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1. Xu H, Bourne PA, Spaulding BO, Wang HL: High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung express K homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer but carcinoid tumors do not. Hum Pathol; 2007 Apr;38(4):555-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung express K homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer but carcinoid tumors do not.
  • KOC, known as L523S and IGF messenger RNA-binding protein 3, was shown to be frequently expressed in high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung in our immunohistochemical studies using a monoclonal antibody against human KOC.
  • Specifically, all 10 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) exhibited strong cytoplasmic staining, 9 with diffuse positivity and 1 with focal positivity.
  • In contrast, no KOC was detected in 21 typical and atypical carcinoids, except for one atypical carcinoid with oncocytic cells showing weak cytoplasmic staining.
  • Interestingly, our immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that IGF-II, reportedly regulated by KOC, was comparably expressed in SCLC, LCNEC, and typical and atypical carcinoids, irrespective of KOC expression status of the tumors.
  • In addition, detection of KOC expression may be diagnostically useful in distinguishing high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas from carcinoid tumors.
  • Our findings of equivalent IGF-II expression in KOC-positive SCLC and LCNEC and KOC-negative carcinoid tumors suggest different regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of IGF-II expression in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17316760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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2. Gnanasegaran G, Williams R, Mclean E, O' Connell R, Nunan TO, O'Doherty MJ: Lung mass appearing as a dilated left ventricle on Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Sep;34(9):620-1
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  • [Title] Lung mass appearing as a dilated left ventricle on Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.
  • Several benign and malignant tumors also take up tetrofosmin.
  • We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with a history of a left lung mass awaiting resection.
  • The myocardial perfusion scan revealed a large cavitated lesion mimicking a dilated left ventricle and the CT scan revealed a large mass in the left lung with central necrosis displacing the heart and mediastinum.
  • The patient underwent thoracotomy with resection of the mass and the histology confirmed atypical carcinoid.
  • This case highlights noncardiac uptake of Tc-99m tetrofosmin in an atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Ventricles / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Organophosphorus Compounds. Organotechnetium Compounds
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Myocardial Perfusion Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19692829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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3. Ampollini L, Carbognani P, Rusca M, Bobbio A: Resection of giant typical carcinoid tumor with cardiopulmonary bypass support. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Dec;58(8):500-2
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  • [Title] Resection of giant typical carcinoid tumor with cardiopulmonary bypass support.
  • Carcinoids, defined as well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, are classified as typical or atypical based on their microscopic pathological features.
  • We present the surgical strategy used to achieve a left pneumonectomy and the indications for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support in a patient with a huge typical carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 21110279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1902
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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4. Belak J, Kudlac M, Zak V, Cavarga I, Kocan P, Böör A, Stebnicky M, Somos A, Tkacova R: Surgical management of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: experience over 8 years and review of the literature. Tumori; 2010 Jan-Feb;96(1):84-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: experience over 8 years and review of the literature.
  • Our purpose was to study the characteristics, surgical approaches and outcome in patients with primary bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: Between 2001 and 2007, bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors were removed in 11 of a total of 287 patients who underwent surgery for primary lung malignancies in our tertiary referral center.
  • Histological findings revealed typical carcinoid in 10 patients and atypical carcinoid in one.
  • The surgical approach included 8 lung resections (6 lobectomies, 1 bilobectomy, 1 segmentectomy), and 3 bronchoplastic tumor removals.
  • In 2008, clinical examination and chest X-ray revealed no recurrence of the carcinoid and no long-term postoperative complications in any patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the light of our study and the review of the literature we conclude that early recognition of primary bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors followed by adequate surgical removal of the malignancy are essential for complete remission of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20437863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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5. Amin RM, Hiroshima K, Iyoda A, Hoshi K, Honma K, Kuroki M, Kokubo T, Fujisawa T, Miyagi Y, Nakatani Y: LKB1 protein expression in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Pathol Int; 2008 Feb;58(2):84-8
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  • [Title] LKB1 protein expression in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • During a recent investigation of LKB1 gene abnormality in lung lesions, strong expression of LKB1 protein in normal neuroendocrine (NE) cells of the bronchial epithelium was found.
  • Because LKB1 functions as a tumor suppressor gene, the question of whether alteration of LKB1 expression is related to the development of pulmonary NE tumors of various grades was investigated.
  • LKB1 immunohistochemistry was examined in a total of 68 primary pulmonary NE tumors consisting of 30 specimens of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), 23 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC), two atypical carcinoids, and 13 typical carcinoids.
  • Loss or low expression (<20% immunoreactive cells) of LKB1 protein expression was more frequently observed in high-grade NE tumors (SCLC and LCNEC; 45/53, 84.9%) than in typical and atypical carcinoids (3/15; 20%).
  • The difference in LKB1 immunoreactivity between the high-grade NE tumors and the carcinoid group was statistically significant (P < 0.0001).
  • In conclusion, marked reduction of LKB1 expression in high-grade NE tumors of the lung suggests a possible role of LKB1 inactivation in its tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18199157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.1.- / STK11 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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6. Daniels CE, Lowe VJ, Aubry MC, Allen MS, Jett JR: The utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the evaluation of carcinoid tumors presenting as pulmonary nodules. Chest; 2007 Jan;131(1):255-60
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  • [Title] The utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the evaluation of carcinoid tumors presenting as pulmonary nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is sensitive for detection of neoplastic solitary pulmonary nodules but may have decreased sensitivity for detection of carcinoid tumors.
  • Our purpose was to determine the sensitivity of FDG-PET to detect pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of our institutional results regarding FDG-PET in the setting of thoracic carcinoid neoplasms.
  • We identified 16 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of bronchial carcinoid who had an antecedent FDG-PET (from 2000 to 2004).
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients had a diagnosis of carcinoid tumor, typical in 11 patients and atypical in 5 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET imaging is useful for evaluation of typical and atypical thoracic carcinoid tumors.
  • Although overall PET sensitivity for detection of carcinoid tumors is somewhat reduced as compared to non-small cell lung cancer, it is much higher than prior reports suggest.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17218584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3692
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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7. Shimakage M, Kodama K, Kawahara K, Kim CJ, Ikeda Y, Yutsudo M, Inoue H: Downregulation of drs tumor suppressor gene in highly malignant human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Oncol Rep; 2009 Jun;21(6):1367-72
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  • [Title] Downregulation of drs tumor suppressor gene in highly malignant human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors in the lung fall into four categories: typical carcinoid tumor (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), in ascending order of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, drs knockout mice showed a tumor-prone phenotype, indicating that drs acts as a tumor suppressor gene in malignant tumor formation.
  • Four cases of normal lung and bronchial epithelia, 8 samples of normal brain tissue, and 2 cases of tumorlets in the lung were also examined.
  • The drs mRNA was definitely expressed in all normal tissues of the lung and brain, and 3 TC and 2 tumorlet tissues.
  • Our results indicate that the downregulation of drs is correlated with the development of SCLC, a highly malignant pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Southern. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19424611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SRPX protein, human
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8. Righi L, Volante M, Tavaglione V, Billè A, Daniele L, Angusti T, Inzani F, Pelosi G, Rindi G, Papotti M: Somatostatin receptor tissue distribution in lung neuroendocrine tumours: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 218 'clinically aggressive' cases. Ann Oncol; 2010 Mar;21(3):548-55
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  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor tissue distribution in lung neuroendocrine tumours: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 218 'clinically aggressive' cases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of 218 lung NETs [24 metastatic typical carcinoids (TCs), 73 atypical carcinoids (ACs), 60 LCNECs and 61 surgically resected small-cell lung carcinomas] were investigated for SSTR types 2A and 3 tissue distribution using immunohistochemistry, in correlation with clinicopathologic parameters, outcome, scintigraphy and treatment.

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  • (PMID = 19759190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3
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9. García-Yuste M, Matilla JM, Cueto A, Paniagua JM, Ramos G, Cañizares MA, Muguruza I, Spanish Multi-centric Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung for the Spanish Society of Pneumonology and Thoracic Surgery (EMETNE-SEPAR): Typical and atypical carcinoid tumours: analysis of the experience of the Spanish Multi-centric Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2007 Feb;31(2):192-7
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  • [Title] Typical and atypical carcinoid tumours: analysis of the experience of the Spanish Multi-centric Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung.
  • BACKGROUND: This study examines the experience of the Spanish Multi-centric Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung with patients treated surgically for typical and atypical carcinoid tumours.
  • METHODS: From 1980 to 2002, 661 patients were treated surgically for 569 typical carcinoid tumours and 92 atypical carcinoid tumours.
  • Three hundred and four cases were studied retrospectively from 1980 to 1997 (261 typical carcinoid and 43 atypical carcinoid tumours); the other 357 new cases (308 typical carcinoid and 49 atypical carcinoid tumours) were collected prospectively from 1998 to 2002.
  • Tumours were classified according the 1999 classification from the WHO and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC).
  • RESULTS: In the total of the patients, 5-year survival for different tumours was as follows: typical carcinoid: overall survival 97%; with nodal involvement 100%; atypical carcinoid: overall 78%; with nodal involvement 60%.
  • A significant difference in survival was found between patients in the retrospective and prospective groups with atypical carcinoid and nodal involvement.
  • The comparative analysis of several factors in typical and atypical carcinoid tumours showed a significant difference for mean age, tumour size, nodal involvement and distant metastases.
  • Adequate lung resection and systematic radical mediastinal lymphadenectomy should always be performed.
  • Sleeve resection could be performed in central typical and atypical carcinoid tumours, avoiding pneumonectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17196822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Spaggiari L, D' Aiuto M, Veronesi G, Pelosi G, de Pas T, Catalano G, de Braud F: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium, without cardiopulmonary bypass, for lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jan;79(1):234-40
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  • [Title] Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium, without cardiopulmonary bypass, for lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium for lung cancer is not frequently performed; therefore, its results remain controversial.
  • METHODS: From November 1996 to December 2003, 15 patients underwent extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium for lung cancer, without cardiopulmonary bypass.
  • The were 10 squamous cell carcinomas (60%), 2 adenocarcinomas, 1 adenosquamous carcinoma, 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and 1 atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium for advanced lung cancer is a feasible procedure, with low postoperative morbidity and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Heart Atria / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15620949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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11. Wang X, Wang M, MacLennan GT, Abdul-Karim FW, Eble JN, Jones TD, Olobatuyi F, Eisenberg R, Cummings OW, Zhang S, Lopez-Beltran A, Montironi R, Zheng S, Lin H, Davidson DD, Cheng L: Evidence for common clonal origin of multifocal lung cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2009 Apr 15;101(8):560-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence for common clonal origin of multifocal lung cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the United States.
  • Multiple anatomically separate but histologically similar lung tumors are often found in the same patient.
  • The clonal origin of multiple lung tumors is uncertain.
  • METHODS: We analyzed 70 lung tumors from 30 patients (23 females and seven males) who underwent surgical resection for lung epithelial tumors, of whom 26 had non-small cell carcinomas and four had carcinoid/atypical carcinoid tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the great majority of multifocal lung cancers have a common clonal origin and that multifocality in lung cancer represents local and regional intrapulmonary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Point Mutation. Smoking / adverse effects. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. X Chromosome Inactivation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Chromosomes, Human, X. Confidence Intervals. Female. Humans. Laser Therapy. Male. Microdissection. Microsatellite Repeats. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Research Design. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Apr 15;101(8):541-3 [19351914.001]
  • (PMID = 19351924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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12. Kuczma JA, Grzywa M: [Broncho-pulmonary carcinoid with the cardiac arrhythmia manifestation]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2006 Oct;116(4):971-3
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  • [Title] [Broncho-pulmonary carcinoid with the cardiac arrhythmia manifestation].
  • We are presenting the case of a 60-year-old woman (OM ) with a bronchial-pulmonary carcinoid which the only, first and dominating symptom was paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, as well as ventricular group extrasystoles.
  • In the imaging examinations of the thorax, a cavernous structure of 36 x 47 mm in the III segment of the left lung was discovered.
  • The patient underwent urgent surgery after an episode of massive pulmonary haemorrhage--surgery included excision of the upper lobe of the left lung containing the tumour and mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • On microscopic examination, an atypical carcinoid was diagnosed.
  • The current imaging examinations and determinations of 5-HIO uringexcretion acid do not indicate relapse of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Arrhythmias, Cardiac / etiology. Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Lung Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18416299.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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13. Shilo K, Dracheva T, Mani H, Fukuoka J, Sesterhenn IA, Chu WS, Shih JH, Jen J, Travis WD, Franks TJ: Alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase in pulmonary adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors: expression and survival analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Oct;131(10):1555-60
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  • AMACR serves as a useful marker in establishing a diagnosis of prostatic malignancy; however, limited information is available in regard to its presence in pulmonary neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate AMACR expression within a spectrum of lung carcinomas and its correlation with patients' survival.
  • DESIGN: Four hundred seventy-seven pulmonary carcinomas, including 150 squamous cell carcinomas, 150 adenocarcinomas, 46 typical carcinoids, 31 atypical carcinoids, 28 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 72 small cell carcinomas, were studied immunohistochemically using tissue microarray-based samples.
  • Among tumor types, 22% of squamous cell carcinoma, 56% of adenocarcinoma, 72% of typical carcinoid, 52% of atypical carcinoid, 70% of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 51% of small cell lung carcinoma were positive for AMACR.
  • Additionally, its positive correlation with outcome of stage I-II small cell lung carcinoma warrants further investigation of the AMACR role in the prognosis of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / enzymology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17922592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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14. Bini A, Brandolini J, Cassanelli N, Davoli F, Dolci G, Sellitri F, Stella F: Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids: our institutional experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2008 May;7(3):415-8
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  • [Title] Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids: our institutional experience.
  • Pulmonary carcinoids are rare malignant neoplasms, accounting for 2-5% of all lung tumors, with an approximate annual incidence of 2.3-2.8 cases per million of the population.
  • All the patients underwent preoperative fibrobronchoscopy: preoperative diagnosis was made in 28 patients (52%).
  • Surgical treatment consisted of: 31 standard lobectomies, 6 pneumonectomies, 5 bilobectomies, 2 sleeve lobectomies, 2 anatomic segmentectomies, 6 wedge resections; two patients were managed with sleeve bronchial procedure of the left main bronchus without lung resection.
  • Overall, 5-year survival was 91%, 10 years 83%: 5-year survival was 91% for typical carcoinoids (TC) vs. 88% for atypical (AC), 10 years 91% for TC and 44% for AC (significant value, P=0.0487).
  • Carcinoid tumors are a distinct group of neuroendocrine tumors with a good prognosis in most cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor

