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1. Wang KL, Yang YC, Wang TY, Chen JR, Chen TC, Chen HS, Su TH, Wang KG: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A clinicopathologic retrospective study of 31 cases with prognostic implications. J Chemother; 2006 Apr;18(2):209-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • There are two cases of atypical carcinoid tumor (ACT), four cases of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and 25 cases of small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC).
  • Overall survival did not differ significantly in relation to surgery, tumor histology, age, FIGO stages, chemotherapeutic regimens or lymph node involvement.
  • Effective treatments of neuroendocrine cervical tumor still remain inconclusive.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / virology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / virology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / virology. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 16 / metabolism. Human papillomavirus 18 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 18 / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate


2. Capelli M, Bertino G, Morbini P, Villa C, Zorzi S, Benazzo M: Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the upper airways: a small case series with histopathological considerations. Tumori; 2007 Sep-Oct;93(5):499-503
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  • Diagnosis requires the recognition of the typical neuroendocrine architecture and morphology and the immunohistochemical confirmation of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • In the 1991 WHO classification laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas have been divided into carcinoids, atypical carcinoids, small cell carcinomas and paragangliomas.
  • Atypical carcinoids in the head and neck region usually show an aggressive behavior analogous to poorly differentiated carcinomas, and are resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • The patient with small cell carcinoma was free from disease 26 months after radical surgery, while the other patients showed liver, lung and bone metastases 18, 26 and 24 months after the diagnosis despite radical surgery or concomitant intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18038886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Blochin E, Stein JA, Wang NS: Atypical carcinoid metastasis to the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Oct;32(7):735-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid metastasis to the skin.
  • Carcinoid tumors are derived from neuroendocrine cells, and are most frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system.
  • Cutaneous involvement of carcinoid tumors is relatively rare, with isolated case reports in the literature.
  • We detail a patient with stage IV pulmonary atypical carcinoid tumor with skin metastasis.
  • On biopsy, the tumor cells had cytologic features of a carcinoid tumor, but were arranged as infiltrating cords, small aggregates and single units, rather than the organoid or trabecular pattern seen in the primary tumor.
  • Further, along with neuroendocrine markers, the tumor cells had the staining pattern of cytokeratin 7+/cytokeratin 20-/thyroid transcription factor-1+, supporting a carcinoid tumor of lung origin.
  • Thus, this case of skin metastasis from an atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumor illustrates a unique clinical and histologic presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20595888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Meinardi JR, van den Berg G, Wolffenbuttel BH, Kema IP, Dullaart RP: Cyclical Cushing's syndrome due to an atypical thymic carcinoid. Neth J Med; 2006 Jan;64(1):23-7
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  • [Title] Cyclical Cushing's syndrome due to an atypical thymic carcinoid.
  • A tumour in the right anterior mediastinum was revealed on octreotide receptor scintigraphy, which had initially been overlooked on computed tomography (CT) scanning.
  • A thymic carcinoid tumour was suspected, which was supported by increased levels of urinary serotonin, while platelet serotonin and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were normal.
  • The tumour was removed surgically and histological examination revealed an atypical thymic carcinoid tumour.
  • Repeated measurement of urinary cortisol excretion is then required to establish or rule out the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Thymus Neoplasms / complications


5. Gustafsson BI, Kidd M, Chan A, Malfertheiner MV, Modlin IM: Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer; 2008 Jul 1;113(1):5-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although they share structural, morphological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features, they are separated into 4 subgroups: typical carcinoid tumor (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), which exhibit considerably different biological characteristics.
  • Less than 5% of BP-NETs exhibit hormonally related symptoms such as carcinoid syndrome, Cushing, acromegaly, and SIADH.
  • The slow-growing TC exhibit a fairly good prognosis ( approximately 88%, 5-year survival), whereas AC demonstrate a 5-year survival of approximately 50%, and the highly malignant LCNEC and SCLC5-year survival of 15% to 57% and <5%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / genetics. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Humans. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18473355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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6. Tzimas GN, Vali K, Deschênes M, Marcus VA, Barkun JS, Tchervenkov JI, Metrakos PP: Liver transplantation for metastases from a bile duct carcinoid. HPB (Oxford); 2006;8(1):67-8
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation for metastases from a bile duct carcinoid.
  • Pathology revealed an atypical carcinoid tumour of the left extrahepatic bile duct, with perineural and lymphatic invasion.
  • DISCUSSION: To our knowledge this is the first report of a biliary carcinoid treated with hepatectomy and finally with liver transplantation, with excellent results.

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  • [Cites] Transplant Proc. 2002 Feb;34(1):264-5 [11959276.001]
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  • (PMID = 18333243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2131368
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7. Litzky LA: Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors. Surg Pathol Clin; 2010 Mar;3(1):27-59
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  • A practical approach is emphasized, and the differential diagnosis is discussed with particular attention to the context in which diagnostic difficulties are most frequently encountered, such as small biopsies and frozen sections.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26839026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Atypical carcinoid tumor / Carcinoid tumor / Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma / Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia / Neuroendocrine tumors / Nonneuroendocrine cell carcinomas / Small cell carcinoma
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8. Liao H, Rao H, Zhang X, Lin Y, Jie M, Fu J, Long H, Rong T, Lin P: [Retrospective study of clinicopathological characteristics in bronchopulmonary carcinoid]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi; 2010 Jun;13(6):591-7
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  • [Title] [Retrospective study of clinicopathological characteristics in bronchopulmonary carcinoid].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchopulmonary carcinoid (BPC) account for less than 2% of all primary lung malignant tumors, but few related studies were reported.
  • First, the corresponding paraffin blocks reexamined, slice up and stained, multiple pathologists re-consulted, and its subsets (typical carcinoid, TC; atypical carcinoid, AC) defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20681445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3419
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / TTF1 protein, human
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9. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies.
  • We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions.
  • Two patients had carcinoid syndrome including diarrhea, hot flashes, and palpitations.
  • Nineteen were pure carcinoid tumors, 3 were associated with cystic teratoma, 2 with cysts lacking epithelial lining, 4 with epidermoid cyst, and 1 with dermoid cyst.
  • Mitotic figures were rare in primary carcinoid tumors with only 3 cases showing more than 2 per 10 HPF; necrosis was found in only 1 case.
  • Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The other 2 patients with atypical carcinoid and follow-up had no evidence of disease at 68 and 114 months.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.
  • However, lesions with the morphology of atypical carcinoid can occasionally exhibit metastatic spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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10. Olgac G, Peirovi F, Yilmaz A, Kutlu CA: Giant carcinoid tumor mimicking pulmonary sequestration. Ann Thorac Surg; 2007 Oct;84(4):1375-6
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  • [Title] Giant carcinoid tumor mimicking pulmonary sequestration.
  • Then a right lower lobectomy was undertaken through a hemi-clamshell incision, and histopathology revealed an atypical carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bronchoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Pneumonectomy / methods. Reoperation. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome


11. Ozbudak IH, Shilo K, Tavora F, Rassaei N, Chu WS, Fukuoka J, Jen J, Travis WD, Franks TJ: Glucose transporter-1 in pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas: expression and survival analysis. Mod Pathol; 2009 May;22(5):633-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tissue microarray-based samples of 178 neuroendocrine carcinomas, including 48 typical carcinoids, 31 atypical carcinoids, 27 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and 72 small cell carcinomas from different patients, were studied immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression.
  • GLUT-1 was observed in 7% (3/46) of typical carcinoid, 21% (6/29) of atypical carcinoid, 74% (17/23) of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and 78% (49/63) of small cell carcinoma.
  • GLUT-1 expression correlated with increasing patient age (P=0.01) and with neuroendocrine differentiation/tumor type (P<0.001), but not with gender, tumor size or stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / biosynthesis. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19234439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P50 AG016574; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080127; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA084354; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010164-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS445156; NLM/ PMC3616507
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12. Lingamfelter D, Hoffman L, Verma A, Depond W, Lankachandra K: Giant atypical carcinoid of the liver with vascular metastases and local sinusoidal invasion: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2007;1:47
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  • [Title] Giant atypical carcinoid of the liver with vascular metastases and local sinusoidal invasion: a case report.
  • We present the case of a 46 year old woman with a giant, 23-centimeter, atypical carcinoid of the liver.
  • Histologically, the tumor displayed mild cytologic atypia, abundant necrosis, and intravascular metastases, the last feature of which was identified by immunohistochemical markers for chromogranin and synaptophysin.
  • Also described is the unusual sinusoidal infiltration, or "spillage," of tumor cells into the surrounding liver parenchyma, a feature that has not been described as far as we are aware but may suggest an aggressive clinical course.
  • Even though an exact definition of atypia for these lesions apparently does not exist at this point, the multiple atypical features in this case strongly suggest the diagnosis of atypical carcinoid of the liver, thus far an altogether rare and vaguely reported entity.
  • As more cases arise in the medical literature, it may be worthwhile to establish a set of guidelines to define atypical hepatic carcinoids and other gastrointestinal carcinoids, although survivorship data thus far indicates no significant difference in the prognosis between typical versus atypical variants.

