady decrease of the CD99 labeling index was observed from better to poorly differentiated tumors, with a prevalence of the membranous pattern in typical carcinoids (TCs), and of the cytoplasmic pattern in atypical carcinoids (ACs) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma/small cell lung carcinoma (P < 0.0001), independent of tumor stage.
  • In TCs/ACs, increased levels of CD99 labeling index or the membranous pattern were associated with low proliferative fraction (P = 0.0011) and smaller tumor size (P = 0.0054) and with lack of regional lymph node metastases (P = 0.0078).
  • No relevant relationships were found in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma/small cell lung carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CD99 is especially present in low- to intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, and loss of the marker correlates with the occurrence of nodal metastases in TC/AC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17409901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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69. De Dosso S, Bajetta E, Procopio G, Cortinovis D, Buzzoni R, Catena L, Platania M, Verzoni E: Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):162-8
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  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the malignant behaviour of low-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) treated at our institution.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 48 consecutive patients with pulmonary NETs referred to our Medical Oncology Unit between 1998 and 2006, including 33 subjects with typical carcinoids (TCs) and 15 with atypical carcinoids (ACs).
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, there were 37 metastatic and 11 non-metastatic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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70. Amin RM, Hiroshima K, Iyoda A, Hoshi K, Honma K, Kuroki M, Kokubo T, Fujisawa T, Miyagi Y, Nakatani Y: LKB1 protein expression in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Pathol Int; 2008 Feb;58(2):84-8
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  • [Title] LKB1 protein expression in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • During a recent investigation of LKB1 gene abnormality in lung lesions, strong expression of LKB1 protein in normal neuroendocrine (NE) cells of the bronchial epithelium was found.
  • Because LKB1 functions as a tumor suppressor gene, the question of whether alteration of LKB1 expression is related to the development of pulmonary NE tumors of various grades was investigated.
  • LKB1 immunohistochemistry was examined in a total of 68 primary pulmonary NE tumors consisting of 30 specimens of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), 23 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC), two atypical carcinoids, and 13 typical carcinoids.
  • Loss or low expression (<20% immunoreactive cells) of LKB1 protein expression was more frequently observed in high-grade NE tumors (SCLC and LCNEC; 45/53, 84.9%) than in typical and atypical carcinoids (3/15; 20%).
  • The difference in LKB1 immunoreactivity between the high-grade NE tumors and the carcinoid group was statistically significant (P < 0.0001).
  • In conclusion, marked reduction of LKB1 expression in high-grade NE tumors of the lung suggests a possible role of LKB1 inactivation in its tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18199157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.1.- / STK11 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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71. Wang X, Wang M, MacLennan GT, Abdul-Karim FW, Eble JN, Jones TD, Olobatuyi F, Eisenberg R, Cummings OW, Zhang S, Lopez-Beltran A, Montironi R, Zheng S, Lin H, Davidson DD, Cheng L: Evidence for common clonal origin of multifocal lung cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2009 Apr 15;101(8):560-70
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  • [Title] Evidence for common clonal origin of multifocal lung cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the United States.
  • Multiple anatomically separate but histologically similar lung tumors are often found in the same patient.
  • The clonal origin of multiple lung tumors is uncertain.
  • METHODS: We analyzed 70 lung tumors from 30 patients (23 females and seven males) who underwent surgical resection for lung epithelial tumors, of whom 26 had non-small cell carcinomas and four had carcinoid/atypical carcinoid tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the great majority of multifocal lung cancers have a common clonal origin and that multifocality in lung cancer represents local and regional intrapulmonary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Point Mutation. Smoking / adverse effects. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. X Chromosome Inactivation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Chromosomes, Human, X. Confidence Intervals. Female. Humans. Laser Therapy. Male. Microdissection. Microsatellite Repeats. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Research Design. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Apr 15;101(8):541-3 [19351914.001]
  • (PMID = 19351924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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72. Rekhtman N: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: an update. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1628-38
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: an update.
  • CONTEXT: The 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification recognizes 4 major types of lung neuroendocrine tumors: typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell lung cancer, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Markedly different prognostic implications and treatment paradigms for these tumors underscore the importance of accurate pathologic diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To detail the clinical and pathologic features of lung neuroendocrine tumors, with emphasis on diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, and application of immunohistochemistry.
  • The emerging evidence for the utility of Ki-67 (MIB1) in the diagnosis of lung neuroendocrine tumors, particularly in small biopsy and cytology, is emphasized.