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  • (PMID = 18349148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Pelosi G, Leon ME, Veronesi G, Spaggiari L, Pasini F, Viale G: Decreased immunoreactivity of CD99 is an independent predictor of regional lymph node metastases in pulmonary carcinoid tumors. J Thorac Oncol; 2006 Jun;1(5):468-77
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  • [Title] Decreased immunoreactivity of CD99 is an independent predictor of regional lymph node metastases in pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: We evaluated CD99 immunoreactivity in lung tissues, pulmonary neuroendocrine hyperplasias, and 136 consecutive pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors of diverse histological types.
  • RESULTS: By immunohistochemistry, a membranous and/or cytoplasmic immunoreactivity was seen in 60 of 136 (44%) tumors, whereas both normal and hyperplastic neuroendocrine cells of the lung were consistently nonreactive.
  • A steady decrease of the CD99 labeling index was observed from better to poorly differentiated tumors, with a prevalence of the membranous pattern in typical carcinoids (TCs), and of the cytoplasmic pattern in atypical carcinoids (ACs) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma/small cell lung carcinoma (P < 0.0001), independent of tumor stage.
  • In TCs/ACs, increased levels of CD99 labeling index or the membranous pattern were associated with low proliferative fraction (P = 0.0011) and smaller tumor size (P = 0.0054) and with lack of regional lymph node metastases (P = 0.0078).
  • No relevant relationships were found in large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma/small cell lung carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CD99 is especially present in low- to intermediate-grade neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, and loss of the marker correlates with the occurrence of nodal metastases in TC/AC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17409901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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16. Zatelli MC, Maffei P, Piccin D, Martini C, Rea F, Rubello D, Margutti A, Culler MD, Sicolo N, degli Uberti EC: Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr;90(4):2104-9
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  • [Title] Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid.
  • The patient underwent left lung upper lobectomy, and histopathology disclosed a bronchial atypical carcinoid.
  • Cultured tumor cells were treated with SRIH, lanreotide (BIM-23014), or SRIH analogs selective for SSTR2 (BIM-23120), SSTR5 (BIM-23206), or SSTR1 (BIM-23926).
  • Our data show SSTR expression in a GHRH-secreting bronchial carcinoid and provide evidence that, in vitro, selective SSTR activation differently inhibit ectopic GHRH secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists

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  • (PMID = 15671091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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17. Gustafsson BI, Kidd M, Chan A, Malfertheiner MV, Modlin IM: Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer; 2008 Jul 1;113(1):5-21
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  • Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (BP-NETs) comprise approximately 20% of all lung cancers and represent a spectrum of tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells of the BP-epithelium.
  • Although they share structural, morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features, they are separated into 4 subgroups: typical carcinoid tumor (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), which exhibit considerably different biological characteristics.
  • Less than 5% of BP-NETs exhibit hormonally related symptoms such as carcinoid syndrome, Cushing, acromegaly, and SIADH.
  • SCLC is the most common BP-NET, while LCNEC is rare, approximately 10% and < or =1%, respectively, of all lung cancers.
  • The slow-growing TC exhibit a fairly good prognosis ( approximately 88%, 5-year survival), whereas AC demonstrate a 5-year survival of approximately 50%, and the highly malignant LCNEC and SCLC5-year survival of 15% to 57% and <5%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms. Neuroendocrine Tumors
  • [MeSH-minor] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / genetics. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Humans. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18473355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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18. Pelosi G, Scarpa A, Puppa G, Veronesi G, Spaggiari L, Pasini F, Maisonneuve P, Iannucci A, Arrigoni G, Viale G: Alteration of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin cell adhesion system is common in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and is an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis in atypical carcinoids. Cancer; 2005 Mar 15;103(6):1154-64
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  • [Title] Alteration of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin cell adhesion system is common in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and is an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis in atypical carcinoids.
  • METHODS: E-cadherin and beta-catenin immunoreactivity was evaluated in 10 hyperplastic neuroendocrine tumorlets and 210 neuroendocrine tumors, including 96 typical carcinoids (CTs), 35 atypical carcinoids (ACTs), 49 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), and 30 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs).
  • beta-Catenin exhibited similar immunoreactivity patterns according to tumor type and a close association with E-cadherin subcellular distribution (P < 0.001).
  • This likely affects the tumor growth pattern and cell motility of ACT and was correlated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Chi-Square Distribution. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Logistic Models. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. beta Catenin


19. Fainstein Day P, Frohman L, Garcia Rivello H, Reubi JC, Sevlever G, Glerean M, Fernandez Gianotti T, Pietrani M, Rabadan A, Racioppi S, Bidlingmaier M: Ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion by a metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor: a case with a non hypophysial intracranial tumor that shrank during long acting octreotide treatment. Pituitary; 2007;10(3):311-9
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  • [Title] Ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion by a metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumor: a case with a non hypophysial intracranial tumor that shrank during long acting octreotide treatment.
  • Although clinical improvement is common after treatment with somatostatin (SMS) analogs, the biochemical response and tumor size of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-producing tumor and its metastases are less predictable.
  • He had undergone lung surgery in 1987 for a "benign" carcinoid tumor.
  • Methods Measurement of circulating GHRH levels by fluorescence immunoassay levels and immunohistochemical study of the primary lung tumor and metastatic tissue with anti-GHRH and anti-somatostatin receptor type 2 (sst2A) antibodies.
  • Pathological study of liver and bone biopsy material and lung tissue removed 19 years earlier was consistent with an atypical carcinoid producing GHRH and exhibiting sst2A receptor expression.
  • No changes were observed in lung and liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Bronchial Neoplasms / secretion. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Hormones, Ectopic / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17373589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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20. Stoll LM, Johnson MW, Burroughs F, Li QK: Cytologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung carcinoid tumors a retrospective study of 63 Cases with histologic correlation. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Dec 25;118(6):457-67
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  • [Title] Cytologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung carcinoid tumors a retrospective study of 63 Cases with histologic correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms of the lung are a spectrum of tumors including typicalcarcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (ACT), small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and large cell NEcarcinoma (LCNEC).
  • The cytology specimens were comprised of 49 cases of lung fine-needle aspiriation specimens and 14 cases of lung brushings/washings.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21243734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Vigg A, Mantri S, Swarnalata G, Mulay K: Atypical carcinoid tumour. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci; 2005 Jul-Sep;47(3):213-5
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid tumour.
  • Carcinoid tumour is a rare entity accounting for less than two percent of bronchial neoplasms.
  • More offten, it presents as a central endobronchial tumour.
  • The peripheral type of carcinoid tumour is relatively rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16022152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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22. Uchino K, Okada M, Sakamoto T, Yuki T, Mimura T, Tsubota N: Bronchoplasty for bronchial carcinoid tumor without removing lung parenchyma. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2006 Aug;54(8):345-7
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  • [Title] Bronchoplasty for bronchial carcinoid tumor without removing lung parenchyma.
  • A 15-year-old boy was admitted with a pneumothorax of the left lung.
  • Computed tomographic scans demonstrated a tumor 20 mm in diameter situated on the left main to upper lobar bronchus that eventually was proved to be a typical carcinoid tumor by transbronchial biopsy.
  • We performed bronchial resection with atypical bronchoplasty, which preserves lung parenchyma in cases of s-T1N0M0 disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchi / surgery. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pulmonary Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 16972641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Peng WX, Sano T, Oyama T, Kawashima O, Nakajima T: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a comparison with large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine morphology and small cell carcinoma. Lung Cancer; 2005 Feb;47(2):225-33
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a comparison with large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine morphology and small cell carcinoma.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is a malignant neuroendocrine tumor clinicopathologically similar to and falling in-between atypical carcinoid tumor and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The diagnosis of LCNEC is based mainly on a characteristic neuroendocrine morphology and biological neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Morphological neuroendocrine differentiation might not be identical to biological neuroendocrine differentiation in large cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15639721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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24. Moldvay J, Jäckel M, Páska C, Soltész I, Schaff Z, Kiss A: Distinct claudin expression profile in histologic subtypes of lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2007 Aug;57(2):159-67
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  • [Title] Distinct claudin expression profile in histologic subtypes of lung cancer.
  • Little is known about their expression and localization in the normal bronchial epithelium and in lung cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred four lung cancer tissue blocks were studied including 46 adenocarcinomas (ADC), 30 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 15 small cell lung cancers (SCLC), 8 typical and 5 atypical carcinoids.
  • RT-PCR analysis was also carried out in 22 immunohistochemically representative tumor samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The observed distinct claudin expression profile within the non-small cell lung cancer group, further, the marked differences between SCLCs and carcinoids may have differential diagnostic impact, and the overexpression of certain claudins might have therapeutic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Bronchi / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Claudin-1. Claudin-3. Claudin-4. Claudins. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Respiratory Mucosa / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17418912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN2 protein, human; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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25. Olgac G, Peirovi F, Yilmaz A, Kutlu CA: Giant carcinoid tumor mimicking pulmonary sequestration. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Oct;84(4):1375-6
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  • [Title] Giant carcinoid tumor mimicking pulmonary sequestration.
  • A 42-year-old woman who previously underwent two consecutive thoracotomies for a lower lobe mass in her right lung was referred to our clinic for further management.
  • Then a right lower lobectomy was undertaken through a hemi-clamshell incision, and histopathology revealed an atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bronchoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Pneumonectomy / methods. Reoperation. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome


26. Kasprzak A, Olejniczak K, Przybyszewska W, Zabel M: Cellular expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor (IL-2R, CD25) in lung tumours. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2007 Aug;66(3):159-66
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  • [Title] Cellular expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor (IL-2R, CD25) in lung tumours.
  • In view of the unclear prognostic and diagnostic role of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor in human tumours, we examined the cellular expression of IL-2 and of the subunit alpha of its receptor (IL-2Ralpha, CD25) in relation to the proliferative activity of various subtypes of lung tumours.
  • The immunocytochemical ABC technique was applied to archival tissue material of neuroendocrine lung tumours: lung carcinoids, including typical carcinoids (TC), atypical carcinoids (AC) and small-cell lung cancers (SCLC) and squamous cell lung cancers (non-small cell lung cancers, NSCLC).
  • Expression of IL-2 was detected in all types of lung tumours.
  • The highest frequency of IL-2 expression (93%) was noted and the most pronounced semi-quantitatively evaluated expression of IL-2 was detected in AC tumour cells.
  • The results suggest a negative correlation between IL-2 expression and the proliferative activity of tumour cells (evaluated by expression of Ki-67) in AC.
  • Semi-quantitative expression of IL-2R, like that of IL-2, also dominated in the group of atypical lung carcinoids but manifested a significant difference only as compared to typical carcinoids (p = 0.014).
  • Our results demonstrate variable expression of IL-2 and its receptor in various types of lung tumours, but no simple relationship could be detected between tissue expression of the markers and proliferative activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Interleukin-2 / metabolism. Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17985312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5659
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia morphologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Morphol. (Warsz)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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27. Chong S, Lee KS, Chung MJ, Han J, Kwon OJ, Kim TS: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings. Radiographics; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):41-57; discussion 57-8
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung arise from Kulchitzky cells of the bronchial mucosa and comprise typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  • At histopathologic analysis, these tumors demonstrate a progressive increase in the number of mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields of viable tumor and in the extent of necrosis, with typical carcinoid having the lowest values and SCLC having the highest.
  • Typical carcinoid is less aggressive than atypical carcinoid, although these tumors have similar gross pathologic and radiologic features; LCNEC has a prognosis between that of atypical carcinoid and that of SCLC.
  • SCLC is the most aggressive pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor and has the most specific imaging feature: mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy.
  • At CT, carcinoid tumors appear as a spherical or ovoid nodule or mass with a well-defined and slightly lobulated border.
  • When nonspherical, the tumor is elongated with its long axis parallel to adjacent bronchi.
  • The CT findings of LCNEC are nonspecific and are similar to those of other non-small cell lung cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2006.
  • (PMID = 16418242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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28. Wong M, Isa SH, Kamaruddin NA, Khalid BA: ACTH producing pulmonary carcinoid and pituitary macroadenoma: a fortuitous association? Med J Malaysia; 2007 Jun;62(2):168-70
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  • [Title] ACTH producing pulmonary carcinoid and pituitary macroadenoma: a fortuitous association?
  • A routine chest radiography done preoperatively revealed a right lung nodule which was confirmed by computed tomography (CT) of the thorax.
  • Transfrontal hypophysectomy was performed while a conservative approach was taken for the lung nodule.
  • Histological examination revealed an atypical carcinoid.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an ectopic ACTH secreting pulmonary carcinoid found in association with a non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18705457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5283
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Malaysia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Malaysia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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29. Gomard-Mennesson E, Sève P, De La Roche E, Collardeau-Frachon S, Lombard-Bohas C, Broussolle C: [Thymic carcinoid tumor revealed by a Cushing's syndrome: usefulness of positron emission tomography]. Rev Med Interne; 2008 Sep;29(9):751-3
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  • [Title] [Thymic carcinoid tumor revealed by a Cushing's syndrome: usefulness of positron emission tomography].
  • Ectopic adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) syndrome is a rare condition, generally due to lung or carcinoid tumors.
  • A thymic tumor was suspected and the patient had a thymectomy that revealed an atypical carcinoid tumor with pleural carcinosis.


30. Kawase A, Nagai K: [Treatment strategy for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Oct;36(10):1619-22
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  • [Title] [Treatment strategy for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung].
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung is classified into typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (ATC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The standard treatment of carcinoid tumor is surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19838019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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31. Endo T, Hasegawa T, Tezuka Y, Kanai Y, Otani S, Yamamoto S, Tetsuka K, Sato Y, Endo S, Sohara Y: [Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor with abnormal elevation of serum gastrin-releasing peptide precursor: report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2008 Oct;61(11):993-5
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  • [Title] [Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor with abnormal elevation of serum gastrin-releasing peptide precursor: report of a case].
  • We report a rare case of atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor accompanied by elevation of serum gastrin-releasing peptide precursor (ProGRP).
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a solitary pulmonary tumor in the left lower lobe with sub-carinal lymph node enlargement.
  • Transbronchial lung biopsy showed a pulmonary carcinoid, therefore left lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Histopathological diagnosis showed an atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 18939440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98)
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32. Sartelet H, Maouche K, Totobenazara JL, Petit J, Burlet H, Monteau M, Tournier JM, Birembaut P: Expression of nicotinic receptors in normal and tumoral pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC). Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(12):891-8
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  • Neuroendocrine (NE) tumors of the lung represent a wide spectrum of phenotypically distinct entities, with differences in tumor progression and aggressiveness, which include carcinoid tumor (CT) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
  • Approximately 20-40% of patients with both typical and atypical CT are non-smokers, while virtually all patients with SCLC are cigarette smokers.
  • An immunohistochemical study was carried out with antibodies against NE markers and subunits alpha7 and beta2 of nicotinic receptors in 7 normal lungs, 10 CT (8 typical and 2 atypical) and 10 SCLC fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Cells / metabolism. Receptors, Nicotinic / biosynthesis. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18667281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chrna7 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 0 / alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor; 0 / nicotinic receptor beta2
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33. de Matos LL, Trufelli DC, das Neves-Pereira JC, Danel C, Riquet M: Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review. Lung Cancer; 2006 Sep;53(3):381-6
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  • [Title] Cushing's syndrome secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor: report of two cases and literature review.
  • Bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors have been associated with a variety of endocrine disorders including Cushing's syndrome (CS), which is caused by ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion.
  • We report two cases of CS secondary to bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • Chest computed tomography and Octreoscan showed a peripheral nodule in the left-superior lobe of the lung.
  • After lobectomy, a typical bronchopulmonary carcinoid was diagnosed.
  • After lobectomy, an atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid was diagnosed.
  • Neither of these patients had hypophysary microadenomas, adrenal adenomas or recurrence of CS after surgical treatment, demonstrating that CS was caused solely by the presence of the bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis


34. Divisi D, Crisci R: Carcinoid tumors of the lung and multimodal therapy. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Jun;53(3):168-72
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the lung and multimodal therapy.
  • Diagnosis was obtained in 28 patients with fibre-optic bronchoscopy and in 14 patients with CT-guided trans-thoracic needle biopsy.
  • RESULTS: There were 26 typical and 16 atypical carcinoids.
  • The 3-year and the 5-year survival rates in the typical and atypical carcinoid groups were 100 % and 96 % vs. 81 % and 68 %, respectively (p < 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 15926097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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36. Wurtz A, Benhamed L, Conti M, Bouchindhomme B, Porte H: Results of systematic nodal dissection in typical and atypical carcinoid tumors of the lung. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Mar;4(3):388-94
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  • [Title] Results of systematic nodal dissection in typical and atypical carcinoid tumors of the lung.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine the lymphatic spread frequency and location in patients, who underwent lung resection for carcinoid tumors, associated with systematic nodal dissection.
  • METHODS: From January 1998 to June 2007, 54 patients underwent anatomic lung resection associated with systematic nodal dissection for tumors classified as typical (TC) or atypical carcinoid according to 1999 World Health Organization criteria.
  • In the atypical group (n = 12) 2 patients were classified N1 (16.6%) and 2 N2 (16.6%).Five of the 6 N2 patients showed a single skip metastasis not discovered by preoperative evaluation (83.3%).The lymphatic spread was correlated with age < or = 35 years (p = 0.01) and a tumor size > or = 3 cm (p = 0.002).Median follow-up was 57 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] J Thorac Oncol. 2009 May;4(5):670
  • (PMID = 19247085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Shiraishi J, Nomori H, Orikasa H, Mori T, Yamazaki K: Atypical thymoma (WHO B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation: report of a case. Virchows Arch; 2006 Aug;449(2):234-7
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  • [Title] Atypical thymoma (WHO B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation: report of a case.
  • The tumor was located in the anterior mediastinum and had directly invaded the pericardium and left lung.
  • Histological examination revealed that the tumor was lobulated by bands of fibrous tissue, perivascular spaces were scattered throughout the tumor, and there were a few intraepithelial lymphocytes.
  • The vast majority of lymphocytes in the perivascular spaces and in the lobulated tumor were immunohistochemically positive for TdT, MIC2, and CD1a.
  • The majority of tumor cells were polygonal and medium or large in size.
  • The tumor cells were weakly positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, CD56, and NSE.
  • These cells resembled the cells of carcinoid tumors and were strongly positive for NSE, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and CD56.
  • Ultrastructurally, sparse dense-core granules were observed in the cytoplasm of a few tumor cells.

