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1. Pelosi G, Rodriguez J, Viale G, Rosai J: Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor overdiagnosed as small-cell carcinoma on biopsy specimens: a major pitfall in the management of lung cancer patients. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Feb;29(2):179-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor overdiagnosed as small-cell carcinoma on biopsy specimens: a major pitfall in the management of lung cancer patients.
  • Seven patients with typical or atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumors overdiagnosed as small-cell carcinoma on bronchoscopic biopsies are described.
  • The carcinoid tumors presented as either central or peripheral lesions composed of tumor cells with granular, sometimes coarse chromatin pattern, high levels of chromogranin A/synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and low (<20%) Ki-67 (MIB-1) labeling index.
  • The tumor stroma contained thin-walled blood vessels.
  • Small-cell carcinomas always showed central tumor location, finely dispersed nuclear chromatin, lower levels of chromogranin A/synaptophysin, and high (>50%) Ki-67 (MIB-1) labeling index.
  • Judging from this study, overdiagnosis of carcinoid tumor as small-cell carcinoma in small crushed bronchial biopsies remains a significant potential problem in a worldwide sample of hospital settings.
  • Careful evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin sections remains the most important tool for the differential diagnosis, with evaluation of tumor cell proliferation by Ki-67 (MIB-1) labeling index emerging from our review as the most useful ancillary technique for the distinction.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged


2. Kayhan FT, Başaran EG: Typical carcinoid tumor of the larynx in a woman: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:321
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  • [Title] Typical carcinoid tumor of the larynx in a woman: a case report.
  • Histopathologically, neuroendocrine tumors can be classified into four types: typical carcinoid tumors, atypical carcinoid tumors, small cell neuroendocrine tumors and paragangliomas.
  • Typical carcinoid tumor of the larynx is a particularly rare occurrence.
  • We present a case of this rare disease, and review and discuss its diagnosis and treatment.
  • Results of the histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with typical carcinoid tumor of the larynx.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumors require an accurate diagnosis because of their varied clinical behavior and prognosis.
  • A correct pathologic diagnosis is essential, differentiating the tumors from other neuroendocrine neoplasms and medullary cancer of the thyroid gland.
  • Currently, conservative surgical resection without elective neck dissection is the recommended treatment for typical carcinoid tumor of the larynx.
  • Additional cases and case series with long-term follow-up will be useful for understanding the nature of this tumor and should clarify the prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 20939901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2964737
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3. Tzimas GN, Vali K, Deschênes M, Marcus VA, Barkun JS, Tchervenkov JI, Metrakos PP: Liver transplantation for metastases from a bile duct carcinoid. HPB (Oxford); 2006;8(1):67-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liver transplantation for metastases from a bile duct carcinoid.
  • Pathology revealed an atypical carcinoid tumour of the left extrahepatic bile duct, with perineural and lymphatic invasion.
  • DISCUSSION: To our knowledge this is the first report of a biliary carcinoid treated with hepatectomy and finally with liver transplantation, with excellent results.

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  • [Cites] Transplant Proc. 2002 Feb;34(1):264-5 [11959276.001]
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  • (PMID = 18333243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2131368
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4. Dosios T, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Filippides T, Papachristou D: Multimodality treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Oct;53(5):305-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Four patients with this tumor who underwent multimodality treatment are presented and the literature is briefly reviewed.
  • All patients underwent extensive excision of the tumor.
  • Histological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid (2), typical carcinoid (1), and small cell carcinoma (1).
  • One patient died 132 months after diagnosis.
  • The remaining three patients are alive with no symptoms at 135, 99, and 35 months, respectively, after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / biosynthesis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / biosynthesis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Surgical Procedures, Operative. Synaptophysin / biosynthesis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16208618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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5. Stević R, Jovanović D, Masulović D, Pesut D, Vasić N, Stojić J: [Clinico-radiological characteristics of bronchial carcinoid]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2009;56(4):51-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinico-radiological characteristics of bronchial carcinoid].
  • OBJECTIVES: To review clinical and radiological characteristics of a patients with bronchial carcinoid.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical, pathological and imaging findings in 42 patients diagnosed with bronchial carcinoid during the seven years period.
  • Thirty patients had typical and 12 atypical bronchial carcinoid.
  • Tumor was localized in 28 patients in the left, and 14 in the right lung.
  • On radiographs carcinoid manifested as tumor shadow in 40.5%, nodule and atelectasis in 21.4% cases each respectively, pleural effusion and pneumonia in 7.1% each respectively and hyperinflation in 2.4% of the cases.
  • Computerized tomography revealed endoluminal tumor in 30.9% patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Major imaging findings are central, tumor mass or nodule and obstruction signs like atelectasis.
  • Diagnosis is confirmed by pathological examination of samples taken by bronchoscopy or surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20419997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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6. Pein MK, Holzhausen H, Kösling S, Bartel-Friedrich S, Knipping S: [Atypical carcinoid of the larynx. Case report and review of literature]. HNO; 2010 Aug;58(8):812-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Atypical carcinoid of the larynx. Case report and review of literature].
  • To date, no diagnosis or treatment guidelines have been established for this entity.
  • Initial laryngoscopy showed a tumour at the laryngeal epiglottic surface.
  • Staging demonstrated an atypical carcinoid tumour with local lymph-node metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: In atypical carcinoid tumours total resection as well as bilateral neck dissection should be performed, even in cN0 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Cites] Oral Oncol. 2006 Sep;42(8):770-88 [16815077.001]
  • [Cites] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1999;256(5):242-6 [10392299.001]
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  • (PMID = 20480128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Isaka T, Maruno M, Suzuki T, Sato M, Yoshimine T: Skull metastases from atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor in a 19-year-old man. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Dec;46(12):609-13
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  • [Title] Skull metastases from atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor in a 19-year-old man.
  • A 19-year-old man presented with a rare skull metastasis from atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor (APCT) manifesting as headache, diplopia, and cough.
  • Head magnetic resonance imaging showed a skull base tumor extending from the posterior clinoid process to the clivus, and calvarial tumors in the right temporal and occipital bones.
  • Chest and abdominal computed tomography showed a round tumor, 4 cm in diameter, in the lower lobe of the right lung and multiple small tumors in the liver.
  • Surgery for the calvarial tumor in the right temporal bone was performed on June 27, 2003.
  • The histological diagnosis was skull metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Partial resection of the right lower lobe was performed for the lung tumor on August 22, 2003.
  • The histological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • We must consider APCT in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary tumors in adolescents, and perform follow-up observation or treatment, including surgery, if APCT is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17185889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Ferolla P, Daddi N, Urbani M, Semeraro A, Ribacchi R, Giovenali P, Ascani S, De Angelis V, Crinò L, Puma F, Daddi G, Regional Multidisciplinary Group for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumors, CRO, Umbria Region Cancer Network, Italy: Tumorlets, multicentric carcinoids, lymph-nodal metastases, and long-term behavior in bronchial carcinoids. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Mar;4(3):383-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Lymph-node involvement was present in 14% of typical (14 of 100) and 13.04% of atypical carcinoids (3 of 23).
  • Overall survival was 98.2%, 95.8%, and 83.9% for typical and 71.6%, 57.3%, and 24% for atypical carcinoid respectively at 5, 10, and 15 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / mortality. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19247084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Kawauchi S, Okuda S, Morioka H, Iwasaki F, Fukuma F, Chochi Y, Furuya T, Oga A, Sasaki K: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix with cytogenetic analysis by comparative genomic hybridization: a case study. Hum Pathol; 2005 Oct;36(10):1096-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The cervical tumor showed moderately increased mitotic activity (8-14 mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields) and focal necrosis, which made it problematic to differentiate from atypical carcinoid.
  • CGH analysis failed to detect chromosome 11q loss that has been reported to be characteristic of pulmonary atypical carcinoids.
  • Furthermore, chromosome 3q amplification, which has been detected frequently in pulmonary small cell carcinomas and LCNECs but not in pulmonary typical and atypical carcinoids, was the most remarkable chromosomal aberration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Mitosis. Ovariectomy. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vaginal Smears


10. Radfar L, Fatahzadeh M: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the oral cavity: a case report and review of the literature. Gen Dent; 2008 Nov-Dec;56(7):714-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Based on their biological characteristics, NE carcinomas are classified into three subtypes: well-differentiated NE carcinoma (typical carcinoid tumor), moderately differentiated NE carcinoma (atypical carcinoid tumor), and poorly differentiated carcinoma (small cell carcinoma).