  • Ki-67 (MIB1) is emerging as a useful ancillary tool in the diagnosis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 21043816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Zhao P, Hou N, Shao Y, Li XH: [Clinicopathological significance of expression of c-kit protein in neuroendocrine lung carcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Jun 15;85(22):1526-9
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathological significance of expression of c-kit protein in neuroendocrine lung carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of c-kit protein in neuroendocrine lung carcinoma and evaluate its clinicopathological significance.
  • METHODS: The expression of c-kit protein in the 90 specimens of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma obtained during operation was detected by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: The positive staining of c-kit protein was mainly localized on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells.
  • The positive expression rates of c-kit protein were 21.4% (3/14), 90.0% (18/20), 38.7% (12/31), and 76.0% (19/25) in the carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and small cell lung cancer respectively with significant differences between any 2 histological types (P = 0.000).
  • CONCLUSION: c-kit protein expression appears to play an important biological or clinical role in the development and evolution of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma, and may become a useful molecular marker to predict the prognosis of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16179109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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74. Shimakage M, Kodama K, Kawahara K, Kim CJ, Ikeda Y, Yutsudo M, Inoue H: Downregulation of drs tumor suppressor gene in highly malignant human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Oncol Rep; 2009 Jun;21(6):1367-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Downregulation of drs tumor suppressor gene in highly malignant human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors in the lung fall into four categories: typical carcinoid tumor (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), in ascending order of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, drs knockout mice showed a tumor-prone phenotype, indicating that drs acts as a tumor suppressor gene in malignant tumor formation.
  • Four cases of normal lung and bronchial epithelia, 8 samples of normal brain tissue, and 2 cases of tumorlets in the lung were also examined.
  • The drs mRNA was definitely expressed in all normal tissues of the lung and brain, and 3 TC and 2 tumorlet tissues.
  • Our results indicate that the downregulation of drs is correlated with the development of SCLC, a highly malignant pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Southern. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19424611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SRPX protein, human
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75. Pelosi G, Scarpa A, Puppa G, Veronesi G, Spaggiari L, Pasini F, Maisonneuve P, Iannucci A, Arrigoni G, Viale G: Alteration of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin cell adhesion system is common in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and is an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis in atypical carcinoids. Cancer; 2005 Mar 15;103(6):1154-64
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  • [Title] Alteration of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin cell adhesion system is common in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and is an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis in atypical carcinoids.
  • METHODS: E-cadherin and beta-catenin immunoreactivity was evaluated in 10 hyperplastic neuroendocrine tumorlets and 210 neuroendocrine tumors, including 96 typical carcinoids (CTs), 35 atypical carcinoids (ACTs), 49 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), and 30 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs).
  • beta-Catenin exhibited similar immunoreactivity patterns according to tumor type and a close association with E-cadherin subcellular distribution (P < 0.001).
  • This likely affects the tumor growth pattern and cell motility of ACT and was correlated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Chi-Square Distribution. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Logistic Models. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. beta Catenin


76. García-Yuste M, Molins L, Matilla JM, González-Aragoneses F, López-Pujol J, Ramos G, de la Torre M, Estudio Multicéntrico Español de los Tumores Neuroendocrinos del Pulmón de la Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirurgía Torácica (EMETNE-SEPAR): [Trends in prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung tumors]. Arch Bronconeumol; 2007 Oct;43(10):549-56
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  • [Title] [Trends in prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze trends in a variety of prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung carcinomas through analysis of 2 groups of surgically treated patients.
  • That group was analyzed retrospectively and contained 261 patients with typical carcinoid tumors, 43 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 22 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 35 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Group B contained 404 patients enrolled prospectively between 1998 and 2002: 308 with typical carcinoid tumors, 49 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 18 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 29 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • The following clinical variables were considered: sex, mean age, tumor site, tumor size, lymph node involvement, stage, metastasis, and local recurrence.
  • The 1997 TNM classification was used for staging of lung cancer and survival analysis was performed along with assessment of factors influencing survival.
  • RESULTS: In both groups, significant differences were observed between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors in terms of mean age, tumor size, node involvement, and recurrence.
  • In group A, female sex, node involvement, and recurrence differed between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; the same was true for group B, with the exception of lymph node involvement.
  • Both groups displayed significant differences in overall survival and survival of patients with lymph node involvement between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors and between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; no differences were observed between patients with large-cell versus small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A well-defined trend is observed in prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17939909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2896
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de bronconeumología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Bronconeumol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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77. Moldvay J, Jäckel M, Páska C, Soltész I, Schaff Z, Kiss A: Distinct claudin expression profile in histologic subtypes of lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2007 Aug;57(2):159-67
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  • [Title] Distinct claudin expression profile in histologic subtypes of lung cancer.