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  • (PMID = 17626622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Karavolos S, Caplin M, Benjamin E, Crow J, Mould T: Primary mucinous carcinoid tumour of the ovary: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(6):618-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary mucinous carcinoid tumour of the ovary: a case report.
  • Primary ovarian carcinoid tumours of the ovary are rare and represent less than 0.1% of ovarian malignancy.
  • We report a case of primary ovarian mucinous carcinoid tumour, of the atypical category, in a 34-year-old nulliparous woman.
  • This case adds to the body of evidence and demonstrates a possible good prognosis with non-aggressive behaviour in the atypical mucinous carcinoid group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17290597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Sato H, Kajiya H, Kanai G, Hirukawa T, Tanaka H, Kakuta T, Inomoto C, Osamura RY: Atypical thymic carcinoid associated with Cushing's syndrome. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Jul;35(2):78-84
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  • [Title] Atypical thymic carcinoid associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • A 56-year-old Japanese woman with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) was admitted to hospital, where she was diagnosed as having a mediastinal tumor with ectopic ACTH production.
  • The tumor and associated lymph node metastases were resected endoscopically, and the pathological diagnosis was atypical thymic carcinoid.
  • Immunostaining for ACTH, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase was positive in the carcinoid cells.
  • Since somatostatin (SS) and SS analogues inhibit the growth of carcinoid via the SS receptor (SSTR) 2, we evaluated the expression of SSTR2 in the carcinoid cells using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and this confirmed the expression of SSTR2 in the carcinoid cells.
  • Our experience of this patient with CS due to an ectopic ACTH-producing atypical thymic carcinoid suggests that SS analogues may be useful for treatment of carcinoid showing expression of SSTR2.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms. Thymus Neoplasms


16. Uchino K, Okada M, Sakamoto T, Yuki T, Mimura T, Tsubota N: Bronchoplasty for bronchial carcinoid tumor without removing lung parenchyma. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2006 Aug;54(8):345-7
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  • [Title] Bronchoplasty for bronchial carcinoid tumor without removing lung parenchyma.
  • Computed tomographic scans demonstrated a tumor 20 mm in diameter situated on the left main to upper lobar bronchus that eventually was proved to be a typical carcinoid tumor by transbronchial biopsy.
  • We performed bronchial resection with atypical bronchoplasty, which preserves lung parenchyma in cases of s-T1N0M0 disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchi / surgery. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pulmonary Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 16972641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Giordano G, Corcione L, Giordano D, D'Adda T, Gnetti L, Ferri T: Primary moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx: A case report with immunohistochemical and molecular study. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2009 Apr;36(2):228-31
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  • [Title] Primary moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx: A case report with immunohistochemical and molecular study.
  • In this paper, we report the case of a moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma NEC (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx in a heavy smoker 67-year-old woman, with a history of hoarseness, dysphagia and dyspnea.
  • Here, we emphasized the morphological criteria for a correct pathological diagnosis.
  • Moreover, because it has been demonstrated that many neuroendocrine neoplasms and malignant lesions of the larynx can be related to human papilloma virus (HPV), for the first time, we probed to verify if laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma could be due to an HPV infection by using polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) of tumoural DNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Probes, HPV / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Laryngectomy. Larynx / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


18. Li C, Zhou L, Shen Y, Zhu L: [Clinical analysis of laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;23(21):970-2
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  • RESULT: Eight out of 10 cases were were atypical carcinoid: 1 case treated as supraglottic horizontal partial laryngectomy died 22 months after operation; 1 case was lost; the other 6 cases were followed up for more than 2 years.
  • CONCLUSION: LNEC is a rare malignant tumor and the diagnosis relies on clinical characteristics, histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination.

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  • (PMID = 20359115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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19. Dosios T, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Filippides T, Papachristou D: Multimodality treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2005 Oct;53(5):305-9
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  • Four patients with this tumor who underwent multimodality treatment are presented and the literature is briefly reviewed.
  • All patients underwent extensive excision of the tumor.
  • Histological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid (2), typical carcinoid (1), and small cell carcinoma (1).
  • One patient died 132 months after diagnosis.
  • The remaining three patients are alive with no symptoms at 135, 99, and 35 months, respectively, after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / biosynthesis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / biosynthesis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Surgical Procedures, Operative. Synaptophysin / biosynthesis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16208618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-6425
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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20. Lee DH, Cho HH, Cho YB: Typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2007 Dec;34(4):537-9
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  • [Title] Typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity.
  • They can be classified typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid and small cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine type.
  • The tumor histology and prognosis correlate closely.
  • The typical carcinoid tumors are well differentiated with benign course.
  • The treatment of the typical carcinoid is a conservative surgery and the prognosis is good.
  • But, typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity was extremely rare, so the treatment has not been established.
  • We report a case of typical carcinoid tumor of the nasal cavity in a 76-year-old man who treated by conservative surgery using sinus endoscopy.
  • To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on an typical carcinoid in the nasal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17481837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Mendes S, Gallego J, Caldeira J, Palhano M, Cruz J, Cravino J: [Pulmonary carcinoid tumors--ten years experience]. Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc; 2005 Jan-Mar;12(1):21-4
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary carcinoid tumors--ten years experience].
  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are rare, accounting for as many as 2% of all pulmonary neoplasms and for 10% of carcinoid tumors overall.
  • They have a subclassification into typical classed as low-grade malignant neoplasm and atypical more aggressive, with more potential to cause local invasion.
  • In this paper, the authors report a retrospective study of 25 patients, who had the diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumors and had been operated between January of 1994 and August of 2004.
  • We conclude that this tumors must be considered malignant in the surgical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15895123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-7215
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-torácica e vascular : órgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Torácica e Vascular
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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22. Rizzardi G, Marulli G, Calabrese F, Rugge M, Rebusso A, Sartori F, Rea F: Bronchial carcinoid tumours in children: surgical treatment and outcome in a single institution. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;19(4):228-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bronchial carcinoid tumours in children: surgical treatment and outcome in a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors are low grade, malignant, neuroendocrine neoplasms.
  • The aim of our study was to analyse the long-term survival and surgical treatment outcome in our young patients operated for carcinoid tumour.
  • There were 13 typical and 2 atypical carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 19513967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-359X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Nakajima Y, Koizumi K, Haraguchi S, Kawamoto M, Kubokura H, Okada D, Yoshino N, Kinoshita H, Takeuchi S, Fukuda Y, Shimizu K: Locally infiltrative glomus tumor of the bronchus: a case report. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Apr;16(2):113-7
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  • [Title] Locally infiltrative glomus tumor of the bronchus: a case report.
  • We report a glomus tumor of the bronchus that showed invasion of the neural area and extrabronchial extension without significant histological malignancy.
  • An irregularly protruding lesion on the tumor surface was observed by bronchoscopy immediately under the second carina in the right truncus intermedius, but could not be diagnosed because of bleeding.
  • Sleeve lobectomy of the right upper lobe was performed, since carcinoid tumor was suspected in open chest biopsy and intraoperative frozen section diagnosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry was positive for α-smooth muscle actin and type IV collagen, weakly positive for synaptophysin, and negative for keratin, neural cell adhesion molecule, chromogranin A, desmin, CD34, and S100, leading to a diagnosis of glomus tumor.
  • Neuroinvasion and extrabronchial tumor extension were observed, but an atypical cytology, bleeding, or necrosis was found histologically.
  • This is the first description of infiltrative glomus tumor of the bronchus.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchi / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Glomus Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20930664.001).
  • [ISSN] 2186-1005
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official journal of the Association of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons of Asia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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24. Kawauchi S, Okuda S, Morioka H, Iwasaki F, Fukuma F, Chochi Y, Furuya T, Oga A, Sasaki K: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix with cytogenetic analysis by comparative genomic hybridization: a case study. Hum Pathol; 2005 Oct;36(10):1096-100
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  • The cervical tumor showed moderately increased mitotic activity (8-14 mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields) and focal necrosis, which made it problematic to differentiate from atypical carcinoid.
  • CGH analysis failed to detect chromosome 11q loss that has been reported to be characteristic of pulmonary atypical carcinoids.
  • Furthermore, chromosome 3q amplification, which has been detected frequently in pulmonary small cell carcinomas and LCNECs but not in pulmonary typical and atypical carcinoids, was the most remarkable chromosomal aberration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Mitosis. Ovariectomy. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vaginal Smears


25. Stătescu G, Serban I, Dobreanu E: [Neglected peritonitis of rare origin: atypical carcinoid]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2006 Apr-Jun;110(2):381-3
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  • [Title] [Neglected peritonitis of rare origin: atypical carcinoid].
  • [Transliterated title] Peritonită neglijată de cauză rară: carcinoid atipic.
  • We present a clinical case of ileal carcinoid tumor manifested to a man about 53 years old, which was operated first time in emergency when right hemicolectomy was performed and after that reintervention for a small fistula.
  • In conclusion we can say that acute appendicitis with generalized peritonitis could be one of form by manifestation of this tumor:ileal carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendicitis / etiology. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Ileal Neoplasms / complications. Peritonitis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17802949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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26. Terada T: Carcinoid Tumors of Digestive Organs: a Clinicopathologic Study of 13 Cases. Gastroenterology Res; 2009 Feb;2(1):35-37
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  • [Title] Carcinoid Tumors of Digestive Organs: a Clinicopathologic Study of 13 Cases.
  • : The author investigated clinicopathologic features of 13 cases of carcinoid tumor in the digestive organs.
  • The 13 cases of carcinoid were identified from 18,267 pathological specimens of digestive organs in the last 10 years in our pathology laboratory.
  • The tumor locations were rectum in 9 cases, duodenum in 2 cases, liver in 1 case, and stomach in 1 case.
  • None of the cases showed carcinoid syndrome.
  • The diameter ranged from 5 mm to 25 mm in gastrointestinal carcinoids, and 60 mm in the hepatic carcinoid.
  • The outcome is good except for hepatic atypical carcinoid which showed metastases and died of systemic metastasis.
  • Histologically, 12 carcinoid tumors were typical carcinoids, and one (liver) was atypical carcinoid.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for at least one of pan-neuroendocrine markers including chromogranin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, CD56, and glucagon.
  • In summary, the author reported the incidence of digestive organ carcinoid tumors, and the clinicopathologic features of the 13 cases with carcinoid.

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  • (PMID = 27956948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-2805
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoid / Clinicopathology / Digestive organs / Immunohistochemistry
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27. Tsuchida M, Umezu H, Hashimoto T, Shinohara H, Koike T, Hosaka Y, Eimoto T, Hayashi JI: Absence of gene mutations in KIT-positive thymic epithelial tumors. Lung Cancer; 2008 Dec;62(3):321-5
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  • In patients with GIST, overexpression of mutated KIT within the tumor is predictive of response to molecular targeted therapy using imatinib.
  • Percentage of positive staining was 100% in squamous cell carcinoma, with no positive staining in other histologies, including atypical carcinoid.