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  • (PMID = 19014033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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11. Brambilla E, Lantuejoul S: [Thoracic neuroendocrine tumors]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Dec;25(6):529-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Neuroendocrine pulmonary and thymic tumors constitute a distinct category of tumors collectively disclosing morphologic and biologic neuroendocrine features.
  • The typical carcinoids are of low grade, the atypical carcinoids of intermediate grade and the large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with the small cell carcinoma are high grade neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Their distinction relies on objective morphologic and phenotypic criteria of strong clinical significance and predictive prognostic value.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16735977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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12. Chang KP, Lee LY, Yeh AR, Dai TS, Hao SP: Endoscopic CO2 laser surgery for an atypical carcinoid tumor of the epiglottis masquerading as a supraglottic cyst. Head Neck; 2005 Nov;27(11):1004-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic CO2 laser surgery for an atypical carcinoid tumor of the epiglottis masquerading as a supraglottic cyst.
  • BACKGROUND: Atypical carcinoid tumor is a neuroendocrine tumor; its occurrence in the larynx is uncommon, and clinical manifestations are rare.
  • We report an unusual case of atypical carcinoid tumor of the epiglottis mimicking a supraglottic retention cyst.
  • Her symptoms persisted, so we performed a laryngoscopic biopsy, which suggested an atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • Endoscopic CO2 laser surgery can be used to resect this uncommon tumor, with oncologically sound results and without surgical morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Epiglottis / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laser Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cysts / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Diseases / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16114009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Daniels CE, Lowe VJ, Aubry MC, Allen MS, Jett JR: The utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the evaluation of carcinoid tumors presenting as pulmonary nodules. Chest; 2007 Jan;131(1):255-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the evaluation of carcinoid tumors presenting as pulmonary nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is sensitive for detection of neoplastic solitary pulmonary nodules but may have decreased sensitivity for detection of carcinoid tumors.
  • Our purpose was to determine the sensitivity of FDG-PET to detect pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of our institutional results regarding FDG-PET in the setting of thoracic carcinoid neoplasms.
  • We identified 16 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of bronchial carcinoid who had an antecedent FDG-PET (from 2000 to 2004).
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients had a diagnosis of carcinoid tumor, typical in 11 patients and atypical in 5 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET imaging is useful for evaluation of typical and atypical thoracic carcinoid tumors.
  • Although overall PET sensitivity for detection of carcinoid tumors is somewhat reduced as compared to non-small cell lung cancer, it is much higher than prior reports suggest.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Solitary Pulmonary Nodule / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17218584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3692
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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14. Pankiewicz W, Minarowski L, Niklińska W, Naumnik W, Nikliński J, Chyczewski L: Immunohistochemical markers of cancerogenesis in the lung. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2007;45(2):65-74
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  • Early diagnosis of precancer lesions may be of crucial significance to lowering lung cancer mortality.
  • The World Health Organization has defined three preneoplastic lesions of the bronchial epithelium: squamous dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia.
  • These lesions are believed to progress to squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 17597018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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15. Senda E, Fujimoto K, Ohnishi K, Higashida A, Ashida C, Okutani T, Sakano S, Yamamoto M, Ito R, Yamada H: Minute ampullary carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastases: a case report and review of literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:9
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  • [Title] Minute ampullary carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastases: a case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors are usually considered to have a low degree of malignancy and show slow progression.
  • One of the factors indicating the malignancy of these tumors is their size, and small ampullary carcinoid tumors have been sometimes treated by endoscopic resection.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 63-year-old woman with a minute ampullary carcinoid tumor that was 7 mm in diameter, but was associated with 2 peripancreatic lymph node metastases.
  • Endoscopy showed that the ampulla was slightly enlarged by a submucosal tumor.
  • The biopsy specimen revealed tumor cells that showed monotonous proliferation suggestive of a carcinoid tumor.
  • The resected lesion was a small submucosal tumor (7 mm in diameter) at the ampulla, with metastasis to 2 peripancreatic lymph nodes, and it was diagnosed as a malignant carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Recently there have been some reports of endoscopic ampullectomy for small carcinoid tumors.
  • However, this case suggests that attention should be paid to the possibility of lymph node metastases as well as that of regional infiltration of the tumor even for minute ampullary carcinoid tumors to provide the best chance for cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19159493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2636813
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16. Blochin E, Stein JA, Wang NS: Atypical carcinoid metastasis to the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Oct;32(7):735-9
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid metastasis to the skin.
  • Carcinoid tumors are derived from neuroendocrine cells, and are most frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system.
  • Cutaneous involvement of carcinoid tumors is relatively rare, with isolated case reports in the literature.
  • We detail a patient with stage IV pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor with skin metastasis.
  • On biopsy, the tumor cells had cytologic features of a carcinoid tumor, but were arranged as infiltrating cords, small aggregates and single units, rather than the organoid or trabecular pattern seen in the primary tumor.
  • Further, along with neuroendocrine markers, the tumor cells had the staining pattern of cytokeratin 7+/cytokeratin 20-/thyroid transcription factor-1+, supporting a carcinoid tumor of lung origin.
  • Thus, this case of skin metastasis from an atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor illustrates a unique clinical and histologic presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20595888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Felekouras E, Petrou A, Bramis K, Prassas E, Papaconstantinou I, Dimitriou N, Pazaiti A, Tsigris C, Giannopoulos A: Malignant carcinoid tumor of the cystic duct: a rare cause of bile duct obstruction. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Dec;8(6):640-6
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  • [Title] Malignant carcinoid tumor of the cystic duct: a rare cause of bile duct obstruction.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for 0.2%-2% of all gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, while carcinoids of the cystic duct are an uncommon entity and an extremely unusual cause of bile duct obstruction.
  • METHODS: After an extensive literature review, we retrospectively analysed 61 cases of carcinoid tumor of the biliary tree as well as one additional case of a 60-year-old female with symptoms and laboratory/imaging examination findings compatible with those of a malignant biliary tract obstruction.
  • Compared to cholangiocarcinoma, analysis of the reviewed group indicates an increased incidence of extrahepatic carcinoid tumors in younger persons along with a slight female predominance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors obstructing the biliary tree are extremely difficult to diagnose preoperatively, and nearly impossible to differentiate from non-neuroendocrine tumors.
  • As surgery offers the only potential cure for both biliary carcinoids and cholangiocarcinoma, we recommend aggressive surgical therapy as the treatment of choice in every case of potentially resectable biliary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cholestasis / etiology. Cystic Duct / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20007084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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18. Mahomed F: Neuroendocrine cells and associated malignancies of the oral mucosa: a review. J Oral Pathol Med; 2010 Feb;39(2):121-7
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  • Primary malignant oral tumors that show a neuroendocrine phenotype display histomorphologic heterogeneity thereby giving rise to a spectrum of lesions in this rare category of oral malignancy.
  • The former is further subdivided into the Merkel cell type or the pulmonary type while the latter includes atypical carcinoid tumor and large cell NEC.
  • It remains to be determined whether histologic categorization of the remaining tumor subtypes is predictive of patient survival in oral neuroendocrine tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20002872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0714
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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19. Lewis JS Jr, Spence DC, Chiosea S, Barnes EL Jr, Brandwein-Gensler M, El-Mofty SK: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx: definition of an entity. Head Neck Pathol; 2010 Sep;4(3):198-207
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  • Laryngeal atypical carcinoids (AC/moderately-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma) are associated with moderately aggressive clinical behavior; however, a subset of tumors classified as AC have much greater aggressive potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 20589486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097190
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2923306
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20. John BM, Song MH, Park YS, Jo YJ, Kim SH, Lee HH, Kim SK, Jung SH, Kim DH, Kim DH: [A case of carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr;47(4):320-3
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  • [Title] [A case of carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct].
  • Majority of malignant neoplasms arising from the extrahepatic bile duct are adenocarcinomas.
  • Carcinoid tumors at this site are extremely rare.
  • We report a 67-year-old woman with malignant carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct.
  • She underwent Whipple's operation and was diagnosed as malignant carcinoid tumor histologically and immunohistochemically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16632986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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21. Thomas R, Christopher DJ, Balamugesh T, Shah A: Clinico-pathologic study of pulmonary carcinoid tumours--a retrospective analysis and review of literature. Respir Med; 2008 Nov;102(11):1611-4
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  • [Title] Clinico-pathologic study of pulmonary carcinoid tumours--a retrospective analysis and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristic clinico-pathologic features of pulmonary carcinoid tumours in India.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the clinico-pathologic and radiologic data of patients with pulmonary carcinoid tumours from the department of Pulmonary Medicine of the Christian Medical College, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India, over a study period of 3 years (2001-2004).
  • RESULTS: There were 25 cases of pulmonary carcinoid tumours: typical 22 (88%) and atypical 3 (12%).
  • There were 3 smokers (all of whom were males) in the typical carcinoid group and none in the atypical carcinoid group.
  • Carcinoid syndrome was not present in any patient.
  • Diagnosis was made by flexible bronchoscopy and bronchial biopsy in 23 patients (92%).
  • The tumour bled significantly following biopsy in most patients; however, there was no mortality, and only 1 patient required blood transfusion.
  • CONCLUSION: The clinico-pathologic and radiologic features of pulmonary carcinoid tumours are presented.
  • We report the first series of pulmonary carcinoid tumours from India.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18614346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3064
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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22. Abdel Rahman AR: Bronchoplasty for primary broncho-pulmonary tumors. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2010 Mar;22(1):73-8
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  • Pre operative diagnosis was acheived by bronchoscopy for all patients, mediastinoscopy was done for patients with primary lung cancer.
  • Post operative pathology revealed: 27 patients with typical carcinoid, 2 with atypical carcinoid, 4 with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with adenocarcinoma and one with hamartoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchoplastic resections achieve local control and long-term survival comparable to the standard resections in patients with carcinoid tumor and NSCLC in anatomically suited lesions.

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  • (PMID = 21503009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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23. Srirajaskanthan R, Toumpanakis C, Karpathakis A, Marelli L, Quigley AM, Dusmet M, Meyer T, Caplin ME: Surgical management and palliative treatment in bronchial neuroendocrine tumours: a clinical study of 45 patients. Lung Cancer; 2009 Jul;65(1):68-73
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  • Histological diagnosis from our department was available for 39 patients, with the remainder having had histological assessment performed previously.
  • Typical carcinoid was present in 25 cases, atypical in 9 cases, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in 4 and 1 case of small cell lung carcinoma.
  • All patients were staged at time of initial diagnosis with CT scan, in addition Octreoscans were performed when appropriate.
  • Somatostatin analogues were used as first line therapy in six patients, for symptom control and anti-tumour effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Palliative Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 19070398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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24. Wang HB, Wang LP: [Analysis on clinical characteristics of rectal neuroendocrine tumors]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Jun 22;90(24):1686-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) so as to improve their understanding and diagnosis.
  • And the relationship of tumor size, histological type and metastases was examined.
  • RESULTS: The clinical presentations of rectal NETs were atypical.
  • All patients had single lesion without the presence of carcinoid syndrome.
  • Except for synchronous colorectal adenocarcinomas (n=10), among 52 cases, there were 39 cases with tumor diameter <1 cm, the main type was type I; 7 cases with tumor diameter >2 cm, the main types were types II and III.
  • The metastatic rates in three groups with tumor diameter <1 cm, 1-2 cm and >2 cm were 0, 33.3% and 71.4% respectively.
  • Most cases are often single lesion without the presence of carcinoid syndrome.
  • The clinical process and prognosis of rectal NETs are closely related to tumor size, histological type, the presence of lymph node metastases and liver metastases.