  • Little is known about their expression and localization in the normal bronchial epithelium and in lung cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred four lung cancer tissue blocks were studied including 46 adenocarcinomas (ADC), 30 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 15 small cell lung cancers (SCLC), 8 typical and 5 atypical carcinoids.
  • RT-PCR analysis was also carried out in 22 immunohistochemically representative tumor samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The observed distinct claudin expression profile within the non-small cell lung cancer group, further, the marked differences between SCLCs and carcinoids may have differential diagnostic impact, and the overexpression of certain claudins might have therapeutic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Bronchi / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Claudin-1. Claudin-3. Claudin-4. Claudins. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Respiratory Mucosa / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17418912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN2 protein, human; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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78. Granberg D, Wilander E, Oberg K: Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors in lung carcinoids. Tumour Biol; 2006;27(3):153-7
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  • [Title] Expression of tyrosine kinase receptors in lung carcinoids.
  • OBJECTIVES: Typical lung carcinoids are usually relatively benign tumors, but distant metastases are seen in up to 12% of the patients.
  • In contrast, atypical carcinoids are more aggressive tumors, displaying metastases in up to 70%.
  • The current treatment of metastatic lung carcinoids is discouraging.
  • New therapies, such as inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase receptor family c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR) alpha and beta and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have shown promising results in other malignancies and might be of value in malignant lung carcinoids.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue from 51 patients with typical lung carcinoids were immunostained with polyclonal antibodies against c-kit, PDGFRalpha, PDGFRbeta and EGFR.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tyrosine kinase receptors such as c-kit, PDGFRalpha, PDGFRbeta and EGFR are expressed in a significant number of patients with metastatic lung carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16612146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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79. Righi L, Volante M, Rapa I, Tavaglione V, Inzani F, Pelosi G, Papotti M: Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling activation patterns in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Dec;17(4):977-87
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  • [Title] Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling activation patterns in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • Among alternative therapeutic strategies in clinically aggressive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the lung, promising results have been obtained in experimental clinical trials with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, though in the absence of a proven mTOR signaling activation status.
  • This study analyzed the expression of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) and its major targets, the ribosomal p70S6-kinase (S6K) and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) in a large series of 218 surgically resected, malignant lung NETs, including 24 metastasizing typical carcinoids, 73 atypical carcinoids, 60 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), and 61 small cell carcinomas (SCLCs).
  • Western blot analysis of NET tumor samples confirmed such findings, and differential sensitivity to mTOR inhibition according to mTOR pathway activation characteristics was determined in two lung carcinoid cell lines in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. Signal Transduction. Sirolimus / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20817788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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80. Kawase A, Nagai K: [Treatment strategy for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Oct;36(10):1619-22
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  • [Title] [Treatment strategy for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung].
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung is classified into typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (ATC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The standard treatment of carcinoid tumor is surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19838019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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81. D'Adda T, Bottarelli L, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Bongiovanni M, Papotti M, Pelosi G, Maisonneuve P, Antonetti T, Rindi G, Bordi C: Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jun;18(6):795-805
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  • [Title] Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors.
  • Association of X chromosome allelic losses with tumor malignancy has been identified in foregut but not in midgut endocrine neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy in lung neuroendocrine tumors, another family of foregut neoplasms comprising four categories with increased malignancy: typical and atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell lung carcinomas.
  • To evaluate loss of heterozygosity, DNA extracted from nine typical carcinoids, 17 atypical carcinoids, six large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and five small cell lung carcinomas was PCR-amplified for 18 microsatellite markers spanning the whole X chromosome.
  • X chromosome losses were absent in typical carcinoids, whereas they were found in nine out of 17 atypical carcinoids and in five out of six large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (involving 28 and 70% of informative loci, respectively).
  • On the contrary, deletions on X chromosome were an extremely rare event in small cell lung carcinomas.
  • In atypical carcinoids, the presence of losses was associated with larger tumor size, higher pT status and advanced stage.
  • No death occurred in atypical carcinoid patients without deletions on X chromosome, whereas all atypical carcinoid patients who had died from disease showed allelic losses.
