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1. Pratt G: The evolving use of serum free light chain assays in haematology. Br J Haematol; 2008 May;141(4):413-22
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  • The new FLC assay has enabled the detection of monoclonal protein in some patients with non-secretory myeloma and amyloidosis that were previously undetectable.
  • FLC measurements are quantitative, correlating with disease activity, and are an advance in monitoring light chain only multiple myeloma, AL amyloidosis, non-secretory and oligo-secretory multiple myeloma.
  • Serum FLC concentrations also reflect the disease course in the majority of myeloma patients producing intact monoclonal immunoglobulin proteins and have been incorporated into the new response criteria.
  • An abnormal FLC ratio has been shown to be a risk factor for progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering myeloma and solitary plasmacytoma of bone and is prognostic in multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Immunoglobulin Light Chains / blood. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Hematologic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans. Paraproteinemias / diagnosis. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Haematol. 2008 Oct;143(1):143-5; author reply 145-6 [18671704.001]
  • (PMID = 18318757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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2. Cook L, Macdonald DH: Management of paraproteinaemia. Postgrad Med J; 2007 Apr;83(978):217-23
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  • A paraprotein is a monoclonal immunoglobulin or light chain present in the blood or urine; it is produced by a clonal population of mature B cells, most commonly plasma cells.
  • Plasma cell disorders can be considered as a spectrum of conditions ranging from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), through asymptomatic, to symptomatic myeloma.
  • MGUS is defined by a low level of paraprotein <30 g/l, bone marrow plasma cells <10% and the absence of myeloma related organ or tissue damage (predominantly renal, skeletal or bone marrow impairment.
  • ) MGUS requires no therapy and the overall risk of progression to myeloma is 1% per year.
  • Myeloma remains incurable with a median survival of 3-4 years; autologous stem cell transplant can prolong survival, if appropriate.
  • Thalidomide in combination with dexamethasone has an emerging role in the treatment of myeloma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypercalcemia / therapy. Infection / etiology. Kidney Diseases / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Pain / prevention & control. Prognosis. Referral and Consultation

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  • (PMID = 17403946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] Postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 37
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600027
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3. Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering multiple myeloma: emphasis on risk factors for progression. Br J Haematol; 2007 Dec;139(5):730-43
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  • [Title] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering multiple myeloma: emphasis on risk factors for progression.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is characterized by a serum monoclonal protein <30 g/l, <10% plasma cells in the bone marrow, and absence of end-organ damage (CRAB-hypercalcaemia, renal insufficiency, anaemia, or bone lesions).
  • The risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) or a related disorder is 1% per year.
  • Smouldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma is characterized by having a serum IgG or IgA monoclonal protein of 30 g/l or higher and/or 10% or more plasma cells in the bone marrow but no evidence of end-organ damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Prevalence. Risk Factors


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4. Neubauer J, Adam Z, Pour L: [How to determine whether a compressive spinal fracture was caused by osteoporosis or multiple myeloma]. Vnitr Lek; 2006 Nov;52 Suppl 2:83-7
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  • [Title] [How to determine whether a compressive spinal fracture was caused by osteoporosis or multiple myeloma].
  • The most common cause of compressive spinal fractures in older women is undoubtedly senile osteoporosis, while less common causes are malignant diseases which metastase into the skeleton and multiple myeloma focally or diffusely infiltrating the skeleton.
  • We describe a case of monoclonal gammopathy in which only a biopsy using CT-guided puncture of the compressed vertebra showed a symptomatic multiple myeloma requiring overall treatment.
  • Up to the time of the targeted biopsy, the patient had wrongly been classified as a case of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and later as a case of stage IA asymptomatic multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Compression / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / complications. Spinal Fractures / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Paraproteinemias / diagnosis


5. Yun SJ, Lee KH, Yang DW, Lee JB, Kim SJ, Lee SC, Won YH: Primary cutaneous spindle cell B-cell lymphoma with multiple figurate erythema-like manifestation. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jan;36(1):49-52
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous spindle cell B-cell lymphoma with multiple figurate erythema-like manifestation.
  • We report a 68-year-old Korean man presenting with asymptomatic erythematous polycyclic annular firm plaques on his back that spread to the right shoulder.
  • They consistently expressed nuclear bcl-6, but did not express bcl-2, multiple myeloma-1 and p16.
  • We diagnosed him with primary cutaneous spindle cell B-cell lymphoma (PCSBCL) and treated him with six cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab (R-CHOP) chemotherapy; his skin lesions disappeared completely.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19125734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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6. Myslivecek M, Bacovský J, Scudla V, Koranda P, Minarík J, Buriánková E, Formánek R, Zapletalová J: [18F-FDG PET/CT and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in evaluation of patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance: comparison of methods]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(5):325-31
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  • [Title] [18F-FDG PET/CT and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in evaluation of patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance: comparison of methods].
  • BACKGROUNDS: Newer imaging modalities, such as 18F-FDG PET/CT and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy, have been recently introduced to assess the activity and extent of disease in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 101 patients with MM (81 patients) and MGUS (20 patients) were enrolled in the study (21 newly diagnosed and 44 relapsed patients with symptomatic MM, 16 with asymptomatic MM and 20 with MGUS).
  • In our study, 18F-FDG PET/CT predicted asymptomatic MM and MGUS transformation into more aggressive forms with the necessity to start therapy more often than 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / radiography. Multiple Myeloma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • (PMID = 21061682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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7. Kawada K, Minami H, Okabe K, Watanabe T, Inoue K, Sawamura M, Yagi Y, Sasaki T, Takashima S: A multicenter and open label clinical trial of zoledronic acid 4 mg in patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jan;35(1):28-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Electrolyte abnormalities suspected to be drug related including grade 3 or 4 hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia were observed in 11 patients; however, all patients were asymptomatic.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Calcium / blood. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15681601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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8. Tashjian RZ, Bradley MP, Lucas PR: Spinal epidural hematoma after a pathologic compression fracture: an unusual presentation of multiple myeloma. Spine J; 2005 Jul-Aug;5(4):454-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal epidural hematoma after a pathologic compression fracture: an unusual presentation of multiple myeloma.
  • Atraumatic spinal epidural hematomas have been reported as an initial presentation of multiple myeloma.
  • PURPOSE: To present the first reported case of a spinal epidural hematoma after a pathologic fracture and a very unusual initial presentation of multiple myeloma in a young patient.
  • METHODS: A healthy asymptomatic 37-year-old male was struck in the head with a ball while playing soccer.
  • The bone marrow biopsy was positive for plasma cell myeloma.
  • The patient was subsequently started on steroids and chemotherapy for myeloma.
  • The patient has also undergone bone marrow transplant, and his myeloma is currently in remission.
  • Also, this case represents an unusual initial presentation of multiple myeloma in a young patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Spontaneous / etiology. Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Thoracic Vertebrae / injuries
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Spinal Fractures / diagnosis. Spinal Fractures / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15996616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-9430
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Wu AS, Fourney DR: Supportive care aspects of vertebroplasty in patients with cancer. Support Cancer Ther; 2005 Jan 1;2(2):98-104
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  • Although most frequently performed for osteoporotic compression fractures, vertebroplasty has also been very effective in the palliation of back pain secondary to osteolytic metastases and myeloma bone disease.
  • The decision to perform vertebroplasty is made after multiple factors are considered, including clinical presentation, medical fitness, functional capacity, tumor type, location and extent of disease, anticipated radiation sensitivity, and quality of life.
  • Cement extravasation beyond the vertebral body is the most frequent complication; however, it is asymptomatic in the vast majority of patients.

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  • (PMID = 18628195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2912
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive cancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. O'Connell TX, Horita TJ, Kasravi B: Understanding and interpreting serum protein electrophoresis. Am Fam Physician; 2005 Jan 1;71(1):105-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Serum protein electrophoresis is used to identify patients with multiple myeloma and other serum protein disorders.
  • Plasma protein levels display reasonably predictable changes in response to acute inflammation, malignancy, trauma, necrosis, infarction, burns, and chemical injury.
  • Monoclonal gammopathies are associated with a clonal process that is malignant or potentially malignant, including multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, solitary plasmacytoma, smoldering multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, plasma cell leukemia, heavy chain disease, and amyloidosis.
  • The quantity of M protein, the results of bone marrow biopsy, and other characteristics can help differentiate multiple myeloma from the other causes of monoclonal gammopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Protein Disorders / diagnosis. Blood Protein Electrophoresis / standards

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  • (PMID = 15663032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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11. Wang XW, Li F: [Clinical significance of monoclonal gammopathy with undetermined significance--review]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Oct;18(5):1365-9
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  • Monoclonal gammopathy with undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common plasma cell disorder, MGUS is an asymptomatic premalignant disorder, which is markedly underdiagnosed in the general population.
  • The risk frequency of progression to multiple myeloma or a closely related plasma cell disorder was developed at a rate of 1.5% per year, indicating that the condition is not entirely benign.
  • As compared with control populations, the progression rate of MGUS into multiple myeloma, Waldenstr m's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis and lymphoma were increased by 25, 46, 8.4 and 2.4 times respectively.
  • Numerous reports suggest an association of MGUS with a wide variety of other malignant and nonmalignant diseases.

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  • (PMID = 21129295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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12. Ifrah N, Zandecki M: [Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance]. Rev Prat; 2006 Jan 15;56(1):18-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance constitute a body of asymptomatic diseases characterized by a selective increase of a single serum immunoglobulin due to an only dysregulated clone of B lymphocytes.
  • The diagnosis is suggested in presence of both M component in serum <30 g/L and bone marrow plasma cells <10% by the exclusion of multiple myeloma or lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • In most MGUS, however, populations of normal and myelomatous plasma cells coexist in a stable ratio.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Protein Electrophoresis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunoelectrophoresis. Immunoglobulin A / blood. Immunoglobulin M / blood

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  • (PMID = 16548245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin M
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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13. Sharma A, Kaushal M, Chaturvedi NK, Yadav R: Cytodiagnosis of multiple myeloma presenting as orbital involvement: a case report. Cytojournal; 2006;3:19
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytodiagnosis of multiple myeloma presenting as orbital involvement: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Plasma cell neoplasms represent autonomous proliferations of plasma cells and can manifest as diffuse myeloma with systemic involvement (plasma cell myeloma or multiple myeloma), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), or as variants of plasma cell myeloma such as indolent myeloma, smoldering myeloma, osteosclerotic myeloma, plasma cell leukaemia and non-secretory myeloma.
  • Localized neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells presents as solitary plasmacytoma of bone or extramedullary plasmacytoma.
  • Involvement of orbit can occur as a solitary plasmacytoma, or as part of systemic involvement in multiple myeloma, the clinical outcome being significantly worse in the latter setting.
  • Orbital involvement in multiple myeloma is very rare with less than 50 cases reported in the literature.
  • Early cytological diagnosis of such lesions is vital for timely institution of appropriate therapy.
  • As far as we are aware only six previous cases of cytological diagnosis of multiple myeloma involving the orbit are on record.
  • A final diagnosis of multiple myeloma with orbital involvement at presentation was made.
  • CONCLUSION: Present case describes the extremely rare presentation of multiple myeloma with orbital involvement and highlights the utility of cytology in such lesions.
  • Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of plasmacytoma at extramedullary sites offers an opportunity for non-invasive verification of systemic involvement, and thus plays a major role in early diagnosis and management of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 16901345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1564147
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14. Grainger R, Stuckey S, O'Sullivan R, Davis SR, Ebeling PR, Wluka AE: What is the clinical and ethical importance of incidental abnormalities found by knee MRI? Arthritis Res Ther; 2008;10(1):R18
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  • METHODS: We examined the prevalence of such lesions in healthy asymptomatic adults and those with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing knee MRI with limited sequences for the purpose of research.
  • The MRI findings in 601 asymptomatic subjects and 132 with knee OA who underwent at least one limited knee MRI scan for cartilage volume measurement were examined by an MRI radiologist for the presence of potentially clinically significant abnormalities.
  • A single potentially life-threatening lesion, a myeloma lesion, was identified in a subject with symptomatic knee OA on their second MRI scan in a longitudinal study.
  • [MeSH-major] Ethics, Clinical. Incidental Findings. Joint Diseases / diagnosis. Knee Joint / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Osteoarthritis, Knee / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Chondroma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Popliteal Cyst / diagnosis