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  • (PMID = 18486988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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28. Sharma R, McLeod D, Clarke SJ: Small blue cell tumors of the rectum. Case 3. Atypical carcinoid of the rectum. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb 1;23(4):914-5
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  • [Title] Small blue cell tumors of the rectum. Case 3. Atypical carcinoid of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15681539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Fukuoka J, Dracheva T, Shih JH, Hewitt SM, Fujii T, Kishor A, Mann F, Shilo K, Franks TJ, Travis WD, Jen J: Desmoglein 3 as a prognostic factor in lung cancer. Hum Pathol; 2007 Feb;38(2):276-83
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  • We used immunohistochemical analysis to examine the expression of desmoglein 3 by using tissue microarrays containing samples from 300 surgical non-small-cell lung cancer and 183 lung neuroendocrine tumor.
  • In patients with atypical carcinoid tumors, lacking desmoglein 3 expression showed a 5-year survival of 0% compared with 36.8% for desmoglein 3-positive cases (P < .001).
  • Desmoglein 3 status indicated a poor prognosis in lung cancers and portends a more aggressive behavior for atypical carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Desmoglein 3 / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lung / chemistry. Lung / cytology. Lung / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17084439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmoglein 3; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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30. Ampollini L, Carbognani P, Rusca M, Bobbio A: Resection of giant typical carcinoid tumor with cardiopulmonary bypass support. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Dec;58(8):500-2
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  • [Title] Resection of giant typical carcinoid tumor with cardiopulmonary bypass support.
  • Carcinoids, defined as well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, are classified as typical or atypical based on their microscopic pathological features.
  • We present the surgical strategy used to achieve a left pneumonectomy and the indications for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support in a patient with a huge typical carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Pneumonectomy

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 21110279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1902
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Dutta R, Kumar A, Julka PK, Mathur SR, Kaushal S, Kumar R, Jindal T, Suri V: Thymic neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid): clinicopathological features of four patients with different presentation. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Dec;11(6):732-6
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  • [Title] Thymic neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid): clinicopathological features of four patients with different presentation.
  • This article describes the utility of (68)Gallium-1,4,7,10-traazacyclododecane-NI, NII, NIII, NIIII-tetra acetic acid-(D)-Phel1-Tyr3-octreotide positron emission tomography ((68)Ga DOTATOC PET-CT-scan) and clinicopathological features of four thymic carcinoid tumours.
  • Two typical, one atypical, and one large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) were analysed.
  • Three patients had a stage III and one had a stage II tumour.
  • Preoperative (68)Ga DOTATOC PET-CT-scan of three patients did not show uptake of radiotracer in the tumour.
  • There is no locoregional recurrence of tumour in any of our patients.
  • Complete surgical resection of the tumour with invaded adjacent structures, postoperative radiotherapy to the tumour bed helps in obtaining disease free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Organometallic Compounds. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20851876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ga(III)-DOTATOC; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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32. Rekhtman N: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: an update. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1628-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: The 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification recognizes 4 major types of lung neuroendocrine tumors: typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell lung cancer, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Markedly different prognostic implications and treatment paradigms for these tumors underscore the importance of accurate pathologic diagnosis.
  • The emerging evidence for the utility of Ki-67 (MIB1) in the diagnosis of lung neuroendocrine tumors, particularly in small biopsy and cytology, is emphasized.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors is based on morphologic features in combination with precisely defined mitotic rate and absence or presence of necrosis.
  • Ki-67 (MIB1) is emerging as a useful ancillary tool in the diagnosis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 21043816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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33. Jang BG, Kim SY, Park SH: Multiple pulmonary atypical carcinoids presenting with long-standing Cushing syndrome masked by pulmonary tuberculosis. Pathol Int; 2009 Jun;59(6):399-404
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  • [Title] Multiple pulmonary atypical carcinoids presenting with long-standing Cushing syndrome masked by pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • This CS was due to the ectopic ACTH produced by the pulmonary atypical carcinoids, which were recognized at the disseminated stage 5 years after the initial presentation of CS.
  • Microscopically, multiple whitish nodules (up to 1.0 cm in diameter) of the wedge-resected lung were composed of small round cells appearing to be typical neuroendocrine but were diagnosed as atypical carcinoid, based on the findings of focal necrosis, high mitotic rates and multiple endolymphatic tumor emboli.
  • Immunohistochemically, tumor cells robustly stained for ACTH.
  • The delay of diagnosis is, in part, attributable to the pulmonary tuberculosis (one of the complications of hypercortisolism), because the pulmonary tuberculosis presented in the form of multiple nodules throughout the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications


34. Pelosi G, Leon ME, Veronesi G, Spaggiari L, Pasini F, Viale G: Decreased immunoreactivity of CD99 is an independent predictor of regional lymph node metastases in pulmonary carcinoid tumors. J Thorac Oncol; 2006 Jun;1(5):468-77
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  • [Title] Decreased immunoreactivity of CD99 is an independent predictor of regional lymph node metastases in pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • A steady decrease of the CD99 labeling index was observed from better to poorly differentiated tumors, with a prevalence of the membranous pattern in typical carcinoids (TCs), and of the cytoplasmic pattern in atypical carcinoids (ACs) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma/small cell lung carcinoma (P < 0.0001), independent of tumor stage.
  • In TCs/ACs, increased levels of CD99 labeling index or the membranous pattern were associated with low proliferative fraction (P = 0.0011) and smaller tumor size (P = 0.0054) and with lack of regional lymph node metastases (P = 0.0078).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17409901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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35. Travis WD, Giroux DJ, Chansky K, Crowley J, Asamura H, Brambilla E, Jett J, Kennedy C, Rami-Porta R, Rusch VW, Goldstraw P, International Staging Committee and Participating Institutions: The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: proposals for the inclusion of broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Nov;3(11):1213-23
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  • [Title] The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project: proposals for the inclusion of broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors in the forthcoming (seventh) edition of the TNM Classification for Lung Cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: In the 2003 Supplement for tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) Staging classification it states that TNM staging "applies to all types of carcinoma including small cell carcinoma; however, it does not apply to carcinoids."
  • Despite this caveat, most publications on typical and atypical carcinoids use the TNM staging system for nonsmall cell carcinoma and are able to demonstrate prognostic significance for the different stages.
  • For this reason, as the next TNM Staging proposal is being considered, we sought to investigate the carcinoid cases submitted to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) database, as well as the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER).
  • A total of 1619 broncho-pulmonary carcinoid cases diagnosed over the period 1990-2002 were analyzed from the SEER database, including 1437 surgical cases.
  • We found that all three T, N, and M categories as defined for non-small cell lung cancer are generally useful for staging of pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the IASLC proposals for the 7th edition of TNM are helpful in predicting prognosis for broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • It is the recommendation of the IASLC Staging project that TNM be applied to broncho-pulmonary carcinoid tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18978555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Goldstraw P; Asamura H; Ball D; Bolejack V; Brambilla E; Bunn PA; Carney D; Chansky K; Le Chevalier T; Crowley J; Ginsberg R; Giroux D; Groome P; Hansen HH; Van Houtte P; Im JG; Jett JR; Kato H; Kennedy C; Krasnik M; van Meerbeeck J; Naruke T; Patz EF; Postmus PE; Rami-Porta R; Rusch V; Sculier JP; Shaikh Z; Shepherd FA; Shimosato Y; Sobin L; Travis W; Tsuboi M; Tsuchiya R; Vallieres E; Vansteenkiste J; Watanabe Y; Yokomise H; Visser O; Tsuchiya R; Naruke T; Van Meerbeeck JP; Bülzebruck H; Allison R; Tripcony L; Wang X; Watson D; Herndon J; Stevens RJ; Depierre A; Quoix E; Tran Q; Jett JR; Mandrekar S; Schiller JH; Gray RJ; Duque-Medina JL; Lopez-Encuentra A; Crowley JJ; Crowley JJ; Pisters KM; Strand TE; Swann S; Choy H; Damhuis R; Komaki R; Allen PK; Sculier JP; Paesmans M; Wu YL; Pesek M; Krosnarova H; Le Chevalier T; Dunant A; McCaughan B; Kennedy C; Shepherd F; Whitehead M; Jassem J; Ryzman W; Scagliotti GV; Borasio P; Fong KM; Passmore L; Rusch VW; Park BJ; Baek HJ; Perng RP; Yung RC; Gramatikova A; Vansteenkiste J; Brambilla C; Colonna M; Hunt J; Park A; Sculier JP; Berghmans T; Cangir AK; Subotic D; Rosell R; Aberola V; Vaporciyan AA; Correa AM; Pignon JP; Le Chevalier T; Komaki R; Orlowski T; Ball D; Matthews J; Tsao M; Darwish S; Pass HI; Stevens T; Wright G; Legrand C; van Meerbeeck JP
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36. Skov BG, Holm B, Erreboe A, Skov T, Mellemgaard A: ERCC1 and Ki67 in small cell lung carcinoma and other neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: distribution and impact on survival. J Thorac Oncol; 2010 Apr;5(4):453-9
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  • The associations of ERCC1 and Ki67, clinical features and survival in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) were determined.
  • RESULTS: The expression of ERCC1 was different among the different tumor types (p < 0.001).
  • A difference of the percentage of Ki67 LI was observed for the different tumor types (p < 0.001).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / metabolism. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / mortality. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Thorac Oncol. 2010 Nov;5(11):1876-7 [20975385.001]
  • (PMID = 20104194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; EC 3.1.- / ERCC1 protein, human; EC 3.1.- / Endonucleases
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37. Fox T, Simon EL, Elder E, Riffenburgh RH, Johnstone PA: Free breathing gated delivery (FBGD) of lung radiation therapy: analysis of factors affecting clinical patient throughput. Lung Cancer; 2007 Apr;56(1):69-75
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  • The photon beam is on only during a particular prescribed percentage of the respiratory cycle where the target tumor volume is minimized.
  • The majority of patients had lung cancer (n=12) with single cases of adrenal metastasis, thymoma, and atypical carcinoid.
  • Even though this technology more accurately targets tumor volumes while sparing normal tissue, the patient throughput issue may deter this technology from being implemented into busy clinical practices.