  • In conclusion, X chromosome allelic losses, absent in benign 'typical' carcinoids, progressively increased in frequency from intermediate-grade 'atypical' carcinoids to high-grade large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • These results extend the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy, already demonstrated in other foregut endocrine neoplasms, to lung neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The absence of X chromosome allelic losses in small cell lung carcinomas underlines a striking difference from large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, possibly linked to different pathogenetic mechanisms of these two highly aggressive neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15578070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Song J, Li M, Tretiakova M, Salgia R, Cagle PT, Husain AN: Expression patterns of PAX5, c-Met, and paxillin in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1702-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression patterns of PAX5, c-Met, and paxillin in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • CONTEXT: c-Met is important in the pathogenesis, invasion, and spread of several forms of lung cancer, and multiple c-Met inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials.
  • PAX5 has been shown to upregulate c-Met in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and coinhibiting PAX5 and c-Met had a synergic effect in killing tumor cells.
  • Paxillin is a downstream target of activated c-Met, and its activation leads to enhanced cell motility and tumor spread.
  • The expression patterns of these functionally related proteins have not, to our knowledge, been systemically studied in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • DESIGN: Tissue microarrays of 38 typical carcinoids, 6 atypical carcinoids, 34 SCLCs, and 11 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas were studied with immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Most of the 4 tumor types expressed c-Met, phosphorylated c-Met, and paxillin.
  • PAX5 was frequently expressed in atypical carcinoids, SCLCs, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas but tended to be negative in typical carcinoids.
  • Coexpression of PAX5 with c-Met or phosphorylated c-Met was present in most of the atypical carcinoids, SCLCs, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Significant correlation between PAX5 and paxillin was detected in SCLCs and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas but not in carcinoid tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21043826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129501-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA125541-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129501-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129501-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA129501-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA125541; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA125541-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100750-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100750-06S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 3R01CA100750-06S109; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 3R01CA129501-02S109; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA125541-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA125541-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA100750-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129501; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100750-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100750; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 3R01CA125541-03S109; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129501-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100750-06S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA125541-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / PAX5 protein, human; 0 / Paxillin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS185687; NLM/ PMC3049158
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83. Schmid K, Angerstein N, Geleff S, Gschwendtner A: Quantitative nuclear texture features analysis confirms WHO classification 2004 for lung carcinomas. Mod Pathol; 2006 Mar;19(3):453-9
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  • [Title] Quantitative nuclear texture features analysis confirms WHO classification 2004 for lung carcinomas.
  • The purpose of this study was to discriminate the main subsets of lung carcinomas of the WHO classification of 2004 by nuclear chromatin texture feature analysis.
  • Our collective comprised 56 typical and 19 atypical carcinoids, 37 small-cell carcinomas, 15 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 42 adenocarcinomas, and 26 squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Texture features describing the granularity and the compactness of the nuclear chromatin were extracted for calculation of classification rules, which allowed the discrimination of different tumor groups.
  • By applying the classification rule that described the granularity of the nuclear chromatin (defined by four different parameters) small-cell and non-small-cell lung carcinoma could correctly be discriminated in 93%.
  • When using compactness of chromatin (defined by four texture parameters) as a means of discrimination, carcinoids and non-small-cell lung carcinomas were correctly distinguished in 92%.
  • Our findings are in accordance with the new WHO classification of 2004: neuroendocrine tumors of the lung are now classified according only to their mitotic counts and presence of necrosis but not by their morphology; their discrimination by the means of nuclear image analysis is not sufficient and therefore not appropriate any longer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Chromatin / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / classification. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rosaniline Dyes. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16462732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Feulgen stain; 0 / Rosaniline Dyes
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84. Chong S, Lee KS, Chung MJ, Han J, Kwon OJ, Kim TS: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings. Radiographics; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):41-57; discussion 57-8
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung arise from Kulchitzky cells of the bronchial mucosa and comprise typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  • At histopathologic analysis, these tumors demonstrate a progressive increase in the number of mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields of viable tumor and in the extent of necrosis, with typical carcinoid having the lowest values and SCLC having the highest.
  • Typical carcinoid is less aggressive than atypical carcinoid, although these tumors have similar gross pathologic and radiologic features; LCNEC has a prognosis between that of atypical carcinoid and that of SCLC.
  • SCLC is the most aggressive pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor and has the most specific imaging feature: mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy.
  • At CT, carcinoid tumors appear as a spherical or ovoid nodule or mass with a well-defined and slightly lobulated border.
  • When nonspherical, the tumor is elongated with its long axis parallel to adjacent bronchi.
  • The CT findings of LCNEC are nonspecific and are similar to those of other non-small cell lung cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2006.