15. Dispenzieri A, Kyle RA, Katzmann JA, Therneau TM, Larson D, Benson J, Clark RJ, Melton LJ 3rd, Gertz MA, Kumar SK, Fonseca R, Jelinek DF, Rajkumar SV: Immunoglobulin free light chain ratio is an independent risk factor for progression of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma. Blood; 2008 Jan 15;111(2):785-9
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  • [Title] Immunoglobulin free light chain ratio is an independent risk factor for progression of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma.
  • We hypothesized that increased monoclonal free kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains in smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), as detected by the serum free light chain (FLC) assay, indicates an increased risk of progression to active myeloma.
  • Baseline serum samples obtained within 30 days of diagnosis were available in 273 patients with SMM seen from 1970 to 1995.
  • The extent of abnormality of FLC ratio was independent of SMM risk categories defined by number of bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) and size of serum M proteins (BMPC>or=10% and serum M protein>or=3 g/dL; BMPC>or=10% but serum M protein<3 g/dL; and serum M protein>or=3 g/dL but BMPC<10%).


16. Focosi D: Smoldering multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med; 2007 Sep 6;357(10):1048-9; author reply 1049-50
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  • [Title] Smoldering multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 21;356(25):2582-90 [17582068.001]
  • (PMID = 17823992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins
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17. Hoffman-Snyder C, Smith BE: Neuromuscular disorders associated with paraproteinemia. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am; 2008 Feb;19(1):61-79, vi
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  • This discovery should prompt further evaluation for underlying plasma cell dyscrasias.
  • The most frequent monoclonal disorders associated with neuropathy are smoldering myeloma, multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, solitary plasmacytoma, systemic immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis, POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes), and cryoglobulinemia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Multiple Myeloma / classification. Multiple Myeloma / physiopathology. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18194750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1047-9651
  • [Journal-full-title] Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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18. Mulligan ME, Badros AZ: PET/CT and MR imaging in myeloma. Skeletal Radiol; 2007 Jan;36(1):5-16
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  • [Title] PET/CT and MR imaging in myeloma.
  • Myeloma is the most common primary bone malignancy.
  • In the United States, there are an estimated 16,000 new cases and over 11,000 deaths yearly due to myeloma.
  • Plasma cell dyscrasias manifest themselves in a variety of forms that range from MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) and smoldering myeloma that require no therapy, to the "malignant" form of multiple myeloma.
  • The role of imaging in the management of myeloma includes: an assessment of the extent of intramedullary bone disease, detection of any extramedullary foci, and severity of the disease at presentation; the identification and characterization of complications; subsequent assessment of disease status.
  • This review will focus on the use of PET/CT and MR imaging for myeloma patients at the time of initial diagnosis and for follow-up management, based on current reports in the literature and our practice at the Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore, USA.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16915386.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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19. Chang A, Peutz-Kootstra CJ, Richardson CA, Alpers CE: Expanding the pathologic spectrum of light chain deposition disease: a rare variant with clinical follow-up of 7 years. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jul;18(7):998-1004
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  • Subsequent tests revealed multiple myeloma confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and identification of a monoclonal kappa light chain immunoglobulin by serum and urine immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation.
  • The patient responded well to therapy and was asymptomatic until nearly 7 years later.

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  • (PMID = 15696120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine
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20. Basile A, Tsetis D, Cavalli M, Fiumara P, Di Raimondo F, Coppolino F, Coppolino C, Mundo E, Desiderio C, Granata A, Patti MT: Sacroplasty for local or massive localization of multiple myeloma. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2010 Dec;33(6):1270-7
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  • [Title] Sacroplasty for local or massive localization of multiple myeloma.
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of cementoplasty in the treatment of sacral multiple myelomas.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the records of eight patients (four women and four men; age range 47-68 years; mean age 57.8) who underwent cementoplasty for painful osteolytic localization of multiple myeloma between April 2007 and May 2009.
  • Six patients had persistent pain despite other cementoplasties for vertebral and femoral localization, whereas two patients referred at the time of diagnosis had only sacral lesions.
  • We had only one small and asymptomatic foraminal leak.
  • In our experience, percutaneous stabilization can be used effectively and safely in patients with focal or extensive involvement of the sacrum by multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / surgery. Sacrum / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Vertebroplasty / methods

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  • (PMID = 19967372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-086X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Weiss BM, Abadie J, Verma P, Howard RS, Kuehl WM: A monoclonal gammopathy precedes multiple myeloma in most patients. Blood; 2009 May 28;113(22):5418-22
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  • [Title] A monoclonal gammopathy precedes multiple myeloma in most patients.
  • Preexisting plasma cell disorders, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, or smoldering myeloma are present in at least one-third of multiple myeloma patients.
  • However, the proportion of patients with a preexisting plasma cell disorder has never been determined by laboratory testing on prediagnostic sera.
  • We cross-referenced our autologous stem cell transplantation database with the Department of Defense Serum Repository.
  • Serum protein electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis, and serum free light-chain analysis were performed on all sera collected 2 or more years before diagnosis to detect a monoclonal gammopathy (M-Ig).
  • In 30 of 90 patients, 110 prediagnostic samples were available from 2.2 to 15.3 years before diagnosis.
  • Four patients had only one positive sample within 4 years before diagnosis, with all preceding sera negative.
  • All 4 patients with light-chain/nonsecretory myeloma evolved from a light-chain M-Ig.
  • A preexisting M-Ig is present in most multiple myeloma patients before diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / etiology. Paraproteinemias / complications. Precancerous Conditions / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis


22. Harousseau JL: Optimising patient outcomes in myeloma. Cancer Treat Rev; 2010 May;36 Suppl 2:S33-5
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  • [Title] Optimising patient outcomes in myeloma.
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable disease, and the goal of therapy is to prolong survival.
  • With the aim of prolonging survival, trials are currently evaluating newer therapies as long-term maintenance therapy or as prevention therapy for patients with smouldering myeloma.
  • Given that these patients are often asymptomatic and free of clinically active disease, success in this setting depends highly on long-term tolerability of these agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20472187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1967
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; F0P408N6V4 / lenalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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23. Major P: Optimal management of metastatic bone disease. Eur J Oncol Nurs; 2007;11 Suppl 2:S32-7
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  • RESULTS: Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates effectively reduce the risk of SREs in patients with bone metastases from a variety of solid tumors and bone lesions from multiple myeloma.
  • Analysis of recent trials indicates that early zoledronic acid intervention provides greater benefit in asymptomatic patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with malignant bone disease are at a continuous risk for SREs, and bisphosphonates reduce the incidence and delay the onset of SREs.

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  • (PMID = 17804294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-3889
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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24. Migliorati CA, Siegel MA, Elting LS: Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis: a long-term complication of bisphosphonate treatment. Lancet Oncol; 2006 Jun;7(6):508-14
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  • The disorder affects patients with cancer on bisphosphonate treatment for multiple myeloma or bone metastasis from breast, prostate, or lung cancer.
  • Patients might have severe pain or be asymptomatic.
  • Other risk factors include duration of bisphosphonate treatment (ie, 36 months and longer), old age in patients with multiple myeloma, and a history of recent dental extraction.
  • We also discuss pathobiology, clinical features, management, and future directions for the disorder.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dental Care for Chronically Ill. Humans. Imidazoles / adverse effects. Jaw / drug effects. Jaw / pathology. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2006 Jun;7(6):447-9 [16750492.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Lancet Oncol. 2006 Jul;7(7):533
  • (PMID = 16750501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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25. Bouza C, López-Cuadrado T, Cediel P, Saz-Parkinson Z, Amate JM: Balloon kyphoplasty in malignant spinal fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Palliat Care; 2009;8:12
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  • [Title] Balloon kyphoplasty in malignant spinal fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • METHODS: We searched several electronic databases up to September 2008 and the reference lists of relevant publications for studies reporting on BKP in patients with spinal fractures secondary to osteolytic metastasis and multiple myeloma.
  • Clinically asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in 6% of all treated levels, and new vertebral fractures in 10% of patients.

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  • (PMID = 19740423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-684X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC palliative care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Palliat Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2746801
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26. Hillengass J, Fechtner K, Weber MA, Bäuerle T, Ayyaz S, Heiss C, Hielscher T, Moehler TM, Egerer G, Neben K, Ho AD, Kauczor HU, Delorme S, Goldschmidt H: Prognostic significance of focal lesions in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Mar 20;28(9):1606-10
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of focal lesions in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma.
  • PURPOSE: With whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (wb-MRI), almost the whole bone marrow compartment can be examined in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease.
  • Focal lesions (FLs) detected by spinal MRI have been of prognostic significance in symptomatic multiple myeloma (sMM).
  • In this study, we investigated the prognostic significance of FLs in wb-MRI in patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma (aMM).
  • A diffuse infiltration pattern in MRI, a monoclonal protein of 40 g/L or greater, and a plasma cell infiltration in bone marrow of 20% or greater were other adverse prognostic factors for progression-free survival in univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: We recommend use of wb-MRI for risk stratification of patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis