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  • (PMID = 17196299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / 5P60-MD000525
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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38. Farhat CA, Parra ER, Rogers AV, Elian SN, Sheppard MN, Capelozzi VL: Using electron microscopy and multivariate cluster analysis to determine diagnosis and prognosis in cases of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma. J Bras Pneumol; 2008 Oct;34(10):804-11
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  • [Title] Using electron microscopy and multivariate cluster analysis to determine diagnosis and prognosis in cases of neuroendocrine lung carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish reproducible electron microscopic criteria for identifying the four major types of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: carcinoid; atypical carcinoid; large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; and small cell carcinoma.
  • Sixteen morphometric variables related to tumor cell differentiation were assessed in 27 tumors.
  • The tumors fell into three well-defined clusters, which represent the spectrum of neuroendocrine differentiation: typical carcinoid (cluster 1); atypical carcinoid and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (cluster 2); and small cell carcinoma (cluster 3).
  • Cluster 2 represents an intermediate step in neuroendocrine carcinogenesis, between typical carcinoid tumors and small cell carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that electron microscopy is useful in making the diagnosis and prognosis in cases of lung tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Large Cell / ultrastructure. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / ultrastructure. Lung Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / ultrastructure. Cluster Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Microscopy, Electron. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19009213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicaça̋o oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bras Pneumol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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39. Senda E, Fujimoto K, Ohnishi K, Higashida A, Ashida C, Okutani T, Sakano S, Yamamoto M, Ito R, Yamada H: Minute ampullary carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastases: a case report and review of literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:9
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  • [Title] Minute ampullary carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastases: a case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors are usually considered to have a low degree of malignancy and show slow progression.
  • One of the factors indicating the malignancy of these tumors is their size, and small ampullary carcinoid tumors have been sometimes treated by endoscopic resection.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 63-year-old woman with a minute ampullary carcinoid tumor that was 7 mm in diameter, but was associated with 2 peripancreatic lymph node metastases.
  • Endoscopy showed that the ampulla was slightly enlarged by a submucosal tumor.
  • The biopsy specimen revealed tumor cells that showed monotonous proliferation suggestive of a carcinoid tumor.
  • The resected lesion was a small submucosal tumor (7 mm in diameter) at the ampulla, with metastasis to 2 peripancreatic lymph nodes, and it was diagnosed as a malignant carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Recently there have been some reports of endoscopic ampullectomy for small carcinoid tumors.
  • However, this case suggests that attention should be paid to the possibility of lymph node metastases as well as that of regional infiltration of the tumor even for minute ampullary carcinoid tumors to provide the best chance for cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19159493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2636813
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40. Felekouras E, Petrou A, Bramis K, Prassas E, Papaconstantinou I, Dimitriou N, Pazaiti A, Tsigris C, Giannopoulos A: Malignant carcinoid tumor of the cystic duct: a rare cause of bile duct obstruction. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Dec;8(6):640-6
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  • [Title] Malignant carcinoid tumor of the cystic duct: a rare cause of bile duct obstruction.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree are extremely rare malignancies, accounting for 0.2%-2% of all gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, while carcinoids of the cystic duct are an uncommon entity and an extremely unusual cause of bile duct obstruction.
  • METHODS: After an extensive literature review, we retrospectively analysed 61 cases of carcinoid tumor of the biliary tree as well as one additional case of a 60-year-old female with symptoms and laboratory/imaging examination findings compatible with those of a malignant biliary tract obstruction.
  • Compared to cholangiocarcinoma, analysis of the reviewed group indicates an increased incidence of extrahepatic carcinoid tumors in younger persons along with a slight female predominance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors obstructing the biliary tree are extremely difficult to diagnose preoperatively, and nearly impossible to differentiate from non-neuroendocrine tumors.
  • As surgery offers the only potential cure for both biliary carcinoids and cholangiocarcinoma, we recommend aggressive surgical therapy as the treatment of choice in every case of potentially resectable biliary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cholestasis / etiology. Cystic Duct / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20007084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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41. Nannini N, Bertolini F, Cavazza A, Casali C, Mengoli MC, Rossi G: Atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma: a hitherto unreported variant of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):120-4
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma: a hitherto unreported variant of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the lung may show several growth patterns and cell types.
  • We report here a previously undescribed case of primary pulmonary atypical carcinoid with prominent mucinous stroma, an exceedingly rare variant of carcinoid tumor so far reported only in the thymus.
  • The tumor was discovered in a 50-year-old, non-smoker woman, and pursued an aggressive behavior.
  • The lack of TTF-1 expression and the positive staining with hormonal receptors made the diagnosis very challenging.
  • Differential diagnosis with other primary and metastatic mucin-rich tumors is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mucus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy


42. Goel A, Addis BJ: Pigmented atypical carcinoid of the lung. Histopathology; 2007 Aug;51(2):263-5
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  • [Title] Pigmented atypical carcinoid of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17593208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
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43. Bednaríková M, Valík D, Vyzula R: [Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of carcinoid]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2008;147(4):233-5
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  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogues in the treatment of carcinoid].
  • The patient--born in 1960, was first diagnosed in 1981 as having malignant carcinoid of the right lung.
  • According to tumor histology--atypical carcinoid--this patient was initially treated with palliative systemic chemotherapy, specifically with cisplatin and etoposid.
  • This case study illustrates the necessity of cautious and individual approach to the choice of treatment strategy in patients with malignant carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 18578378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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44. Warth A, Krysa S, Zahel T, Hoffmann H, Schirmacher P, Schnabel PA, Herpel E: [S100 protein positive sustentacular cells in pulmonary carcinoids and thoracic paragangliomas: differential diagnostic and prognostic evaluation]. Pathologe; 2010 Sep;31(5):379-84
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  • In order to get more insight into the prevalence as well as the prognostic and differential diagnostic value of this cell population in pulmonary carcinoids, we investigated a panel of 26 tumorlets, 147 typical and atypical pulmonary carcinoids and ten thoracic paragangliomas immunohistochemically.
  • Hence, the presence and distribution of these cells does not appear to represent a reliable criterion in differential diagnosis.
  • Moreover, all pulmonary carcinoid patients with a worse outcome had low numbers of or no S100 protein positive cells in their tissue specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Paraganglioma / pathology. S100 Proteins / analysis. Thoracic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Count. Diagnosis, Differential. Glomus Jugulare Tumor / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lung / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20567830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins
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45. García-Yuste M, Molins L, Matilla JM, González-Aragoneses F, López-Pujol J, Ramos G, de la Torre M, Estudio Multicéntrico Español de los Tumores Neuroendocrinos del Pulmón de la Sociedad Española de Neumología y Cirurgía Torácica (EMETNE-SEPAR): [Trends in prognostic factors for neuroendocrine lung tumors]. Arch Bronconeumol; 2007 Oct;43(10):549-56
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  • That group was analyzed retrospectively and contained 261 patients with typical carcinoid tumors, 43 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 22 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 35 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Group B contained 404 patients enrolled prospectively between 1998 and 2002: 308 with typical carcinoid tumors, 49 with atypical carcinoid tumors, 18 with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 29 with small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • The following clinical variables were considered: sex, mean age, tumor site, tumor size, lymph node involvement, stage, metastasis, and local recurrence.
  • RESULTS: In both groups, significant differences were observed between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors in terms of mean age, tumor size, node involvement, and recurrence.
  • In group A, female sex, node involvement, and recurrence differed between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; the same was true for group B, with the exception of lymph node involvement.
  • Both groups displayed significant differences in overall survival and survival of patients with lymph node involvement between patients with typical and atypical carcinoid tumors and between patients with atypical carcinoid tumors and those with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma; no differences were observed between patients with large-cell versus small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 17939909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2896
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de bronconeumología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Bronconeumol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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46. John BM, Song MH, Park YS, Jo YJ, Kim SH, Lee HH, Kim SK, Jung SH, Kim DH, Kim DH: [A case of carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr;47(4):320-3
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  • [Title] [A case of carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct].
  • Majority of malignant neoplasms arising from the extrahepatic bile duct are adenocarcinomas.
  • Carcinoid tumors at this site are extremely rare.
  • We report a 67-year-old woman with malignant carcinoid tumor of the common bile duct.
  • She underwent Whipple's operation and was diagnosed as malignant carcinoid tumor histologically and immunohistochemically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16632986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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47. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Herman ZS: [Current concepts on diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid]. Przegl Lek; 2007;64(2):103-10
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  • [Title] [Current concepts on diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid].
  • Carcinoid tumours are relatively rare neuroendocrine neoplasms that often present as diagnostic dilemmas due to obscure or non-specific symptomatology.
  • Although, the majority are nonfunctional, some carcinoids can cause so called classical or atypical carcinoid syndrome and sometimes also paraneoplastic syndromes.
  • Carcinoid tumours often present with metastatic disease.
  • Despite the fact that many advances have been made in both the basic science and clinical areas, the optimal treatment of carcinoid tumours is still a matter of debate.
  • In this article, the pathogenesis, clinical aspects, classification, diagnosis and treatment of carcinoids are reviewed including the latest advances in each area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17892042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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48. Belak J, Kudlac M, Zak V, Cavarga I, Kocan P, Böör A, Stebnicky M, Somos A, Tkacova R: Surgical management of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: experience over 8 years and review of the literature. Tumori; 2010 Jan-Feb;96(1):84-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: experience over 8 years and review of the literature.
  • Our purpose was to study the characteristics, surgical approaches and outcome in patients with primary bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: Between 2001 and 2007, bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors were removed in 11 of a total of 287 patients who underwent surgery for primary lung malignancies in our tertiary referral center.
  • Histological findings revealed typical carcinoid in 10 patients and atypical carcinoid in one.
  • The surgical approach included 8 lung resections (6 lobectomies, 1 bilobectomy, 1 segmentectomy), and 3 bronchoplastic tumor removals.
  • In 2008, clinical examination and chest X-ray revealed no recurrence of the carcinoid and no long-term postoperative complications in any patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the light of our study and the review of the literature we conclude that early recognition of primary bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors followed by adequate surgical removal of the malignancy are essential for complete remission of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20437863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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49. Seshamani M, Einhorn E, Mirza N: Atypical carcinoid of the larynx and potential complications of the carcinoid syndrome: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Jan;88(1):E1
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid of the larynx and potential complications of the carcinoid syndrome: a case report.
  • In addition to conducting a metastatic workup, we determined that it was necessary to evaluate the functional status of the tumor prior to excision because the SSRI could precipitate a carcinoid syndrome.
  • We discuss the characteristics and management of different neuroendocrine carcinomas of the larynx, and we review the potential complications of the carcinoid syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngoscopy / methods. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19172557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Ferlito A, Silver CE, Bradford CR, Rinaldo A: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx: an overview. Head Neck; 2009 Dec;31(12):1634-46
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  • In the past, there has been considerable confusion about the nature and classification of these neoplasms, but the current consensus is that there are 4 different types of laryngeal neuroendocrine tumors composed of paraganglioma, typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid tumor, and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Diagnosis is based primarily on light microscopy and confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
  • Precise diagnosis is essential because the natural history, treatment, and prognosis vary widely for the different neoplastic categories.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors are more common and more aggressive.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly aggressive and should be considered disseminated at initial diagnosis.
  • It is difficult to determine the valid survival statistics for typical carcinoids because of their rarity and confusion in the literature with their atypical counterparts.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors have a 5-year survival rate of approximately 50%, which decreases with time.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Laryngectomy / methods. Male. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Paraganglioma / mortality. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19536850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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51. Tiktinsky E, Horne T, Agranovich S, Lantsberg S: Intramuscular metastasis of carcinoid tumor: a rare manifestation. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Jul;33(7):484-5
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  • [Title] Intramuscular metastasis of carcinoid tumor: a rare manifestation.
  • A 43-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of left upper lobectomy due to an atypical lung carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Octreotide