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38. Bednaríková M, Valík D, Vyzula R: [Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of carcinoid]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2008;147(4):233-5
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  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of carcinoid].
  • The patient--born in 1960, was first diagnosed in 1981 as having malignant carcinoid of the right lung.
  • According to tumor histology--atypical carcinoid--this patient was initially treated with palliative systemic chemotherapy, specifically with cisplatin and etoposid.
  • The symptoms disappeared, except a persisting ocular disorder due to periorbital infiltration.
  • This case study illustrates the necessity of cautious and individual approach to the choice of treatment strategy in patients with malignant carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18578378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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39. Brambilla E, Lantuejoul S: [Thoracic neuroendocrine tumors]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Dec;25(6):529-44
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  • The typical carcinoids are of low grade, the atypical carcinoids of intermediate grade and the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with the small cell carcinoma are high grade neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Thoracic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16735977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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40. Ozbudak IH, Shilo K, Tavora F, Rassaei N, Chu WS, Fukuoka J, Jen J, Travis WD, Franks TJ: Glucose transporter-1 in pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas: expression and survival analysis. Mod Pathol; 2009 May;22(5):633-8
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  • Tissue microarray-based samples of 178 neuroendocrine carcinomas, including 48 typical carcinoids, 31 atypical carcinoids, 27 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and 72 small cell carcinomas from different patients, were studied immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression.
  • GLUT-1 was observed in 7% (3/46) of typical carcinoid, 21% (6/29) of atypical carcinoid, 74% (17/23) of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and 78% (49/63) of small cell carcinoma.
  • GLUT-1 expression correlated with increasing patient age (P=0.01) and with neuroendocrine differentiation/tumor type (P<0.001), but not with gender, tumor size or stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / biosynthesis. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19234439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P50 AG016574; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080127; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA084354; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010164-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS445156; NLM/ PMC3616507
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41. Srirajaskanthan R, Toumpanakis C, Karpathakis A, Marelli L, Quigley AM, Dusmet M, Meyer T, Caplin ME: Surgical management and palliative treatment in bronchial neuroendocrine tumours: a clinical study of 45 patients. Lung Cancer; 2009 Jul;65(1):68-73
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  • Bronchial neuroendocrine tumours account for 1-2% of all lung cancers; they are thought to arise from the neuroendocrine cells located in the bronchial mucosa.
  • Histological diagnosis from our department was available for 39 patients, with the remainder having had histological assessment performed previously.
  • Typical carcinoid was present in 25 cases, atypical in 9 cases, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in 4 and 1 case of small cell lung carcinoma.
  • All patients were staged at time of initial diagnosis with CT scan, in addition Octreoscans were performed when appropriate.
  • Somatostatin analogues were used as first line therapy in six patients, for symptom control and anti-tumour effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Palliative Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 19070398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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42. Nannini N, Bertolini F, Cavazza A, Casali C, Mengoli MC, Rossi G: Atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma: a hitherto unreported variant of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):120-4
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma: a hitherto unreported variant of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the lung may show several growth patterns and cell types.
  • We report here a previously undescribed case of primary pulmonary atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma, an exceedingly rare variant of carcinoid tumor so far reported only in the thymus.
  • The tumor was discovered in a 50-year-old, non-smoker woman, and pursued an aggressive behavior.
  • The lack of TTF-1 expression and the positive staining with hormonal receptors made the diagnosis very challenging.
  • Differential diagnosis with other primary and metastatic mucin-rich tumors is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mucus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy


43. Rea F, Rizzardi G, Zuin A, Marulli G, Nicotra S, Bulf R, Schiavon M, Sartori F: Outcome and surgical strategy in bronchial carcinoid tumors: single institution experience with 252 patients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2007 Feb;31(2):186-91
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  • [Title] Outcome and surgical strategy in bronchial carcinoid tumors: single institution experience with 252 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate type of surgery, long-term survival and factors influencing outcome in pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed data of 252 patients who underwent surgery for carcinoid tumor in 1968-1989 (Group A) and in 1990-2005 (Group B).
  • All cases were reviewed and classified as typical (TC) or atypical carcinoid (AC) according to WHO criteria (1999).
  • Surgery consisted of 163 (64.7%) formal lung resections (121 lobectomies, 18 bilobectomies, 14 segmentectomies, 10 pneumonectomies), 76 (30.1%) sleeve or bronchoplastic resections and 13 (5.2%) wedge resections.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Typical histology and N0 status were important prognostic factors in carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17140801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Tsuchida M, Umezu H, Hashimoto T, Shinohara H, Koike T, Hosaka Y, Eimoto T, Hayashi JI: Absence of gene mutations in KIT-positive thymic epithelial tumors. Lung Cancer; 2008 Dec;62(3):321-5
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  • In patients with GIST, overexpression of mutated KIT within the tumor is predictive of response to molecular targeted therapy using imatinib.
  • Percentage of positive staining was 100% in squamous cell carcinoma, with no positive staining in other histologies, including atypical carcinoid.

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  • (PMID = 18486988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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45. Chong S, Lee KS, Kim BT, Choi JY, Yi CA, Chung MJ, Oh DK, Lee JY: Integrated PET/CT of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors: diagnostic and prognostic implications. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2007 May;188(5):1223-31
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  • Maximum SUVs of carcinoid tumors, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), and small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) were compared, and maximum SUV and tumor stage and prognosis were correlated.
  • RESULTS: Four (two typical and two atypical) of the seven carcinoid tumors had no FDG uptake or less than mediastinal uptake.
  • There was no significant correlation between maximum SUV of the primary tumor and the tumor stages of carcinoids, LCNECs, or SCLCs (p = 0.08, Jonckheere-Terpstra test; p = 0.768, Mann-Whitney test).
  • CONCLUSION: The maximum SUVs of neuroendocrine tumors are significantly different for carcinoid tumors, LCNECs, and SCLCs, and a high maximum SUV suggests short survival of patients with LCNEC or SCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17449764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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46. Skov BG, Krasnik M, Lantuejoul S, Skov T, Brambilla E: Reclassification of neuroendocrine tumors improves the separation of carcinoids and the prediction of survival. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Dec;3(12):1410-5
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  • INTRODUCTION: The classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors has changed over the last decades.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine to which extent the use of different diagnostic criteria of neuroendocrine lung tumors has influenced the classification of these tumors.
  • The prognostic information of tumor, node, metastasis descriptors was also evaluated.
  • Tumor, node, metastasis descriptors were evaluated.
  • A significantly different survival was shown for all patients in relation to tumor size (p < 0.0001).
  • An endobronchial component was seen in 54%, 31%, and 11% of typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, respectively with no impact on survival (p = 0.90).
  • Regarding the revised diagnoses, a significant difference in survival between typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma was noted (p < 0.005).
  • Tumor and node seem to be useful predictors of survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Lung Neoplasms / classification. Lung Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bronchial Neoplasms / classification. Bronchial Neoplasms / mortality. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Large Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Large Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / classification. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19057265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Fröss-Baron K, Gołkowski F, Sowa-Staszczak A, Mikołajczak R, Huszno B: 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate in detection of atypical bronchial carcinoid. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2007 Jan;115(1):47-9
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  • [Title] 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate in detection of atypical bronchial carcinoid.
  • We present a case of a 40-year-old women operated on because of lung carcinoid tumour in 2002.
  • The thorax spiral CT revealed the focal lesion beneath carina. (111)In-Octreoscan and (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate SRS revealed two focal lesions in the mediastinum. (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate detected two additional lesions in the lower part of the right lung.
  • Owing to severe bone pains and carcinoid symptoms the patient was referred for the 90Y-DOTA-octreotate treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SRS with a new 99mTc marked somatostatin analogue - octreotate allows for a more sensitive detection of metastatic leasions in carcinoid tumours.
  • The usefulness of 18F-FDG PET, widely used as a powerful imaging technique in clinical oncology, is limited in detection of carcinoid tumours due to the low proliferative activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiography. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17286235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid; 0 / Hydrazines; 0 / Nicotinic Acids; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 5657-17-0 / EDDA; 9G34HU7RV0 / Edetic Acid; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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48. Goel A, Addis BJ: Pigmented atypical carcinoid of the lung. Histopathology; 2007 Aug;51(2):263-5
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  • [Title] Pigmented atypical carcinoid of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17593208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
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49. Kurabayashi T, Minamikawa T, Nishijima S, Tsuneki I, Tamura M, Yanase T, Hashidate H, Shibuya H, Motoyama T: Primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary with multiple bone and breast metastases. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Jun;36(3):567-71
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  • [Title] Primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary with multiple bone and breast metastases.
  • Although primary carcinoid tumor of the ovary is an extremely rare neoplasm, survival is excellent if the disease is confined to one ovary.
  • Herein, we present a case of primary strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary, stage IA, borderline malignancy, in a 34-year-old woman.
  • Histological findings of the right ovary indicated higher atypical nuclei, higher mitotic rate and focal necrosis of tumorous cells in some areas, findings that are compatible with atypical carcinoid of the lung.
  • The results in the present case indicate that an ovarian carcinoid tumor found to be 'atypical carcinoid' according to pulmonary carcinoid criteria or immunohistochemical staining (i.e. highly positive for topoisomerase IIalpha and Ki-67) may have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / secondary