  • (PMID = 16418242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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85. Gnanasegaran G, Williams R, Mclean E, O' Connell R, Nunan TO, O'Doherty MJ: Lung mass appearing as a dilated left ventricle on Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Sep;34(9):620-1
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  • [Title] Lung mass appearing as a dilated left ventricle on Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.
  • Several benign and malignant tumors also take up tetrofosmin.
  • We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with a history of a left lung mass awaiting resection.
  • The myocardial perfusion scan revealed a large cavitated lesion mimicking a dilated left ventricle and the CT scan revealed a large mass in the left lung with central necrosis displacing the heart and mediastinum.
  • The patient underwent thoracotomy with resection of the mass and the histology confirmed atypical carcinoid.
  • This case highlights noncardiac uptake of Tc-99m tetrofosmin in an atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Ventricles / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Organophosphorus Compounds. Organotechnetium Compounds
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Myocardial Perfusion Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19692829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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86. Skov BG, Holm B, Erreboe A, Skov T, Mellemgaard A: ERCC1 and Ki67 in small cell lung carcinoma and other neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: distribution and impact on survival. J Thorac Oncol; 2010 Apr;5(4):453-9
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  • [Title] ERCC1 and Ki67 in small cell lung carcinoma and other neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: distribution and impact on survival.
  • The associations of ERCC1 and Ki67, clinical features and survival in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) were determined.
  • RESULTS: The expression of ERCC1 was different among the different tumor types (p < 0.001).
  • A difference of the percentage of Ki67 LI was observed for the different tumor types (p < 0.001).
  • ERCC1 expression has prognostic impact in lung carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / metabolism. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / mortality. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Thorac Oncol. 2010 Nov;5(11):1876-7 [20975385.001]
  • (PMID = 20104194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases
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87. Asamura H, Kameya T, Matsuno Y, Noguchi M, Tada H, Ishikawa Y, Yokose T, Jiang SX, Inoue T, Nakagawa K, Tajima K, Nagai K: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung: a prognostic spectrum. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan 1;24(1):70-6
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung: a prognostic spectrum.
  • PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine (NE) tumors of the lung include typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large-cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The histologic diagnosis was determined by the consensus of a pathology panel consisting of six expert pathologists as TC, AC, LCNEC, or SCLC on the basis of the WHO classification, and its relationship to clinicopathologic profiles was analyzed.
  • The pathology panel reviewed the remaining 366 tumors, and a diagnosis of NE tumor was made in 318 patients (87.4%); 55 patients had TC, nine had AC, 141 had LCNEC, and 113 had SCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16382115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Salon C, Brambilla E, Brambilla C, Lantuejoul S, Gazzeri S, Eymin B: Altered pattern of Cul-1 protein expression and neddylation in human lung tumours: relationships with CAND1 and cyclin E protein levels. J Pathol; 2007 Nov;213(3):303-10
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  • [Title] Altered pattern of Cul-1 protein expression and neddylation in human lung tumours: relationships with CAND1 and cyclin E protein levels.
  • In this study, we have analysed its status in a series of 128 human lung carcinomas, comprising 50 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs; 29 squamous cell carcinomas and 21 adenocarcinomas) and 78 neuroendocrine (NE) lung tumours (24 typical and atypical carcinoids, 19 large cell NE carcinomas and 35 small cell lung carcinomas), using immunohistochemistry.
  • We report for the first time an altered pattern of Cul-1 expression in human tumours; indeed, we show that Cul-1 expression is up-regulated in 40% (51/128) of all lung tumours as compared to normal lung tissues, including 34% (17/50), 75% (18/24) and 30% (16/54) of NSCLCs, carcinoids and high grade neuroendocrine lung carcinomas, respectively.
  • We also provide evidence that neddylated forms of Cul-1 are specifically expressed in high-grade NE lung tumours and are associated with down-regulation of the Cul-1 inhibitor CAND1 (p = 0.03) and a high level of cyclin E (p = 0.0002).
  • These data support the notion that alterations in the Cul-1 neddylation/deneddylation pathway could contribute to the development of these highly aggressive lung tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cullin Proteins / metabolism. Cyclin E / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / chemistry. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / chemistry. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins / analysis. S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Statistics, Nonparametric. Ubiquitination. Ubiquitins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17823919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CAND1 protein, human; 0 / CCNE1 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cullin 1; 0 / Cullin Proteins; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / NEDD8 protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Ubiquitins
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89. Spaggiari L, D' Aiuto M, Veronesi G, Pelosi G, de Pas T, Catalano G, de Braud F: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium, without cardiopulmonary bypass, for lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jan;79(1):234-40
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  • [Title] Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium, without cardiopulmonary bypass, for lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium for lung cancer is not frequently performed; therefore, its results remain controversial.