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  • (PMID = 20979878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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25. Papacharalampous GX, Korres S, Tzagaroulakis M, Segas I, Ferekidis E: Paraganglioma of the larynx: a case report. Med Sci Monit; 2007 Dec;13(12):CS145-8
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  • The tumor was entirely removed along with the left aryepiglottic fold with respect to the surrounding tissues.
  • The differential diagnosis of laryngeal paraganglioma includes typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 18049441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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26. McIntire M, Shah ND, Kim AW, Gattuso P, Liptay MJ: Cytologic imprints of giant atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor of the lung with extensive oncocytic component. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):887-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytologic imprints of giant atypical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumor of the lung with extensive oncocytic component.
  • Bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors are found in less than 2 of 100,000 people yearly and comprise approximately 1-2% of all lung neoplasms.
  • Diagnosis is usually made by bronchoscopy with bronchial brushings or biopsy.
  • We present the cytologic imprint findings of a case of a 66-year-old man with an atypical giant bronchopulmonary carcinoid with extensive oncocytic component, who underwent a total right pneumonectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18855906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Wang KL, Yang YC, Wang TY, Chen JR, Chen TC, Chen HS, Su TH, Wang KG: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A clinicopathologic retrospective study of 31 cases with prognostic implications. J Chemother; 2006 Apr;18(2):209-16
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  • There are two cases of atypical carcinoid tumor (ACT), four cases of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and 25 cases of small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC).
  • Overall survival did not differ significantly in relation to surgery, tumor histology, age, FIGO stages, chemotherapeutic regimens or lymph node involvement.
  • Effective treatments of neuroendocrine cervical tumor still remain inconclusive.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / virology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / virology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / virology. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 16 / metabolism. Human papillomavirus 18 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 18 / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate


28. Litzky LA: Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors. Surg Pathol Clin; 2010 Mar;3(1):27-59
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  • A practical approach is emphasized, and the differential diagnosis is discussed with particular attention to the context in which diagnostic difficulties are most frequently encountered, such as small biopsies and frozen sections.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26839026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical carcinoid tumor / Carcinoid tumor / Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma / Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia / Neuroendocrine tumors / Nonneuroendocrine cell carcinomas / Small cell carcinoma
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29. Zidi A, Douira W, Hantous-Zannad S, Mestiri I, Ben Miled-M'Rad K: [Imaging of bronchial carcinoid tumors: 20 cases]. Rev Pneumol Clin; 2006 Dec;62(6 Pt 1):380-5
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  • [Title] [Imaging of bronchial carcinoid tumors: 20 cases].
  • PURPOSE: Report radiographic aspects and assess the contribution of computed tomography for the diagnosis and search for extension of bronchial carcinoid tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 20 patients with a bronchial carcinoid tumor.
  • CT revealed secondary ventilatory disorders with no individualized mass in one patients (5%), an isolated parenchymatous mass in two (10%) and a endobronchial budding at the origin of the right bronchus with no noted ventilatory disorder in one patient (5%) Tumor calcifications were detected in 30% of patients.
  • Histological there were 17 typical carcinoid tumors and three atypical tumors which were different by their size, locoregional and distant metastatic spread.
  • CONCLUSION: CT is indispensable for positive diagnosis, and topographic localization of extension of bronchial carcinoid tumors.
  • The main contribution of CT compared with fibroscopy is to demonstrate exobronchial tumor development and upstream pulmonary complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchoscopy / methods. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17242643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0761-8417
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de pneumologie clinique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Pneumol Clin
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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30. Vazquez MF, Koizumi JH, Henschke CI, Yankelevitz DF: Reliability of cytologic diagnosis of early lung cancer. Cancer; 2007 Aug 25;111(4):252-8
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  • [Title] Reliability of cytologic diagnosis of early lung cancer.
  • Among them, 65 people had surgical resection of their screen-diagnosed lung cancer, 53 of them on the basis of a diagnosis of malignancy or atypical bronchioloalveolar proliferation (ABP) on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy at Weill Medical College of Cornell University (WMC) prior to surgery.
  • The authors compared the diagnosis obtained from the FNA with the subsequent diagnosis from the surgical specimen to assess the reliability of a cytologic diagnosis of lung cancer on FNA of these screen-diagnosed lung cancers.
  • ), with preliminary on-site as well as final diagnosis rendered by a cytologist (M.V., J.K.).
  • These results were correlated with histologic diagnoses obtained as a result of consensus diagnosis by a panel of 5 expert pulmonary pathologists.
  • RESULTS: Of the 53 cases of lung cancer resected following FNA, 4 were diagnosed as atypical bronchioloalveolar proliferation (ABP), 14 as adenocarcinoma with bronchioloalveolar features (ADC-BAC), 28 as adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (ADC-NOS), 1 as squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC), 4 as nonsmall-cell carcinoma (NSCC), and 2 as typical carcinoid.
  • In the 49 cases with a malignant cytology and 4 cases of ABP, lung cancer was confirmed histologically.
  • The tumor sizes ranged from 4 mm to 40 mm, mean size 13mm.
  • The final expert panel histologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 47 cases; of these, 42 were invasive (mixed subtype or acinar subtype), and 5 were a noninvasive (bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, BAC).
  • Three of the 42 invasive adenocarcinoma that had a predominant BAC component and 1 case of BAC were diagnosed as ABP on FNA; all were sampled at the periphery of the tumor.
  • Two cases of typical carcinoid on histology were also diagnosed as typical carcinoid on FNA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative diagnosis of lung cancer detected by screening with HRCT could be reliably made by FNA.
  • A diagnosis of ABP on FNA may be indicative of noninvasive BAC or an invasive adenocarcinoma with prominent BAC features, usually sampled at its periphery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Humans. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2008 May 15;112(10):2329-30 [18407546.001]
  • (PMID = 17614298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Stoll LM, Johnson MW, Burroughs F, Li QK: Cytologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung carcinoid tumors a retrospective study of 63 Cases with histologic correlation. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Dec 25;118(6):457-67
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  • [Title] Cytologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung carcinoid tumors a retrospective study of 63 Cases with histologic correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms of the lung are a spectrum of tumors including typicalcarcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (ACT), small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), and large cell NEcarcinoma (LCNEC).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The significant morphologic factors for distinguishing low-grade TC from ACT, SCLC, or carcinoma remain the critical evaluation of nuclear features, chromatin patterns, and assessment of nucleoli.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21243734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Mendes S, Gallego J, Caldeira J, Palhano M, Cruz J, Cravino J: [Pulmonary carcinoid tumors--ten years experience]. Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc; 2005 Jan-Mar;12(1):21-4
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary carcinoid tumors--ten years experience].
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are rare, accounting for as many as 2% of all pulmonary neoplasms and for 10% of carcinoid tumors overall.
  • They have a subclassification into typical classed as low-grade malignant neoplasm and atypical more aggressive, with more potential to cause local invasion.
  • In this paper, the authors report a retrospective study of 25 patients, who had the diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors and had been operated between January of 1994 and August of 2004.
  • We conclude that this tumors must be considered malignant in the surgical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15895123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-7215
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-torácica e vascular : órgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Torácica e Vascular
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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33. Kumar A, Jindal T, Dutta R, Kumar R: Functional imaging in differentiating bronchial masses: an initial experience with a combination of (18)F-FDG PET-CT scan and (68)Ga DOTA-TOC PET-CT scan. Ann Nucl Med; 2009 Oct;23(8):745-51
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  • The results of functional imaging studies were analyzed and the results are correlated with the final histopathology of the tumor.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological examination of 7 bronchial masses revealed carcinoid tumors (2 typical, 1 atypical), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (1), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (1), hamartoma (1), and synovial cell sarcoma (1).
  • Atypical carcinoid had moderate uptake of (18)F-FDG and high (68)Ga DOTA-TOC uptake.
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor showed high uptake of (18)F-FDG and no uptake of (68)Ga DOTA-TOC.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Organometallic Compounds. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19784877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1864-6433
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ga(III)-DOTATOC; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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34. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies.
  • We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions.
  • Two patients had carcinoid syndrome including diarrhea, hot flashes, and palpitations.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • Mitotic figures were rare in primary carcinoid tumors with only 3 cases showing more than 2 per 10 HPF; necrosis was found in only 1 case.
  • Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The other 2 patients with atypical carcinoid and follow-up had no evidence of disease at 68 and 114 months.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.
  • However, lesions with the morphology of atypical carcinoid can occasionally exhibit metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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35. Gustafsson BI, Kidd M, Chan A, Malfertheiner MV, Modlin IM: Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer; 2008 Jul 1;113(1):5-21
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  • Although they share structural, morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features, they are separated into 4 subgroups: typical carcinoid tumor (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), which exhibit considerably different biological characteristics.
  • Less than 5% of BP-NETs exhibit hormonally related symptoms such as carcinoid syndrome, Cushing, acromegaly, and SIADH.
  • The slow-growing TC exhibit a fairly good prognosis ( approximately 88%, 5-year survival), whereas AC demonstrate a 5-year survival of approximately 50%, and the highly malignant LCNEC and SCLC5-year survival of 15% to 57% and <5%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / genetics. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Humans. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18473355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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36. Van Brandt V, Heyman S, Van Marck E, Hendriks J, Van Schil P: Atypical presentation of an atypical carcinoid. Ann Thorac Surg; 2009 Dec;88(6):2004-6
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  • [Title] Atypical presentation of an atypical carcinoid.
  • Carcinoids are malignant neuroendocrine tumors consisting of a spectrum of neoplasms from low-grade typical carcinoid to high-grade small cell carcinoma.
  • Therefore, presently no uniform criteria are available for diagnosis, staging, risk assessment, and treatment.
  • Generally, carcinoid tumors are indolent.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Thymectomy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19932277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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37. Li C, Zhou L, Shen Y, Zhu L: [Clinical analysis of laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;23(21):970-2
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  • RESULT: Eight out of 10 cases were were atypical carcinoid: 1 case treated as supraglottic horizontal partial laryngectomy died 22 months after operation; 1 case was lost; the other 6 cases were followed up for more than 2 years.
  • CONCLUSION: LNEC is a rare malignant tumor and the diagnosis relies on clinical characteristics, histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination.