27. Health Quality Ontario: Percutaneous vertebroplasty for treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser; 2010;10(19):1-45
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  • The technique of vertebroplasty was initially developed in France to treat osteolytic metastasis, myeloma, and hemangioma.
  • The indications were further expanded to painful osteoporotic VCFs and subsequently to treatment of asymptomatic VCFs.
  • The leakages may remain asymptomatic or cause symptoms of nerve irritation through compression of nerve roots.
  • In some cases, the PCE may remain asymptomatic.
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing vertebroplasty with a control group or other interventions STUDY POPULATION: Adult patients with osteoporotic vertebral fracturesSTUDY SAMPLE SIZE: Studies included 20 or more patientsEnglish language full-reportsPublished between Jan 1 2005 and Feb 9, 2010(eligible studies identified through the Auto Alert function of the search were also included) EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Non-randomized studiesStudies on conditions other than VCF (e.g. patients with multiple myeloma or metastatic tumors)Studies focused on surgical techniquesStudies lacking outcome measures RESULTS OF EVIDENCE-BASED ANALYSIS: A systematic search yielded 168 citations.
  • Multiple valid outcome measures including pain, physical, mental, and social function were employed to test the between group differences in outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 23074396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1915-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Ontario health technology assessment series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ont Health Technol Assess Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3377535
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28. Sanders J, Crawford B, Gibson J, Joy Ho P, Iland H, Joshua D: Is there a case for the early use of bisphosphonates in smouldering myeloma and MGUS? (Bisphosphonates in SMM & MGUS). Int J Lab Hematol; 2007 Oct;29(5):395-7
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  • [Title] Is there a case for the early use of bisphosphonates in smouldering myeloma and MGUS? (Bisphosphonates in SMM & MGUS).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Osteoporosis / drug therapy. Paraproteinemias / complications

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  • (PMID = 17824924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-5521
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of laboratory hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Lab Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
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29. Zeldis JB, Knight RD, Jacques C, Tozer A, Bizzari JP: Lenalidomide in multiple myeloma: current role and future directions. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2010 Apr;11(5):829-42
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  • [Title] Lenalidomide in multiple myeloma: current role and future directions.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Lenalidomide and other new agents are improving survival of multiple myeloma patients.
  • This review describes current data on lenalidomide in myeloma and how the unique properties of lenalidomide may lend its use in new settings, such as maintenance and preventive therapy.
  • AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: This review covers the activity of lenalidomide in multiple myeloma, efficacy in both newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory patients, how to manage effectively common adverse events observed with lenalidomide, and its potential use in new settings based on clinical trials published up to 2009.
  • WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: This review describes the mechanism of action of lenalidomide in myeloma which provides the basis for its clinical use in newly diagnosed, relapsed/refractory, and high-risk smoldering myeloma in combination with other agents.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Lenalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory drug that is highly effective in treating multiple myeloma, has a favorable safety profile and is now being evaluated as maintenance therapy, preventive therapy and in combination with other new agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate. Thalidomide / administration & dosage. Thalidomide / analogs & derivatives

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  • [ErratumIn] Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Sep;11(13):2273
  • [ErratumIn] Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011 Mar;12(4):679
  • (PMID = 20210686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; F0P408N6V4 / lenalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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30. Katzmann JA, Kyle RA, Benson J, Larson DR, Snyder MR, Lust JA, Rajkumar SV, Dispenzieri A: Screening panels for detection of monoclonal gammopathies. Clin Chem; 2009 Aug;55(8):1517-22
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  • Although there are several reports on the relative diagnostic contribution of these assays, none has looked at the tests singly and in combination for the various plasma cell proliferative disorders (PCPDs).
  • METHODS: Patients with a PCPD and all 5 assays performed within 30 days of diagnosis were included (n = 1877).
  • The diagnoses were multiple myeloma (MM) (n = 467), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) (n = 191), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) (n = 524), plasmacytoma (n = 29), extramedullary plasmacytoma (n = 10), Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) (n = 26), primary amyloidosis (AL) (n = 581), light chain deposition disease (LCDD) (n = 18), and POEMS syndrome (n = 31).

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  • (PMID = 19520758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA062242; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 62242
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS498187; NLM/ PMC3773468
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31. Mayo MM, Johns GS: Serum free light chains in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias. Contrib Nephrol; 2007;153:44-65
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  • [Title] Serum free light chains in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias.
  • Serum free light chain assay is a recently available test for diagnosis and monitoring of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias.
  • These patients include non-secretory multiple myeloma, amyloidosis and light chain deposition disease.
  • In addition other uses for the test include monitoring response to treatment and earlier detection of relapse in all patients with plasma cell dyscrasias.
  • Potential uses include assessing progression of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, solitary bone plasmacytoma and extramedullary plasmacytoma to multiple meyloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunoglobulin Light Chains / blood. Paraproteinemias / blood. Paraproteinemias / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Amyloidosis / blood. Amyloidosis / diagnosis. Amyloidosis / immunology. Bence Jones Protein / analysis. Disease Progression. Humans. Multiple Myeloma / blood. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / immunology. Plasmacytoma / blood. Plasmacytoma / diagnosis. Plasmacytoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17075223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-5144
  • [Journal-full-title] Contributions to nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Contrib Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains; 9006-99-9 / Bence Jones Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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32. Walter C, Al-Nawas B, Frickhofen N, Gamm H, Beck J, Reinsch L, Blum C, Grötz KA, Wagner W: Prevalence of bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws in multiple myeloma patients. Head Face Med; 2010;6:11
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  • [Title] Prevalence of bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws in multiple myeloma patients.
  • METHODS: In two neighboring German cities, prevalence and additional factors of the development of BP-ONJ in multiple myeloma patients with bisphosphonates therapy were recorded using a retrospective (RS) and cross-sectional study (CSS) design.
  • The oral examination of all patients in this CSS might explain the higher prevalence, since even early asymptomatic stages of BP-ONJ and previously unnoticed symptomatic BP-ONJ were recorded.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / adverse effects. Diphosphonates / adverse effects. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Osteonecrosis / chemically induced. Osteonecrosis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20615236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & face medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Face Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2912876
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33. Landgren O: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering myeloma: new insights into pathophysiology and epidemiology. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program; 2010;2010:295-302
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  • [Title] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering myeloma: new insights into pathophysiology and epidemiology.
  • In the past years, several novel insights have been gained in the area of multiple myeloma (MM) precursor disease.

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  • (PMID = 21239809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4383
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Kimlinger T, Kline M, Kumar S, Lust J, Witzig T, Rajkumar SV: Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors in multiple myeloma. Haematologica; 2006 Aug;91(8):1033-40
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  • [Title] Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors in multiple myeloma.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow angiogenesis is increased in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and correlates with disease stage.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Previous studies of quantifying vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR) in plasma cells from patients at different stages of MM found no significant difference in expression between overt MM and earlier pre-malignant stages of the disease namely, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM).
  • RESULTS: In this report we used quantitative flow cytometry to study cytoplasmic VEGF (cyVEGF) expression (measured as antibody binding capacity) in plasma cells from patients with MM (n = 22), MGUS/SMM (n = 12), and AL-amyloidosis (AL) (n = 9).
  • Using an indirect VEGFR assay that measures VEGF binding, we found VEGF receptors on plasma cells from all groups of patients, with the lowest expression on plasma cells from normal individuals.
  • We detected VEGF R1, VEGF R2, and VEGF R3 on plasma cells from all groups of patients and found receptor expression predominantly in the subset of CD45-positive plasma cells.
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the concept that VEGF is involved in the pathogenesis of MM, and suggests that VEGF may differentially affect a subset of plasma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Multiple Myeloma / metabolism. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Bone Marrow Cells / physiology. Humans. Plasma Cells / metabolism. Plasma Cells / pathology. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 16870555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62242; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA93842
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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35. Bladé J, Dimopoulos M, Rosiñol L, Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA: Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: current diagnostic criteria, new predictors of outcome, and follow-up recommendations. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb 1;28(4):690-7
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  • [Title] Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: current diagnostic criteria, new predictors of outcome, and follow-up recommendations.
  • PURPOSE: To provide an overview on smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) including current diagnostic criteria, predictors of progression, pattern of progression, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: The risk factors for progression of SMM include: plasma cell mass including M-protein size and percentage of bone marrow clonal plasma cells (BMPC), abnormal free light chain ratio, proportion of phenotypically abnormal BMPC, immunoparesis, evolution pattern (evolving v nonevolving), and pattern of magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities.

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  • (PMID = 20026810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62442
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816002
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36. Mawardi H, Treister N, Richardson P, Anderson K, Munshi N, Faiella RA, Woo SB: Sinus tracts--an early sign of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws? J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Mar;67(3):593-601
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  • Patients had multiple myeloma (2), multiple myeloma and prostate cancer (1), monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (1) and osteoporosis (1).
  • We propose modifying the definition of BONJ to include a category of "suspected BONJ" Stage 0(sa) where patients have persistent sinus tracts or localized deep periodontal pockets and typical radiographic findings for BONJ but are asymptomatic, and Stage 0(ss) for those who are symptomatic.

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  • (PMID = 19231786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
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37. Musto P, Petrucci MT, Bringhen S, Guglielmelli T, Caravita T, Bongarzoni V, Andriani A, D'Arena G, Balleari E, Pietrantuono G, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A, GIMEMA (Italian Group for Adult Hematologic Diseases)/Multiple Myeloma Working Party and the Italian Myeloma Network: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial comparing zoledronic acid versus observation in patients with asymptomatic myeloma. Cancer; 2008 Oct 1;113(7):1588-95
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  • [Title] A multicenter, randomized clinical trial comparing zoledronic acid versus observation in patients with asymptomatic myeloma.
  • BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are effective in the prevention and treatment of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with symptomatic myeloma who are receiving chemotherapy.
  • Few studies published to date have explored the role of BPs in patients with untreated, asymptomatic myeloma (AM).
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 64.7 person-months, 44.4% of patients in the zoledronic acid group and 45.1% of the control group progressed to 'symptomatic' myeloma requiring chemotherapy (P = .9307).
  • More frequent adverse events observed in the zoledronic acid-treated group were asymptomatic hypocalcemia and fever.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Diseases / prevention & control. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy


38. Fizazi K, Bosserman L, Gao G, Skacel T, Markus R: Denosumab treatment of prostate cancer with bone metastases and increased urine N-telopeptide levels after therapy with intravenous bisphosphonates: results of a randomized phase II trial. J Urol; 2009 Aug;182(2):509-15; discussion 515-6
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients (111) had bone metastases from prostate cancer, other solid tumors or multiple myeloma, 1 or more bone lesions and urine N-telopeptide greater than 50 nM bone collagen equivalents per mM creatinine (urine N-telopeptide greater than 50) despite the use of intravenous bisphosphonates.
  • Grade 4, asymptomatic, reversible hypophosphatemia, possibly related to denosumab, was reported in 1 patient.