50. Bode-Lesniewska B, Hodler J, von Hochstetter A, Guillou L, Exner U, Caduff R: Late solitary bone metastasis of a primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma with SYT-SSX1 translocation type: case report with a long follow-up. Virchows Arch; 2005 Mar;446(3):310-5
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  • One of the rarest primary locations is the lung.
  • We describe a 73-year-old female patient who presented with a solitary malignant bone tumor 8 years after the resection of a lung neoplasm.
  • The bone tumor was classified as an osteosarcoma and the lung tumor as an atypical carcinoid tumor at their first respective diagnostic work-ups.
  • Reevaluation of the tumor samples at the time of the local recurrence of the bone tumor 6 years following the initial symptoms of the bone tumor lead to the reclassification of both specimens as synovial sarcomas.
  • The patient died 14 years after the resection of the primary synovial sarcoma of the lung and 6 years following the occurrence of the bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Synovial / genetics. Sarcoma, Synovial / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion. Osteosarcoma / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 15668803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / SYT-SSX fusion protein
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51. Okano Y, Inayama M, Hatakeyama N, Hino H, Iwahara Y, Motoki T, Naruse K, Yokota Y, Ogushi F: Autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered with multiple nodular shadows. J Med Invest; 2008 Feb;55(1-2):142-6
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  • [Title] Autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered with multiple nodular shadows.
  • We report an autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered as multiple nodular shadows.
  • Both chest radiography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodules in both the lung and pleural effusion.
  • Samples from the wall-side pleural lesion were obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under local anesthesia, and histological examination led to a diagnosis of atypical carcinoid.
  • The primary site was identified as the lung after autopsy.
  • We believe that early detection is crucial in the treatment of atypical carcinoid due to poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Lung / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18319557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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52. Farhat CA, Parra ER, Rogers AV, Elian SN, Sheppard MN, Capelozzi VL: Using electron microscopy and multivariate cluster analysis to determine diagnosis and prognosis in cases of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma. J Bras Pneumol; 2008 Oct;34(10):804-11
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  • [Title] Using electron microscopy and multivariate cluster analysis to determine diagnosis and prognosis in cases of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish reproducible electron microscopic criteria for identifying the four major types of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: carcinoid; atypical carcinoid; large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; and small cell carcinoma.
  • Sixteen morphometric variables related to tumor cell differentiation were assessed in 27 tumors.
  • The tumors fell into three well-defined clusters, which represent the spectrum of neuroendocrine differentiation: typical carcinoid (cluster 1); atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (cluster 2); and small cell carcinoma (cluster 3).
  • Cluster 2 represents an intermediate step in neuroendocrine carcinogenesis, between typical carcinoid tumors and small cell carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that electron microscopy is useful in making the diagnosis and prognosis in cases of lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Large Cell / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / ultrastructure. Lung Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrastructure. Cluster Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Microscopy, Electron. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19009213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça̋o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Pneumol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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53. Song J, Li M, Tretiakova M, Salgia R, Cagle PT, Husain AN: Expression patterns of PAX5, c-Met, and paxillin in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1702-5
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  • [Title] Expression patterns of PAX5, c-Met, and paxillin in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • CONTEXT: c-Met is important in the pathogenesis, invasion, and spread of several forms of lung cancer, and multiple c-Met inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials.
  • PAX5 has been shown to upregulate c-Met in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and coinhibiting PAX5 and c-Met had a synergic effect in killing tumor cells.
  • Paxillin is a downstream target of activated c-Met, and its activation leads to enhanced cell motility and tumor spread.
  • The expression patterns of these functionally related proteins have not, to our knowledge, been systemically studied in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • DESIGN: Tissue microarrays of 38 typical carcinoids, 6 atypical carcinoids, 34 SCLCs, and 11 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas were studied with immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Most of the 4 tumor types expressed c-Met, phosphorylated c-Met, and paxillin.
  • PAX5 was frequently expressed in atypical carcinoids, SCLCs, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas but tended to be negative in typical carcinoids.
  • Coexpression of PAX5 with c-Met or phosphorylated c-Met was present in most of the atypical carcinoids, SCLCs, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Significant correlation between PAX5 and paxillin was detected in SCLCs and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas but not in carcinoid tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21043826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129501-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA125541-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129501-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129501-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA129501-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA125541; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA125541-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100750-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100750-06S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 3R01CA100750-06S109; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 3R01CA129501-02S109; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA125541-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA125541-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA100750-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129501; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100750-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100750; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 3R01CA125541-03S109; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129501-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100750-06S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA125541-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / PAX5 protein, human; 0 / Paxillin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS185687; NLM/ PMC3049158
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54. Ferolla P, Daddi N, Urbani M, Semeraro A, Ribacchi R, Giovenali P, Ascani S, De Angelis V, Crinò L, Puma F, Daddi G, Regional Multidisciplinary Group for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumors, CRO, Umbria Region Cancer Network, Italy: Tumorlets, multicentric carcinoids, lymph-nodal metastases, and long-term behavior in bronchial carcinoids. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Mar;4(3):383-7
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nodal dissection and serial sections of resected lung parenchima for research of multicentric forms and tumorlets were performed in most patients.
  • RESULTS: Lymph-node involvement was present in 14% of typical (14 of 100) and 13.04% of atypical carcinoids (3 of 23).
  • Overall survival was 98.2%, 95.8%, and 83.9% for typical and 71.6%, 57.3%, and 24% for atypical carcinoid respectively at 5, 10, and 15 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / mortality. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19247084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Warth A, Krysa S, Zahel T, Hoffmann H, Schirmacher P, Schnabel PA, Herpel E: [S100 protein positive sustentacular cells in pulmonary carcinoids and thoracic paragangliomas: differential diagnostic and prognostic evaluation]. Pathologe; 2010 Sep;31(5):379-84
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  • In order to get more insight into the prevalence as well as the prognostic and differential diagnostic value of this cell population in pulmonary carcinoids, we investigated a panel of 26 tumorlets, 147 typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids and ten thoracic paragangliomas immunohistochemically.
  • Hence, the presence and distribution of these cells does not appear to represent a reliable criterion in differential diagnosis.
  • Moreover, all pulmonary carcinoid patients with a worse outcome had low numbers of or no S100 protein positive cells in their tissue specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology. S100 Proteins / analysis. Thoracic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Count. Diagnosis, Differential. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lung / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20567830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins
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56. Jang BG, Kim SY, Park SH: Multiple pulmonary atypical carcinoids presenting with long-standing Cushing syndrome masked by pulmonary tuberculosis. Pathol Int; 2009 Jun;59(6):399-404
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  • [Title] Multiple pulmonary atypical carcinoids presenting with long-standing Cushing syndrome masked by pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • This CS was due to the ectopic ACTH produced by the pulmonary atypical carcinoids, which were recognized at the disseminated stage 5 years after the initial presentation of CS.
  • Microscopically, multiple whitish nodules (up to 1.0 cm in diameter) of the wedge-resected lung were composed of small round cells appearing to be typical neuroendocrine but were diagnosed as atypical carcinoid, based on the findings of focal necrosis, high mitotic rates and multiple endolymphatic tumor emboli.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells robustly stained for ACTH.
  • The delay of diagnosis is, in part, attributable to the pulmonary tuberculosis (one of the complications of hypercortisolism), because the pulmonary tuberculosis presented in the form of multiple nodules throughout the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications


57. Capelli M, Bertino G, Morbini P, Villa C, Zorzi S, Benazzo M: Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the upper airways: a small case series with histopathological considerations. Tumori; 2007 Sep-Oct;93(5):499-503
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  • Diagnosis requires the recognition of the typical neuroendocrine architecture and morphology and the immunohistochemical confirmation of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • In the 1991 WHO classification laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas have been divided into carcinoids, atypical carcinoids, small cell carcinomas and paragangliomas.
  • Atypical carcinoids in the head and neck region usually show an aggressive behavior analogous to poorly differentiated carcinomas, and are resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • The patient with small cell carcinoma was free from disease 26 months after radical surgery, while the other patients showed liver, lung and bone metastases 18, 26 and 24 months after the diagnosis despite radical surgery or concomitant intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18038886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies.
  • We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions.
  • Two patients had carcinoid syndrome including diarrhea, hot flashes, and palpitations.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • Mitotic figures were rare in primary carcinoid tumors with only 3 cases showing more than 2 per 10 HPF; necrosis was found in only 1 case.
  • Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The other 2 patients with atypical carcinoid and follow-up had no evidence of disease at 68 and 114 months.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.
  • However, lesions with the morphology of atypical carcinoid can occasionally exhibit metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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59. Skov BG, Holm B, Erreboe A, Skov T, Mellemgaard A: ERCC1 and Ki67 in small cell lung carcinoma and other neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: distribution and impact on survival. J Thorac Oncol; 2010 Apr;5(4):453-9
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  • [Title] ERCC1 and Ki67 in small cell lung carcinoma and other neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: distribution and impact on survival.
  • The associations of ERCC1 and Ki67, clinical features and survival in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) were determined.
  • RESULTS: The expression of ERCC1 was different among the different tumor types (p < 0.001).
  • A difference of the percentage of Ki67 LI was observed for the different tumor types (p < 0.001).
  • ERCC1 expression has prognostic impact in lung carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Endonucleases / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / metabolism. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / mortality. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Thorac Oncol. 2010 Nov;5(11):1876-7 [20975385.001]
  • (PMID = 20104194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases
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60. García-Yuste M, Molins L, Matilla JM, González-Aragoneses F, López-Pujol J, Ramos G, de la Torre M, Estudio Multicéntrico Español de los Tumores Neuroendocrinos del Pulmón de la Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirurgía Torácica (EMETNE-SEPAR): [Trends in prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung tumors]. Arch Bronconeumol; 2007 Oct;43(10):549-56
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  • [Title] [Trends in prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze trends in a variety of prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung carcinomas through analysis of 2 groups of surgically treated patients.
  • That group was analyzed retrospectively and contained 261 patients with typical carcinoid tumors, 43 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 22 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 35 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Group B contained 404 patients enrolled prospectively between 1998 and 2002: 308 with typical carcinoid tumors, 49 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 18 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 29 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • The following clinical variables were considered: sex, mean age, tumor site, tumor size, lymph node involvement, stage, metastasis, and local recurrence.
  • The 1997 TNM classification was used for staging of lung cancer and survival analysis was performed along with assessment of factors influencing survival.
  • RESULTS: In both groups, significant differences were observed between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors in terms of mean age, tumor size, node involvement, and recurrence.
  • In group A, female sex, node involvement, and recurrence differed between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; the same was true for group B, with the exception of lymph node involvement.
  • Both groups displayed significant differences in overall survival and survival of patients with lymph node involvement between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors and between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; no differences were observed between patients with large-cell versus small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A well-defined trend is observed in prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17939909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2896
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de bronconeumología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Bronconeumol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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61. Rekhtman N: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: an update. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1628-38
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: an update.
  • CONTEXT: The 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification recognizes 4 major types of lung neuroendocrine tumors: typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell lung cancer, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Markedly different prognostic implications and treatment paradigms for these tumors underscore the importance of accurate pathologic diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To detail the clinical and pathologic features of lung neuroendocrine tumors, with emphasis on diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, and application of immunohistochemistry.
  • The emerging evidence for the utility of Ki-67 (MIB1) in the diagnosis of lung neuroendocrine tumors, particularly in small biopsy and cytology, is emphasized.
  • Ki-67 (MIB1) is emerging as a useful ancillary tool in the diagnosis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 21043816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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62. Krüger S, Buck AK, Blumstein NM, Pauls S, Schelzig H, Kropf C, Schumann C, Mottaghy FM, Hombach V, Reske SN: Use of integrated FDG PET/CT imaging in pulmonary carcinoid tumours. J Intern Med; 2006 Dec;260(6):545-50
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  • [Title] Use of integrated FDG PET/CT imaging in pulmonary carcinoid tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners have been recently introduced in the diagnostic work-up of suspected pulmonary malignancy and demonstrate encouraging results in the staging of nonsmall-cell lung cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of integrated FDG PET/CT in pulmonary carcinoid tumours.
  • METHODS: We studied 13 patients (mean age +/- 1 SD, 57 +/- 11 years) with pulmonary carcinoid tumours.
  • Final histological diagnosis confirmed 12 typical and one atypical pulmonary carcinoid.
  • None of the patients had recurrent carcinoid disease or died during follow-up (864 +/- 218 days).
  • Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in typical carcinoids was 3.0 +/- 1.5 (range 1.2 - 6.6); SUV in the atypical carcinoid was remarkably high with a value of 8.5.
  • FDG uptake in pulmonary carcinoid tumours is often lower than expected for malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Division / physiology. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Lung / radiography. Lung / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 17116005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6820
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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63. Irving JA, Young RH: Lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases emphasizing their morphologic spectrum and problems in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Aug;29(8):997-1006
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  • [Title] Lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases emphasizing their morphologic spectrum and problems in differential diagnosis.
  • Thirty-two cases of lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary in women 26 to 76 years of age (mean, 47 years) are reported.
  • A history of prior lung carcinoma was documented in 53% of cases (17 of 32), with the ovarian tumor detected at a mean interval of 1 year.
  • In 10 cases (31%), the lung and ovarian tumors occurred synchronously, and in 5 (16%) the ovarian tumor was detected up to 26 months before the lung cancer.
  • Forty-four percent of the tumors were small cell carcinomas (14 of 32), 34% adenocarcinomas (11 of 32), and 16% large cell carcinomas (5 of 32); there was a single squamous cell carcinoma and one atypical carcinoid.
  • Thirteen percent of cases (4 of 32) had a coexisting primary ovarian tumor.
  • The mean ovarian tumor size was 9.7 cm, and one third of the ovarian metastases were bilateral.
  • Tumor was limited to the lung and one or both ovaries in 13 cases (40%).
  • Attention to these features, to the usual absence of associated typical surface epithelial neoplasia, and to the clinical history enabled the correct diagnosis to be made in the majority of cases without need of special studies.
  • The differential diagnosis with the primary ovarian tumors most often meriting consideration, including unusual variants of surface epithelial tumors, is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Time Factors. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16006793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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64. Ito T, Kim K, Taira M, Kinoshita M, Ikeda N: [Atypical carcinoid of the lung with abnormal elevation of serum ProGRP level; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Jun;63(6):505-7
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  • [Title] [Atypical carcinoid of the lung with abnormal elevation of serum ProGRP level; report of a case].
  • We report a rare case of an atypical carcinoid of the lung with the elevation of serum ProGRP.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid was pathologically suggested by a transbronchial lung biopsy.
  • Pathological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 20533746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98)
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66. Brokx HA, Risse EK, Paul MA, Grünberg K, Golding RP, Kunst PW, Eerenberg JP, van Mourik JC, Postmus PE, Mooi WJ, Sutedja TG: Initial bronchoscopic treatment for patients with intraluminal bronchial carcinoids. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Apr;133(4):973-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid of the lung is considered low-grade malignancy, and less invasive treatment may therefore be considered.
  • For intraluminal bronchial carcinoid, complete tumor eradication with initial bronchoscopic treatment was attempted.
  • High-resolution computed tomography in addition to bronchoscopy was used to determine intraluminal versus extraluminal tumor growth.
  • Surgery followed in cases of atypical carcinoid, residue, or recurrence.
  • Fifty-seven (79%) had typical carcinoids and 15 (21%) had atypical carcinoids.
  • Initial bronchoscopic treatment resulted in complete tumor eradication in 33 of 72 cases (46%), 30 typical and 3 atypical.
  • Thirty-seven of 72 cases (51%), 11 atypical, required surgery (2 for late detected recurrences).
  • Two patients had metastatic atypical carcinoid, 1 already at referral.
  • Of the 6 deaths, 1 was tumor related.
  • For successful tumor eradication with initial bronchoscopic treatment in central carcinoids, assessment of intraluminal versus extraluminal growth may be of much more importance than histologic division between typical and atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Bronchoscopy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17382637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Lal DR, Clark I, Shalkow J, Downey RJ, Shorter NA, Klimstra DS, La Quaglia MP: Primary epithelial lung malignancies in the pediatric population. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):683-6
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  • [Title] Primary epithelial lung malignancies in the pediatric population.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary epithelial lung malignancies are rare in childhood and adolescence.
  • We reviewed the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with these tumors to better understand their histology, time to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.
  • PROCEDURE: A retrospective review was performed on all patients 21 years of age or younger at diagnosis, treated for primary epithelial lung malignancies at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1980 and 2001.
  • RESULTS: We identified 11 patients with primary epithelial lung malignancy.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 19 (range: 12-21) years.
  • Seven patients (64%) were initially diagnosed as having pneumonia which contributed to a delay in diagnosis.
  • Final pathologic diagnoses included adenocarcinoma (four), carcinoid tumor (three typical, one atypical), basaloid carcinoma (two), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (one).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When children and adolescents present with primary epithelial lung malignancy a majority will have advanced disease and experience a delay in diagnosis.
  • The histologic types of tumors encountered are similar to lung tumors occurring in adults, although the frequency of the various types differs.
  • Carcinoid tumors are more frequent, and less common subtypes of bronchogenic carcinoma are also more prevalent in the pediatric age group.
  • Patients with carcinoid tumors seem to have the best prognosis, followed by adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Child. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Pneumonia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15714450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. McIntire M, Shah ND, Kim AW, Gattuso P, Liptay MJ: Cytologic imprints of giant atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor of the lung with extensive oncocytic component. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):887-90
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  • [Title] Cytologic imprints of giant atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor of the lung with extensive oncocytic component.
  • Bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors are found in less than 2 of 100,000 people yearly and comprise approximately 1-2% of all lung neoplasms.
  • Diagnosis is usually made by bronchoscopy with bronchial brushings or biopsy.
  • We present the cytologic imprint findings of a case of a 66-year-old man with an atypical giant bronchopulmonary carcinoid with extensive oncocytic component, who underwent a total right pneumonectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18855906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Dosios T, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Filippides T, Papachristou D: Multimodality treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Oct;53(5):305-9
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  • Four patients with this tumor who underwent multimodality treatment are presented and the literature is briefly reviewed.
  • All patients underwent extensive excision of the tumor.
  • Histological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid (2), typical carcinoid (1), and small cell carcinoma (1).
  • One patient died 132 months after diagnosis.
  • The remaining three patients are alive with no symptoms at 135, 99, and 35 months, respectively, after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / biosynthesis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / biosynthesis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Surgical Procedures, Operative. Synaptophysin / biosynthesis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16208618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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70. Buonerba C, Gallo C, Di Lorenzo G, Romeo V, Marinelli A: Ten-year adjuvant treatment with somatostatin analogs in a patient with atypical carcinoid of the lung. Anticancer Drugs; 2010 Apr;21(4):465-8
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  • [Title] Ten-year adjuvant treatment with somatostatin analogs in a patient with atypical carcinoid of the lung.
  • Both typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid (AC) of the lung are surgically curable, but AC carries a considerably worse prognosis because of a relatively high rate of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20075713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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71. Schmid K, Angerstein N, Geleff S, Gschwendtner A: Quantitative nuclear texture features analysis confirms WHO classification 2004 for lung carcinomas. Mod Pathol; 2006 Mar;19(3):453-9
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  • [Title] Quantitative nuclear texture features analysis confirms WHO classification 2004 for lung carcinomas.
  • The purpose of this study was to discriminate the main subsets of lung carcinomas of the WHO classification of 2004 by nuclear chromatin texture feature analysis.
  • Our collective comprised 56 typical and 19 atypical carcinoids, 37 small-cell carcinomas, 15 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 42 adenocarcinomas, and 26 squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Texture features describing the granularity and the compactness of the nuclear chromatin were extracted for calculation of classification rules, which allowed the discrimination of different tumor groups.
  • By applying the classification rule that described the granularity of the nuclear chromatin (defined by four different parameters) small-cell and non-small-cell lung carcinoma could correctly be discriminated in 93%.
  • When using compactness of chromatin (defined by four texture parameters) as a means of discrimination, carcinoids and non-small-cell lung carcinomas were correctly distinguished in 92%.
  • Our findings are in accordance with the new WHO classification of 2004: neuroendocrine tumors of the lung are now classified according only to their mitotic counts and presence of necrosis but not by their morphology; their discrimination by the means of nuclear image analysis is not sufficient and therefore not appropriate any longer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Chromatin / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / classification. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rosaniline Dyes. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16462732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromatin; 0 / Feulgen stain; 0 / Rosaniline Dyes
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72. Langfort R, Rudziński P, Burakowska B: [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol; 2010;78(1):33-46
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment].
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung represent a broad spectrum of morphologic types that share specific morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular characteristics.
  • The classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors has changed over the last decades and currently four categories are distinguished: typical carcinoid tumor, atypical carcinoid tumor, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise approximately 20% of all primary lung cancers.
  • Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and prognosis, a reliable histological diagnosis, as well as clinical and pathological staging system are essential for an appropriate medical proceedings.
  • All carcinoids are malignant tumors with the potential to metastasize.
  • The majority of patients with pulmonary carcinoid have an excellent survival, even if they present with lymph node metastases.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma progress rapidly and are generally widespread at the moment of diagnosis.
  • Increased knowledge about pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors biology and the genetic characteristics, imply that carcinoid tumors appear to have a different etiology and pathogenesis than large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • In practice, it could be easiest to conceptualize this group of pulmonary tumors as a spectrum of malignancy ranging from the low grade typical carcinoid to the highly malignant large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • Typical carcinoid tumors associated with a fairly benign behavior should be classified as low-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G1) and atypical carcinoid tumors as intermediate-grade tumor/carcinoma (G2).
  • Whereas, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma should be grouped together under the designation of high-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G3).
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20162517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-7077
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumonologia i alergologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumonol Alergol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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73. Pankiewicz W, Minarowski L, Niklińska W, Naumnik W, Nikliński J, Chyczewski L: Immunohistochemical markers of cancerogenesis in the lung. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2007;45(2):65-74
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical markers of cancerogenesis in the lung.
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for people of both sexes worldwide.
  • Early diagnosis of precancer lesions may be of crucial significance to lowering lung cancer mortality.
  • The World Health Organization has defined three preneoplastic lesions of the bronchial epithelium: squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia.
  • These lesions are believed to progress to squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors, respectively.
  • In this review we summarize the data of morphological and cell cycle related proteins changes in both central and peripheral compartments of lung.