  • METHODS: From November 1996 to December 2003, 15 patients underwent extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium for lung cancer, without cardiopulmonary bypass.
  • The were 10 squamous cell carcinomas (60%), 2 adenocarcinomas, 1 adenosquamous carcinoma, 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and 1 atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium for advanced lung cancer is a feasible procedure, with low postoperative morbidity and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Heart Atria / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15620949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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90. Akopov AL, Mosin IV, Gorbunkov SD, Agishev AS, Filippov DI, Ramazanov RR, Speranskiaia AA: [Resection of the left atrium in lung cancer]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek; 2007;166(3):22-5
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  • [Title] [Resection of the left atrium in lung cancer].
  • An analysis of results of surgical treatment of 28 patients with lung cancer who underwent resection of the left atrium has shown that squamous cell cancer was diagnosed in 18 patients (64%), adenocarcinoma--in 5 (18%), dimorphous cancer--in 2 (7%), mucoepidermoid cancer in 2 (7%), atypical carcinoid--in 1 patient (4%).
  • The degree of regional lymphogenic spread of the tumor NO took place in 11 patients (39%), N1--in 6 patients (22%), N2--in 11(39%).
  • True invasion of the tumor to the left atrium myocardium took place in 20 patients (71%), involvement of the pulmonary vein orifices in the tumor process--in 8 (29%).
  • Resection of the left atrium in the selected lung cancer patients was not followed by growing operative lethality and the acceptable long term results were obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Heart Atria / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18050636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4625
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik khirurgii imeni I. I. Grekova
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn. Khir. Im. I. I. Grek.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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91. Kasprzak A, Olejniczak K, Przybyszewska W, Zabel M: Cellular expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor (IL-2R, CD25) in lung tumours. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2007 Aug;66(3):159-66
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  • [Title] Cellular expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor (IL-2R, CD25) in lung tumours.
  • In view of the unclear prognostic and diagnostic role of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor in human tumours, we examined the cellular expression of IL-2 and of the subunit alpha of its receptor (IL-2Ralpha, CD25) in relation to the proliferative activity of various subtypes of lung tumours.
  • The immunocytochemical ABC technique was applied to archival tissue material of neuroendocrine lung tumours: lung carcinoids, including typical carcinoids (TC), atypical carcinoids (AC) and small-cell lung cancers (SCLC) and squamous cell lung cancers (non-small cell lung cancers, NSCLC).
  • Expression of IL-2 was detected in all types of lung tumours.
  • The highest frequency of IL-2 expression (93%) was noted and the most pronounced semi-quantitatively evaluated expression of IL-2 was detected in AC tumour cells.
  • The results suggest a negative correlation between IL-2 expression and the proliferative activity of tumour cells (evaluated by expression of Ki-67) in AC.
  • Semi-quantitative expression of IL-2R, like that of IL-2, also dominated in the group of atypical lung carcinoids but manifested a significant difference only as compared to typical carcinoids (p = 0.014).
  • Our results demonstrate variable expression of IL-2 and its receptor in various types of lung tumours, but no simple relationship could be detected between tissue expression of the markers and proliferative activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Interleukin-2 / metabolism. Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17985312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5659
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia morphologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Morphol. (Warsz)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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92. Galván JA, González MV, Crespo G, Folgueras MV, Astudillo A: Snail nuclear expression parallels higher malignancy potential in neuroendocrine lung tumors. Lung Cancer; 2010 Sep;69(3):289-95
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  • [Title] Snail nuclear expression parallels higher malignancy potential in neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of our study was to determine the integrity of the cell-cell adhesion E-cadherin-beta-catenin complex in neuroendocrine lung tumors (NELTs) and the possible involvement of Snail in its deregulation.
  • METHODS: The studied series consisted of formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 70 patients diagnosed with NELT (2000-2006) including tumors of low malignancy potential (3 tumorlets, 33 typical carcinoids), intermediate malignancy potential (3 atypical carcinoids) and tumors of high malignancy potential (10 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas-LCNEC and 21 small cell carcinoma-SCLC).
  • Furthermore, Snail levels correlated with tumor size, lymph node involvement and tobacco consumption.
