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1. Rossi D, Fangazio M, De Paoli L, Puma A, Riccomagno P, Pinto V, Zigrossi P, Ramponi A, Monga G, Gaidano G: Beta-2-microglobulin is an independent predictor of progression in asymptomatic multiple myeloma. Cancer; 2010 May 1;116(9):2188-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Beta-2-microglobulin is an independent predictor of progression in asymptomatic multiple myeloma.
  • BACKGROUND: Although serum beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) represents a key variable for symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) prognostication, its role in predicting the risk of progression of asymptomatic MM to symptomatic disease has not been explored.
  • METHODS: This study was bases on a consecutive series of 148 patients with asymptomatic MM and explored the cumulative probability of progression to symptomatic MM as the primary endpoint.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that 1) serum B2M is an independent predictor of asymptomatic MM progression, and 2) serum B2M adds prognostic information when combined with the most widely used prognosticators of asymptomatic MM progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / blood. beta 2-Microglobulin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20198709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin
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2. Bladé J, Dimopoulos M, Rosiñol L, Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA: Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: current diagnostic criteria, new predictors of outcome, and follow-up recommendations. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb 1;28(4):690-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: current diagnostic criteria, new predictors of outcome, and follow-up recommendations.
  • PURPOSE: To provide an overview on smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) including current diagnostic criteria, predictors of progression, pattern of progression, and outcome.

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  • (PMID = 20026810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62442
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816002
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3. Kyle RA, Remstein ED, Therneau TM, Dispenzieri A, Kurtin PJ, Hodnefield JM, Larson DR, Plevak MF, Jelinek DF, Fonseca R, Melton LJ 3rd, Rajkumar SV: Clinical course and prognosis of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med; 2007 Jun 21;356(25):2582-90
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  • [Title] Clinical course and prognosis of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma.
  • BACKGROUND: Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma is an asymptomatic plasma-cell proliferative disorder associated with a high risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma or amyloidosis.
  • METHODS: We searched a computerized database and reviewed the medical records of all patients at Mayo Clinic who fulfilled the criteria of the International Myeloma Working Group for the diagnosis of smoldering multiple myeloma between 1970 and 1995.
  • RESULTS: During the 26-year period, 276 patients fulfilled the criteria for smoldering multiple myeloma.
  • During 2131 cumulative person-years of follow-up, symptomatic multiple myeloma or amyloidosis developed in 163 persons (59%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The risk of progression from smoldering multiple myeloma to symptomatic disease is related to the proportion of bone marrow plasma cells and the serum monoclonal protein level at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / blood. Bone Marrow Cells / immunology. Multiple Myeloma. Plasma Cells


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4. Cherpanath TG, Nieuwdorp M, Hazenberg MD, van Eeden S, van der Sluijs AF: Large nocturnal eyes causing gastrointestinal bleeding in asymptomatic multiple myeloma. CMV enterocolitis. Neth J Med; 2010 Oct;68(10):324-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Multiple Myeloma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large nocturnal eyes causing gastrointestinal bleeding in asymptomatic multiple myeloma. CMV enterocolitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytomegalovirus Infections / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / virology. Multiple Myeloma / complications