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  • (PMID = 18580236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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52. Stanic J, Zaric B, Anjelkovic A, Sarcev T, Eri Z, Boskovic T, Perin B: Clinical prognostic factors and outcome of surgical treatment in patients with early-stage bronchial carcinoid tumors. J BUON; 2010 Jul-Sep;15(3):524-8
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  • [Title] Clinical prognostic factors and outcome of surgical treatment in patients with early-stage bronchial carcinoid tumors.
  • Major inclusion criteria were: pathologically confirmed BC, ECOG performance status 0-2, and surgical resection of the tumor.
  • Also, analysis revealed significant differences in survival depending on tumor size (p=0.000), as well as on the type of the tumor (typical vs. atypical) (p=0.010).
  • Tumor size and typical/atypical tumor are also significant prognostic factors for survival of surgically treated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20941822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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53. Das-Neves-Pereira JC, de Matos LL, Danel C, Trufelli D, Riquet M: Typical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: a ramifying bronchial presentation with metastatic behavior. Ann Thorac Surg; 2006 Dec;82(6):2265-6
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  • [Title] Typical bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors: a ramifying bronchial presentation with metastatic behavior.
  • Bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors (BTCT) are neuroendocrine neoplasms with histologic low grade characteristics considered benign.
  • Metastasis occurred despite typical carcinoid microscopic features in 3 female patients of African origin presenting at macroscopic examination as ramifying bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors following the bronchial tree.
  • We suggest that clinical ramifying presentation may be related to metastatic behavior, even for bronchopulmonary typical carcinoid tumors not displaying histologic criteria for atypical carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17126146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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54. Lewis JS Jr, Spence DC, Chiosea S, Barnes EL Jr, Brandwein-Gensler M, El-Mofty SK: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx: definition of an entity. Head Neck Pathol; 2010 Sep;4(3):198-207
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  • Laryngeal atypical carcinoids (AC/moderately-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma) are associated with moderately aggressive clinical behavior; however, a subset of tumors classified as AC have much greater aggressive potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 20589486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097190
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2923306
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56. Gillenwater A, Lewin J, Roberts D, El-Naggar A: Moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx: a clinically aggressive tumor. Laryngoscope; 2005 Jul;115(7):1191-5
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  • [Title] Moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (atypical carcinoid) of the larynx: a clinically aggressive tumor.
  • METHODS: Patient, tumor, treatment, and outcome data were collected from medical records.
  • Nine patients were alive 3 years after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Larynx / radiation effects. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate


57. Chen KC, Chang YL, Pan CT, Lee YC: Esophageal atypical carcinoid tumor with tracheal invasion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Aug;134(2):524-5
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  • [Title] Esophageal atypical carcinoid tumor with tracheal invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Stents. Tracheal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Palliative Care. Thalidomide / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17662809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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58. Strehl MA, Scheich M, Ott I, Müller-Hermelink HK, Hagen R, Völker HU: [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2009 Mar;88(3):186-90
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  • [Title] [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?].
  • [Transliterated title] Mittelohradenom/Mittelohrkarzinoid--ein unproblematischer Tumor?
  • OBJECTIVES: Adenomas/carcinoid tumors of the middle ear are very rare tumors of young to middle aged patients.
  • The terms adenoma and carcinoid tumor of the middle ear can be used as synonyms, with the WHO favouring the term middle ear adenoma (MEA).
  • METHODS AND PATIENTS: This study describes the clinical course and the diagnostic challenges in four cases of this rare tumor entity.
  • In two cases a tumor recurrence was documented with one case recurring six times.
  • The histological differential diagnosis can also be problematic; in one case with a highly atypical morphology it was impossible to arrive at a definite diagnosis during the analysis of a frozen section.
  • The presented cases in this study and the analysis of previously published cases shows that the typical progression described by the current WHO-classification with unproblematic surgical management of the tumor and an uncomplicated further clinical course does not always correspond to reality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, Middle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / diagnosis. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / pathology. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Otoscopy. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19065497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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59. Lal DR, Clark I, Shalkow J, Downey RJ, Shorter NA, Klimstra DS, La Quaglia MP: Primary epithelial lung malignancies in the pediatric population. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Oct 15;45(5):683-6
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  • We reviewed the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with these tumors to better understand their histology, time to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.
  • PROCEDURE: A retrospective review was performed on all patients 21 years of age or younger at diagnosis, treated for primary epithelial lung malignancies at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1980 and 2001.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 19 (range: 12-21) years.
  • The most common radiographic abnormality was a mass (55%) on chest imaging.
  • Seven patients (64%) were initially diagnosed as having pneumonia which contributed to a delay in diagnosis.
  • Final pathologic diagnoses included adenocarcinoma (four), carcinoid tumor (three typical, one atypical), basaloid carcinoma (two), and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (one).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When children and adolescents present with primary epithelial lung malignancy a majority will have advanced disease and experience a delay in diagnosis.
  • Carcinoid tumors are more frequent, and less common subtypes of bronchogenic carcinoma are also more prevalent in the pediatric age group.
  • Patients with carcinoid tumors seem to have the best prognosis, followed by adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Child. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Male. Pneumonia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15714450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Kasprzak A, Olejniczak K, Przybyszewska W, Zabel M: Cellular expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its receptor (IL-2R, CD25) in lung tumours. Folia Morphol (Warsz); 2007 Aug;66(3):159-66
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  • The immunocytochemical ABC technique was applied to archival tissue material of neuroendocrine lung tumours: lung carcinoids, including typical carcinoids (TC), atypical carcinoids (AC) and small-cell lung cancers (SCLC) and squamous cell lung cancers (non-small cell lung cancers, NSCLC).
  • The highest frequency of IL-2 expression (93%) was noted and the most pronounced semi-quantitatively evaluated expression of IL-2 was detected in AC tumour cells.
  • The results suggest a negative correlation between IL-2 expression and the proliferative activity of tumour cells (evaluated by expression of Ki-67) in AC.
  • Semi-quantitative expression of IL-2R, like that of IL-2, also dominated in the group of atypical lung carcinoids but manifested a significant difference only as compared to typical carcinoids (p = 0.014).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Interleukin-2 / metabolism. Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17985312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5659
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia morphologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Morphol. (Warsz)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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61. Kim BN, Sohn DK, Hong CW, Han KS, Chang HJ, Jung KH, Lim SB, Choi HS, Jeong SY, Park JG: Atypical endoscopic features can be associated with metastasis in rectal carcinoid tumors. Surg Endosc; 2008 Sep;22(9):1992-6
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  • [Title] Atypical endoscopic features can be associated with metastasis in rectal carcinoid tumors.
  • Tumor size was associated with metastasis (p < 0.001).
  • Endoscopic features associated with metastasis were tumor shape, surface change, and color (p < 0.001).
  • Atypical endoscopic features occurred more frequently as the size of the tumor increased (p < 0.001).
  • For tumors 10-19 mm in diameter, atypical surface change was associated with metastasis (p = 0.007).
  • In particular, atypical surface change may be useful in determining treatment plans for tumors 10-19 mm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Colonoscopy. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoidoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Color. Female. Humans. Hyperemia / etiology. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Surface Properties. Tumor Burden. Ulcer / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18568372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / NCC-0710362
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Wurtz A, Benhamed L, Conti M, Bouchindhomme B, Porte H: Results of systematic nodal dissection in typical and atypical carcinoid tumors of the lung. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Mar;4(3):388-94
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  • [Title] Results of systematic nodal dissection in typical and atypical carcinoid tumors of the lung.
  • BACKGROUND: To determine the lymphatic spread frequency and location in patients, who underwent lung resection for carcinoid tumors, associated with systematic nodal dissection.
  • METHODS: From January 1998 to June 2007, 54 patients underwent anatomic lung resection associated with systematic nodal dissection for tumors classified as typical (TC) or atypical carcinoid according to 1999 World Health Organization criteria.
  • In the atypical group (n = 12) 2 patients were classified N1 (16.6%) and 2 N2 (16.6%).Five of the 6 N2 patients showed a single skip metastasis not discovered by preoperative evaluation (83.3%).The lymphatic spread was correlated with age < or = 35 years (p = 0.01) and a tumor size > or = 3 cm (p = 0.002).Median follow-up was 57 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] J Thorac Oncol. 2009 May;4(5):670
  • (PMID = 19247085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Sánchez Lihón J: [Carcinoid tumors of the rectum: clinical - pathological correlation]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2009 Apr-Jun;29(2):140-6
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  • [Title] [Carcinoid tumors of the rectum: clinical - pathological correlation].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor carcinoide del recto: correlacion clinico-patologica.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinico-pathologic correlation of carcinoid tumors of the rectum.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and pathology of 20 patients with carcinoid tumors of the rectum seen at the Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN), between 1980 and 2006 RESULTS: There was no difference between sex.
  • 7 cases hat atypical histopathologic from them 2 patients dead, all had metastasis and tumor sizes were 3 to 6 cm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumor size, the atypical histopathologic features, the infiltration of the wall and metastasis are associated with aggressive behavior and bad prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19609329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
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64. Detterbeck FC: Management of carcinoid tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2010 Mar;89(3):998-1005
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  • [Title] Management of carcinoid tumors.
  • Primary bronchopulmonary carcinoids comprise a significant proportion of carcinoid tumors.
  • The clinical presentation allows prediction of the diagnosis and cell type and directs evaluation and treatment.
  • Young age, central tumor, and no nodal enlargement are highly suggestive of typical carcinoid.
  • All bronchopulmonary carcinoids are malignant (though indolent), and surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment.
  • Mediastinoscopy is suggested when there is moderate suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN1 or peripheral cN0), with lobectomy and lymphadenectomy if the mediastinal nodes are benign.
  • For a high suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN2, peripheral cN1, 2), imaging for distant metastases and mediastinoscopy is suggested, with multimodality treatment for an atypical carcinoid with N2 involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Lung Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20172187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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65. Kuczma JA, Grzywa M: [Broncho-pulmonary carcinoid with the cardiac arrhythmia manifestation]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2006 Oct;116(4):971-3
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  • [Title] [Broncho-pulmonary carcinoid with the cardiac arrhythmia manifestation].
  • We are presenting the case of a 60-year-old woman (OM ) with a bronchial-pulmonary carcinoid which the only, first and dominating symptom was paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, as well as ventricular group extrasystoles.
  • The patient underwent urgent surgery after an episode of massive pulmonary haemorrhage--surgery included excision of the upper lobe of the left lung containing the tumour and mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • On microscopic examination, an atypical carcinoid was diagnosed.
  • The current imaging examinations and determinations of 5-HIO uringexcretion acid do not indicate relapse of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Arrhythmias, Cardiac / etiology. Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Lung Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18416299.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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66. Sands TJ, Soomro IN, Chaudry ZR, Ronan J: Prognosis in lung carcinoid tumours. Is there a difference between atypical and typical carcinoids with and without metastasis? Histopathology; 2006 Dec;49(6):653-4
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  • [Title] Prognosis in lung carcinoid tumours. Is there a difference between atypical and typical carcinoids with and without metastasis?
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cadherins / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17163851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins
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67. Amano H, Yamada T, Jujoh T, Kuroda F, Sakao S, Tada Y, Kurosu K, Kasahara Y, Tanabe N, Takiguchi Y, Tatsumi K: [Case of thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I treated effectively with chemotherapy]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Nov;48(11):855-9
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  • [Title] [Case of thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I treated effectively with chemotherapy].
  • He was given a diagnosis of MEN I on genetic testing.
  • Chest CT revealed a mediastinal mass 4 cm in maximum dimension, and an atypical carcinoid was diagnosed according to mediastinal biopsy findings.
  • The tumor decreased in size by 30%, and was evaluated as showing partial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy


68. Onozato Y, Kakizaki S, Iizuka H, Sohara N, Mori M, Itoh H: Endoscopic treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Feb;53(2):169-76
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  • [Title] Endoscopic treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Various methods have been reported for the endoscopic treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors.
  • METHODS: Forty rectal carcinoid tumors of 38 patients were treated endoscopically.
  • All tumors were estimated to measure 1 cm or less in diameter, without muscular invasion, atypical features, and lymph node metastases to the pararectal region.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small carcinoid tumors measuring less than 1 cm in diameter can therefore be managed endoscopically with no recurrence or spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colonoscopy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2012 Aug;55(8):e320 [22810480.001]
  • (PMID = 20087092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Mackley HB, Videtic GM: Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy. Oncology (Williston Park); 2006 Nov;20(12):1537-43; discussion 1544-5, 1549
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the lung: a role for radiotherapy.
  • Primary neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung represent a clinical spectrum of tumors ranging from the relatively benign and slow-growing typical carcinoid to the highly aggressive small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • Resected atypical carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas have a significant risk of localfailure, for which adjuvant radiation likely improves local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17153907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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70. Otake Y, Aoki M, Nakanishi T, Hashimoto K: Atypical carcinoid of thymus associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2010 Oct;58(10):534-7
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid of thymus associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1.
  • Thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1) is a rare tumor.
  • We report a case of MEN-1-related thymic carcinoid.
  • Histological examination revealed atypical carcinoid with infiltration.
  • MEN-1-related thymic carcinoid is often insidious with a poor prognosis.
  • We suggest chest computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging for MEN-1 patients and serological or genetic screening for patients with thymic carcinoid to screen for MEN-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis


71. Bapat U, Mackinnon NA, Spencer MG: Carcinoid tumours of the larynx. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar;262(3):194-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumours of the larynx.
  • They can be divided into typical, atypical and small cell tumours on the basis of their histopathological differentiation.
  • The tumour histology and prognosis correlate closely.
  • The typical carcinoid tumours are well differentiated with a benign course.
  • The atypical carcinoid tumours are poorly differentiated with an aggressive course.
  • We present two cases with similar history and clinical findings-one typical and the other atypical-and discuss the relevant literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15164214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
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72. Rieh E, Steigerwald C, Göbel H, Maier W, Offergeld C: [Carcinoid of the middle ear. A case report]. HNO; 2009 Aug;57(8):835-8
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  • [Title] [Carcinoid of the middle ear. A case report].
  • The case of a 47-year-old patient is described with a carcinoid of the middle ear.
  • The histological examination initially revealed an atypical cholesteatoma and the subsequent immunohistochemical investigation revealed a carcinoid.
  • A radical excavation with complete excision of the tumor and tympanoplasty was carried out.
  • A carcinoid of the middle ear is definitely a rare finding and the primary treatment is complete surgical removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Ear Neoplasms / complications. Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Ear, Middle / surgery. Otologic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Dizziness / diagnosis. Dizziness / etiology. Dizziness / prevention & control. Hearing Disorders / diagnosis. Hearing Disorders / etiology. Hearing Disorders / prevention & control. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19636519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0458
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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73. Defrain C, Chang CY, Srikureja W, Nguyen PT, Gu M: Cytologic features and diagnostic pitfalls of primary ampullary tumors by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cancer; 2005 Oct 25;105(5):289-97
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  • BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-guided FNAB) is highly sensitive and specific in cytologic diagnosis and clinical staging of malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, and lymph nodes.
  • The number of passes necessary to arrive at a preliminary diagnosis during adequacy assessment was documented.
  • Atypical cells were found in six patients, four of which were suspicious for adenocarcinoma and two of which were consistent with reactive atypia.
  • Adenoma was diagnosed in two patients and carcinoid tumor in one.
  • Thirteen patients had a diagnosis that was negative for malignant cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15986397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Ciment A, Gil J, Teirstein A: Late recurrent pulmonary typical carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature. Mt Sinai J Med; 2006 Oct;73(6):884-6
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  • [Title] Late recurrent pulmonary typical carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature.
  • Carcinoid tumors are uncommon pulmonary neoplasms.
  • They are classified histologically as either atypical or typical.
  • Atypical carcinoids are aggressive malignancies that require radical surgical resection and have a guarded prognosis with a propensity to metastasize and recur.
  • Recurrence of a typical pulmonary carcinoid tumor more than a decade after initial resection is very rare.
  • A patient with recurrence of a typical carcinoid tumor 11 years after resection of the primary lesion with one involved lymph node is reported here.
  • Late recurrences are rare in both atypical and typical varieties, but are much more common in atypical carcinoids.
  • The patient reported here represents the fifth case of recurrence of a typical carcinoid tumor more than ten years after resection.
  • This suggests that, after resection of a typical carcinoid neoplasm, patients should be monitored carefully, especially if lymph node metastases are present at the time of surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / physiopathology. Lung Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17117316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-2507
  • [Journal-full-title] The Mount Sinai journal of medicine, New York
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mt. Sinai J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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75. Shimakage M, Kodama K, Kawahara K, Kim CJ, Ikeda Y, Yutsudo M, Inoue H: Downregulation of drs tumor suppressor gene in highly malignant human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Oncol Rep; 2009 Jun;21(6):1367-72
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  • [Title] Downregulation of drs tumor suppressor gene in highly malignant human pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors in the lung fall into four categories: typical carcinoid tumor (TC), atypical carcinoid tumor (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), in ascending order of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, drs knockout mice showed a tumor-prone phenotype, indicating that drs acts as a tumor suppressor gene in malignant tumor formation.
  • Our results indicate that the downregulation of drs is correlated with the development of SCLC, a highly malignant pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neuroendocrine Tumors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Southern. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19424611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SRPX protein, human
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76. Abdel Rahman AR: Bronchoplasty for primary broncho-pulmonary tumors. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2010 Mar;22(1):73-8
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  • Pre operative diagnosis was acheived by bronchoscopy for all patients, mediastinoscopy was done for patients with primary lung cancer.
  • Post operative pathology revealed: 27 patients with typical carcinoid, 2 with atypical carcinoid, 4 with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with adenocarcinoma and one with hamartoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Bronchoplastic resections achieve local control and long-term survival comparable to the standard resections in patients with carcinoid tumor and NSCLC in anatomically suited lesions.