  • High E-cadherin levels and a membrane pattern were associated with tumor-free lymph node patients and inversely proportional to Snail protein expression. beta-catenin levels were weak in 43% and absent from the membrane in 59% cases.
  • The integrity of the E-cadherin-beta-catenin complex was retained in 37% cases, most of them carcinoid tumors, and correlated with low Snail levels, low malignancy potential and free lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20089328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / snail family transcription factors
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93. Irving JA, Young RH: Lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases emphasizing their morphologic spectrum and problems in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Aug;29(8):997-1006
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  • [Title] Lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases emphasizing their morphologic spectrum and problems in differential diagnosis.
  • Thirty-two cases of lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary in women 26 to 76 years of age (mean, 47 years) are reported.
  • A history of prior lung carcinoma was documented in 53% of cases (17 of 32), with the ovarian tumor detected at a mean interval of 1 year.
  • In 10 cases (31%), the lung and ovarian tumors occurred synchronously, and in 5 (16%) the ovarian tumor was detected up to 26 months before the lung cancer.
  • Forty-four percent of the tumors were small cell carcinomas (14 of 32), 34% adenocarcinomas (11 of 32), and 16% large cell carcinomas (5 of 32); there was a single squamous cell carcinoma and one atypical carcinoid.
  • Thirteen percent of cases (4 of 32) had a coexisting primary ovarian tumor.
  • The mean ovarian tumor size was 9.7 cm, and one third of the ovarian metastases were bilateral.
  • Tumor was limited to the lung and one or both ovaries in 13 cases (40%).
  • Attention to these features, to the usual absence of associated typical surface epithelial neoplasia, and to the clinical history enabled the correct diagnosis to be made in the majority of cases without need of special studies.
  • The differential diagnosis with the primary ovarian tumors most often meriting consideration, including unusual variants of surface epithelial tumors, is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Time Factors. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16006793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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94. Fox T, Simon EL, Elder E, Riffenburgh RH, Johnstone PA: Free breathing gated delivery (FBGD) of lung radiation therapy: analysis of factors affecting clinical patient throughput. Lung Cancer; 2007 Apr;56(1):69-75
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  • [Title] Free breathing gated delivery (FBGD) of lung radiation therapy: analysis of factors affecting clinical patient throughput.
  • The photon beam is on only during a particular prescribed percentage of the respiratory cycle where the target tumor volume is minimized.
  • The majority of patients had lung cancer (n=12) with single cases of adrenal metastasis, thymoma, and atypical carcinoid.
  • For comparison purposes, 13 non-gated lung cancer patients (lesions were not moving with respiration) were selected from the R&V database.
  • Even though this technology more accurately targets tumor volumes while sparing normal tissue, the patient throughput issue may deter this technology from being implemented into busy clinical practices.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted / methods. Respiration

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  • (PMID = 17196299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / 5P60-MD000525
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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95. Fukuoka J, Dracheva T, Shih JH, Hewitt SM, Fujii T, Kishor A, Mann F, Shilo K, Franks TJ, Travis WD, Jen J: Desmoglein 3 as a prognostic factor in lung cancer. Hum Pathol; 2007 Feb;38(2):276-83
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  • [Title] Desmoglein 3 as a prognostic factor in lung cancer.
  • Our cDNA expression profile demonstrated that desmoglein 3 was highly expressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung but not detected in pulmonary adenocarcinoma or normal lung.
  • To investigate the clinical significance of desmoglein 3 in lung cancer, we surveyed its expression in primary non-small-cell lung cancers and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • We used immunohistochemical analysis to examine the expression of desmoglein 3 by using tissue microarrays containing samples from 300 surgical non-small-cell lung cancer and 183 lung neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Negative immunohistochemical staining with desmoglein 3 was associated with shorter survival for all lung cancer patients regardless of the histologic subtype (5-year survival of 20.9% versus 49.5%, P < .001) in our series.
  • In patients with atypical carcinoid tumors, lacking desmoglein 3 expression showed a 5-year survival of 0% compared with 36.8% for desmoglein 3-positive cases (P < .001).
  • Desmoglein 3 status indicated a poor prognosis in lung cancers and portends a more aggressive behavior for atypical carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Desmoglein 3 / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lung / chemistry. Lung / cytology. Lung / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17084439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmoglein 3; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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96. Shiraishi J, Nomori H, Orikasa H, Mori T, Yamazaki K: Atypical thymoma (WHO B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation: report of a case. Virchows Arch; 2006 Aug;449(2):234-7
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  • [Title] Atypical thymoma (WHO B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation: report of a case.