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  • (PMID = 20359115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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38. Krüger S, Buck AK, Blumstein NM, Pauls S, Schelzig H, Kropf C, Schumann C, Mottaghy FM, Hombach V, Reske SN: Use of integrated FDG PET/CT imaging in pulmonary carcinoid tumours. J Intern Med; 2006 Dec;260(6):545-50
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  • [Title] Use of integrated FDG PET/CT imaging in pulmonary carcinoid tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of integrated FDG PET/CT in pulmonary carcinoid tumours.
  • METHODS: We studied 13 patients (mean age +/- 1 SD, 57 +/- 11 years) with pulmonary carcinoid tumours.
  • Final histological diagnosis confirmed 12 typical and one atypical pulmonary carcinoid.
  • None of the patients had recurrent carcinoid disease or died during follow-up (864 +/- 218 days).
  • Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in typical carcinoids was 3.0 +/- 1.5 (range 1.2 - 6.6); SUV in the atypical carcinoid was remarkably high with a value of 8.5.
  • FDG uptake in pulmonary carcinoid tumours is often lower than expected for malignant tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17116005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6820
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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39. Davì MV, Bodei L, Francia G, Bartolomei M, Oliani C, Scilanga L, Reghellin D, Falconi M, Paganelli G, Lo Cascio V, Ferdeghini M: Carcinoid crisis induced by receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC in a case of liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid). J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Jun;29(6):563-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid crisis induced by receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC in a case of liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid).
  • It is well known that some procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic management of endocrine tumors, such as agobiopsy and hepatic chemoembolization, can be associated with the occurrence of symptoms related to the release of vasoactive amines and/or hormonal peptides from tumor cell lysis.
  • This is the first report of a severe carcinoid crisis developed after receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC administered in a patient affected by liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid).
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / chemically induced. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Yttrium Radioisotopes / adverse effects

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  • [Cites] J Nucl Med. 2002 May;43(5):610-6 [11994522.001]
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  • (PMID = 16840837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 90Y-octreotide, DOTA-Tyr(3)-; 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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40. Machado MC, Sá SV, Goldbaum TS, Catania M, Campos VC, Corrêa-Giannella ML, Giannella-Neto D, Salgado LR: In vivo response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 in adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome by lung carcinoid tumor is associated with growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a mRNA expression. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Apr;30(4):334-40
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  • [Title] In vivo response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 in adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing's syndrome by lung carcinoid tumor is associated with growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a mRNA expression.
  • GH secretagogues (GHS) have been used for the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) since 1997 due to their ability to increase ACTH and cortisol levels in Cushing's disease.
  • The aim of this study was to correlate ACTH response to GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) in vivo with GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a) mRNA expression in a patient with lung carcinoid tumor.
  • The patient was a 26-yr-old male with diagnosis of ACTH-dependent CS.
  • The patient was submitted to right thoracotomy for exeresis of lung nodule and hilar lymph node which were characterized as atypical lung carcinoid tumor and he presented clinical and laboratorial remission after surgery.
  • GHSR-1a mRNA expression was studied with real-time quantitative PCR and tumor data were compared with fragments of normal lung and pituitary.
  • There was a higher GHSR-1a expression in the lung carcinoid tumor as compared with normal tissues.
  • The ACTH response to GHRP-6 in a patient with ectopic ACTH production by a lung carcinoid tumor was associated with GHSR-1a expression in the tumor tissue, suggesting an association between GHSR-1a mRNA overexpression and the in vivo response to GHS.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin


41. Travis WD: Advances in neuroendocrine lung tumors. Ann Oncol; 2010 Oct;21 Suppl 7:vii65-71
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  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors include a spectrum of tumors from the low-grade typical carcinoid (TC) and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid (AC) to the high-grade large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • Nodular NE proliferations ≥ 0.5 cm are classified as carcinoid tumors and smaller ones are called tumorlets.
  • Carcinoid tumors have significant clinical, epidemiologic and genetic differences from the high-grade SCLC and LCNEC.
  • The diagnosis of SCLC, TC and AC can be made by light microscopy without the need for special tests in most cases, but for LCNEC it is required to demonstrate NE differentiation by immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy.

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  • (PMID = 20943645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Arora R, Gupta R, Sharma A, Dinda AK: Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of thymus: a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):148-51
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  • In contrast, neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid and neuroendocrine carcinoma) of thymus are extremely rare.
  • We describe three cases of rare atypical carcinoid tumor (neuroendocrine carcinoma) of the thymus.
  • Excision of tumors and histological examination of the three tumors showed a carcinoid tumor with nuclear pleomorphism, increased mitotic activity and focal necrosis.
  • The features suggested a diagnosis of atypical carcinoid tumor in all the three cases.
  • The tumor cells in Cases 1 and 2 showed focal immunohistochemical staining for ACTH.
  • Atypical carcinoid (neuroendocrine carcinoma, well-differentiated and moderately-differentiated) of the thymus is a rare thymic tumor which carries a worse prognosis compared to thymoma and requires aggressive therapy.
  • Hence, an accurate diagnosis is essential.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / complications. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20090249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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43. Davini F, Gonfiotti A, Comin C, Caldarella A, Mannini F, Janni A: Typical and atypical carcinoid tumours: 20-year experience with 89 patients. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino); 2009 Dec;50(6):807-11
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  • [Title] Typical and atypical carcinoid tumours: 20-year experience with 89 patients.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to conduct a retrospective clinical and pathological analysis of the authors' 20-year experience on treatment of typical and atypical carcinoid tumours.
  • METHODS: A retrospective clinical and pathological analysis was conducted on 89 patients treated for bronchial carcinoid neoplasms at the Division of Thoracic Surgery, Hospital of Florence (Italy) between January 1986 and January 2006.
  • Diagnosis was made with radiological methods such as plain chest roentgenography, computed tomography (CT), and bronchoscopy.
  • In 38 cases of central lesion the diagnosis was obtained by endobronchial biopsy.
  • A correct pathological diagnosis was obtained before surgery in 58 patients; in the others resected cases the correct diagnosis was determined by intraoperative histology during surgery.
  • RESULTS: There were 63 (70.8%) typical carcinoid (TC) and 26 (29,2%) atypical carcinoid (AC).
  • On the basis of the hystopatological documentation of all patients operated before 1999 (60 patients) the authors observed that in 4 cases (6.6%) the diagnosis has changed from AC to TC while only 1 case (1.6%) of AC was classified as TC with new criterias.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anatomical resection, including formal lobectomy (or pneumonectomy when indicated) and radical mediastinal lymphadenectomy, should be performed in carcinoid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Bronchoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Male. Mediastinum. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19935614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9509
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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44. Peng WX, Sano T, Oyama T, Kawashima O, Nakajima T: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: a comparison with large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine morphology and small cell carcinoma. Lung Cancer; 2005 Feb;47(2):225-33
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  • Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is a malignant neuroendocrine tumor clinicopathologically similar to and falling in-between atypical carcinoid tumor and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The diagnosis of LCNEC is based mainly on a characteristic neuroendocrine morphology and biological neuroendocrine differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 15639721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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45. Nannini N, Bertolini F, Cavazza A, Casali C, Mengoli MC, Rossi G: Atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma: a hitherto unreported variant of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):120-4
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma: a hitherto unreported variant of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the lung may show several growth patterns and cell types.
  • We report here a previously undescribed case of primary pulmonary atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma, an exceedingly rare variant of carcinoid tumor so far reported only in the thymus.
  • The tumor was discovered in a 50-year-old, non-smoker woman, and pursued an aggressive behavior.
  • The lack of TTF-1 expression and the positive staining with hormonal receptors made the diagnosis very challenging.
  • Differential diagnosis with other primary and metastatic mucin-rich tumors is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mucus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy


46. Chen KC, Chang YL, Pan CT, Lee YC: Esophageal atypical carcinoid tumor with tracheal invasion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Aug;134(2):524-5
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  • [Title] Esophageal atypical carcinoid tumor with tracheal invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Stents. Tracheal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Palliative Care. Thalidomide / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17662809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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47. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Herman ZS: [Current concepts on diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid]. Przegl Lek; 2007;64(2):103-10
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  • [Title] [Current concepts on diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid].
  • Carcinoid tumours are relatively rare neuroendocrine neoplasms that often present as diagnostic dilemmas due to obscure or non-specific symptomatology.
  • Although, the majority are nonfunctional, some carcinoids can cause so called classical or atypical carcinoid syndrome and sometimes also paraneoplastic syndromes.
  • Carcinoid tumours often present with metastatic disease.
  • Despite the fact that many advances have been made in both the basic science and clinical areas, the optimal treatment of carcinoid tumours is still a matter of debate.
  • In this article, the pathogenesis, clinical aspects, classification, diagnosis and treatment of carcinoids are reviewed including the latest advances in each area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17892042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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48. Xiong HC, Zhang LJ, Yang Y, Liang Z, Wu N, Chen JF: [Clinical analysis of 123 gastric cardia carcinoma patients treated with surgical operation]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Jan;25(1):100-4
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  • RESULTS: Setting pathologic results as golden standard, the correct diagnosis rates of preoperative ultrasound for serosal involvement, lymph node metastasis, distal esophageal involvement, and others (including liver metastases, extended invasion, and ascites) were 71.2%, 62.2%, 47.8%, and 100%, respectively; those of CT were 78.6%, 72.7%, 51.9%, and 100%, respectively.
  • Endoscopy could indicate the distance between tumor and incisor, and barium meal showed the relationship between tumor and diaphragm.
  • The curative resection rate was 94.3% (116/123); among the 116 cases, 108 (93.1%) were adenocarcinoma, 2 were squamous cell carcinoma, 2 were adenosquamous carcinoma, 2 were atypical carcinoid, and 2 were carcinoid; 84 (72.4%) had abdominal lymph node metastases, 6 (7.1%) had thoracic lymph node metastases, and 40 (34.5%) had distal esophageal involvement.