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  • (PMID = 19524963.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00104650
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide; 4EQZ6YO2HI / Denosumab
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39. Shimizu K: [Clinical features of multiple myeloma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Dec;65(12):2218-22
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  • [Title] [Clinical features of multiple myeloma].
  • The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) has recently proposed a new classification of asymptomatic myeloma and symptomatic myeloma.
  • The distinction between asymptomatic and symptomatic myeloma depends on the presence or absence of the myeloma-related organ or tissue impairment (ROTI) defined by the IMWG.
  • Based on the definition, some patients without clinical symptoms may fall into the "symptomatic" group because of insidious organ impairment by myeloma.
  • Or others with clinical symptoms may fall into "asymptomatic" group, if no organ impairment is proven to be myeloma related.
  • Recognition of the clinical features developed by ROTI is not only important for the diagnosis of symptomatic myeloma but also for the immediate institution of effective treatment.
  • Immediate and proper management of the clinical features of symptomatic myeloma patients will have a great impact on quality of life and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma
  • [MeSH-minor] Amyloidosis / diagnosis. Amyloidosis / etiology. Amyloidosis / therapy. Anemia / diagnosis. Anemia / etiology. Anemia / therapy. Bone Diseases / diagnosis. Bone Diseases / etiology. Bone Diseases / therapy. Humans. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hypercalcemia / therapy. Kidney Diseases / diagnosis. Kidney Diseases / etiology. Kidney Diseases / therapy. POEMS Syndrome / diagnosis. POEMS Syndrome / etiology. POEMS Syndrome / therapy. Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia / diagnosis. Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia / etiology. Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18069263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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40. Ioannidou DI, Krasagakis K, Stefanidou MP, Karampekios S, Panayiotidis J, Tosca AD: Scleredema adultorum of Buschke presenting as periorbital edema: a diagnostic challenge. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Feb;52(2 Suppl 1):41-4
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  • Scleredema adultorum is a rare sclerotic disorder characterized by diffuse swelling and nonpitting induration of the skin.
  • Its occurrence has been documented in association with infections, diabetes mellitus, paraproteinemia, multiple myeloma, and monoclonal gammopathy.
  • We report an unusual case of a 48-year-old man with an asymptomatic bilateral eyelid edema of sudden onset.
  • The presumptive diagnosis of scleredema adultorum was confirmed by the presence of typical histologic findings.

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  • (PMID = 15692512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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41. Trumm CG, Jakobs TF, Zech CJ, Weber C, Reiser MF, Hoffmann RT: [Vertebroplasty in the treatment of back pain]. Radiologe; 2006 Jun;46(6):495-505
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  • RESULTS: Painful osteoporotic VCF and osteolysis within the vertebral body due to metastases and multiple myeloma are indications for PVP.
  • Absolute contraindications are, in particular, asymptomatic VCF, alleviation of pain by drug treatment, therapy-refractory coagulopathies, allergies to cement components, and active infections.

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  • (PMID = 16786386.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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42. Scudla V, Budíková M, Pika T, Bacovský J, Minarík J, Heinzová V, Langová K: [The comparison of serum levels of selected biomarkers in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2009;148(7):315-22
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  • [Title] [The comparison of serum levels of selected biomarkers in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma].
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was the evaluation of serum levels of 12 selected biomarkers in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and in initial, asyptomatic phase of multiple myeloma, especially from the view of potential differentiation of these conditions in clinical practice.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Analyzed group of 268 individuals consisted of 89 individuals with MGUS and 179 patients with MM examined in time of diagnosis before treatment initiation.
  • Except for thymidinekinase (p = 0.014) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.001) was not detected statistically important contrast of measured values in MGUS individuals and in patients with initial, asymptomatic phase of MM (stage 1), but these markers cannot be used in clinical practice due to significant overlap of serum values.
  • RESULTS: Although the significant differences in 9 of 12 evaluated serum levels of selected biomarkers in groups of MGUS and MM were seen, the results revealed that these markers are unprofitable to bring discriminatory potential capable of being used to distinguish between MGUS and initial, asymptomatic phase of MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / blood. Multiple Myeloma / blood. Paraproteinemias / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged


43. Andrews AT: Smoldering multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med; 2007 Sep 6;357(10):1048; author reply 1049-50
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  • [Title] Smoldering multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunoglobulin A. Multiple Myeloma / immunology

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  • [CommentOn] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 21;356(25):2582-90 [17582068.001]
  • (PMID = 17823991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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44. Fagerli UM, Holt RU, Holien T, Vaatsveen TK, Zhan F, Egeberg KW, Barlogie B, Waage A, Aarset H, Dai HY, Shaughnessy JD Jr, Sundan A, Børset M: Overexpression and involvement in migration by the metastasis-associated phosphatase PRL-3 in human myeloma cells. Blood; 2008 Jan 15;111(2):806-15
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  • [Title] Overexpression and involvement in migration by the metastasis-associated phosphatase PRL-3 in human myeloma cells.
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by accumulation and dissemination of malignant plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow (BM).
  • Gene expression profiling of 2 MM cell lines (OH-2 and IH-1) indicated that expression of PRL-3, a metastasis-associated tyrosine phosphatase, was induced by several mitogenic cytokines.
  • Cytokine-driven PRL-3 expression could be shown in several myeloma cell lines at both the mRNA and protein levels.
  • There was significantly higher expression of the PRL-3 gene in PCs from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering myeloma (SMM), and myeloma than in PCs from healthy persons.
  • Silencing of the PRL-3 gene by siRNA reduced cell migration in the MM cell line INA-6, but had no detectable effect on proliferation and cell-cycle phase distribution of the cells.
  • In conclusion, PRL-3 is a gene product specifically expressed in malignant plasma cells and may have a role in migration of these cells.

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  • (PMID = 17934070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA055819; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA55819
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTP4A3 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2200854
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45. Hanamura I, Stewart JP, Huang Y, Zhan F, Santra M, Sawyer JR, Hollmig K, Zangarri M, Pineda-Roman M, van Rhee F, Cavallo F, Burington B, Crowley J, Tricot G, Barlogie B, Shaughnessy JD Jr: Frequent gain of chromosome band 1q21 in plasma-cell dyscrasias detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization: incidence increases from MGUS to relapsed myeloma and is related to prognosis and disease progression following tandem stem-cell transplantation. Blood; 2006 Sep 1;108(5):1724-32
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  • [Title] Frequent gain of chromosome band 1q21 in plasma-cell dyscrasias detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization: incidence increases from MGUS to relapsed myeloma and is related to prognosis and disease progression following tandem stem-cell transplantation.
  • Using fluorescence in situ hybridization we investigated amplification of chromosome band 1q21 (Amp1q21) in more than 500 untreated patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n = 14), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM; n = 31), and newly diagnosed MM (n = 479) as well as 45 with relapsed MM.
  • The proportion of cells with Amp1q21 and the copy number of 1q21 tended to increase at relapse compared with diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 16705089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA55819; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97513
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895503
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46. Zivković SA, Lacomis D, Lentzsch S: Paraproteinemic neuropathy. Leuk Lymphoma; 2009 Sep;50(9):1422-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Paraproteinemic neuropathy (PPN) is most commonly associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and may also occur in the context of multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, cryoglobulinemia, and other hematologic malignant and nonmalignant conditions.
  • Possible malignant conversion of underlying benign monoclonal gammopathy should be closely monitored, and risk factors include progression of neuropathy and rising titers of monoclonal protein.
  • Therapy is mostly based on the treatment of the underlying hematologic disorder.
  • At this time it is not clear whether mere presence of neuropathy warrants more aggressive treatment of otherwise quiescent hematologic malignances (e.g. smoldering myeloma).

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  • (PMID = 19637090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Morra E, Cesana C, Klersy C, Barbarano L, Miqueleiz S, Varettoni M, Lucchesini C, Ricci F, Lazzarino M: Prognostic factors for transformation in asymptomatic immunoglobulin m monoclonal gammopathies. Clin Lymphoma; 2005 Mar;5(4):265-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for transformation in asymptomatic immunoglobulin m monoclonal gammopathies.
  • We evaluated the risk of transformation of asymptomatic immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy (aIgM-MG) into symptomatic lymphoproliferative disease in 384 patients, in subgroups of patients with IgM MG of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (sWM).
  • After a median of 45 months (range, 12-233 months), 45 cases of aIgM-MG (11.7%) evolved into lymphoproliferative disease, as follows: symptomatic WM (n = 41), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; n = 2), IgM multiple myeloma (IgM-MM; n = 1), and primary amyloidosis (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Marrow / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15794862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-9655
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin M
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48. Ramazzina C, Zysset Aschmann Y, Kummer O, Rätz Bravo AE, Bodmer M: [Zoledronate-associated end stage renal failure and hypocalcaemia]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2007 Apr 25;96(17):673-6; quiz 677-8
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  • In an 81-year-old patient with a history of long-standing stable chronic renal failure a diagnosis of multiple myeloma was made.
  • After approximately one year, an elevated plasma creatinine was noted for the'first time, progressing to end stage renal failure within the next months.
  • At admission, besides end-stage renal failure, severe asymptomatic hypocalcemia was noted.
  • Prerenal and postrenal failure could be excluded as well as myeloma kidney.
  • The diagnosis of zoledronate-associated end-stage renal failure was made and treatment with hemodialysis was started.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Calcium / therapeutic use. Creatinine / blood. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kidney Tubules / drug effects. Kidney Tubules / pathology. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Renal Dialysis. Risk Factors. Switzerland. Time Factors. Vitamin D / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17491196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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49. Marx RE, Sawatari Y, Fortin M, Broumand V: Bisphosphonate-induced exposed bone (osteonecrosis/osteopetrosis) of the jaws: risk factors, recognition, prevention, and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2005 Nov;63(11):1567-75
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  • Sixty-two (52.1%) were treated for multiple myeloma, 50 (42%) for metastatic breast cancer, 4 (3.4%) for metastatic prostate cancer and 3 (2.5%) for osteoporosis.
  • Presenting findings in addition to exposed bone were 37 (31.1%) asymptomatic, 82 (68.9%) with pain, 28 (23.5%) mobile teeth, and 21 (17.6%) with nonhealing fistulas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / complications. Abscess / therapy. Alendronate / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Dental Caries / complications. Dental Caries / therapy. Dexamethasone / adverse effects. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Drug Interactions. Female. Humans. Hyperostosis / complications. Hyperostosis / therapy. Imidazoles / adverse effects. Male. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Osteoporosis / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Risk Factors. Tooth Extraction / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007 Feb;65(2):363-4 [17236956.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2006 Dec;6(4):283-4 [17174254.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Jul;64(7):1177 [16781357.001]
  • (PMID = 16243172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate; X1J18R4W8P / Alendronate
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50. Chng WJ, Van Wier SA, Ahmann GJ, Winkler JM, Jalal SM, Bergsagel PL, Chesi M, Trendle MC, Oken MM, Blood E, Henderson K, Santana-Dávila R, Kyle RA, Gertz MA, Lacy MQ, Dispenzieri A, Greipp PR, Fonseca R: A validated FISH trisomy index demonstrates the hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid dichotomy in MGUS. Blood; 2005 Sep 15;106(6):2156-61
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  • Two major genetic categories of multiple myeloma (MM) exist.
  • This is especially true in MGUS where the number of clonal plasma cells is small.
  • Using the criteria of 2 or more trisomies from a 3-chromosome combination, hyperdiploid myeloma can be detected with high specificity.
  • Applying this index on 28 patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or MGUS (11 SMM, 17 MGUS) who had normal karyotype, 11 cases of hyperdiploid SMM/MGUS were detected.

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  • (PMID = 15920009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21 115-25C; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA62 242; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA100 707-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA83 724 01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895145
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51. Adam Z, Zahradová L, Krejcí M, Pour L, Koukalová R, Rehák Z, Feit J, Kren L, Mechl M, Vasků V, Sirotková A, Hájek R, Mayer J: [Diffuse plane normolipemic xanthomatosis and necrobiotic xanthogranuloma associated with monoclonal gammopathy--determining the disease stage with PET-CT and treatment experience. Two case studies and literature review]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Nov;56(11):1158-68
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  • The size of this lymphadenopathy (histologically no malignant infiltration and no confirmed infectious aetiology) has not changed significantly over a 4-year follow-up.
  • The second patient is being followed up for more than 10 years, originally for MGUS, later for asymptomatic multiple myeloma.