5. Kyle RA, Durie BG, Rajkumar SV, Landgren O, Blade J, Merlini G, Kröger N, Einsele H, Vesole DH, Dimopoulos M, San Miguel J, Avet-Loiseau H, Hajek R, Chen WM, Anderson KC, Ludwig H, Sonneveld P, Pavlovsky S, Palumbo A, Richardson PG, Barlogie B, Greipp P, Vescio R, Turesson I, Westin J, Boccadoro M, International Myeloma Working Group: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management. Leukemia; 2010 Jun;24(6):1121-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management.
  • The risk of progression to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis or a lymphoproliferative disorder is approximately 1% per year.
  • The risk of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) progressing to multiple myeloma or a related disorder is 10% per year for the first 5 years, 3% per year for the next 5 years and 1-2% per year for the next 10 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / complications. Multiple Myeloma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20410922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 23
  • [Investigator] Abonour R; Alexanian R; Anderson KC; Attal M; Avet-Loiseau H; Badros A; Barlogie B; Baris D; Batille R; Beksac M; Belch A; Bensinger B; Bergsagel PL; Bird J; Bladé J; Boccadoro M; Cavo M; Chanan-Khan A; Chen WM; Child T; Chim J; Chng WJ; Comenzo R; Crowley J; Dalton W; Davies F; de Souza C; Delforge M; Dimopoulos M; Dispenzieri A; Durie BG; Drach J; Einsele H; Facon T; Fantl D; Fermand JP; Fonseca R; Gahrton G; Garcia-Sanz R; Gasparetto C; Gertz M; Gibson J; Giralt S; Goldschmidt H; Greipp P; Hajek R; Hardan I; Harousseau JL; Hata H; Hattori Y; Heffner T; Ho J; Hungria V; Ida S; Jacobs P; Jagannath S; Jian H; Joshua D; Jurczyszyn A; Kawano M; Kröger N; Kumar S; Kyle RA; Lahuerta J; Landgren O; Laubach J; Lee JH; LeLeu X; Lentzsch S; Lokhorst H; Lonial S; Ludwig H; Maiolino A; Mateos M; Mehta J; Mellqvist UH; Merlini G; Mikhael J; Morales AR; Moreau P; Morgan G; Munshi N; Niesvizky R; Nouel A; Novis Y; Orlowski R; Palumbo A; Pavlovsky S; Pilarski L; Powles R; Rajkumar SV; Reece D; Reiman T; Richardson PG; Roodman D; Rosinol L; San Miguel J; Sezer O; Shah JJ; Shaughnessy J; Shimizu K; Shustik C; Siegel D; Singhal S; Sonneveld P; Spencer A; Stadtmauer E; Stewart K; Terpos E; Tosi P; Tricot G; Turesson I; Vanderkerken K; Van Ness B; Van Riet I; Vescio R; Vesole D; Waage A; Wang M; Weber D; Westin J; Wheatley K; Yehuda DB; Zonder J
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6. Waxman AJ, Kuehl M, Balakumaran A, Weiss B, Landgren O: Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: revisiting the clinical dilemma and looking into the future. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk; 2010 Aug;10(4):248-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: revisiting the clinical dilemma and looking into the future.
  • Recent studies show that multiple myeloma (MM) is consistently preceded by an asymptomatic precursor state.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20709660.001).
  • [ISSN] 2152-2669
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Hillengass J, Fechtner K, Weber MA, Bäuerle T, Ayyaz S, Heiss C, Hielscher T, Moehler TM, Egerer G, Neben K, Ho AD, Kauczor HU, Delorme S, Goldschmidt H: Prognostic significance of focal lesions in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Mar 20;28(9):1606-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic significance of focal lesions in whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma.
  • Focal lesions (FLs) detected by spinal MRI have been of prognostic significance in symptomatic multiple myeloma (sMM).
  • In this study, we investigated the prognostic significance of FLs in wb-MRI in patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma (aMM).
  • CONCLUSION: We recommend use of wb-MRI for risk stratification of patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20177023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Dispenzieri A, Kyle RA, Katzmann JA, Therneau TM, Larson D, Benson J, Clark RJ, Melton LJ 3rd, Gertz MA, Kumar SK, Fonseca R, Jelinek DF, Rajkumar SV: Immunoglobulin free light chain ratio is an independent risk factor for progression of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma. Blood; 2008 Jan 15;111(2):785-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunoglobulin free light chain ratio is an independent risk factor for progression of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma.
  • We hypothesized that increased monoclonal free kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains in smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), as detected by the serum free light chain (FLC) assay, indicates an increased risk of progression to active myeloma.


9. Dispenzieri A, Kyle RA: Multiple myeloma: clinical features and indications for therapy. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol; 2005;18(4):553-68
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  • [Title] Multiple myeloma: clinical features and indications for therapy.
  • Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma-cell proliferative disease with an expected 15,270 new cases and 11,070 deaths in the USA in 2004 alone.
  • It is essential that the spectrum of plasma-cell proliferative disorders be recognized: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM), and active (symptomatic) MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16026737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6926
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62242
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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10. Ide M, Kuwahara N, Matsuishi E, Kimura S, Gondo H: Uncommon case of chronic myeloid leukemia with multiple myeloma. Int J Hematol; 2010 May;91(4):699-704
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Uncommon case of chronic myeloid leukemia with multiple myeloma.
  • We describe a 72-year-old woman who was diagnosed with asymptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) while being treated for Philadelphia (Ph)-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with imatinib mesylate (400 mg/day).
  • Hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions were not observed, which suggested that asymptomatic MM had developed.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / complications. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / pathology. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Multiple Myeloma / pathology