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  • (PMID = 17597018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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74. Mackley HB, Videtic GM: Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy. Oncology (Williston Park); 2006 Nov;20(12):1537-43; discussion 1544-5, 1549
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy.
  • Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung represent a clinical spectrum of tumors ranging from the relatively benign and slow-growing typical carcinoid to the highly aggressive small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • Resected atypical carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas have a significant risk of localfailure, for which adjuvant radiation likely improves local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17153907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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75. Rickman OB, Vohra PK, Sanyal B, Vrana JA, Aubry MC, Wigle DA, Thomas CF Jr: Analysis of ErbB receptors in pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 May 15;15(10):3315-24
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  • [Title] Analysis of ErbB receptors in pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the expression of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases in pulmonary typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid tumors and to understand the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in pulmonary carcinoid tumor proliferation.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Surgically resected typical carcinoid (n = 24) and atypical carcinoid (n = 7) tumor tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4.
  • Sequencing of tumor DNA of exons 18 to 21 of the EGFR gene and the KRAS gene was carried out.
  • Biochemical analysis of lung carcinoid cell lines was used to investigate EGFR signal transduction and response to erlotinib inhibition.
  • RESULTS: The analysis showed that 45.8% of typical carcinoid and 28.6% of atypical carcinoid tumors express EGFR, 100% of the tumors lack expression of ErbB2, and 100% have moderate to intense staining for ErbB3 and ErbB4.
  • Sequencing of tumor DNA of exons 18 to 21 of the EGFR gene revealed the absence of tyrosine kinase domain mutations in these tumors.
  • Because EGFR and KRAS mutations tend not to be present at the same time, we sequenced the KRAS gene from pulmonary carcinoid tumor DNA and found that 100% were wild-type.
  • Using a lung carcinoid cell line that expresses EGFR, we found that erlotinib reduced proliferation by inhibiting EGFR signal transduction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest clinical potential for the use of EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumors, particularly for patients with EGFR-positive pulmonary carcinoid tumors not amenable to surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-3 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19447869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-3; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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76. De Dosso S, Bajetta E, Procopio G, Cortinovis D, Buzzoni R, Catena L, Platania M, Verzoni E: Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):162-8
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  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the malignant behaviour of low-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) treated at our institution.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 48 consecutive patients with pulmonary NETs referred to our Medical Oncology Unit between 1998 and 2006, including 33 subjects with typical carcinoids (TCs) and 15 with atypical carcinoids (ACs).
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, there were 37 metastatic and 11 non-metastatic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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77. Capovilla M, Kambouchner M, Bernier M, Soulier A, Tissier F, Saintigny P: Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid. Clin Lung Cancer; 2007 Mar;8(5):339-41
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  • [Title] Late cerebellar relapse of a juvenile bronchial carcinoid.
  • The most frequent histologic subtype is well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, or carcinoid.
  • They have a variable biologic behavior, ranging from benign to malignant tumors capable of very late recurrence or metastasis.
  • Liver and lung are frequent sites of carcinoid metastasis, and the central nervous system is exceptionally involved.
  • We report the case of a child with a pulmonary carcinoid initially considered typical, who presented with relapse in the cerebellum and mediastinum 16 years later.
  • After review of the pathology slides, primary and metastatic tumors were reclassified as atypical carcinoid according to the criteria of the 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung tumors.
  • This unusual case emphasizes the value of reviewing pulmonary carcinoids diagnosed before 1998 in order to distinguish typical from atypical lesions and to define follow-up modalities more clearly.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17562235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Hamad AM, Rizzardi G, Marulli G, Rea F: Nodal recurrence of pulmonary carcinoid 30 years after primary resection. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jun;3(6):680-1
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  • [Title] Nodal recurrence of pulmonary carcinoid 30 years after primary resection.
  • We present a case of nodal recurrence of carcinoid tumor in a 48-year-old male patient, 30 years after resection of primary tumor.
  • Octreoscan was used for diagnosis and localization of the mass.
  • Surgical resection was successful and histopathologic examination revealed lymph node infiltrated with atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18520814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Abdel Rahman AR: Bronchoplasty for primary broncho-pulmonary tumors. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2010 Mar;22(1):73-8
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  • METHODS: Between 2000 and 2009, 36 patients with primary lung tumors required bronchoplasty were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Pre operative diagnosis was acheived by bronchoscopy for all patients, mediastinoscopy was done for patients with primary lung cancer.
  • Neo adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 6 patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Post operative pathology revealed: 27 patients with typical carcinoid, 2 with atypical carcinoid, 4 with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with adenocarcinoma and one with hamartoma.
  • One patient with lung cancer developed bone metastases and was alive with disease, while the remaining 30 patients were alive and disease free.
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchoplastic resections achieve local control and long-term survival comparable to the standard resections in patients with carcinoid tumor and NSCLC in anatomically suited lesions.
  • KEY WORDS: Bronchoplasty - Primary - Lung - Tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21503009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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80. Detterbeck FC: Management of carcinoid tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2010 Mar;89(3):998-1005
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of carcinoid tumors.
  • Primary bronchopulmonary carcinoids comprise a significant proportion of carcinoid tumors.
  • The clinical presentation allows prediction of the diagnosis and cell type and directs evaluation and treatment.
  • Young age, central tumor, and no nodal enlargement are highly suggestive of typical carcinoid.
  • All bronchopulmonary carcinoids are malignant (though indolent), and surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment.
  • Mediastinoscopy is suggested when there is moderate suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN1 or peripheral cN0), with lobectomy and lymphadenectomy if the mediastinal nodes are benign.
  • For a high suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN2, peripheral cN1, 2), imaging for distant metastases and mediastinoscopy is suggested, with multimodality treatment for an atypical carcinoid with N2 involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Lung Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20172187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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81. Machuca TN, Cardoso PF, Camargo SM, Signori L, Andrade CF, Moreira AL, Moreira Jda S, Felicetti JC, Camargo JJ: Surgical treatment of bronchial carcinoid tumors: a single-center experience. Lung Cancer; 2010 Nov;70(2):158-62
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of bronchial carcinoid tumors: a single-center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Bronchial carcinoid is an infrequent neoplasm with a neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Surgical treatment is the gold standard therapy, with procedures varying from sublobar resections to complex lung sparing broncoplastic procedures.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 126 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for bronchial carcinoid tumors between December 1974 and July 2007.
  • Preoperative bronchoscopic diagnosis was obtained in 74 cases (58.7%).
  • The procedures performed were: 19 sublobar resections (14,9%), 58 lobectomies (46%), 8 bilobectomies (6.3%), 6 pneumonectomies (4.7%), 2 sleeve segmentectomies (1.5%), 26 sleeve lobectomies (20.6%) and 9 bronchoplastic procedures without lung resection (7.1%).
  • Five and 10-year survival for typical and atypical carcinoids were 91, 89% and 56, 47%, respectively.
  • Overall disease-free survival at 5 years was 91.9% Statistical analysis showed that overall disease-free survival correlated with histology--typical vs. atypical--(p = 0.04) and stage (p = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery provides safe and adequate treatment to bronchial carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Bronchoscopy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20223552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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82. Asamura H, Kameya T, Matsuno Y, Noguchi M, Tada H, Ishikawa Y, Yokose T, Jiang SX, Inoue T, Nakagawa K, Tajima K, Nagai K: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung: a prognostic spectrum. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan 1;24(1):70-6
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung: a prognostic spectrum.
  • PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine (NE) tumors of the lung include typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large-cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The histologic diagnosis was determined by the consensus of a pathology panel consisting of six expert pathologists as TC, AC, LCNEC, or SCLC on the basis of the WHO classification, and its relationship to clinicopathologic profiles was analyzed.
  • The pathology panel reviewed the remaining 366 tumors, and a diagnosis of NE tumor was made in 318 patients (87.4%); 55 patients had TC, nine had AC, 141 had LCNEC, and 113 had SCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16382115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Ricci A, Graziano P, Mariotta S, Cardillo G, Sposato B, Terzano C, Bronzetti E: Neurotrophin system expression in human pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Growth Factors; 2005 Dec;23(4):303-12
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  • [Title] Neurotrophin system expression in human pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • Neurotrophin (NT) and NT receptor expression was assessed in 12 typical (TC) and 8 atypical (AC) human pulmonary carcinoids by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.
  • TC and AC carcinoid express to different extent NT and NT receptor proteins.
  • Contrarily to the BDNF/TrkB, expression of the NGF/TrkA signaling may overcome aggressiveness of carcinoid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Nerve Growth Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16338793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0897-7194
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Factors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Neurotrophin 3; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkB; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkC
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84. Kaira K, Oriuchi N, Imai H, Shimizu K, Yanagitani N, Sunaga N, Hisada T, Kawashima O, Iijima H, Ishizuka T, Kanai Y, Endou H, Nakajima T, Mori M: Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(8):553-61
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  • [Title] Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) has been associated with tumor growth, and is highly expressed in the established tumor cell lines and primary human neoplasms.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression of LAT1 to evaluate the malignant potential and prognostic significance in neuroendocrine (NE) tumors of the lung.
  • Twenty-one surgically resected, large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC), 13 small cell lung cancers (SCLC), five atypical carcinoids (AC), and 10 typical carcinoids (TC) were enrolled in the study.
  • The present results suggest that LAT1 may play a significant role in cellular proliferation, lymph node metastasis, and poor outcome in patients with NE tumors of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / chemistry. Carcinoma, Large Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18440724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1
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85. Larsson DE, Wickström M, Hassan S, Oberg K, Granberg D: The cytotoxic agents NSC-95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine induce apoptosis in neuroendocrine tumors in vitro. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jan;30(1):149-56
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  • The aim of this study was to investigate the apoptosis resulting from NSC 95397, brefeldin A, bortezomib and sanguinarine in neuroendocrine tumor cell lines.
  • The human pancreatic carcinoid cell line, BON-1, human typical bronchial carcinoid cell line NCI-H727 and the human atypical bronchial carcinoid cell line NCI-H720 were tested.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bortezomib. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / drug therapy. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20150630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2,3-bis(2-hydroxyethylsulfanyl)-(1,4)naphthoquinone; 0 / Benzophenanthridines; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Naphthoquinones; 0 / Pyrazines; 20350-15-6 / Brefeldin A; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; AV9VK043SS / sanguinarine
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86. Righi L, Volante M, Rapa I, Tavaglione V, Inzani F, Pelosi G, Papotti M: Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling activation patterns in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Dec;17(4):977-87
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  • [Title] Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling activation patterns in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.
  • Among alternative therapeutic strategies in clinically aggressive neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the lung, promising results have been obtained in experimental clinical trials with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, though in the absence of a proven mTOR signaling activation status.
  • This study analyzed the expression of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) and its major targets, the ribosomal p70S6-kinase (S6K) and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) in a large series of 218 surgically resected, malignant lung NETs, including 24 metastasizing typical carcinoids, 73 atypical carcinoids, 60 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), and 61 small cell carcinomas (SCLCs).
  • Western blot analysis of NET tumor samples confirmed such findings, and differential sensitivity to mTOR inhibition according to mTOR pathway activation characteristics was determined in two lung carcinoid cell lines in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. Signal Transduction. Sirolimus / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20817788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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87. Deb SJ, Nichols FC, Allen MS, Deschamps C, Cassivi SD, Pairolero PC: Pulmonary carcinoid tumors with Cushing's syndrome: an aggressive variant or not? Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Apr;79(4):1132-6; discussion 1132-6
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  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumors with Cushing's syndrome: an aggressive variant or not?
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pulmonary carcinoid is considered an aggressive variant of carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: All patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) resulting from pulmonary carcinoid (PC) who underwent pulmonary resection at our institution from November 1966 through April 1998 were reviewed.
  • Typical carcinoid was identified in 21 patients (91%) and atypical carcinoid was identified in 2 patients (9%).
  • The median tumor diameter was 1.3 cm (range: 0.3-10).
  • Although rare these tumors do not seem to be as aggressive a variant of typical carcinoid tumors as previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery


88. Vidal A, Lorenzo MJ, Isidro ML, Cordido F: Atypical thymic carcinoid in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jul-Aug;30(7):601-2
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  • [Title] Atypical thymic carcinoid in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.
  • An asymptomatic, non-smoker patient carrier of a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1) mutation was diagnosed with invasive atypical thymic carcinoid tumor.
  • After surgical treatment the tumor reappeared albeit without metastasis.
  • Thymic carcinoid is a well-known cause of mortality in MEN1, and usually metastatic disease is present at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Pericardium / pathology