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  • (PMID = 21250495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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52. Morabito A, Piccirillo MC, Costanzo R, Sandomenico C, Carillio G, Daniele G, Giordano P, Bryce J, Carotenuto P, La Rocca A, Di Maio M, Normanno N, Rocco G, Perrone F: Vandetanib: An overview of its clinical development in NSCLC and other tumors. Drugs Today (Barc); 2010 Sep;46(9):683-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Rash, diarrhea, hypertension and asymptomatic Q-Tc prolongation were the most common adverse events.
  • Four randomized phase III clinical trials evaluated the efficacy of vandetanib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in combination with docetaxel (ZODIAC), pemetrexed (ZEAL) or as a single agent (ZEST and ZEPHYR).
  • No significant antitumor activity has been observed in small cell lung cancer, advanced ovarian, colorectal, breast, prostate cancer and multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Piperidines / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use


53. Barlogie B, van Rhee F, Shaughnessy JD Jr, Epstein J, Yaccoby S, Pineda-Roman M, Hollmig K, Alsayed Y, Hoering A, Szymonifka J, Anaissie E, Petty N, Kumar NS, Srivastava G, Jenkins B, Crowley J, Zeldis JB: Seven-year median time to progression with thalidomide for smoldering myeloma: partial response identifies subset requiring earlier salvage therapy for symptomatic disease. Blood; 2008 Oct 15;112(8):3122-5
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  • [Title] Seven-year median time to progression with thalidomide for smoldering myeloma: partial response identifies subset requiring earlier salvage therapy for symptomatic disease.
  • Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is usually followed expectantly without therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Multiple Myeloma / prevention & control. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Thalidomide / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18669874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00083382
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA055819; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA55819
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2569167
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54. Joshua DE, Brown RD, Ho PJ, Gibson J: Regulatory T cells and multiple myeloma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2008 Oct;8(5):283-6
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  • [Title] Regulatory T cells and multiple myeloma.
  • Many clinical observations point to active immunologic phenomena in patients with myeloma.
  • These consist of active suppression of the host's immune system and partially successful attempts by the host's immune system to suppress the malignant B-cell population.
  • Clinical conditions such as asymptomatic myeloma, which represents clinical presentation in the plateau phase of the disease, plateau establishment after conventional induction therapy without the ongoing need for therapy, and the positive prognostic importance of the presence of clones of cytotoxic T cells in the peripheral blood of some patients, suggest that host-tumor interaction is an active dynamic state.
  • In myeloma, host-tumor immune interactions are complex.
  • However, patients can clearly exhibit control of their B-cell malignancy for many years with stability of paraprotein levels, demonstrating a homeostasis between tumor and host.
  • In this review, we will discuss the potential importance of Treg cells and their role in myeloma, a disease characterized by a unique set of host-tumor interactions.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Immunologic Factors / metabolism. Multiple Myeloma / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18854282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Immunologic Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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55. Ross FM, Chiecchio L, Dagrada G, Protheroe RK, Stockley DM, Harrison CJ, Cross NC, Szubert AJ, Drayson MT, Morgan GJ, UK Myeloma Forum: The t(14;20) is a poor prognostic factor in myeloma but is associated with long-term stable disease in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance. Haematologica; 2010 Jul;95(7):1221-5
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  • [Title] The t(14;20) is a poor prognostic factor in myeloma but is associated with long-term stable disease in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance.
  • A large series of plasma cell dyscrasias (n=2207) was examined for translocations which deregulate the MAF genes, t(14;20)(q32;q12) and t(14;16)(q32;q23), and their disease behavior was compared to a group characterized by the t(4;14)(p16;q32) where CCND2 is also up-regulated.
  • The t(14;20) showed low prevalence in myeloma (27/1830, 1.5%) and smoldering myeloma (1/148, <1%) with a higher incidence in MGUS (9/193, 5% P=0.005).
  • All three translocations were associated with poor outcome in myeloma, but strikingly all t(14;20) MGUS/smoldering myeloma cases (n=10) had stable, low level disease.
  • In contrast, the 10 t(14;16) and 25 t(4;14) MGUS/smoldering myeloma cases were associated with both evolving and non-evolving disease.
  • None of the associated genetic abnormalities helped to predict for progression from MGUS or smoldering myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / genetics. Multiple Myeloma / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 20410185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0100132
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895050
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56. Ross FM, Ibrahim AH, Vilain-Holmes A, Winfield MO, Chiecchio L, Protheroe RK, Strike P, Gunasekera JL, Jones A, Harrison CJ, Morgan GJ, Cross NC, UK Myeloma Forum: Age has a profound effect on the incidence and significance of chromosome abnormalities in myeloma. Leukemia; 2005 Sep;19(9):1634-42
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  • [Title] Age has a profound effect on the incidence and significance of chromosome abnormalities in myeloma.
  • A simple high throughput micro-fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique (FISH) was used to detect chromosome 13 deletions (delta13), immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements, t(11;14)(q13;q32), t(4;14)(p16;q32), t(14;16)(q23;q32), p53 loss, and numerical changes of chromosomes 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 17 in 228 cases of multiple myeloma (MM), including 33 asymptomatic/smouldering MM (SMM).
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Multiple Myeloma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15990862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Baughn LB, Di Liberto M, Niesvizky R, Cho HJ, Jayabalan D, Lane J, Liu F, Chen-Kiang S: CDK2 phosphorylation of Smad2 disrupts TGF-beta transcriptional regulation in resistant primary bone marrow myeloma cells. J Immunol; 2009 Feb 15;182(4):1810-7
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  • [Title] CDK2 phosphorylation of Smad2 disrupts TGF-beta transcriptional regulation in resistant primary bone marrow myeloma cells.
  • In multiple myeloma, a fatal cancer of plasma cells, malignant cells accumulate in the TGF-beta-rich bone marrow due to loss of both cell cycle and apoptotic controls.
  • Herein we show that TGF-beta activates Smad2 but fails to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in primary bone marrow myeloma and human myeloma cell lines due to its inability to activate G(1) cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (p15(INK4b), p21(CIP1/WAF1), p27(KIP1), p57(KIP2)) or to repress c-myc and Bcl-2 transcription.
  • Correlating with aberrant activation of CDKs, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of Smad2 on Thr(8) (pT8), a modification linked to impaired Smad activity, is elevated in primary bone marrow myeloma cells, even in asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
  • Moreover, CDK2 is the predominant CDK that phosphorylates Smad2 on T8 in myeloma cells, leading to inhibition of Smad2-Smad4 association that precludes transcriptional regulation by Smad2.
  • Our findings provide the first direct evidence that pT8 Smad2 couples dysregulation of CDK2 to TGF-beta resistance in primary cancer cells, and they suggest that disruption of Smad2 function by CDK2 phosphorylation acts as a mechanism for TGF-beta resistance in multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Multiple Myeloma / metabolism. Smad2 Protein / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19201832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-6606
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120531; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA93771
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SMAD2 protein, human; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
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58. Dimopoulos MA, Terpos E: Multiple myeloma. Ann Oncol; 2010 Oct;21 Suppl 7:vii143-50
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  • [Title] Multiple myeloma.
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy, with an incidence of 6/100,000 in Europe.
  • Interactions between myeloma cells and the microenvironment are essential for MM cell survival.
  • Better knowledge of disease biology has led to the introduction of novel agents for the management of myeloma patients.
  • Patients with asymptomatic MM may remain stable for a long time without any therapy, and treatment is needed only in symptomatic disease.
  • Patients who are eligible for high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are usually treated with bortezomib- or immunomodulatory drug (IMiD)-based regimens as induction therapy pre-ASCT.
  • However, previous therapies, age, comorbidities and drug safety have to be taken into consideration before deciding the appropriate therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma.

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  • (PMID = 20943607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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59. Engelhardt M, Ihorst G, Behringer D, Finke J, Roth B: Incidence of monoclonal B-cell disease in siblings of patients with multiple myeloma. Haematologica; 2006 Feb;91(2):274-6
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  • [Title] Incidence of monoclonal B-cell disease in siblings of patients with multiple myeloma.
  • We observed clustering of monoclonal B-cell disease in siblings being screened as allogeneic donors for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) scheduled for stem cell transplantation (SCT).
  • Of 134 asymptomatic donors, the incidence of monoclonal B-cell disease was 8/84 in siblings and 1/50 in matched unrelated donors.
  • From an analysis of five MM families scheduled for allogeneic SCT, monoclonal B-cell disease was detected in 8/27 siblings.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Tissue Donors
  • [MeSH-minor] Clone Cells / pathology. Family Health. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Incidence. Siblings


60. Rajkumar SV: MGUS and smoldering multiple myeloma: update on pathogenesis, natural history, and management. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program; 2005;:340-5
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  • [Title] MGUS and smoldering multiple myeloma: update on pathogenesis, natural history, and management.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are asymptomatic, pre-malignant disorders characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the bone marrow and absence of end-organ damage.

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  • (PMID = 16304401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4383
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 62242
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains; 0 / Myeloma Proteins; 0 / multiple myeloma M-proteins; 0 / protein M (glycoprotein)
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61. Pérez-Persona E, Vidriales MB, Mateo G, García-Sanz R, Mateos MV, de Coca AG, Galende J, Martín-Nuñez G, Alonso JM, de Las Heras N, Hernández JM, Martín A, López-Berges C, Orfao A, San Miguel JF: New criteria to identify risk of progression in monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance and smoldering multiple myeloma based on multiparameter flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow plasma cells. Blood; 2007 Oct 1;110(7):2586-92
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  • [Title] New criteria to identify risk of progression in monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance and smoldering multiple myeloma based on multiparameter flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow plasma cells.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are plasma cell disorders with a risk of progression of approximately 1% and 10% per year, respectively.
  • We have previously shown that the proportion of bone marrow (BM) aberrant plasma cells (aPCs) within the BMPC compartment (aPC/BMPC) as assessed by flow cytometry (FC) contributes to differential diagnosis between MGUS and multiple myloma (MM).
  • Patients with a marked predominance of aPCs/BMPC (> or = 95%) at diagnosis displayed a significantly higher risk of progression both in MGUS and SMM (P< .001).
  • Our results show that multiparameter FC evaluation of BMPC at diagnosis is a valuable tool that could help to individualize the follow-up strategy for MGUS and SMM patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Multiple Myeloma / classification. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Paraproteinemias / classification. Paraproteinemias / pathology. Plasma Cells / pathology