11. Jakubowiak AJ, Hofmeister CC, Campagnaro EL, Zimmerman TM, Schlossman RL, Lonial S, Reece DE, Kaminski MS, Anderson KC, Richardson PG: Lenalidomide, bortezomib, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride, and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: Initial results of phase I/II MMRC trial. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):8517

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lenalidomide, bortezomib, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride, and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: Initial results of phase I/II MMRC trial.
  • : 8517 Background: Three-drug combinations with lenalidomide (Revlimid, Rev) and bortezomib (Velcade, Vel) are highly active in previously untreated multiple myeloma (MM).
  • Two pts developed DLT at dose level 2, consisting of grade (G) 3 asymptomatic neutropenia and G3 elevation of transaminase.

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  • (PMID = 27960880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Dhodapkar MV, Bolejack V, Shaughnessy J, Matthews P, Pickering R, Qu P, Hoering A, Crowley J, Barlogie B, Southwest Oncology Group: Role of T-cell immunity to embryonal stem (ES) cell antigen SOX2 in the progression of myeloma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):8522

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of T-cell immunity to embryonal stem (ES) cell antigen SOX2 in the progression of myeloma.
  • : 8522 Background: Clinical outcome in patients (pts) with asymptomatic plasma-proliferative disorders, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and asymptomatic myeloma (AMM), is highly variable.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate in the context of a prospective trial that T cell immunity to stem cell genes strongly correlates with a reduced risk of progression to clinical myeloma.

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  • (PMID = 27960897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Siniscalchi A, Stasi R, Fratoni S, de Fabritiis P, Caravita T: Management of immune thrombocytopoenia in a patient with newly-diagnosed smouldering myeloma and colorectal cancer. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of immune thrombocytopoenia in a patient with newly-diagnosed smouldering myeloma and colorectal cancer.
  • The association with multiple myeloma (MM) and solid tumours is rare.
  • Here, a case of ITP associated with asymptomatic multiple myeloma and colon carcinoma, refractory to standard therapy and responsive to rituximab, is described.

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  • (PMID = 21686970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3028323
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14. Madan S, Kyle RA, Greipp PR: Plasma cell labeling index in the evaluation of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma. Mayo Clin Proc; 2010 Mar;85(3):300
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Multiple Myeloma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Plasma cell labeling index in the evaluation of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma.

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 21;356(25):2582-90 [17582068.001]
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  • (PMID = 20194156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-5546
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62242
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2843123
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15. Neubauer J, Adam Z, Pour L: [How to determine whether a compressive spinal fracture was caused by osteoporosis or multiple myeloma]. Vnitr Lek; 2006 Nov;52 Suppl 2:83-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [How to determine whether a compressive spinal fracture was caused by osteoporosis or multiple myeloma].
  • The most common cause of compressive spinal fractures in older women is undoubtedly senile osteoporosis, while less common causes are malignant diseases which metastase into the skeleton and multiple myeloma focally or diffusely infiltrating the skeleton.
  • We describe a case of monoclonal gammopathy in which only a biopsy using CT-guided puncture of the compressed vertebra showed a symptomatic multiple myeloma requiring overall treatment.
  • Up to the time of the targeted biopsy, the patient had wrongly been classified as a case of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and later as a case of stage IA asymptomatic multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Compression / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / complications. Spinal Fractures / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18175434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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16. Raja KR, Kovarova L, Hajek R: Review of phenotypic markers used in flow cytometric analysis of MGUS and MM, and applicability of flow cytometry in other plasma cell disorders. Br J Haematol; 2010 May;149(3):334-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical application of flow cytometry in monoclonal gammopathies has various dimensions, such as differential diagnosis of malignant plasma cell disorder from reactive plasmacytosis, identifying the progression risk in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and asymptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), and minimal residual disease detection.
  • Several research groups described the putative phenotype of myeloma cell progenitors, but no remarkable suggestion could be made because of disparity.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / metabolism. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20201947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 170
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17. Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering multiple myeloma: emphasis on risk factors for progression. Br J Haematol; 2007 Dec;139(5):730-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering multiple myeloma: emphasis on risk factors for progression.
  • The risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) or a related disorder is 1% per year.
  • Smouldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma is characterized by having a serum IgG or IgA monoclonal protein of 30 g/l or higher and/or 10% or more plasma cells in the bone marrow but no evidence of end-organ damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Haematol. 2007 Dec;139(5):687-9 [18021082.001]
  • (PMID = 18021088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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18. Hillengass J, Zechmann C, Bäuerle T, Wagner-Gund B, Heiss C, Benner A, Ho A, Neben K, Hose D, Kauczor HU, Goldschmidt H, Delorme S, Moehler T: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging identifies a subgroup of patients with asymptomatic monoclonal plasma cell disease and pathologic microcirculation. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 May 1;15(9):3118-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging identifies a subgroup of patients with asymptomatic monoclonal plasma cell disease and pathologic microcirculation.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined a group of 222 individuals consisting of 60 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 65 patients with asymptomatic multiple myeloma (aMM), 75 patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (sMM), and 22 healthy controls with DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / blood supply. Contrast Media. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Paraproteinemias / diagnosis. Plasma Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19366830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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19. Adam Z, Zahradová L, Krejcí M, Pour L, Koukalová R, Rehák Z, Feit J, Kren L, Mechl M, Vasků V, Sirotková A, Hájek R, Mayer J: [Diffuse plane normolipemic xanthomatosis and necrobiotic xanthogranuloma associated with monoclonal gammopathy--determining the disease stage with PET-CT and treatment experience. Two case studies and literature review]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Nov;56(11):1158-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The second patient is being followed up for more than 10 years, originally for MGUS, later for asymptomatic multiple myeloma.