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  • (PMID = 21503009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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77. Stathopoulos GP, Papadopoulos G, Koutantos J: Long-term survival of patients with carcinoid tumor and liver metastases. J BUON; 2009 Oct-Dec;14(4):609-11
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  • [Title] Long-term survival of patients with carcinoid tumor and liver metastases.
  • PURPOSE: To determine long-term survival and long-term stable disease in patients with atypical carcinoid tumor with liver metastases.
  • METHODS: From 1993 till 2008, the records of 56 patients with atypical carcinoid were reviewed.
  • All patients had carcinoid tumors confirmed histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 20148450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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78. Tewari M, Kumar V, Mishra RR, Shukla HS: Gallbladder carcinoid masquerading as gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Jun;8(3):326-8
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoid masquerading as gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid of the gallbladder is rare.
  • A provisional diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma was made.
  • RESULT: Histopathological examination revealed it was a neuroendocrine carcinoma, atypical carcinoid of the gallbladder.
  • CONCLUSION: Gallbladder carcinoid has a poor outcome, requires aggressive treatment, and should be considered as one of the rare but possible gallbladder lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholecystectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Laparotomy

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  • (PMID = 19502178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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79. Asamura H, Kameya T, Matsuno Y, Noguchi M, Tada H, Ishikawa Y, Yokose T, Jiang SX, Inoue T, Nakagawa K, Tajima K, Nagai K: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung: a prognostic spectrum. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan 1;24(1):70-6
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  • PURPOSE: Neuroendocrine (NE) tumors of the lung include typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), large-cell NE carcinoma (LCNEC), and small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).
  • The histologic diagnosis was determined by the consensus of a pathology panel consisting of six expert pathologists as TC, AC, LCNEC, or SCLC on the basis of the WHO classification, and its relationship to clinicopathologic profiles was analyzed.
  • The pathology panel reviewed the remaining 366 tumors, and a diagnosis of NE tumor was made in 318 patients (87.4%); 55 patients had TC, nine had AC, 141 had LCNEC, and 113 had SCLC.

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  • (PMID = 16382115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Travis WD: Advances in neuroendocrine lung tumors. Ann Oncol; 2010 Oct;21 Suppl 7:vii65-71
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  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors include a spectrum of tumors from the low-grade typical carcinoid (TC) and intermediate-grade atypical carcinoid (AC) to the high-grade large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small-cell carcinoma (SCLC).
  • Nodular NE proliferations ≥ 0.5 cm are classified as carcinoid tumors and smaller ones are called tumorlets.
  • Carcinoid tumors have significant clinical, epidemiologic and genetic differences from the high-grade SCLC and LCNEC.
  • The diagnosis of SCLC, TC and AC can be made by light microscopy without the need for special tests in most cases, but for LCNEC it is required to demonstrate NE differentiation by immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy.

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  • (PMID = 20943645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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81. Cevizci R, Karakullukçu B, van den Brekel MW, Balm AJ: Laser excision of a typical carcinoid tumor of the larynx: a case report. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2010 Nov-Dec;20(6):305-8
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  • [Title] Laser excision of a typical carcinoid tumor of the larynx: a case report.
  • Among these, typical carcinoid tumors are the least common type.
  • Prognosis of typical carcinoid tumor is better than atypical carcinoid tumor and small cell carcinoma of the larynx.
  • Fiberoptic examination of the larynx revealed a mass located on the right aryepiglottic fold and biopsy revealed the tumor as a typical carcinoid tumor.
  • We describe CO2 laser excision of a typical carcinoid tumor of the larynx in this case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laser Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20961285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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82. Baek IH: Endoscopic submucosal dissection or conventional endoscopic mucosal resection is an effective and safe treatment for rectal carcinoid tumors: a retrospective study. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2010 May;20(4):329-31
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  • [Title] Endoscopic submucosal dissection or conventional endoscopic mucosal resection is an effective and safe treatment for rectal carcinoid tumors: a retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Various methods for complete endoscopic resection of rectal carcinoid tumors have been reported.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as a new method or conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in order to remove rectal carcinoid tumors completely.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2004 and June 2009, 12 patients with rectal carcinoid tumors, estimated at 10 mm, more or less, in diameter, without atypical features and dissected by ESD or resected by EMR, were recruited for this analysis.
  • The patients had no complaints of carcinoid syndrome symptoms.
  • Tumor size ranged from 5 to 13 mm in diameter, with an average size of 8.8 mm, and 11 of 12 patients (92.7%) had tumors of diameter less than 10 mm.
  • All lesions, including 13-mm-sized carcinoid tumors, were histologically determined to be completely dissected or resected.
  • Histopathologically, there was no tumor invasion beyond the submucosal layer, and all were classified as classical-type carcinoids without lymphovascular invasion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, ESD as a new method or conventional EMR shows promise or potential as a useful, safe procedure to dissect or resect rectal carcinoid tumors of 10 mm, more or less, in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Dissection / methods. Endoscopy. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20438309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Ito T, Kim K, Taira M, Kinoshita M, Ikeda N: [Atypical carcinoid of the lung with abnormal elevation of serum ProGRP level; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2010 Jun;63(6):505-7
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  • [Title] [Atypical carcinoid of the lung with abnormal elevation of serum ProGRP level; report of a case].
  • We report a rare case of an atypical carcinoid of the lung with the elevation of serum ProGRP.
  • Pulmonary carcinoid was pathologically suggested by a transbronchial lung biopsy.
  • Pathological diagnosis was atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peptide Fragments / blood

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  • (PMID = 20533746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (31-98)
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84. Irving JA, Young RH: Lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases emphasizing their morphologic spectrum and problems in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Aug;29(8):997-1006
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  • [Title] Lung carcinoma metastatic to the ovary: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases emphasizing their morphologic spectrum and problems in differential diagnosis.
  • A history of prior lung carcinoma was documented in 53% of cases (17 of 32), with the ovarian tumor detected at a mean interval of 1 year.
  • In 10 cases (31%), the lung and ovarian tumors occurred synchronously, and in 5 (16%) the ovarian tumor was detected up to 26 months before the lung cancer.
  • Forty-four percent of the tumors were small cell carcinomas (14 of 32), 34% adenocarcinomas (11 of 32), and 16% large cell carcinomas (5 of 32); there was a single squamous cell carcinoma and one atypical carcinoid.
  • Thirteen percent of cases (4 of 32) had a coexisting primary ovarian tumor.
  • The mean ovarian tumor size was 9.7 cm, and one third of the ovarian metastases were bilateral.
  • Tumor was limited to the lung and one or both ovaries in 13 cases (40%).
  • Morphologic features common to many of the ovarian tumors were multinodular growth, widespread necrosis, and extensive lymphovascular invasion; involvement of the ovarian surface was rare.
  • Attention to these features, to the usual absence of associated typical surface epithelial neoplasia, and to the clinical history enabled the correct diagnosis to be made in the majority of cases without need of special studies.
  • The differential diagnosis with the primary ovarian tumors most often meriting consideration, including unusual variants of surface epithelial tumors, is discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Time Factors. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16006793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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85. Wistuba II, Gazdar AF: Lung cancer preneoplasia. Annu Rev Pathol; 2006;1:331-48
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  • There are three main morphologic forms of preneoplastic lesions recognized in the lung: squamous dysplasias, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Bronchi / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, erbB-1. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Hyperplasia. Mutation. Signal Transduction. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18039118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4006
  • [Journal-full-title] Annual review of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Annu Rev Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA70907; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA8497102
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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86. D'Adda T, Bottarelli L, Azzoni C, Pizzi S, Bongiovanni M, Papotti M, Pelosi G, Maisonneuve P, Antonetti T, Rindi G, Bordi C: Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jun;18(6):795-805
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  • Association of X chromosome allelic losses with tumor malignancy has been identified in foregut but not in midgut endocrine neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy in lung neuroendocrine tumors, another family of foregut neoplasms comprising four categories with increased malignancy: typical and atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell lung carcinomas.
  • To evaluate loss of heterozygosity, DNA extracted from nine typical carcinoids, 17 atypical carcinoids, six large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and five small cell lung carcinomas was PCR-amplified for 18 microsatellite markers spanning the whole X chromosome.
  • X chromosome losses were absent in typical carcinoids, whereas they were found in nine out of 17 atypical carcinoids and in five out of six large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (involving 28 and 70% of informative loci, respectively).
  • In atypical carcinoids, the presence of losses was associated with larger tumor size, higher pT status and advanced stage.
  • No death occurred in atypical carcinoid patients without deletions on X chromosome, whereas all atypical carcinoid patients who had died from disease showed allelic losses.
  • In conclusion, X chromosome allelic losses, absent in benign 'typical' carcinoids, progressively increased in frequency from intermediate-grade 'atypical' carcinoids to high-grade large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / genetics. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15578070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Ferlito A, Devaney KO, Rinaldo A: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx: advances in identification, understanding, and management. Oral Oncol; 2006 Sep;42(8):770-88
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  • While 85-90% of laryngeal malignancies prove to be squamous carcinomas, the second most common tumour type found in the laryngeal region will prove to be a member of the family of neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Laryngeal carcinoid tumours have a capacity for metastasis, and so are more aggressive tumours than their light microscopic features might imply--5-year survival rates are in the vicinity of 50%.
  • Laryngeal atypical carcinoid tumours are lesions with a well-recognized capacity for local recurrence as well as metastasis, with a 5-year survival of just under 50%.
  • Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment of carcinoid tumours, atypical carcinoid tumours, and paragangliomas.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are chiefly treated by way of radiation and chemotherapy; the role of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of atypical carcinoid tumours remains to be established.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Paraganglioma / diagnosis. Paraganglioma / surgery. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16815077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 457
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88. Naccini B, Fitting JW, Letovanec I: [Current approach to bronchial carcinoid tumors]. Rev Med Suisse; 2007 Nov 21;3(134):2655-6, 2658-60, 2662
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  • [Title] [Current approach to bronchial carcinoid tumors].
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise typical and atypical carcinoids, as well as large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas.
  • However carcinoid tumours differ from the latter two by their clinical presentation, radiographic, histological appearances, and treatment modalities as well as prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18159699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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89. Sica G, Vazquez MF, Altorki N, Port J, Lee PC, Liu Y, Hyjek E, Saqi A: PAX-5 expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms: its usefulness in surgical and fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Apr;129(4):556-62
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  • The World Health Organization classification of lung tumors recognizes 4 histologic subtypes of pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), which include typical carcinoids (TCs), atypical carcinoids (ACs), small cell carcinomas (SCCs), and large cell NECs (LCNECs).
  • These tumors can be misclassified owing to morphologic parallels, indicating the necessity for adjunctive tests for correct classification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Large Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery. Cell Count. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18343782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX5 protein, human
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90. Righi L, Volante M, Rapa I, Tavaglione V, Inzani F, Pelosi G, Papotti M: Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling activation patterns in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Dec;17(4):977-87
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  • This study analyzed the expression of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) and its major targets, the ribosomal p70S6-kinase (S6K) and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) in a large series of 218 surgically resected, malignant lung NETs, including 24 metastasizing typical carcinoids, 73 atypical carcinoids, 60 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs), and 61 small cell carcinomas (SCLCs).
  • Western blot analysis of NET tumor samples confirmed such findings, and differential sensitivity to mTOR inhibition according to mTOR pathway activation characteristics was determined in two lung carcinoid cell lines in vitro.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. Signal Transduction. Sirolimus / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20817788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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91. Cameron SE, Alsharif M, McKeon D, Pambuccian SE: Cytology of metastatic thymic well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (thymic carcinoid) in pleural fluid: report of a case. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 May;36(5):333-7
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  • [Title] Cytology of metastatic thymic well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (thymic carcinoid) in pleural fluid: report of a case.
  • Thymic carcinoid tumors (well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas) are uncommon anterior mediastinal neoplasms.
  • We present the case of a 24-year-old man who presented for follow-up of thymic carcinoid with extensive bony metastases.
  • The cytologic fluid preparations consisted of large "cannonballs" and atypical cell groups with salt and pepper nuclear chromatin.
  • A panel of immunohistochemical stains were performed on the cell block material, and the atypical cells were positive for cytokeratin, synaptophysin, and chromogranin, but not for TTF1.
  • These findings were consistent with metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor).
  • This is the first reported case of a carcinoid tumor manifesting as large, spherical, smoothly contoured cell aggregates ("cannonballs") in a pleural fluid.
  • Despite its rarity, a metastatic carcinoid tumor should be considered when "cannonballs" are found in effusions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Hydrothorax / surgery. Male. Paracentesis