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  • (PMID = 16405761.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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49. Hsu TC: Intra-abdominal lesions could be missed by inadequate laparoscopy. Am Surg; 2008 Sep;74(9):824-6; discussion 827-8
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  • Eleven patients were found to have synchronous colorectal cancers; five patients were found to have unexpected liver metastases; three patients each were found to have gastric cancers, stromal tumors of the small bowel, and ectopic pancreas; two patients each were found to have gastric leiomyosarcomas, pancreatic cancers, mucoceles of the appendix, ulcers of the small intestine, bleeding Meckel's diverticula, pancreatitis, and perforations of the ileum; one patient each was found to have gall bladder cancer, malignant carcinoid tumor, pheochromocytoma, diverticulitis of the jejunum, diverticulitis of the colon, duplication of the colon, and aortic aneurysm larger than 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Diseases / diagnosis. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18807670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Bini A, Brandolini J, Cassanelli N, Davoli F, Dolci G, Sellitri F, Stella F: Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids: our institutional experience. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2008 May;7(3):415-8
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  • [Title] Typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids: our institutional experience.
  • Pulmonary carcinoids are rare malignant neoplasms, accounting for 2-5% of all lung tumors, with an approximate annual incidence of 2.3-2.8 cases per million of the population.
  • All the patients underwent preoperative fibrobronchoscopy: preoperative diagnosis was made in 28 patients (52%).
  • Fifty-four patients were followed with a mean time of observation of 67 months: 6 (11%) deaths occurred, at a mean period of 49 months after surgery; there were no postoperative deaths.
  • Overall, 5-year survival was 91%, 10 years 83%: 5-year survival was 91% for typical carcoinoids (TC) vs. 88% for atypical (AC), 10 years 91% for TC and 44% for AC (significant value, P=0.0487).
  • Carcinoid tumors are a distinct group of neuroendocrine tumors with a good prognosis in most cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor

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  • (PMID = 18349148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Hamad AM, Rizzardi G, Marulli G, Rea F: Nodal recurrence of pulmonary carcinoid 30 years after primary resection. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jun;3(6):680-1
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  • [Title] Nodal recurrence of pulmonary carcinoid 30 years after primary resection.
  • We present a case of nodal recurrence of carcinoid tumor in a 48-year-old male patient, 30 years after resection of primary tumor.
  • Octreoscan was used for diagnosis and localization of the mass.
  • Surgical resection was successful and histopathologic examination revealed lymph node infiltrated with atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Pneumonectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18520814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Warth A, Krysa S, Zahel T, Hoffmann H, Schirmacher P, Schnabel PA, Herpel E: [S100 protein positive sustentacular cells in pulmonary carcinoids and thoracic paragangliomas: differential diagnostic and prognostic evaluation]. Pathologe; 2010 Sep;31(5):379-84
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  • In order to get more insight into the prevalence as well as the prognostic and differential diagnostic value of this cell population in pulmonary carcinoids, we investigated a panel of 26 tumorlets, 147 typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids and ten thoracic paragangliomas immunohistochemically.
  • Hence, the presence and distribution of these cells does not appear to represent a reliable criterion in differential diagnosis.
  • Moreover, all pulmonary carcinoid patients with a worse outcome had low numbers of or no S100 protein positive cells in their tissue specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology. S100 Proteins / analysis. Thoracic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Count. Diagnosis, Differential. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lung / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20567830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins
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53. Capelli M, Bertino G, Morbini P, Villa C, Zorzi S, Benazzo M: Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the upper airways: a small case series with histopathological considerations. Tumori; 2007 Sep-Oct;93(5):499-503
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  • Diagnosis requires the recognition of the typical neuroendocrine architecture and morphology and the immunohistochemical confirmation of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • In the 1991 WHO classification laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas have been divided into carcinoids, atypical carcinoids, small cell carcinomas and paragangliomas.
  • Atypical carcinoids in the head and neck region usually show an aggressive behavior analogous to poorly differentiated carcinomas, and are resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • The patient with small cell carcinoma was free from disease 26 months after radical surgery, while the other patients showed liver, lung and bone metastases 18, 26 and 24 months after the diagnosis despite radical surgery or concomitant intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18038886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Vidal A, Lorenzo MJ, Isidro ML, Cordido F: Atypical thymic carcinoid in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jul-Aug;30(7):601-2
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  • [Title] Atypical thymic carcinoid in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.
  • An asymptomatic, non-smoker patient carrier of a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1) mutation was diagnosed with invasive atypical thymic carcinoid tumor.
  • After surgical treatment the tumor reappeared albeit without metastasis.
  • Thymic carcinoid is a well-known cause of mortality in MEN1, and usually metastatic disease is present at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis


55. Farhat CA, Parra ER, Rogers AV, Elian SN, Sheppard MN, Capelozzi VL: Using electron microscopy and multivariate cluster analysis to determine diagnosis and prognosis in cases of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma. J Bras Pneumol; 2008 Oct;34(10):804-11
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  • [Title] Using electron microscopy and multivariate cluster analysis to determine diagnosis and prognosis in cases of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish reproducible electron microscopic criteria for identifying the four major types of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: carcinoid; atypical carcinoid; large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; and small cell carcinoma.
  • Sixteen morphometric variables related to tumor cell differentiation were assessed in 27 tumors.
  • The tumors fell into three well-defined clusters, which represent the spectrum of neuroendocrine differentiation: typical carcinoid (cluster 1); atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (cluster 2); and small cell carcinoma (cluster 3).
  • Cluster 2 represents an intermediate step in neuroendocrine carcinogenesis, between typical carcinoid tumors and small cell carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that electron microscopy is useful in making the diagnosis and prognosis in cases of lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Large Cell / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / ultrastructure. Lung Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrastructure. Cluster Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Microscopy, Electron. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19009213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça̋o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Pneumol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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56. Wang CP, Hsieh CY, Chang YL, Lou PJ, Yang TL, Ting LL, Ko JY: Postirradiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the sinonasal tract. Laryngoscope; 2008 May;118(5):804-9
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  • RESULTS: Ten tumors were primary NEC without previous radiation, and eight tumors were postirradiated NEC occurring within the radiation field for previous nasopharyngeal carcinoma in six patients and tonsillar lymphoma in one and neck metastasis of unknown primary origin in one, with an interval between previous radiotherapy and diagnosis of NEC from 82 to 385 months, with a mean of 197 months.
  • Fifteen tumors were small cell carcinoma, two were atypical carcinoid, and one was typical carcinoid tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18520182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Machuca TN, Cardoso PF, Camargo SM, Signori L, Andrade CF, Moreira AL, Moreira Jda S, Felicetti JC, Camargo JJ: Surgical treatment of bronchial carcinoid tumors: a single-center experience. Lung Cancer; 2010 Nov;70(2):158-62
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of bronchial carcinoid tumors: a single-center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Bronchial carcinoid is an infrequent neoplasm with a neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 126 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for bronchial carcinoid tumors between December 1974 and July 2007.
  • Preoperative bronchoscopic diagnosis was obtained in 74 cases (58.7%).
  • Five and 10-year survival for typical and atypical carcinoids were 91, 89% and 56, 47%, respectively.
  • Overall disease-free survival at 5 years was 91.9% Statistical analysis showed that overall disease-free survival correlated with histology--typical vs. atypical--(p = 0.04) and stage (p = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery provides safe and adequate treatment to bronchial carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Bronchoscopy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20223552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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58. Ferlito A, Silver CE, Bradford CR, Rinaldo A: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx: an overview. Head Neck; 2009 Dec;31(12):1634-46
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  • In the past, there has been considerable confusion about the nature and classification of these neoplasms, but the current consensus is that there are 4 different types of laryngeal neuroendocrine tumors composed of paraganglioma, typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid tumor, and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Diagnosis is based primarily on light microscopy and confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
  • Precise diagnosis is essential because the natural history, treatment, and prognosis vary widely for the different neoplastic categories.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors are more common and more aggressive.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly aggressive and should be considered disseminated at initial diagnosis.
  • It is difficult to determine the valid survival statistics for typical carcinoids because of their rarity and confusion in the literature with their atypical counterparts.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors have a 5-year survival rate of approximately 50%, which decreases with time.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Laryngectomy / methods. Male. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Paraganglioma / mortality. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19536850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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59. Erdem R, Slabbynck H, Van den Branden F: Carcinoid crisis with fatal coronary spasm in a small localized peripheral bronchial carcinoid. Acta Cardiol; 2010 Aug;65(4):471-5
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  • [Title] Carcinoid crisis with fatal coronary spasm in a small localized peripheral bronchial carcinoid.
  • Presumptive coronary artery spasm, with characteristic ST-segment elevation followed by ventricular arrhythmia and cardiac arrest, is a very uncommon manifestation of the carcinoid crisis and has been shown on angiography only once in a patient with co-existing extensive atheromatous disease.
  • We present the history of a 70-year-old man with angiographically documented fatal diffuse coronary spasm in the absence of significant atheromatosis, related to an unprovoked carcinoid crisis caused by a small peripheral atypical carcinoid tumour in the absence of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Coronary Vasospasm / etiology. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 20821943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5385
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cardiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cardiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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60. Meinardi JR, van den Berg G, Wolffenbuttel BH, Kema IP, Dullaart RP: Cyclical Cushing's syndrome due to an atypical thymic carcinoid. Neth J Med; 2006 Jan;64(1):23-7
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  • [Title] Cyclical Cushing's syndrome due to an atypical thymic carcinoid.
  • A tumour in the right anterior mediastinum was revealed on octreotide receptor scintigraphy, which had initially been overlooked on computed tomography (CT) scanning.
  • A thymic carcinoid tumour was suspected, which was supported by increased levels of urinary serotonin, while platelet serotonin and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were normal.
  • The tumour was removed surgically and histological examination revealed an atypical thymic carcinoid tumour.
  • Repeated measurement of urinary cortisol excretion is then required to establish or rule out the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Thymus Neoplasms / complications


61. Zinnamosca L, Petramala L, Cotesta D, Marinelli C, Sciomer S, Cavallaro G, Ciardi A, Massa R, De Toma G, Filetti S, Letizia C: Primary aldosteronism due to adrenocortical adenoma with concurrent ileum carcinoid tumor: case report. Endocrine; 2010 Dec;38(3):313-9
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  • [Title] Primary aldosteronism due to adrenocortical adenoma with concurrent ileum carcinoid tumor: case report.
  • Primary aldosteronism (PA) with synchronous carcinoid syndrome is extremely rare occurrence.
  • In this article, we describe a case of PA due to adrenocortical adenoma ("aldosteronoma") and concurrent malignant carcinoid tumor of ileum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / complications. Adrenocortical Adenoma / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / complications. Hyperaldosteronism / etiology. Ileal Neoplasms / complications