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  • (PMID = 21250495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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20. Musto P, Petrucci MT, Bringhen S, Guglielmelli T, Caravita T, Bongarzoni V, Andriani A, D'Arena G, Balleari E, Pietrantuono G, Boccadoro M, Palumbo A, GIMEMA (Italian Group for Adult Hematologic Diseases)/Multiple Myeloma Working Party and the Italian Myeloma Network: A multicenter, randomized clinical trial comparing zoledronic acid versus observation in patients with asymptomatic myeloma. Cancer; 2008 Oct 1;113(7):1588-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A multicenter, randomized clinical trial comparing zoledronic acid versus observation in patients with asymptomatic myeloma.
  • BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are effective in the prevention and treatment of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with symptomatic myeloma who are receiving chemotherapy.
  • Few studies published to date have explored the role of BPs in patients with untreated, asymptomatic myeloma (AM).
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 64.7 person-months, 44.4% of patients in the zoledronic acid group and 45.1% of the control group progressed to 'symptomatic' myeloma requiring chemotherapy (P = .9307).
  • More frequent adverse events observed in the zoledronic acid-treated group were asymptomatic hypocalcemia and fever.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Diseases / prevention & control. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2008 Nov 15;113(10):2835
  • (PMID = 18683218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
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21. Asaoku H: [Biochemical and immunological findings of multiple myeloma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Dec;65(12):2256-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Biochemical and immunological findings of multiple myeloma].
  • Biochemical and immunological findings of multiple myeloma are reviewed.
  • Rate of abnormal data of biochemical markers in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), asymptomatic myeloma and symptomatic myeloma are reported.
  • Free light chain (FLC) assay is useful for monitoring of intact immunoglobulin myeloma as well as nonsecretory and light chain only myeloma.
  • Phenotypic analysis of plasma cells is useful for differential diagnosis and understanding of proliferative state in multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunoglobulin Light Chains / blood. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18069270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains; 0 / Serum Albumin; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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22. Shimizu K: [Clinical features of multiple myeloma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Dec;65(12):2218-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical features of multiple myeloma].
  • The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) has recently proposed a new classification of asymptomatic myeloma and symptomatic myeloma.
  • The distinction between asymptomatic and symptomatic myeloma depends on the presence or absence of the myeloma-related organ or tissue impairment (ROTI) defined by the IMWG.
  • Based on the definition, some patients without clinical symptoms may fall into the "symptomatic" group because of insidious organ impairment by myeloma.
  • Or others with clinical symptoms may fall into "asymptomatic" group, if no organ impairment is proven to be myeloma related.
  • Recognition of the clinical features developed by ROTI is not only important for the diagnosis of symptomatic myeloma but also for the immediate institution of effective treatment.
  • Immediate and proper management of the clinical features of symptomatic myeloma patients will have a great impact on quality of life and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma

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  • (PMID = 18069263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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23. Adam Z, Bolcák K, Stanícek J, Pour L, Hájek R, Krejcí M, Prásek J, Neubauer J, Mareschova Y, Vorlícek J: [The value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in multiple myeloma]. Vnitr Lek; 2006 Mar;52(3):207-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in multiple myeloma].
  • The aim of this study was investigate the appearance of multiple myeloma on flurorine--18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET).
  • Furthermore the accuracy of FDG-PET in detecting myeloma lesions and its influence on patient's management were evaluated.
  • METHODS: Altogether 50 patients, 13 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma with negative radiographs, 4 patients with solitary plasmocytoma, 27 patients in remission with suspected relapse and 6 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) with suspicion for multiple myeloma or other malignancy underwent FDG-PET examination.
  • RESULTS: Focally increased tracer uptake was observed in 3 (23 %) of newly diagnosed myeloma patients with negative radiographs and was verified with CT or MR with followed indication for therapy.
  • The FDG-PET was negative in two cases of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma with negative radiographs, no focal infiltration on MR imagination, but with anemia, high monoclonal imunoglobulin and bone marrow infiltration, which was indication for therapy.
  • In all other cases FDG-PET negativity in asymptomatic myeloma had good prognostic significance; these patients are without progression after with a median follow up 14 (7-20) months.
  • In 4 cases of them it was due to multiple myeloma relapse, in one case due to ovarial carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, FDG PET might contribute to initial staging of radiographs negative multiple myeloma and might be useful for follow up of patients in remission, especially in consecratory multiple myeloma, or in patients with large plasmocelular tumor (> 5 cm) after concomitant radiochemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Multiple Myeloma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • [CommentIn] Vnitr Lek. 2006 Mar;52(3):203-4 [16722149.001]
  • (PMID = 16722151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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24. Joshua DE, Brown RD, Ho PJ, Gibson J: Regulatory T cells and multiple myeloma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2008 Oct;8(5):283-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Regulatory T cells and multiple myeloma.
  • Many clinical observations point to active immunologic phenomena in patients with myeloma.
  • Clinical conditions such as asymptomatic myeloma, which represents clinical presentation in the plateau phase of the disease, plateau establishment after conventional induction therapy without the ongoing need for therapy, and the positive prognostic importance of the presence of clones of cytotoxic T cells in the peripheral blood of some patients, suggest that host-tumor interaction is an active dynamic state.
  • In myeloma, host-tumor immune interactions are complex.
  • In this review, we will discuss the potential importance of Treg cells and their role in myeloma, a disease characterized by a unique set of host-tumor interactions.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Immunologic Factors / metabolism. Multiple Myeloma / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18854282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Immunologic Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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25. Mele A, Offidani M, Visani G, Marconi M, Cambioli F, Nonni M, Catarini M, Brianzoni E, Berbellini A, Ascoli G, Brunori M, Agostini V, Corvatta L, Isidori A, Spinelli A, Gradari M, Leoni P: Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy is sensitive and specific for the staging and the follow-up of patients with multiple myeloma: a multicentre study on 397 scans. Br J Haematol; 2007 Mar;136(5):729-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy is sensitive and specific for the staging and the follow-up of patients with multiple myeloma: a multicentre study on 397 scans.
  • We evaluated the additional benefit of Technetium(99)-sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) scanning in comparison with standard X-ray techniques for multiple myeloma patients either at diagnosis or during follow-up.
  • As a result of 99mTc-MIBI, 40% of asymptomatic myeloma patients were up-staged.
  • In 22 patients with solitary myeloma, 99mTc-MIBI was positive in 86% of cases and detected more disease sites than X-ray.
  • Among 168 scans performed during follow-up, 99mTc-MIBI presented high specificity in patients showing a complete response (CR; 86%), and correlated with myeloma activity and with response to therapy.
  • We conclude that 99mTc-MIBI scanning is an additional diagnostic tool with a high specificity for the staging and the follow-up of multiple myeloma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17233770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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26. Dimopoulos MA, Terpos E: Multiple myeloma. Ann Oncol; 2010 Oct;21 Suppl 7:vii143-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple myeloma.
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy, with an incidence of 6/100,000 in Europe.
  • Interactions between myeloma cells and the microenvironment are essential for MM cell survival.
  • Better knowledge of disease biology has led to the introduction of novel agents for the management of myeloma patients.
  • Patients with asymptomatic MM may remain stable for a long time without any therapy, and treatment is needed only in symptomatic disease.
  • However, previous therapies, age, comorbidities and drug safety have to be taken into consideration before deciding the appropriate therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma.