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  • (PMID = 18418883.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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92. Vidal A, Lorenzo MJ, Isidro ML, Cordido F: Atypical thymic carcinoid in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jul-Aug;30(7):601-2
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  • [Title] Atypical thymic carcinoid in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.
  • An asymptomatic, non-smoker patient carrier of a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1) mutation was diagnosed with invasive atypical thymic carcinoid tumor.
  • After surgical treatment the tumor reappeared albeit without metastasis.
  • Thymic carcinoid is a well-known cause of mortality in MEN1, and usually metastatic disease is present at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis


93. Kumar A, Jindal T, Dutta R, Kumar R: Functional imaging in differentiating bronchial masses: an initial experience with a combination of (18)F-FDG PET-CT scan and (68)Ga DOTA-TOC PET-CT scan. Ann Nucl Med; 2009 Oct;23(8):745-51
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  • The results of functional imaging studies were analyzed and the results are correlated with the final histopathology of the tumor.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological examination of 7 bronchial masses revealed carcinoid tumors (2 typical, 1 atypical), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (1), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (1), hamartoma (1), and synovial cell sarcoma (1).
  • Atypical carcinoid had moderate uptake of (18)F-FDG and high (68)Ga DOTA-TOC uptake.
  • Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor showed high uptake of (18)F-FDG and no uptake of (68)Ga DOTA-TOC.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Organometallic Compounds. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19784877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1864-6433
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ga(III)-DOTATOC; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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94. Hsu TC: Intra-abdominal lesions could be missed by inadequate laparoscopy. Am Surg; 2008 Sep;74(9):824-6; discussion 827-8
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  • Eleven patients were found to have synchronous colorectal cancers; five patients were found to have unexpected liver metastases; three patients each were found to have gastric cancers, stromal tumors of the small bowel, and ectopic pancreas; two patients each were found to have gastric leiomyosarcomas, pancreatic cancers, mucoceles of the appendix, ulcers of the small intestine, bleeding Meckel's diverticula, pancreatitis, and perforations of the ileum; one patient each was found to have gall bladder cancer, malignant carcinoid tumor, pheochromocytoma, diverticulitis of the jejunum, diverticulitis of the colon, duplication of the colon, and aortic aneurysm larger than 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Diseases / diagnosis. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18807670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Smirnova EA, Gurevich LE, Polikarpova SB, Kokosadze NV: [Gastric tumor of complex structure]. Arkh Patol; 2007 May-Jun;69(3):46-8
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  • [Title] [Gastric tumor of complex structure].
  • The paper describes a case of gastric tumor comprising moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and atypical carcinoid with metastases of both types of tumor cells in the lymph nodes.
  • Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies of primary gastric tumor and lymph nodal metastases confirmed the presence of both differentiation types within one space-occupying lesion: such as goblet (mucin-producing) and neuroendocrine cells.
  • Thus, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies of tumors not only verify their diagnosis and make a histogenetic differential diagnosis of various neoplasms, but also define the degree of their maturation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17722597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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96. De Dosso S, Bajetta E, Procopio G, Cortinovis D, Buzzoni R, Catena L, Platania M, Verzoni E: Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):162-8
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  • [Title] Pulmonary carcinoid tumours: indolent but not benign.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the malignant behaviour of low-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) treated at our institution.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 48 consecutive patients with pulmonary NETs referred to our Medical Oncology Unit between 1998 and 2006, including 33 subjects with typical carcinoids (TCs) and 15 with atypical carcinoids (ACs).
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, there were 37 metastatic and 11 non-metastatic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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97. Spaggiari L, D' Aiuto M, Veronesi G, Pelosi G, de Pas T, Catalano G, de Braud F: Extended pneumonectomy with partial resection of the left atrium, without cardiopulmonary bypass, for lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg; 2005 Jan;79(1):234-40
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  • The were 10 squamous cell carcinomas (60%), 2 adenocarcinomas, 1 adenosquamous carcinoma, 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and 1 atypical carcinoid tumor.

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  • (PMID = 15620949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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98. Okano Y, Inayama M, Hatakeyama N, Hino H, Iwahara Y, Motoki T, Naruse K, Yokota Y, Ogushi F: Autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered with multiple nodular shadows. J Med Invest; 2008 Feb;55(1-2):142-6
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  • [Title] Autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered with multiple nodular shadows.
  • We report an autopsy case of rapid progressive atypical carcinoid of the lung discovered as multiple nodular shadows.
  • Samples from the wall-side pleural lesion were obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under local anesthesia, and histological examination led to a diagnosis of atypical carcinoid.
  • We believe that early detection is crucial in the treatment of atypical carcinoid due to poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Lung / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18319557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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99. Vigg A, Mantri S, Swarnalata G, Mulay K: Atypical carcinoid tumour. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci; 2005 Jul-Sep;47(3):213-5
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid tumour.
  • Carcinoid tumour is a rare entity accounting for less than two percent of bronchial neoplasms.
  • More offten, it presents as a central endobronchial tumour.
  • The peripheral type of carcinoid tumour is relatively rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16022152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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100. Langfort R, Rudziński P, Burakowska B: [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol; 2010;78(1):33-46
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment].
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung represent a broad spectrum of morphologic types that share specific morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular characteristics.
  • The classification of neuroendocrine lung tumors has changed over the last decades and currently four categories are distinguished: typical carcinoid tumor, atypical carcinoid tumor, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma.
  • Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and prognosis, a reliable histological diagnosis, as well as clinical and pathological staging system are essential for an appropriate medical proceedings.
  • All carcinoids are malignant tumors with the potential to metastasize.
  • The majority of patients with pulmonary carcinoid have an excellent survival, even if they present with lymph node metastases.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma progress rapidly and are generally widespread at the moment of diagnosis.
  • Increased knowledge about pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors biology and the genetic characteristics, imply that carcinoid tumors appear to have a different etiology and pathogenesis than large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • In practice, it could be easiest to conceptualize this group of pulmonary tumors as a spectrum of malignancy ranging from the low grade typical carcinoid to the highly malignant large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • Typical carcinoid tumors associated with a fairly benign behavior should be classified as low-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G1) and atypical carcinoid tumors as intermediate-grade tumor/carcinoma (G2).
  • Whereas, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma should be grouped together under the designation of high-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G3).
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20162517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-7077
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumonologia i alergologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumonol Alergol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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