62. Rekhtman N: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: an update. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1628-38
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  • CONTEXT: The 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification recognizes 4 major types of lung neuroendocrine tumors: typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell lung cancer, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Markedly different prognostic implications and treatment paradigms for these tumors underscore the importance of accurate pathologic diagnosis.
  • The emerging evidence for the utility of Ki-67 (MIB1) in the diagnosis of lung neuroendocrine tumors, particularly in small biopsy and cytology, is emphasized.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors is based on morphologic features in combination with precisely defined mitotic rate and absence or presence of necrosis.
  • Ki-67 (MIB1) is emerging as a useful ancillary tool in the diagnosis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 21043816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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63. Karavolos S, Caplin M, Benjamin E, Crow J, Mould T: Primary mucinous carcinoid tumour of the ovary: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(6):618-20
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  • [Title] Primary mucinous carcinoid tumour of the ovary: a case report.
  • Primary ovarian carcinoid tumours of the ovary are rare and represent less than 0.1% of ovarian malignancy.
  • We report a case of primary ovarian mucinous carcinoid tumour, of the atypical category, in a 34-year-old nulliparous woman.
  • This case adds to the body of evidence and demonstrates a possible good prognosis with non-aggressive behaviour in the atypical mucinous carcinoid group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17290597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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64. Lal DR, Clark I, Shalkow J, Downey RJ, Shorter NA, Klimstra DS, La Quaglia MP: Primary epithelial lung malignancies in the pediatric population. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):683-6
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  • We reviewed the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with these tumors to better understand their histology, time to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.
  • PROCEDURE: A retrospective review was performed on all patients 21 years of age or younger at diagnosis, treated for primary epithelial lung malignancies at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1980 and 2001.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 19 (range: 12-21) years.
  • The most common radiographic abnormality was a mass (55%) on chest imaging.
  • Seven patients (64%) were initially diagnosed as having pneumonia which contributed to a delay in diagnosis.
  • Final pathologic diagnoses included adenocarcinoma (four), carcinoid tumor (three typical, one atypical), basaloid carcinoma (two), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (one).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When children and adolescents present with primary epithelial lung malignancy a majority will have advanced disease and experience a delay in diagnosis.
  • Carcinoid tumors are more frequent, and less common subtypes of bronchogenic carcinoma are also more prevalent in the pediatric age group.
  • Patients with carcinoid tumors seem to have the best prognosis, followed by adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Child. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Pneumonia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15714450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Strehl MA, Scheich M, Ott I, Müller-Hermelink HK, Hagen R, Völker HU: [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2009 Mar;88(3):186-90
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  • [Title] [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Mittelohradenom/Mittelohrkarzinoid--ein unproblematischer Tumor?
  • OBJECTIVES: Adenomas/carcinoid tumors of the middle ear are very rare tumors of young to middle aged patients.
  • The terms adenoma and carcinoid tumor of the middle ear can be used as synonyms, with the WHO favouring the term middle ear adenoma (MEA).
  • METHODS AND PATIENTS: This study describes the clinical course and the diagnostic challenges in four cases of this rare tumor entity.
  • In two cases a tumor recurrence was documented with one case recurring six times.
  • The histological differential diagnosis can also be problematic; in one case with a highly atypical morphology it was impossible to arrive at a definite diagnosis during the analysis of a frozen section.
  • The presented cases in this study and the analysis of previously published cases shows that the typical progression described by the current WHO-classification with unproblematic surgical management of the tumor and an uncomplicated further clinical course does not always correspond to reality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, Middle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / diagnosis. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / pathology. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Otoscopy. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19065497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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66. Defrain C, Chang CY, Srikureja W, Nguyen PT, Gu M: Cytologic features and diagnostic pitfalls of primary ampullary tumors by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cancer; 2005 Oct 25;105(5):289-97
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  • BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-guided FNAB) is highly sensitive and specific in cytologic diagnosis and clinical staging of malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, and lymph nodes.
  • The number of passes necessary to arrive at a preliminary diagnosis during adequacy assessment was documented.
  • Atypical cells were found in six patients, four of which were suspicious for adenocarcinoma and two of which were consistent with reactive atypia.
  • Adenoma was diagnosed in two patients and carcinoid tumor in one.
  • Thirteen patients had a diagnosis that was negative for malignant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15986397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Irving JA, Young RH: Lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases emphasizing their morphologic spectrum and problems in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Aug;29(8):997-1006
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  • [Title] Lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases emphasizing their morphologic spectrum and problems in differential diagnosis.
  • A history of prior lung carcinoma was documented in 53% of cases (17 of 32), with the ovarian tumor detected at a mean interval of 1 year.
  • In 10 cases (31%), the lung and ovarian tumors occurred synchronously, and in 5 (16%) the ovarian tumor was detected up to 26 months before the lung cancer.
  • Forty-four percent of the tumors were small cell carcinomas (14 of 32), 34% adenocarcinomas (11 of 32), and 16% large cell carcinomas (5 of 32); there was a single squamous cell carcinoma and one atypical carcinoid.
  • Thirteen percent of cases (4 of 32) had a coexisting primary ovarian tumor.
  • The mean ovarian tumor size was 9.7 cm, and one third of the ovarian metastases were bilateral.
  • Tumor was limited to the lung and one or both ovaries in 13 cases (40%).
  • Morphologic features common to many of the ovarian tumors were multinodular growth, widespread necrosis, and extensive lymphovascular invasion; involvement of the ovarian surface was rare.
  • Attention to these features, to the usual absence of associated typical surface epithelial neoplasia, and to the clinical history enabled the correct diagnosis to be made in the majority of cases without need of special studies.
  • The differential diagnosis with the primary ovarian tumors most often meriting consideration, including unusual variants of surface epithelial tumors, is discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Time Factors. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16006793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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68. Nakajima Y, Koizumi K, Haraguchi S, Kawamoto M, Kubokura H, Okada D, Yoshino N, Kinoshita H, Takeuchi S, Fukuda Y, Shimizu K: Locally infiltrative glomus tumor of the bronchus: a case report. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Apr;16(2):113-7
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  • [Title] Locally infiltrative glomus tumor of the bronchus: a case report.
  • We report a glomus tumor of the bronchus that showed invasion of the neural area and extrabronchial extension without significant histological malignancy.
  • An irregularly protruding lesion on the tumor surface was observed by bronchoscopy immediately under the second carina in the right truncus intermedius, but could not be diagnosed because of bleeding.
  • Sleeve lobectomy of the right upper lobe was performed, since carcinoid tumor was suspected in open chest biopsy and intraoperative frozen section diagnosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry was positive for α-smooth muscle actin and type IV collagen, weakly positive for synaptophysin, and negative for keratin, neural cell adhesion molecule, chromogranin A, desmin, CD34, and S100, leading to a diagnosis of glomus tumor.
  • Neuroinvasion and extrabronchial tumor extension were observed, but an atypical cytology, bleeding, or necrosis was found histologically.
  • This is the first description of infiltrative glomus tumor of the bronchus.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchi / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Glomus Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20930664.001).
  • [ISSN] 2186-1005
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official journal of the Association of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons of Asia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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69. Nogales FF, Buriticá C, Regauer S, González T: Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Sep;29(9):1247-51
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  • [Title] Mucinous carcinoid as an unusual manifestation of endodermal differentiation in ovarian yolk sac tumors.
  • We present, for the first time, two yolk sac tumors (YST) in women 37 and 18 years of age, one with a typical parietovisceral pattern and the other with a glandular pattern, which were associated with extensive areas of mucinous carcinoid (MC).
  • The tumor in the first case had numerous nodules of tubulopapillary YST that merged with well-differentiated MC.
  • The tumor in the second case consisted of an AFP-positive glandular YST, with a glandulopapillary pattern closely resembling fetal lung type adenocarcinoma, coexisting with an AFP-negative, cytokeratin 20-positive, atypical MC; transitional areas between the two components were also seen.
  • In the material from the recurrences and metastases; however, no YST was present, the atypical MC having become the predominant component including areas that had become carcinomatous.
  • The patient died 1 year after diagnosis.
  • It is important to differentiate the yolk sac and carcinoid components due to their different responses to chemotherapy and to evaluate the possibility of mucinous carcinoid developing into a highly aggressive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16096416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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70. Detterbeck FC: Management of carcinoid tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2010 Mar;89(3):998-1005
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  • [Title] Management of carcinoid tumors.
  • Primary bronchopulmonary carcinoids comprise a significant proportion of carcinoid tumors.
  • The clinical presentation allows prediction of the diagnosis and cell type and directs evaluation and treatment.
  • Young age, central tumor, and no nodal enlargement are highly suggestive of typical carcinoid.
  • All bronchopulmonary carcinoids are malignant (though indolent), and surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment.
  • Mediastinoscopy is suggested when there is moderate suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN1 or peripheral cN0), with lobectomy and lymphadenectomy if the mediastinal nodes are benign.
  • For a high suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN2, peripheral cN1, 2), imaging for distant metastases and mediastinoscopy is suggested, with multimodality treatment for an atypical carcinoid with N2 involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Lung Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20172187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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71. Ito T, Kim K, Taira M, Kinoshita M, Ikeda N: [Atypical carcinoid of the lung with abnormal elevation of serum ProGRP level; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Jun;63(6):505-7
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  • [Title] [Atypical carcinoid of the lung with abnormal elevation of serum ProGRP level; report of a case].
  • We report a rare case of an atypical carcinoid of the lung with the elevation of serum ProGRP.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid was pathologically suggested by a transbronchial lung biopsy.
  • Pathological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 20533746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98)
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72. Sato H, Kajiya H, Kanai G, Hirukawa T, Tanaka H, Kakuta T, Inomoto C, Osamura RY: Atypical thymic carcinoid associated with Cushing's syndrome. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Jul;35(2):78-84
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  • [Title] Atypical thymic carcinoid associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • A 56-year-old Japanese woman with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) was admitted to hospital, where she was diagnosed as having a mediastinal tumor with ectopic ACTH production.
  • The tumor and associated lymph node metastases were resected endoscopically, and the pathological diagnosis was atypical thymic carcinoid.
  • Immunostaining for ACTH, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase was positive in the carcinoid cells.
  • Since somatostatin (SS) and SS analogues inhibit the growth of carcinoid via the SS receptor (SSTR) 2, we evaluated the expression of SSTR2 in the carcinoid cells using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and this confirmed the expression of SSTR2 in the carcinoid cells.
  • Our experience of this patient with CS due to an ectopic ACTH-producing atypical thymic carcinoid suggests that SS analogues may be useful for treatment of carcinoid showing expression of SSTR2.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms. Thymus Neoplasms