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  • (PMID = 20943607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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27. Rajkumar SV, Dispenzieri A, Kyle RA: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis, and related plasma cell disorders: diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc; 2006 May;81(5):693-703
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma are asymptomatic disorders characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the bone marrow in the absence of end-organ damage.
  • Solitary plasmacytoma is the only known potentially curable plasma cell disorder.

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  • [ErratumIn] Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Nov;81(11):1509
  • (PMID = 16706268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 62242
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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28. San Miguel JF, García-Sanz R: Prognostic features of multiple myeloma. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol; 2005;18(4):569-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic features of multiple myeloma.
  • The outcome of myeloma patients is highly heterogeneous, with survival ranging from a few months to more than 10 years.
  • Here we will review the most relevant prognostic factors reported in the literature in patients treated with both conventional chemotherapy and high-dose therapy followed by autologous stem-cell support, as well as in asymptomatic MM and MGUS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16026738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6926
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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29. Basile A, Tsetis D, Cavalli M, Fiumara P, Di Raimondo F, Coppolino F, Coppolino C, Mundo E, Desiderio C, Granata A, Patti MT: Sacroplasty for local or massive localization of multiple myeloma. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2010 Dec;33(6):1270-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sacroplasty for local or massive localization of multiple myeloma.
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of cementoplasty in the treatment of sacral multiple myelomas.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the records of eight patients (four women and four men; age range 47-68 years; mean age 57.8) who underwent cementoplasty for painful osteolytic localization of multiple myeloma between April 2007 and May 2009.
  • We had only one small and asymptomatic foraminal leak.
  • In our experience, percutaneous stabilization can be used effectively and safely in patients with focal or extensive involvement of the sacrum by multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / surgery. Sacrum / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Vertebroplasty / methods

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  • (PMID = 19967372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-086X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Child JA, Russell N, Sonneveld P, Schey S: Future directions in multiple myeloma treatment. Acta Haematol; 2005;114 Suppl 1:8-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Future directions in multiple myeloma treatment.
  • Future therapy options for multiple myeloma may be directed at asymptomatic disease, as only symptomatic myeloma is treated currently.
  • It is being further evaluated as induction therapy in the current MRC Myeloma IX trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16166766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-2; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; D2UX06XLB5 / pomalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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31. Nau KC, Lewis WD: Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment. Am Fam Physician; 2008 Oct 1;78(7):853-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment.
  • Multiple myeloma, the most common bone malignancy, is occurring with increasing frequency in older persons.
  • Skeletal radiographs are important in staging multiple myeloma and revealing lytic lesions, vertebral compression fractures, and osteoporosis.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography or computed tomography are emerging as useful tools in the evaluation of patients with myeloma; magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating acute spinal compression.
  • Nuclear bone scans and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry have no role in the diagnosis and staging of myeloma.
  • The differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies includes monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance, smoldering (asymptomatic) and symptomatic multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and rare plasma cell leukemia and heavy chain diseases.
  • Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance or smoldering multiple myeloma should be followed closely, but not treated.
  • Symptomatic multiple myeloma is treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, if possible.
  • It is important that family physicians recognize and appropriately treat multiple myeloma complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Humans. Myeloma Proteins / physiology. Pain / etiology. Plasma Cells / physiology. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18841734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myeloma Proteins; 0 / multiple myeloma M-proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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32. Engelhardt M, Ihorst G, Behringer D, Finke J, Roth B: Incidence of monoclonal B-cell disease in siblings of patients with multiple myeloma. Haematologica; 2006 Feb;91(2):274-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidence of monoclonal B-cell disease in siblings of patients with multiple myeloma.
  • We observed clustering of monoclonal B-cell disease in siblings being screened as allogeneic donors for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) scheduled for stem cell transplantation (SCT).
  • Of 134 asymptomatic donors, the incidence of monoclonal B-cell disease was 8/84 in siblings and 1/50 in matched unrelated donors.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Tissue Donors


33. Rajkumar SV, Lacy MQ, Kyle RA: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma. Blood Rev; 2007 Sep;21(5):255-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are asymptomatic disorders characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the bone marrow in the absence of end-organ damage.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma. Paraproteinemias