62. Kline M, Donovan K, Wellik L, Lust C, Jin W, Moon-Tasson L, Xiong Y, Witzig TE, Kumar S, Rajkumar SV, Lust JA: Cytokine and chemokine profiles in multiple myeloma; significance of stromal interaction and correlation of IL-8 production with disease progression. Leuk Res; 2007 May;31(5):591-8
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  • [Title] Cytokine and chemokine profiles in multiple myeloma; significance of stromal interaction and correlation of IL-8 production with disease progression.
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a product of interactions between tumor plasma cells and multiple cell types native to the bone marrow (BM).
  • We have used antibody array technology to examine the proteins produced by BM stromal cells in response to stimulation by BM taken from patients diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and MM.
  • We observed increased production of the chemokine IL-8 by stromal cells co-cultured with supernatants from bone marrow cells of patients with active myeloma.
  • Consistent with the pro-angiogenic activity of IL-8, increased BM microvessel density (MVD) correlated with stimulation of stromal cell IL-8 production.
  • In addition, the majority of MM cell lines and MM patient plasma cells were found to express IL-8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2.
  • We conclude that stromal cell IL-8 production parallels MM disease activity, is IL-1beta induced, and correlates with bone marrow angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / metabolism. Chemokines / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / metabolism. Multiple Myeloma / metabolism. Paraproteinemias / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Interleukin-1beta; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-8
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63. Salhia B, Baker A, Ahmann G, Auclair D, Fonseca R, Carpten J: DNA methylation analysis determines the high frequency of genic hypomethylation and low frequency of hypermethylation events in plasma cell tumors. Cancer Res; 2010 Sep 1;70(17):6934-44
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  • [Title] DNA methylation analysis determines the high frequency of genic hypomethylation and low frequency of hypermethylation events in plasma cell tumors.
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy of the bone marrow, which evolves from a premalignant stage called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).
  • In some patients, an intermediate stage referred to as smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is clinically recognized, with the full-bore malignancy termed MM.
  • We conducted a study to assess differential CpG methylation at 1,500 genic loci during MM progression and profiled CD138(+) plasma cells from MGUS, SMM, and MM specimens; human myeloma cell lines; and normal plasma cell (NPC) samples.
  • Determining the set of critical genes and pathways based on the myeloma methylome is expected to lead to an improved understanding of biological mechanisms involved in myelomagenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / genetics. Multiple Myeloma / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Epigenomics. 2011 Apr;3(2):143-4 [22232794.001]
  • (PMID = 20736376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Leone PE, Walker BA, Jenner MW, Chiecchio L, Dagrada G, Protheroe RK, Johnson DC, Dickens NJ, Brito JL, Else M, Gonzalez D, Ross FM, Chen-Kiang S, Davies FE, Morgan GJ: Deletions of CDKN2C in multiple myeloma: biological and clinical implications. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Oct 01;14(19):6033-41
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  • [Title] Deletions of CDKN2C in multiple myeloma: biological and clinical implications.
  • PURPOSE: Deletions of chromosome 1 have been described in 7% to 40% of cases of myeloma with inconsistent clinical consequences.
  • CDKN2C at 1p32.3 has been identified in myeloma cell lines as the potential target of the deletion.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed 515 cases of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for deletions of CDKN2C.
  • In 78 myeloma cases, we carried out Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism mapping and U133 Plus 2.0 expression arrays.
  • RESULTS: By FISH we identified deletion of 1p32.3 (CDKN2C) in 3 of 66 MGUS (4.5%), 4 of 39 SMM (10.3%), and 55 of 369 multiple myeloma cases (15%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that deletions of CDKN2C are important in the progression and clinical outcome of myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18 / genetics. Gene Deletion. Multiple Myeloma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Mapping / methods. Disease Progression. Heterozygote. Homozygote. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Models, Genetic. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18829482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6308; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN2C protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2581792; NLM/ UKMS2612
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65. Chaudhry V, Cornblath DR, Polydefkis M, Ferguson A, Borrello I: Characteristics of bortezomib- and thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst; 2008 Dec;13(4):275-82
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  • While these two agents have significant activity in multiple myeloma (MM), the combination and the associated PN have not been fully examined in untreated patients.
  • At follow-up, 80% of patients had become asymptomatic after discontinuation of the chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bortezomib. Electrophysiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 19192067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8027
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS458048; NLM/ PMC3741683
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66. Rajkumar SV, Lacy MQ, Kyle RA: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma. Blood Rev; 2007 Sep;21(5):255-65
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  • [Title] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are asymptomatic disorders characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the bone marrow in the absence of end-organ damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma. Paraproteinemias

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  • (PMID = 17367905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-960X
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 62242
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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67. Vacula I, Ambrózy E, Makovník M, Stvrtina S, Babál P, Stvrtinová V: Cryoglobulinemia manifested by gangraene of almost all fingers and toes. Int Angiol; 2010 Dec;29(6):560-4
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  • Monoclonal cryoglobulins are often revealed in patients with multiple myeloma or Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.
  • Cryoglobulinemia is in most cases asymptomatic.
  • Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is an immune complex-mediated systemic disorder involving mostly small, but sometimes also larger vessels.
  • In this report, we describe a case of a patient presented with gangrene of almost all fingers and toes, who was finally diagnosed and treated as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryoglobulinemia / etiology. Fingers / blood supply. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Toes / blood supply. Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21173736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-1839
  • [Journal-full-title] International angiology : a journal of the International Union of Angiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Angiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Vasodilator Agents
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68. Detweiler-Short K, Hayman S, Gertz MA, Lacy MQ, Dispenzieri A, Kumar S, Zeldenrust SR, Russell SJ, Lust JA, Kyle RA, Greipp PR, Witzig TE, Vincent Rajkumar S: Long-term results of single-agent thalidomide as initial therapy for asymptomatic (smoldering or indolent) myeloma. Am J Hematol; 2010 Oct;85(10):737-40
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  • [Title] Long-term results of single-agent thalidomide as initial therapy for asymptomatic (smoldering or indolent) myeloma.
  • We report the long-term follow-up results of a phase II trial of thalidomide for early-stage multiple myeloma (MM).
  • Patients were eligible if they had smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or indolent MM without the need for immediate therapy.
  • Thirty-one patients were enrolled; 29 (19 SMM and 10 indolent MM) were eligible.
  • The median time to progression (TTP) to symptomatic myeloma was 35 months.
  • Median overall survival from diagnosis was 86 months; median survival from onset of symptomatic myeloma was 49 months.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20730790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-8652
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA062242; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62242
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS228591; NLM/ PMC3022372
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69. Sandri A, Carbognin G, Regis D, Gaspari D, Calciolari C, Girardi V, Mansueto G, Bartolozzi P: Combined radiofrequency and kyphoplasty in painful osteolytic metastases to vertebral bodies. Radiol Med; 2010 Mar;115(2):261-71
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  • Primary neoplasms were kidney carcinoma (n=1), breast carcinoma (n=1), thyroid carcinoma (n=2) and multiple myeloma (n=7).
  • In one case, we observed an asymptomatic cement leakage.

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  • (PMID = 19662341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1826-6983
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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70. Roper N, DeAngelo DJ, Kuo F, Dal Cin P, Ghobrial I, Aster JC: An asymptomatic 61-year-old man with BCR-ABL-positive bone marrow following autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma. Am J Hematol; 2010 Dec;85(12):944-6
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  • [Title] An asymptomatic 61-year-old man with BCR-ABL-positive bone marrow following autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma.


71. Nau KC, Lewis WD: Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician; 2008 Oct 1;78(7):853-9
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  • [Title] Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment.
  • Multiple myeloma, the most common bone malignancy, is occurring with increasing frequency in older persons.
  • Skeletal radiographs are important in staging multiple myeloma and revealing lytic lesions, vertebral compression fractures, and osteoporosis.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography or computed tomography are emerging as useful tools in the evaluation of patients with myeloma; magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating acute spinal compression.
  • Nuclear bone scans and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry have no role in the diagnosis and staging of myeloma.
  • The differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies includes monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance, smoldering (asymptomatic) and symptomatic multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and rare plasma cell leukemia and heavy chain diseases.
  • Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance or smoldering multiple myeloma should be followed closely, but not treated.
  • Symptomatic multiple myeloma is treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, if possible.
  • It is important that family physicians recognize and appropriately treat multiple myeloma complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Humans. Myeloma Proteins / physiology. Pain / etiology. Plasma Cells / physiology. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18841734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myeloma Proteins; 0 / multiple myeloma M-proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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72. Pérez-Persona E, Mateo G, García-Sanz R, Mateos MV, de Las Heras N, de Coca AG, Hernández JM, Galende J, Martín-Nuñez G, Bárez A, Alonso JM, Martín A, López-Berges C, Orfao A, San Miguel JF, Vidriales MB: Risk of progression in smouldering myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance: comparative analysis of the evolution of monoclonal component and multiparameter flow cytometry of bone marrow plasma cells. Br J Haematol; 2010 Jan;148(1):110-4
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  • [Title] Risk of progression in smouldering myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance: comparative analysis of the evolution of monoclonal component and multiparameter flow cytometry of bone marrow plasma cells.
  • The present study explored the impact of two novel criteria; having >95% abnormal plasma cells by flow cytometry at diagnosis and the evolving subtype of the disease, as predictors of progression in 61 smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and 311 monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / immunology. Multiple Myeloma / immunology. Plasma Cells / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19821821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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73. Pérez-Díaz H, Serrano-Pozo A, González-Marcos JR: [Multiple myeloma as a treatable cause of stroke: clinical case and review of the literature]. Neurologia; 2007 Jan-Feb;22(1):54-7
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  • [Title] [Multiple myeloma as a treatable cause of stroke: clinical case and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] El mieloma múltiple como causa tratable de ictus. Caso clínico y revisión de la literatura.
  • Monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulinemia, including lymphoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and less commonly multiple myeloma (MM), are considered as infrequent causes of ischemic stroke.
  • We report a case of a patient diagnosed with IgG type MM, who suffered multiple vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks and minor ischemic strokes concurrent with a reactivation of his hematological disease.
  • He became completely asymptomatic after specific treatment with dexamethasone of the paraproteinemia associated with MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / complications. Stroke / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17315105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-4853
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurología (Barcelona, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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74. Biasotto M, Chiandussi S, Dore F, Rinaldi A, Rizzardi C, Cavalli F, Di Lenarda R: Clinical aspects and management of bisphosphonates-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Acta Odontol Scand; 2006 Nov;64(6):348-54
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  • METHOD: Our patients included 1 asymptomatic and 11 symptomatic subjects.
  • The asymptomatic patient presented as an occasional finding during a routine dental examination and the necrosis was confirmed on the basis of imaging investigations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Debridement. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperbaric Oxygenation. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Osteitis / chemically induced. Osteitis / microbiology. Osteolysis / chemically induced. Osteolysis / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 17123911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta odontologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Odontol. Scand.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
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75. Cortesão E, Espadana A, Laranjeiro P, Jara M, Orfão A: Successful treatment with VAD of a myelodysplastic syndrome occurring during the course of a smoldering multiple myeloma. Leuk Res; 2009 Jan;33(1):195-7
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  • [Title] Successful treatment with VAD of a myelodysplastic syndrome occurring during the course of a smoldering multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy


76. Filanovsky K, Lev S, Haran M, Feldberg E, Bassous L, Berrebi A, Shtalrid M: Systemic mastocytosis associated with smoldering multiple myeloma: an unexpected diagnosis in a patient with a rash. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 Jun;51(6):1152-4
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  • [Title] Systemic mastocytosis associated with smoldering multiple myeloma: an unexpected diagnosis in a patient with a rash.
  • [MeSH-major] Exanthema / complications. Mastocytosis, Systemic / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


77. Sirohi B, Powles R: Epidemiology and outcomes research for MGUS, myeloma and amyloidosis. Eur J Cancer; 2006 Jul;42(11):1671-83
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  • [Title] Epidemiology and outcomes research for MGUS, myeloma and amyloidosis.
  • The epidemiology of plasma cell dyscrasias clearly links to a complicated multi-factorial pathogenic pathway that at the individual patient level gives no clear indication of why the malignant process has occurred but factors in the environment and within the genome give clues and are discussed.
  • MGUS is a pre-malignant disorder characterised by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the bone marrow and no end-organ damage; the patients are asymptomatic.
  • Primary amyloidosis is a rare disorder that is characterised by deposition of amyloid fibrils composed of immunoglobulin light chain fragments; symptoms relate to the affected organ.
  • Multiple myeloma is a malignant disease of plasma cells and with improvements in treatment, patients can now expect a doubling of median survival to 5 years, a 20% chance of surviving >10 years and a 50% chance of complete remission (CR), morphological and biochemical.
  • The challenge is now to determine exactly what this means to the individual myeloma patient in terms of benefit, and to society as a whole and this is the basis of 'outcomes research' which is discussed in this review.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Air Pollution, Radioactive / adverse effects. Continental Population Groups. Environmental Exposure / adverse effects. Humans. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 16870424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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78. Kalambokis GN, Christou L, Tsianos EV: Multiple myeloma presenting with an acute bacterial infection. Int J Lab Hematol; 2009 Aug;31(4):375-83
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  • [Title] Multiple myeloma presenting with an acute bacterial infection.
  • Increased susceptibility to bacterial infections is a common manifestation of multiple myeloma (MM), arising mainly from a defect in humoral immunity and is associated with major morbidity and mortality.
  • The propensity to infection is increased in the first months after the initial diagnosis and in patients with renal dysfunction.
  • White blood cell counts were frequently normal, particularly in musculoskeletal infections.
  • MM should be considered in previously asymptomatic middle-aged patients who present with a major acute bacterial infection, without an apparent predisposing factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Infections / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Bacteremia / diagnosis. Bacteremia / etiology. Bacteremia / microbiology. Bacteria / isolation & purification. Creatinine / blood. Humans. Immunoglobulins / blood. Myeloma Proteins / analysis. Paraproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19486365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-553X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of laboratory hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Lab Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Myeloma Proteins; 0 / Paraproteins; 0 / multiple myeloma M-proteins; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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79. Berenson JR, Matous J, Swift RA, Mapes R, Morrison B, Yeh HS: A phase I/II study of arsenic trioxide/bortezomib/ascorbic acid combination therapy for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Mar 15;13(6):1762-8
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  • [Title] A phase I/II study of arsenic trioxide/bortezomib/ascorbic acid combination therapy for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.
  • PURPOSE: This multicenter, open-label, phase I/II dose escalation study assessed the safety/tolerability and initial efficacy of arsenic trioxide/bortezomib/ascorbic acid (ABC) combination therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
  • One patient had asymptomatic arrhythmia and withdrew from the study.
  • These findings warrant further clinical evaluation of the ABC combination for treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17363530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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80. Gupta A, Kumar L, Aaron M: A case of plasmacytoma of the breast mimicking an inflammatory carcinoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2008 Jun;8(3):191-2
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  • A 42-year-old woman presented to our institution with asymptomatic swelling of the left breast for the previous 6 months along with pathologic fractures in the right humerus and the left femur for the past 2 months.
  • Radiology revealed multiple lytic lesions throughout the skeletal system.
  • A differential diagnosis of breast carcinoma with multiple bone secondaries, carcinoma of unknown primary origin with breast abscess, or breast secondary or a plasmacytoma with multiple myeloma was made.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed sheets of immature and mature plasma cells, suggesting that it was a plasmacytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18650186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Hussein MA: Multiple myeloma: most common end-organ damage and management. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2007 Feb;5(2):170-8
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  • [Title] Multiple myeloma: most common end-organ damage and management.
  • End-organ damage is the factor that differentiates plasma cell dyscrasia requiring therapy (active multiple myeloma [MM]) from disease that does not require therapy (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering [asymptomatic] MM).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Paraproteinemias / prevention & control. Spinal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17335686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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82. Morabito A, Piccirillo MC, Falasconi F, De Feo G, Del Giudice A, Bryce J, Di Maio M, De Maio E, Normanno N, Perrone F: Vandetanib (ZD6474), a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases: current status and future directions. Oncologist; 2009 Apr;14(4):378-90
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  • In the phase II setting, negative results were observed with vandetanib in small cell lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and multiple myeloma.
  • In contrast, three randomized phase II studies showed that vandetanib prolonged the progression-free survival (PFS) time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a single agent when compared with gefitinib or when added to chemotherapy.
  • Rash, diarrhea, hypertension, fatigue, and asymptomatic QTc prolongation were the most common adverse events.
  • Four randomized phase III clinical trials in NSCLC are exploring the efficacy of vandetanib in combination with docetaxel, the Zactima in cOmbination with Docetaxel In non-small cell lung Cancer (ZODIAC) trial, or with pemetrexed, the Zactima Efficacy with Alimta in Lung cancer (ZEAL) trial, or as a single agent, the Zactima Efficacy when Studied versus Tarceva (ZEST) and the Zactima Efficacy trial for NSCLC Patients with History of EGFR-TKI chemo-Resistance (ZEPHYR) trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Piperidines / administration & dosage. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / drug effects. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / drug effects. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19349511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glutamates; 0 / N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methoxy)quinazolin-4-amine; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Taxoids; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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83. Lan HF, Fang ZH, Zhang Y, Wang XY, Xue F, Zhang L, Guo ZX, Dong XW, Li SZ, Zheng YZ, Zhang FK, Qian LS, Ji LX, Xiao ZJ, Yang RC: [Clinical analysis of 438 patients with essential thrombocythemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;29(9):587-91
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  • One hundred and forty-nine cases (34%) had no symptoms at diagnosis and 145 cases (33.1%) confirmed by routine blood tests due to other diseases.
  • The median platelet count at diagnosis was 1000 x 10(9)/L [(533 -3740) x 10(9)/L].
  • One case evolved into PV 6 years and then MF 20 years after diagnosis of ET.
  • Three cases developed acute monocyte leukemia (M5), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and multiple myeloma (MM), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ET is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized predominantly by thrombocytosis and hemorrhage.
  • The percentage of asymptomatic cases is high.

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  • (PMID = 19175983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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84. Coulier B, Montfort L, Doyen V, Gielen I: MDCT findings in primary amyloidosis of the greater omentum and mesentery: a case report. Abdom Imaging; 2010 Feb;35(1):88-91
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  • This report illustrates the MDCT findings fortuitously found in a 70-year-old male presenting with a known latent myeloma.Extra abdominal deposits-axilla and cardiophrenic angles-were first fortuitously found during thoracic MDCT.
  • Secondary abdominal MDCT revealed the extensive abdominal spread that consisted of very diffuse but asymptomatic pseudo carcinomatous hazy omental, mesenteric and-in a minder proportion-retroperitoneal deposits; these remained isolated without calcification, lymphadenopathy, ascites, or any sign of associated bowel wall thickening.
  • A specific definite histologic diagnosis was made without laparotomy through a biopsy in the right axilla.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Male. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Radiography, Thoracic


85. Schmidt GP, Kramer H, Reiser MF, Glaser C: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography in oncology. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2007 Jun;18(3):193-202
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  • More flexible protocols (eg, T1-weighted turbo spin-echo and short inversion recovery imaging, dedicated lung imaging or dynamic contrast-enhanced studies of the abdomen) can be performed within 45 minutes.Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed for tumor screening of asymptomatic individuals, and potentially life-changing diagnoses, such as formerly unknown malignancy, have been reported.
  • Within this context, WB-MRI is highly accurate for the detection of skeletal metastases and staging of multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Enhancement / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Whole Body Imaging / methods


86. Rajkumar SV, Buadi F: Multiple myeloma: new staging systems for diagnosis, prognosis and response evaluation. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol; 2007 Dec;20(4):665-80
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  • [Title] Multiple myeloma: new staging systems for diagnosis, prognosis and response evaluation.
  • Multiple myeloma must be distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and several other closely related plasma-cell disorders.
  • In recent years, new systems have emerged for diagnosis, staging, and risk stratification of myeloma.
  • The criteria recommended are primarily derived from the International Myeloma Working Group, with certain updates and clarifications.
  • The International Staging System (ISS) is the standard for staging of myeloma.
  • The International Myeloma Working Group uniform response criteria have been developed as the standard for response assessment in current and future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18070712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6926
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 100080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 62242; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 93842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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87. Bouvard B, Royer M, Chappard D, Audran M, Hoppé E, Legrand E: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, and osteoporosis. Joint Bone Spine; 2010 Mar;77(2):120-4
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  • [Title] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, and osteoporosis.
  • In most cases, the diagnosis is MGUS, whose prevalence increases with age.
  • Although the impact of MGUS on bone mineral density, bone remodeling, and the fracture risk remains unclear, this asymptomatic hematological disorder may constitute a risk factor for osteoporosis.
  • Furthermore, each year, 1% of patients with MGUS progress to multiple myeloma, a disease whose pathophysiology and association with bone loss and pathological fractures are increasingly well understood.
  • Osteoporotic fractures, although probably common in myeloma patients, are less likely to be recognized.
  • Here, we discuss the pathophysiology of myeloma and MGUS and their impact in terms of bone mineral density, osteoporotic fractures, and bone turnover markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma. Osteoporosis / epidemiology. Osteoporosis / physiopathology. Paraproteinemias

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20097594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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88. Child JA, Russell N, Sonneveld P, Schey S: Future directions in multiple myeloma treatment. Acta Haematol; 2005;114 Suppl 1:8-13
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  • [Title] Future directions in multiple myeloma treatment.
  • Future therapy options for multiple myeloma may be directed at asymptomatic disease, as only symptomatic myeloma is treated currently.
  • It is being further evaluated as induction therapy in the current MRC Myeloma IX trial.
  • It has been shown to be between 50 and 2,000 times more potent in the stimulation of T-cell proliferation and 50-100 times more potent in augmenting interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Clinical Trials as Topic / trends. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Evaluation. Forecasting. Humans. Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis. Interleukin-2 / biosynthesis. Remission Induction. Thalidomide / analogs & derivatives. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16166766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-2; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; D2UX06XLB5 / pomalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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89. Allegra A, Alonci A, Russo S, Cannavò A, Penna G, D'Angelo A, Bellomo G, Musolino C: Cardiac involvement in patients with hematologic malignancies. J Investig Med; 2010 Oct;58(7):859-74
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  • Authors have reviewed literature about the management of patients with cardiologic disease occurring secondary to hematologic pathology itself or its therapy, with a focus on infiltration of myocardium in acute and chronic leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and hypereosinophilic syndrome.
  • In fact, cardiac toxicity may range from asymptomatic subclinical abnormalities, such as electrocardiographic changes and left ventricular ejection decline, to life-threatening events and lead to chemotherapy dose reduction and delay and, in some cases, for patients with severe side effects, discontinuation of treatment.
  • Finally, they discussed on the identification of early markers of cardiac injury and on cardiac stem cell therapy as a promising approach to facilitate myocardial regeneration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 20683345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8267
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Investig. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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90. Spisek R, Kukreja A, Chen LC, Matthews P, Mazumder A, Vesole D, Jagannath S, Zebroski HA, Simpson AJ, Ritter G, Durie B, Crowley J, Shaughnessy JD Jr, Scanlan MJ, Gure AO, Barlogie B, Dhodapkar MV: Frequent and specific immunity to the embryonal stem cell-associated antigen SOX2 in patients with monoclonal gammopathy. J Exp Med; 2007 Apr 16;204(4):831-40
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  • [Title] Frequent and specific immunity to the embryonal stem cell-associated antigen SOX2 in patients with monoclonal gammopathy.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) represents a precursor lesion to myeloma (MM).
  • Detection of anti-SOX2 T cells predicts favorable clinical outcome in patients with asymptomatic plasmaproliferative disorders.