73. Shimakage M, Kodama K, Kawahara K, Kim CJ, Ikeda Y, Yutsudo M, Inoue H: Downregulation of drs tumor suppressor gene in highly malignant human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Oncol Rep; 2009 Jun;21(6):1367-72
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  • [Title] Downregulation of drs tumor suppressor gene in highly malignant human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors in the lung fall into four categories: typical carcinoid tumor (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), in ascending order of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, drs knockout mice showed a tumor-prone phenotype, indicating that drs acts as a tumor suppressor gene in malignant tumor formation.
  • Our results indicate that the downregulation of drs is correlated with the development of SCLC, a highly malignant pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Southern. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19424611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SRPX protein, human
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74. Rieh E, Steigerwald C, Göbel H, Maier W, Offergeld C: [Carcinoid of the middle ear. A case report]. HNO; 2009 Aug;57(8):835-8
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  • [Title] [Carcinoid of the middle ear. A case report].
  • The case of a 47-year-old patient is described with a carcinoid of the middle ear.
  • The histological examination initially revealed an atypical cholesteatoma and the subsequent immunohistochemical investigation revealed a carcinoid.
  • A radical excavation with complete excision of the tumor and tympanoplasty was carried out.
  • A carcinoid of the middle ear is definitely a rare finding and the primary treatment is complete surgical removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Ear Neoplasms / complications. Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Ear, Middle / surgery. Otologic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Dizziness / diagnosis. Dizziness / etiology. Dizziness / prevention & control. Hearing Disorders / diagnosis. Hearing Disorders / etiology. Hearing Disorders / prevention & control. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19636519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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75. Gillenwater A, Lewin J, Roberts D, El-Naggar A: Moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx: a clinically aggressive tumor. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jul;115(7):1191-5
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  • [Title] Moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx: a clinically aggressive tumor.
  • METHODS: Patient, tumor, treatment, and outcome data were collected from medical records.
  • Nine patients were alive 3 years after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Larynx / radiation effects. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate


76. Lingamfelter D, Hoffman L, Verma A, Depond W, Lankachandra K: Giant atypical carcinoid of the liver with vascular metastases and local sinusoidal invasion: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2007;1:47
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  • [Title] Giant atypical carcinoid of the liver with vascular metastases and local sinusoidal invasion: a case report.
  • We present the case of a 46 year old woman with a giant, 23-centimeter, atypical carcinoid of the liver.
  • Histologically, the tumor displayed mild cytologic atypia, abundant necrosis, and intravascular metastases, the last feature of which was identified by immunohistochemical markers for chromogranin and synaptophysin.
  • Also described is the unusual sinusoidal infiltration, or "spillage," of tumor cells into the surrounding liver parenchyma, a feature that has not been described as far as we are aware but may suggest an aggressive clinical course.
  • Even though an exact definition of atypia for these lesions apparently does not exist at this point, the multiple atypical features in this case strongly suggest the diagnosis of atypical carcinoid of the liver, thus far an altogether rare and vaguely reported entity.
  • As more cases arise in the medical literature, it may be worthwhile to establish a set of guidelines to define atypical hepatic carcinoids and other gastrointestinal carcinoids, although survivorship data thus far indicates no significant difference in the prognosis between typical versus atypical variants.

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  • (PMID = 17626622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1950516
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77. Kiratli H, Yilmaz PT, Yildiz ZI: Metastatic atypical carcinoid tumor of the inferior rectus muscle. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Nov-Dec;24(6):482-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic atypical carcinoid tumor of the inferior rectus muscle.
  • A 74-year-old man who had been treated for pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor 3 years earlier developed diplopia.
  • Incisional biopsy of the affected muscle revealed metastatic atypical carcinoid tumor infiltration that immunostained positively for epithelial membrane antigen, synaptophysin, and chromogranin.
  • Systemic chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide was prescribed to address the orbital tumor and a contemporaneously discovered hepatic locus.
  • Although metastatic bronchogenic carcinoid tumor in the orbit, and in the inferior rectus muscle in particular, is highly unusual, this condition must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an isolated extraocular muscle enlargement in a patient with a history of systemic carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Oculomotor Muscles
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male


78. Christopoulos C, Balatsos V, Rotas E, Karoumpalis I, Papavasileiou D, Kontogeorgos G, Dupasquier S, Calender A, Skandalis N, Economopoulos P: The syndrome of gastric carcinoid and hyperparathyroidism: a family study and literature review. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;160(4):689-94
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  • [Title] The syndrome of gastric carcinoid and hyperparathyroidism: a family study and literature review.
  • Screening for MEN1 gene mutations or large deletions was negative, and hormone and imaging investigations did not support a diagnosis of familial MEN1 syndrome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The association of GCs and hyperparathyroidism appears to constitute a distinct syndrome that can be encountered in genetically predisposed individuals, and should not be regarded as 'atypical' or 'incomplete' expression of MEN1.

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  • (PMID = 19155316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Pancreatic Hormones; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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79. Shilo K, Dracheva T, Mani H, Fukuoka J, Sesterhenn IA, Chu WS, Shih JH, Jen J, Travis WD, Franks TJ: Alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase in pulmonary adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors: expression and survival analysis. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Oct;131(10):1555-60
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  • AMACR serves as a useful marker in establishing a diagnosis of prostatic malignancy; however, limited information is available in regard to its presence in pulmonary neoplasms.
  • DESIGN: Four hundred seventy-seven pulmonary carcinomas, including 150 squamous cell carcinomas, 150 adenocarcinomas, 46 typical carcinoids, 31 atypical carcinoids, 28 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 72 small cell carcinomas, were studied immunohistochemically using tissue microarray-based samples.
  • Among tumor types, 22% of squamous cell carcinoma, 56% of adenocarcinoma, 72% of typical carcinoid, 52% of atypical carcinoid, 70% of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 51% of small cell lung carcinoma were positive for AMACR.
  • Additionally, its positive correlation with outcome of stage I-II small cell lung carcinoma warrants further investigation of the AMACR role in the prognosis of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / enzymology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17922592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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80. Amano H, Yamada T, Jujoh T, Kuroda F, Sakao S, Tada Y, Kurosu K, Kasahara Y, Tanabe N, Takiguchi Y, Tatsumi K: [Case of thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I treated effectively with chemotherapy]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Nov;48(11):855-9
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  • [Title] [Case of thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I treated effectively with chemotherapy].
  • He was given a diagnosis of MEN I on genetic testing.
  • Chest CT revealed a mediastinal mass 4 cm in maximum dimension, and an atypical carcinoid was diagnosed according to mediastinal biopsy findings.
  • The tumor decreased in size by 30%, and was evaluated as showing partial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy


81. Giordano G, Corcione L, Giordano D, D'Adda T, Gnetti L, Ferri T: Primary moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx: A case report with immunohistochemical and molecular study. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2009 Apr;36(2):228-31
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  • [Title] Primary moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx: A case report with immunohistochemical and molecular study.
  • In this paper, we report the case of a moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma NEC (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx in a heavy smoker 67-year-old woman, with a history of hoarseness, dysphagia and dyspnea.
  • Here, we emphasized the morphological criteria for a correct pathological diagnosis.
  • Moreover, because it has been demonstrated that many neuroendocrine neoplasms and malignant lesions of the larynx can be related to human papilloma virus (HPV), for the first time, we probed to verify if laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma could be due to an HPV infection by using polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) of tumoural DNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Probes, HPV / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Laryngectomy. Larynx / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


82. Bolanowski M, Jarzab B, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Jeziorski A, Kos-Kudła B, Zajecki W, oraz Pozostali Uczestnicy Konferencji Okragłego Stołu: [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jan-Feb;59(1):87-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Symptoms are atypical, diagnosis could be often accidental.
  • In 4-10% of patients typical symptoms of carcinoid syndrome are present.
  • This is treatment of choice in carcinoid crisis.
  • Interferon alfa could be applied because of the same indications as somatostatin analogs, except for carcinoid crisis.
  • Chemotherapy is less successful in disseminated or locally advanced intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, so radioisotope therapy should be considered in each case of unresectable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Competence. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Humans. Intestine, Small. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Examination. Poland. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18335403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Investigator] Bar-Andziak E; Cwikła J; de Herder W; Dzielicki J; Falconi M; Foltyn W; Gaciong Z; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A; Kowalska A; Krolicki L; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska B; Kryszałowicz B; Kvols L; Nasierowska-Guttmejer A; O'Toole D; Kunikowska J; Lampe P; Matyja V; Mełen-Mucha G; Milewicz A; Nowak A; Nowakowska-Duława E; Omyła-Staszewska J; Pajak J; Rudzki S; Rydzewska G; Sowinski J; Starzynska T; Strzelczyk J; Sworczak K; Syrenicz A; Szawlowski A; Tomaszewska RA; Wasko-Czopnik D; Wronski M; Zemczak A; Zgliczynski W
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83. Bode-Lesniewska B, Hodler J, von Hochstetter A, Guillou L, Exner U, Caduff R: Late solitary bone metastasis of a primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma with SYT-SSX1 translocation type: case report with a long follow-up. Virchows Arch; 2005 Mar;446(3):310-5
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  • We describe a 73-year-old female patient who presented with a solitary malignant bone tumor 8 years after the resection of a lung neoplasm.
  • The bone tumor was classified as an osteosarcoma and the lung tumor as an atypical carcinoid tumor at their first respective diagnostic work-ups.
  • Reevaluation of the tumor samples at the time of the local recurrence of the bone tumor 6 years following the initial symptoms of the bone tumor lead to the reclassification of both specimens as synovial sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion. Osteosarcoma / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 15668803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / SYT-SSX fusion protein
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84. Jang BG, Kim SY, Park SH: Multiple pulmonary atypical carcinoids presenting with long-standing Cushing syndrome masked by pulmonary tuberculosis. Pathol Int; 2009 Jun;59(6):399-404
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  • [Title] Multiple pulmonary atypical carcinoids presenting with long-standing Cushing syndrome masked by pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • This CS was due to the ectopic ACTH produced by the pulmonary atypical carcinoids, which were recognized at the disseminated stage 5 years after the initial presentation of CS.
  • Microscopically, multiple whitish nodules (up to 1.0 cm in diameter) of the wedge-resected lung were composed of small round cells appearing to be typical neuroendocrine but were diagnosed as atypical carcinoid, based on the findings of focal necrosis, high mitotic rates and multiple endolymphatic tumor emboli.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells robustly stained for ACTH.
  • The delay of diagnosis is, in part, attributable to the pulmonary tuberculosis (one of the complications of hypercortisolism), because the pulmonary tuberculosis presented in the form of multiple nodules throughout the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications


86. Vigg A, Mantri S, Swarnalata G, Mulay K: Atypical carcinoid tumour. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci; 2005 Jul-Sep;47(3):213-5
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid tumour.
  • Carcinoid tumour is a rare entity accounting for less than two percent of bronchial neoplasms.
  • More offten, it presents as a central endobronchial tumour.
  • The peripheral type of carcinoid tumour is relatively rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16022152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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87. Stathopoulos GP, Papadopoulos G, Koutantos J: Long-term survival of patients with carcinoid tumor and liver metastases. J BUON; 2009 Oct-Dec;14(4):609-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term survival of patients with carcinoid tumor and liver metastases.
  • PURPOSE: To determine long-term survival and long-term stable disease in patients with atypical carcinoid tumor with liver metastases.
  • METHODS: From 1993 till 2008, the records of 56 patients with atypical carcinoid were reviewed.
  • All patients had carcinoid tumors confirmed histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 20148450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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88. Smirnova EA, Gurevich LE, Polikarpova SB, Kokosadze NV: [Gastric tumor of complex structure]. Arkh Patol; 2007 May-Jun;69(3):46-8
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  • [Title] [Gastric tumor of complex structure].
  • The paper describes a case of gastric tumor comprising moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and atypical carcinoid with metastases of both types of tumor cells in the lymph nodes.
  • Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies of primary gastric tumor and lymph nodal metastases confirmed the presence of both differentiation types within one space-occupying lesion: such as goblet (mucin-producing) and neuroendocrine cells.
  • Thus, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies of tumors not only verify their diagnosis and make a histogenetic differential diagnosis of various neoplasms, but also define the degree of their maturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17722597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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89. Okano Y, Inayama M, Hatakeyama N, Hino H, Iwahara Y, Motoki T, Naruse K, Yokota Y, Ogushi F: Autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered with multiple nodular shadows. J Med Invest; 2008 Feb;55(1-2):142-6
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  • [Title] Autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered with multiple nodular shadows.
  • We report an autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered as multiple nodular shadows.
  • Samples from the wall-side pleural lesion were obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under local anesthesia, and histological examination led to a diagnosis of atypical carcinoid.
  • We believe that early detection is crucial in the treatment of atypical carcinoid due to poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Lung / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18319557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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90. Simsek I, Pay S, Dinc A, Erdem H, Kurt B: Atypical carcinoid tumor of the thymus with ectopic ACTH production developed during the course of etanercept treatment--case report. Clin Rheumatol; 2007 Sep;26(9):1561-2
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid tumor of the thymus with ectopic ACTH production developed during the course of etanercept treatment--case report.
  • Ever since the introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents, concerns have been raised regarding their potential for developing malignancy.
  • We report the development of thymic atypical carcinoid tumor 9 months after the initiation of etanercept therapy in a patient having refractory spondylarthritis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Carcinoid Tumor / chemically induced. Immunoglobulin G / adverse effects. Thymus Neoplasms / chemically induced. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Etanercept. Humans. Male. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor. Spondylarthritis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17061154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0770-3198
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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91. Olgac G, Peirovi F, Yilmaz A, Kutlu CA: Giant carcinoid tumor mimicking pulmonary sequestration. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Oct;84(4):1375-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant carcinoid tumor mimicking pulmonary sequestration.
  • Then a right lower lobectomy was undertaken through a hemi-clamshell incision, and histopathology revealed an atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bronchoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Pneumonectomy / methods. Reoperation. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome


92. Spaggiari L, D' Aiuto M, Veronesi G, Pelosi G, de Pas T, Catalano G, de Braud F: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium, without cardiopulmonary bypass, for lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jan;79(1):234-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The were 10 squamous cell carcinomas (60%), 2 adenocarcinomas, 1 adenosquamous carcinoma, 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and 1 atypical carcinoid tumor.

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  • (PMID = 15620949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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93. De Dosso S, Bajetta E, Procopio G, Cortinovis D, Buzzoni R, Catena L, Platania M, Verzoni E: Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):162-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the malignant behaviour of low-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) treated at our institution.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 48 consecutive patients with pulmonary NETs referred to our Medical Oncology Unit between 1998 and 2006, including 33 subjects with typical carcinoids (TCs) and 15 with atypical carcinoids (ACs).
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, there were 37 metastatic and 11 non-metastatic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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94. Nakamura Y, Sato N, Kaimori K, Imai T: [Thymic carcinoid with lymph node metastases; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2007 Dec;60(13):1204-7
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  • [Title] [Thymic carcinoid with lymph node metastases; report of a case].
  • A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of the detection of an anterior mediastinal tumor.
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed abnormal accumulations in the tumor and the hilar and the supra-clavicular lymph nodes.
  • Preoperatively, percutaneous needle biopsy of the tumor revealed thymic carcinoid.
  • Tumor resection and thymectomy with mediastinal and supra-clavicular lymph nodes dissection were performed because of suspecting metastasis to the lymph nodes from FDG-PET.
  • Postoperative pathological diagnosis revealed atypical carcinoid and metastases to the mediastinal and supra-clavicular lymph nodes.
  • In our case, FDG-PET was useful in detecting the thymic carcinoid and lymph node metastasis.
  • It is desirable to perform clinical research by many facilities for the assessment of FDG-PET as a diagnostic tool and postoperative chemo-radiation therapy for thymic carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18078092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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95. Endo T, Hasegawa T, Tezuka Y, Kanai Y, Otani S, Yamamoto S, Tetsuka K, Sato Y, Endo S, Sohara Y: [Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor with abnormal elevation of serum gastrin-releasing peptide precursor: report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2008 Oct;61(11):993-5
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  • [Title] [Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor with abnormal elevation of serum gastrin-releasing peptide precursor: report of a case].
  • We report a rare case of atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor accompanied by elevation of serum gastrin-releasing peptide precursor (ProGRP).
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a solitary pulmonary tumor in the left lower lobe with sub-carinal lymph node enlargement.
  • Transbronchial lung biopsy showed a pulmonary carcinoid, therefore left lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Histopathological diagnosis showed an atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 18939440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98)
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96. Ferlito A, Devaney KO, Rinaldo A: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx: advances in identification, understanding, and management. Oral Oncol; 2006 Sep;42(8):770-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • While 85-90% of laryngeal malignancies prove to be squamous carcinomas, the second most common tumour type found in the laryngeal region will prove to be a member of the family of neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Laryngeal carcinoid tumours have a capacity for metastasis, and so are more aggressive tumours than their light microscopic features might imply--5-year survival rates are in the vicinity of 50%.
  • Laryngeal atypical carcinoid tumours are lesions with a well-recognized capacity for local recurrence as well as metastasis, with a 5-year survival of just under 50%.
  • Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment of carcinoid tumours, atypical carcinoid tumours, and paragangliomas.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are chiefly treated by way of radiation and chemotherapy; the role of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of atypical carcinoid tumours remains to be established.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / surgery. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16815077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 457
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97. Ulusan S, Kizilkilic O, Yildirim T, Tercan F, Bolat F, Yildirim S: Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor: dynamic CT findings. Abdom Imaging; 2005 May-Jun;30(3):281-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor: dynamic CT findings.
  • Most carcinoid tumors involve the gastrointestinal tract or respiratory system.
  • Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor is a rare entity.
  • She was diagnosed with primary hepatic carcinoid tumor based on radiologic and laboratory findings, namely a mass in the fifth segment of the liver and markedly elevated levels of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in the urine.
  • Histologic and immunohistochemical findings of the resected liver segment showed a malignant carcinoid tumor of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


98. Kim DH, Song MH, Kim DH: Malignant carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(5):485-9
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  • [Title] Malignant carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct: report of a case.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile duct are exceedingly rare and account for between 0.1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, with most reported cases arising from the gallbladder.
  • We herein present what we believe is only the 47th reported case of a primary carcinoid tumor occurring in the extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Laboratory and imaging studies gave results that were consistent with a malignant obstruction in the common bile duct.
  • The tumor had invaded the adjacent pancreatic tissues.
  • The final pathologic diagnosis was well-differentiated carcinoid tumor of a malignant nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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  • (PMID = 16633759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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99. Gupta R, Dastane A, McKenna RJ Jr, Marchevsky AM: What can we learn from the errors in the frozen section diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors? An evidence-based approach. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jan;40(1):1-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What can we learn from the errors in the frozen section diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors? An evidence-based approach.
  • The intraoperative diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors can be difficult.
  • Frozen section diagnosis was requested on 87 neuroendocrine tumors including 58 typical carcinoids, 8 atypical carcinoids, 18 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 3 small cell carcinomas from 2405 patients that underwent frozen section diagnosis at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center from 2002 to 2007.
  • The deferral and error rate for carcinoid tumors was 4.13% and 7.5%, respectively, and resulted in 4 unnecessary lobectomies and 2 second thoracotomies.
  • Thirty one pathologic features were evaluated in the 66 carcinoid tumors and 10 frozen sections each of lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Positive likelihood ratios identified 11 pathologic features that were useful for the diagnosis of carcinoid tumor from other neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Evidence-Based Medicine. Frozen Sections. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Bayes Theorem. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18973920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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