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  • (PMID = 17367905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-960X
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 62242
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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34. Bouvard B, Royer M, Chappard D, Audran M, Hoppé E, Legrand E: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, and osteoporosis. Joint Bone Spine; 2010 Mar;77(2):120-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, and osteoporosis.
  • Although the impact of MGUS on bone mineral density, bone remodeling, and the fracture risk remains unclear, this asymptomatic hematological disorder may constitute a risk factor for osteoporosis.
  • Furthermore, each year, 1% of patients with MGUS progress to multiple myeloma, a disease whose pathophysiology and association with bone loss and pathological fractures are increasingly well understood.
  • Osteoporotic fractures, although probably common in myeloma patients, are less likely to be recognized.
  • Here, we discuss the pathophysiology of myeloma and MGUS and their impact in terms of bone mineral density, osteoporotic fractures, and bone turnover markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma. Osteoporosis / epidemiology. Osteoporosis / physiopathology. Paraproteinemias

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20097594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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35. Jhaveri A, Muggia F: Novel therapies delay the progression of smoldering multiple myeloma: Case report and discussion. Ecancermedicalscience; 2010;4:182
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel therapies delay the progression of smoldering multiple myeloma: Case report and discussion.
  • This clinical vignette illustrates how our therapeutic approaches to early stages of multiple myeloma have changed over the past decade with novel therapies reducing disease and preventing disease progression.
  • Recent paradigms of multiple myeloma describe the disease as a spectrum of clinical stages, including asymptomatic 'smoldering' states that progress to symptomatic states.
  • The average 5-year survival rate of patients with multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1996 and 2004 according to surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) data is 35.9%.
  • Multiple trials have shown an increased benefit of these newer agents over prior multiple myeloma treatment regimens.
  • At 13 years and 8 months from diagnosis, our patient is doing well, and thus is a model of how long-term control of multiple myeloma prolongs survival.

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  • (PMID = 22276034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234033
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36. Bladé J, Rosiñol L: Smoldering multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2006 May;7(3):237-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Smoldering multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
  • Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) consists of the presence of a serum M protein of 30 g/L or more and/or 10% or more bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs), with no clinical manifestations or symptoms of myeloma.
  • It accounts for approximately 10% of all myelomas, and the median time to progression to a symptomatic multiple myeloma ranges from 2 to 3 years.
  • Importantly, patients with asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathies must not be treated before the development of overt multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / pathology. Multiple Myeloma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16615879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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37. Jagannath S, Kyle RA, Palumbo A, Siegel DS, Cunningham S, Berenson J: The current status and future of multiple myeloma in the clinic. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk; 2010 Feb;10(1):28-43
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  • [Title] The current status and future of multiple myeloma in the clinic.
  • It is now recognized that all cases of multiple myeloma (MM) are preceded by the premalignant condition of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).
  • Although patients with MGUS are generally asymptomatic and currently managed by "watch and wait," the identification of high-risk patients whose disease will progress more rapidly to smoldering MM (SMM) and MM aids in timely intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20223727.001).
  • [ISSN] 2152-2669
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 148
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38. Kalambokis GN, Christou L, Tsianos EV: Multiple myeloma presenting with an acute bacterial infection. Int J Lab Hematol; 2009 Aug;31(4):375-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple myeloma presenting with an acute bacterial infection.
  • Increased susceptibility to bacterial infections is a common manifestation of multiple myeloma (MM), arising mainly from a defect in humoral immunity and is associated with major morbidity and mortality.
  • MM should be considered in previously asymptomatic middle-aged patients who present with a major acute bacterial infection, without an apparent predisposing factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Infections / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Bacteremia / diagnosis. Bacteremia / etiology. Bacteremia / microbiology. Bacteria / isolation & purification. Creatinine / blood. Humans. Immunoglobulins / blood. Myeloma Proteins / analysis. Paraproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19486365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-553X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of laboratory hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Lab Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Myeloma Proteins; 0 / Paraproteins; 0 / multiple myeloma M-proteins; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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39. Scudla V, Budíková M, Pika T, Bacovský J, Minarík J, Heinzová V, Langová K: [The comparison of serum levels of selected biomarkers in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2009;148(7):315-22
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  • [Title] [The comparison of serum levels of selected biomarkers in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma].
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was the evaluation of serum levels of 12 selected biomarkers in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and in initial, asyptomatic phase of multiple myeloma, especially from the view of potential differentiation of these conditions in clinical practice.
  • Except for thymidinekinase (p = 0.014) and syndecan-1 (p = 0.001) was not detected statistically important contrast of measured values in MGUS individuals and in patients with initial, asymptomatic phase of MM (stage 1), but these markers cannot be used in clinical practice due to significant overlap of serum values.
  • RESULTS: Although the significant differences in 9 of 12 evaluated serum levels of selected biomarkers in groups of MGUS and MM were seen, the results revealed that these markers are unprofitable to bring discriminatory potential capable of being used to distinguish between MGUS and initial, asymptomatic phase of MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / blood. Multiple Myeloma / blood. Paraproteinemias / blood