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  • (PMID = 17389240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / P50 AT002779; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA55819; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106802; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109465; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106802; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / P50-AT02779; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109465; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA055819; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00102
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / HMGB Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2118551
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91. Scudla V, Petrová P, Minarík J, Pika T, Budíková M, Bacovský J, Repovský S: [Contribution to the evaluation of serum levels of selected biological parameters in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in individual clinical stages of multiple myeloma]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Jun;56(6):591-601
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  • [Title] [Contribution to the evaluation of serum levels of selected biological parameters in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in individual clinical stages of multiple myeloma].
  • INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to measure serum levels of 12 selected parameters in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and initial, asymptomatic phase of multiple myeloma (MM) to assess their potential benefit in differentiating both conditions.
  • PATIENT SAMPLE AND METHODOLOGY: The analysed sample of 131 patients consisted of 62 patients with MGUS and 69 patients with MM fulfilling the criteria of the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG).
  • Statistically significant differences between MGUS and initial, asymptomatic phase of MM (D-S stage 1) was found only for bALP (p = 0.01) and for albumin (p = 0.004) and OPN (p = 0.003) when ISS was applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / blood. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Paraproteinemias / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20681472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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92. Waxman AJ, Kuehl M, Balakumaran A, Weiss B, Landgren O: Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: revisiting the clinical dilemma and looking into the future. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk; 2010 Aug;10(4):248-57
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  • [Title] Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: revisiting the clinical dilemma and looking into the future.
  • Recent studies show that multiple myeloma (MM) is consistently preceded by an asymptomatic precursor state.
  • Smoldering MM (SMM) is a MM precursor defined by an M-protein concentration >or= 3 g/dL and/or >or= 10% bone marrow plasma cells, in the absence of end-organ damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20709660.001).
  • [ISSN] 2152-2669
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Bergón E, Miravalles E, Bergón E, Miranda I, Bergón M: The predictive power of serum kappa/lambda ratios for discrimination between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma. Clin Chem Lab Med; 2005;43(1):32-7
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  • [Title] The predictive power of serum kappa/lambda ratios for discrimination between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.
  • The predictive power of serum kappa/lambda ratios on initial presentation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgA monoclonal component was studied to differentiate between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM) patients.
  • The retrospective study involved 145 patients clinically diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or multiple myeloma, who had serum M-protein IgG <35 g/L or IgA <20 g/L at M-protein detection.
  • Thus, serum M-protein with a kappa/lambda ratio between 0.6 and 4.2 increases the posterior probability of MGUS from 0.60 to 0.96 in asymptomatic patients, for whom only monitoring may be suggested when the serum kappa/lambda ratio is within these limits.

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(3):349
  • (PMID = 15653439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-6621
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; 0 / Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains; 0 / Myeloma Proteins; 0 / multiple myeloma M-proteins
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94. Brenne AT, Fagerli UM, Shaughnessy JD Jr, Våtsveen TK, Rø TB, Hella H, Zhan F, Barlogie B, Sundan A, Børset M, Waage A: High expression of BCL3 in human myeloma cells is associated with increased proliferation and inferior prognosis. Eur J Haematol; 2009 May;82(5):354-63
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  • [Title] High expression of BCL3 in human myeloma cells is associated with increased proliferation and inferior prognosis.
  • We experienced that this putative oncogene was a common target gene for growth-promoting cytokines in myeloma cell lines.
  • METHODS: Gene expression of BCL3 was studied in 351 newly diagnosed myeloma patients, 12 patients with smouldering myeloma, 44 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 22 healthy individuals.
  • A total of eight different myeloma cell lines were studied.
  • RESULTS: Bcl-3 was induced in myeloma cell lines by interleukin (IL)-6, IL-21, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IGF-1, and its upregulation was associated with increased proliferation of the cells.
  • When this patient population was divided into subgroups based on molecular classification, BCL3 was significantly increased in a poor risk subgroup characterized by overexpression of cell cycle and proliferation related genes.
  • Intracellular localization of Bcl-3 was dependent on type of stimulus given to the cell.
  • CONCLUSION: BCL3 is a common target gene for several growth-promoting cytokines in myeloma cells and high expression of BCL3 at the time of diagnosis is associated with poor prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM).

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  • (PMID = 19191868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA055819; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA097513
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / proto-oncogene protein bcl-3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2704939
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95. Boullosa DA, Leicht AS, Tuimil JL: Impact of fire-fighters training on a female with smoldering multiple myeloma. J Sports Med Phys Fitness; 2010 Sep;50(3):326-9
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  • [Title] Impact of fire-fighters training on a female with smoldering multiple myeloma.
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a fire-fighting training regime on the cardiac autonomic control of a middle-aged female diagnosed with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM).
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Rate / physiology. Multiple Myeloma / physiopathology. Occupations. Physical Education and Training

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  • (PMID = 20842094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4707
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sports Med Phys Fitness
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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96. Raja KR, Kovarova L, Hajek R: Review of phenotypic markers used in flow cytometric analysis of MGUS and MM, and applicability of flow cytometry in other plasma cell disorders. Br J Haematol; 2010 May;149(3):334-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Review of phenotypic markers used in flow cytometric analysis of MGUS and MM, and applicability of flow cytometry in other plasma cell disorders.
  • Flow cytometric immunophenotyping is considered an indispensable tool for the diagnosis, classification and monitoring of disease in monoclonal gammopathies.
  • Clinical application of flow cytometry in monoclonal gammopathies has various dimensions, such as differential diagnosis of malignant plasma cell disorder from reactive plasmacytosis, identifying the progression risk in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and asymptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), and minimal residual disease detection.
  • Flow cytometry-based clonality assessment with immunophenotyping encourages and enables the most stringent method of diagnosis and follow-up.
  • The objective of this review is to update the malignant plasma cells phenotypic profile of MGUS and MM.
  • The most comprehensive antigens, such as CD19, CD27, CD28, CD45, CD56 and CD117, play a significant role in the characterization of normal and malignant plasma cells.
  • Several research groups described the putative phenotype of myeloma cell progenitors, but no remarkable suggestion could be made because of disparity.
  • This review also focuses on the association of malignant phenotypic markers and chromosomal aberrations that identify the specific prognostic features in monoclonal gammopathies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / metabolism. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Flow Cytometry / methods. Humans. Immunophenotyping / methods. Plasma Cells / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20201947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 170
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97. Reinhart WH: [Erythrocyte sedimentation rate--more than an old fashion?]. Ther Umsch; 2006 Jan;63(1):108-12
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  • The ESR still is a very valid test for the diagnosis of certain chronic diseases (polymyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple myeloma, septic arthritis and ostemyelitis) and the follow-up of certain chronic diseases (polymyalgia rheumatica, systemic lupus erythematodes, chronic infections, prostatic cancer, and Hodgkin's disease).
  • The ESR should not be used for screening and check-up examinations in asymptomatic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Sedimentation. Hematologic Diseases / diagnosis. Inflammation / diagnosis. Joint Diseases / diagnosis. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16450741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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98. Lazaraki G, Nakos A, Katodritou E, Pilpilidis I, Tarpagos A, Katsos I: A rare case of multiple myeloma initially presenting with pseudoachalasia. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(6):E21-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare case of multiple myeloma initially presenting with pseudoachalasia.
  • Gastrointestinal manifestations in primary or secondary amyloidosis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, malabsorption, obstruction, motility disturbance, intestinal infarction, perforation, and hemorrhage; however, gastrointestinal tract involvement is asymptomatic in most instances.
  • We present here a rare case of multiple myeloma initially presenting with dysphagia because of esophageal amyloidosis and manometric findings typical of achalasia.

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  • (PMID = 19207546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Jhaveri A, Muggia F: Novel therapies delay the progression of smoldering multiple myeloma: Case report and discussion. Ecancermedicalscience; 2010;4:182
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel therapies delay the progression of smoldering multiple myeloma: Case report and discussion.
  • This clinical vignette illustrates how our therapeutic approaches to early stages of multiple myeloma have changed over the past decade with novel therapies reducing disease and preventing disease progression.
  • Recent paradigms of multiple myeloma describe the disease as a spectrum of clinical stages, including asymptomatic 'smoldering' states that progress to symptomatic states.
  • The average 5-year survival rate of patients with multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1996 and 2004 according to surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) data is 35.9%.
  • Multiple trials have shown an increased benefit of these newer agents over prior multiple myeloma treatment regimens.
  • At 13 years and 8 months from diagnosis, our patient is doing well, and thus is a model of how long-term control of multiple myeloma prolongs survival.

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  • (PMID = 22276034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234033
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100. Rossi D, Fangazio M, De Paoli L, Puma A, Riccomagno P, Pinto V, Zigrossi P, Ramponi A, Monga G, Gaidano G: Beta-2-microglobulin is an independent predictor of progression in asymptomatic multiple myeloma. Cancer; 2010 May 1;116(9):2188-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Beta-2-microglobulin is an independent predictor of progression in asymptomatic multiple myeloma.
  • BACKGROUND: Although serum beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) represents a key variable for symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) prognostication, its role in predicting the risk of progression of asymptomatic MM to symptomatic disease has not been explored.
  • METHODS: This study was bases on a consecutive series of 148 patients with asymptomatic MM and explored the cumulative probability of progression to symptomatic MM as the primary endpoint.
  • RESULTS: In univariate analysis, a serum B2M level >2.5 mg/L was associated with an increased probability of disease progression (5-year risk, 64.5%; P < .001) along with serum monoclonal component (sMC) (P < .001), urinary monoclonal component (uMC) (P < .001), and bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that 1) serum B2M is an independent predictor of asymptomatic MM progression, and 2) serum B2M adds prognostic information when combined with the most widely used prognosticators of asymptomatic MM progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / blood. beta 2-Microglobulin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20198709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin
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