89. Warth A, Herpel E, Krysa S, Hoffmann H, Schnabel PA, Schirmacher P, Mechtersheimer G, Bläker H: Chromosomal instability is more frequent in metastasized than in non-metastasized pulmonary carcinoids but is not a reliable predictor of metastatic potential. Exp Mol Med; 2009 May 31;41(5):349-53
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  • Pulmonary carcinoids are infrequent neoplasms of the lung that normally display a less aggressive biological behavior compared to small cell and non-small cell lung cancers.
  • Approximately 15-25% of carcinoids, in particular atypical carcinoids, show lymph node metastasis and have a worse prognosis than their non-metastasized counterparts.
  • To date, there is no morphological or molecular marker that may help to differentiate between carcinoids that metastasize and carcinoids of identical differentiation that show only local tumor growth.
  • While microsatellite instability was not detected we found chromosomal instability as a common event in pulmonary carcinoids with an increase of frequency and extent of chromosomal alterations in atypical and metastasized carcinoids.
  • These findings are in accordance with the collected and herein compiled data of previous studies and indicate increasing numbers of chromosomal imbalances to play a role in the sequential process of tumor development and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Chromosomal Instability / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19307755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental & molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2701984
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90. Nogales FF, Buriticá C, Regauer S, González T: Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Sep;29(9):1247-51
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  • [Title] Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors.
  • We present, for the first time, two yolk sac tumors (YST) in women 37 and 18 years of age, one with a typical parietovisceral pattern and the other with a glandular pattern, which were associated with extensive areas of mucinous carcinoid (MC).
  • The tumor in the first case had numerous nodules of tubulopapillary YST that merged with well-differentiated MC.
  • The tumor in the second case consisted of an AFP-positive glandular YST, with a glandulopapillary pattern closely resembling fetal lung type adenocarcinoma, coexisting with an AFP-negative, cytokeratin 20-positive, atypical MC; transitional areas between the two components were also seen.
  • In the material from the recurrences and metastases; however, no YST was present, the atypical MC having become the predominant component including areas that had become carcinomatous.
  • The patient died 1 year after diagnosis.
  • It is important to differentiate the yolk sac and carcinoid components due to their different responses to chemotherapy and to evaluate the possibility of mucinous carcinoid developing into a highly aggressive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16096416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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91. Tiktinsky E, Horne T, Agranovich S, Lantsberg S: Intramuscular metastasis of carcinoid tumor: a rare manifestation. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jul;33(7):484-5
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  • [Title] Intramuscular metastasis of carcinoid tumor: a rare manifestation.
  • A 43-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of left upper lobectomy due to an atypical lung carcinoid tumor.
  • The scans showed slightly increased diffused tracer uptake in the apex of the left lung, most probably due to postoperative changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Octreotide
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lung / radionuclide imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18580236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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92. Otake Y, Aoki M, Nakanishi T, Hashimoto K: Atypical carcinoid of thymus associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Oct;58(10):534-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid of thymus associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1.
  • Thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1) is a rare tumor.
  • We report a case of MEN-1-related thymic carcinoid.
  • She underwent thymectomy with partial resection of the left innominate vein and lung.
  • Histological examination revealed atypical carcinoid with infiltration.
  • MEN-1-related thymic carcinoid is often insidious with a poor prognosis.
  • We suggest chest computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging for MEN-1 patients and serological or genetic screening for patients with thymic carcinoid to screen for MEN-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis


93. Sigurdardottir JM, Isaksson HJ, Johannsson KB, Jonsson S, Gudbjartsson T: [Histology does not accurately predict the clinical behaviour of bronchopulmonary carcinoids - results from an Icelandic population-based study]. Laeknabladid; 2008 Feb;94(2):125-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These tumors are histologically classified into two distinctive forms, typical and the more malignant atypical BPC.
  • We evaluated the epidemiology and results of treatment for BPC in Iceland with special emphasis on how atypical vs. typical histology relates to clinical behavior.
  • ), accounting for 1.9% of all lung neoplasms in Iceland.
  • Average tumor-diameter was 2.5 cm (range 0.4-5.5), with typical histology in 54 (84%) and atypical in 10 patients (16%).
  • Five-year disease specific survival was 96% for patients with typical and 70% with atypical histology (p<0.05).
  • Metastases are more common in patients with atypical histology (40%), and their survival is worse.
  • Therefore, histology (typical vs. atypical) can not be used with certainty to predict the clinical behaviour of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18310777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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94. Fox T, Simon EL, Elder E, Riffenburgh RH, Johnstone PA: Free breathing gated delivery (FBGD) of lung radiation therapy: analysis of factors affecting clinical patient throughput. Lung Cancer; 2007 Apr;56(1):69-75
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  • [Title] Free breathing gated delivery (FBGD) of lung radiation therapy: analysis of factors affecting clinical patient throughput.
  • The photon beam is on only during a particular prescribed percentage of the respiratory cycle where the target tumor volume is minimized.
  • The majority of patients had lung cancer (n=12) with single cases of adrenal metastasis, thymoma, and atypical carcinoid.
  • For comparison purposes, 13 non-gated lung cancer patients (lesions were not moving with respiration) were selected from the R&V database.
  • Even though this technology more accurately targets tumor volumes while sparing normal tissue, the patient throughput issue may deter this technology from being implemented into busy clinical practices.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted / methods. Respiration

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  • (PMID = 17196299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / 5P60-MD000525
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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95. D'Adda T, Bottarelli L, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Bongiovanni M, Papotti M, Pelosi G, Maisonneuve P, Antonetti T, Rindi G, Bordi C: Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jun;18(6):795-805
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  • [Title] Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors.
  • Association of X chromosome allelic losses with tumor malignancy has been identified in foregut but not in midgut endocrine neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy in lung neuroendocrine tumors, another family of foregut neoplasms comprising four categories with increased malignancy: typical and atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell lung carcinomas.
  • To evaluate loss of heterozygosity, DNA extracted from nine typical carcinoids, 17 atypical carcinoids, six large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and five small cell lung carcinomas was PCR-amplified for 18 microsatellite markers spanning the whole X chromosome.
  • X chromosome losses were absent in typical carcinoids, whereas they were found in nine out of 17 atypical carcinoids and in five out of six large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (involving 28 and 70% of informative loci, respectively).
  • On the contrary, deletions on X chromosome were an extremely rare event in small cell lung carcinomas.
  • In atypical carcinoids, the presence of losses was associated with larger tumor size, higher pT status and advanced stage.
  • No death occurred in atypical carcinoid patients without deletions on X chromosome, whereas all atypical carcinoid patients who had died from disease showed allelic losses.
  • In conclusion, X chromosome allelic losses, absent in benign 'typical' carcinoids, progressively increased in frequency from intermediate-grade 'atypical' carcinoids to high-grade large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • These results extend the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy, already demonstrated in other foregut endocrine neoplasms, to lung neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The absence of X chromosome allelic losses in small cell lung carcinomas underlines a striking difference from large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, possibly linked to different pathogenetic mechanisms of these two highly aggressive neuroendocrine lung tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15578070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Rizvi SM, Goodwill J, Lim E, Yap YK, Wells AU, Hansell DM, Davis P, Selim AG, Goldstraw P, Nicholson AG: The frequency of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia in patients with pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours and non-neuroendocrine cell carcinomas. Histopathology; 2009 Sep;55(3):332-7
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  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Random blocks without tumour from resected typical carcinoids (TCs, n = 46), atypical carcinoids (ACs, n = 14), large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs, n = 18), small cell carcinomas (SCLCs, n = 22), adenocarcinomas (ADENOs, n = 26) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs, n = 18) were stained for CD56 and evaluated for linear proliferations, cell aggregates (>4 CD56+ cells), and tumourlets (<5 mm with basement membrane invasion).
  • CONCLUSIONS: NEH is significantly increased in the background lung of neuroendocrine tumours when compared with non-neuroendocrine carcinomas, supportive data for NEH having neoplastic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Lung / pathology. Lung / physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Cells / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Cells / pathology. Respiratory Function Tests. Young Adult

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  • [ErratumIn] Histopathology. 2011 Apr;58(5):809. Abdel-Ghani, Syed [corrected to Selim, Abdel-Ghani]
  • (PMID = 19723148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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97. Rizzardi G, Marulli G, Calabrese F, Rugge M, Rebusso A, Sartori F, Rea F: Bronchial carcinoid tumours in children: surgical treatment and outcome in a single institution. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;19(4):228-31
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  • [Title] Bronchial carcinoid tumours in children: surgical treatment and outcome in a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors are low grade, malignant, neuroendocrine neoplasms.
  • The aim of our study was to analyse the long-term survival and surgical treatment outcome in our young patients operated for carcinoid tumour.
  • RESULTS: We performed 10 (66.7%) parenchyma-saving procedures (5 sleeve lobectomies, 3 sleeve resections of the main bronchus, 2 bronchoplasties associated with lung resection) and 5 (33.3%) standard resections (3 bilobectomies and 2 lobectomies).
  • There were 13 typical and 2 atypical carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 19513967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-359X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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98. Machado MC, Sá SV, Goldbaum TS, Catania M, Campos VC, Corrêa-Giannella ML, Giannella-Neto D, Salgado LR: In vivo response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 in adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome by lung carcinoid tumor is associated with growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a mRNA expression. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Apr;30(4):334-40
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  • [Title] In vivo response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 in adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome by lung carcinoid tumor is associated with growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a mRNA expression.
  • GH secretagogues (GHS) have been used for the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) since 1997 due to their ability to increase ACTH and cortisol levels in Cushing's disease.
  • The aim of this study was to correlate ACTH response to GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) in vivo with GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a) mRNA expression in a patient with lung carcinoid tumor.
  • The patient was a 26-yr-old male with diagnosis of ACTH-dependent CS.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and MRI of thorax/abdomen/cervical were negative and 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy depicted abnormal uptake on the right lung.
  • The patient was submitted to right thoracotomy for exeresis of lung nodule and hilar lymph node which were characterized as atypical lung carcinoid tumor and he presented clinical and laboratorial remission after surgery.
  • GHSR-1a mRNA expression was studied with real-time quantitative PCR and tumor data were compared with fragments of normal lung and pituitary.
  • There was a higher GHSR-1a expression in the lung carcinoid tumor as compared with normal tissues.
  • The ACTH response to GHRP-6 in a patient with ectopic ACTH production by a lung carcinoid tumor was associated with GHSR-1a expression in the tumor tissue, suggesting an association between GHSR-1a mRNA overexpression and the in vivo response to GHS.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin


99. Yu R, Wolin E, Fan X: Single Subcutaneous Nodule as Initial Presentation of Atypical Lung Carcinoid. World J Oncol; 2010 Oct;1(5):204-207
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  • [Title] Single Subcutaneous Nodule as Initial Presentation of Atypical Lung Carcinoid.
  • We report a 50-year-old woman whose atypical lung carcinoid presented as a single subcutaneous nodule.
  • This case illustrates that an apparently innocuous subcutaneous nodule could be the initial presentation of an otherwise asymptomatic but widely metastatic atypical lung carcinoid.
  • Physicians should be aware of signs of skin metastasis from lung malignancies and judiciously select patients with subcutaneous nodule for biopsy.

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  • (PMID = 29147207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-454X
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical lung carcinoid / Metastasis / Subcutaneous nodule
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100. Ciment A, Gil J, Teirstein A: Late recurrent pulmonary typical carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature. Mt Sinai J Med; 2006 Oct;73(6):884-6
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  • [Title] Late recurrent pulmonary typical carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature.
  • Carcinoid tumors are uncommon pulmonary neoplasms.
  • They are classified histologically as either atypical or typical.
  • Atypical carcinoids are aggressive malignancies that require radical surgical resection and have a guarded prognosis with a propensity to metastasize and recur.
  • Recurrence of a typical pulmonary carcinoid tumor more than a decade after initial resection is very rare.
  • A patient with recurrence of a typical carcinoid tumor 11 years after resection of the primary lesion with one involved lymph node is reported here.
  • Late recurrences are rare in both atypical and typical varieties, but are much more common in atypical carcinoids.
  • The patient reported here represents the fifth case of recurrence of a typical carcinoid tumor more than ten years after resection.
  • This suggests that, after resection of a typical carcinoid neoplasm, patients should be monitored carefully, especially if lymph node metastases are present at the time of surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / physiopathology. Lung Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17117316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-2507
  • [Journal-full-title] The Mount Sinai journal of medicine, New York
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mt. Sinai J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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