  • The tumor was located in the anterior mediastinum and had directly invaded the pericardium and left lung.
  • Histological examination revealed that the tumor was lobulated by bands of fibrous tissue, perivascular spaces were scattered throughout the tumor, and there were a few intraepithelial lymphocytes.
  • The vast majority of lymphocytes in the perivascular spaces and in the lobulated tumor were immunohistochemically positive for TdT, MIC2, and CD1a.
  • The majority of tumor cells were polygonal and medium or large in size.
  • The tumor cells were weakly positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, CD56, and NSE.
  • These cells resembled the cells of carcinoid tumors and were strongly positive for NSE, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56.
  • Ultrastructurally, sparse dense-core granules were observed in the cytoplasm of a few tumor cells.

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 1998 Sep;22(9):1059-66 [9737237.001]
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  • (PMID = 16673117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD1; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / CD1a antigen
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97. Kaira K, Oriuchi N, Imai H, Shimizu K, Yanagitani N, Sunaga N, Hisada T, Kawashima O, Iijima H, Ishizuka T, Kanai Y, Endou H, Nakajima T, Mori M: Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(8):553-61
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  • [Title] Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) has been associated with tumor growth, and is highly expressed in the established tumor cell lines and primary human neoplasms.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression of LAT1 to evaluate the malignant potential and prognostic significance in neuroendocrine (NE) tumors of the lung.
  • Twenty-one surgically resected, large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC), 13 small cell lung cancers (SCLC), five atypical carcinoids (AC), and 10 typical carcinoids (TC) were enrolled in the study.
  • The present results suggest that LAT1 may play a significant role in cellular proliferation, lymph node metastasis, and poor outcome in patients with NE tumors of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Large Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18440724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1
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98. Righi L, Volante M, Tavaglione V, Billè A, Daniele L, Angusti T, Inzani F, Pelosi G, Rindi G, Papotti M: Somatostatin receptor tissue distribution in lung neuroendocrine tumours: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 218 'clinically aggressive' cases. Ann Oncol; 2010 Mar;21(3):548-55
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor tissue distribution in lung neuroendocrine tumours: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 218 'clinically aggressive' cases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of 218 lung NETs [24 metastatic typical carcinoids (TCs), 73 atypical carcinoids (ACs), 60 LCNECs and 61 surgically resected small-cell lung carcinomas] were investigated for SSTR types 2A and 3 tissue distribution using immunohistochemistry, in correlation with clinicopathologic parameters, outcome, scintigraphy and treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19759190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3
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99. Peng WX, Sano T, Oyama T, Kawashima O, Nakajima T: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a comparison with large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine morphology and small cell carcinoma. Lung Cancer; 2005 Feb;47(2):225-33
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a comparison with large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine morphology and small cell carcinoma.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is a malignant neuroendocrine tumor clinicopathologically similar to and falling in-between atypical carcinoid tumor and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The diagnosis of LCNEC is based mainly on a characteristic neuroendocrine morphology and biological neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Morphological neuroendocrine differentiation might not be identical to biological neuroendocrine differentiation in large cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15639721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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100. Langfort R, Rudziński P, Burakowska B: [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol; 2010;78(1):33-46
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment].
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung represent a broad spectrum of morphologic types that share specific morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular characteristics.
  • The classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors has changed over the last decades and currently four categories are distinguished: typical carcinoid tumor, atypical carcinoid tumor, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise approximately 20% of all primary lung cancers.
  • Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and prognosis, a reliable histological diagnosis, as well as clinical and pathological staging system are essential for an appropriate medical proceedings.
  • All carcinoids are malignant tumors with the potential to metastasize.
  • The majority of patients with pulmonary carcinoid have an excellent survival, even if they present with lymph node metastases.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma progress rapidly and are generally widespread at the moment of diagnosis.
  • Increased knowledge about pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors biology and the genetic characteristics, imply that carcinoid tumors appear to have a different etiology and pathogenesis than large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • In practice, it could be easiest to conceptualize this group of pulmonary tumors as a spectrum of malignancy ranging from the low grade typical carcinoid to the highly malignant large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • Typical carcinoid tumors associated with a fairly benign behavior should be classified as low-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G1) and atypical carcinoid tumors as intermediate-grade tumor/carcinoma (G2).
  • Whereas, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma should be grouped together under the designation of high-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G3).
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20162517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-7077
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumonologia i alergologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumonol Alergol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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