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  • (PMID = 19642297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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40. Hussein MA: Multiple myeloma: most common end-organ damage and management. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2007 Feb;5(2):170-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple myeloma: most common end-organ damage and management.
  • End-organ damage is the factor that differentiates plasma cell dyscrasia requiring therapy (active multiple myeloma [MM]) from disease that does not require therapy (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering [asymptomatic] MM).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Paraproteinemias / prevention & control. Spinal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17335686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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41. Detweiler-Short K, Hayman S, Gertz MA, Lacy MQ, Dispenzieri A, Kumar S, Zeldenrust SR, Russell SJ, Lust JA, Kyle RA, Greipp PR, Witzig TE, Vincent Rajkumar S: Long-term results of single-agent thalidomide as initial therapy for asymptomatic (smoldering or indolent) myeloma. Am J Hematol; 2010 Oct;85(10):737-40
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  • [Title] Long-term results of single-agent thalidomide as initial therapy for asymptomatic (smoldering or indolent) myeloma.
  • We report the long-term follow-up results of a phase II trial of thalidomide for early-stage multiple myeloma (MM).
  • Patients were eligible if they had smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or indolent MM without the need for immediate therapy.
  • The median time to progression (TTP) to symptomatic myeloma was 35 months.
  • Median overall survival from diagnosis was 86 months; median survival from onset of symptomatic myeloma was 49 months.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20730790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-8652
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA062242; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62242
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42. Gerkes EH, de Jong MM, Sijmons RH, Vellenga E: Familial multiple myeloma: report on two families and discussion of screening options. Hered Cancer Clin Pract; 2007;5(2):72-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Familial multiple myeloma: report on two families and discussion of screening options.
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a relatively rare haematological malignancy seen in older persons.
  • However, several families have been reported with multiple cases of MM, so that the existence of hereditary MM has been postulated although no causative germline mutations have been detected so far.
  • Although risk estimates for asymptomatic relatives in these types of families are not available, a clinically significant risk of developing MM cannot be excluded.

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  • (PMID = 19725987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-4287
  • [Journal-full-title] Hereditary cancer in clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hered Cancer Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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43. Walter C, Al-Nawas B, Frickhofen N, Gamm H, Beck J, Reinsch L, Blum C, Grötz KA, Wagner W: Prevalence of bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws in multiple myeloma patients. Head Face Med; 2010;6:11
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  • [Title] Prevalence of bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws in multiple myeloma patients.
  • METHODS: In two neighboring German cities, prevalence and additional factors of the development of BP-ONJ in multiple myeloma patients with bisphosphonates therapy were recorded using a retrospective (RS) and cross-sectional study (CSS) design.
  • The oral examination of all patients in this CSS might explain the higher prevalence, since even early asymptomatic stages of BP-ONJ and previously unnoticed symptomatic BP-ONJ were recorded.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / adverse effects. Diphosphonates / adverse effects. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Osteonecrosis / chemically induced. Osteonecrosis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20615236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & face medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Face Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2912876
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44. Kumar S, Kimlinger T, Morice W: Immunophenotyping in multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol; 2010 Sep;23(3):433-51
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  • [Title] Immunophenotyping in multiple myeloma and related plasma cell disorders.
  • Plasma cell disorders form a spectrum ranging from the asymptomatic presence of small monoclonal populations of plasma cells to conditions like plasma cell leukemia and multiple myeloma, in which the bone marrow can be replaced by the accumulation of neoplastic plasma cells.
  • Multiparameter flow cytometry has evolved considerably during the past decade with an increasing ability to screen large numbers of events and to detect multiple antigens at the same time.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 21112041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1924
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090628-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS246587; NLM/ PMC3005703
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45. Scudla V, Budíková M, Petrová P, Minarík J, Pika T, Bacovský J, Adamová D, Langová K, Ceská myelomová skupina: [Analysis of serum levels of selected biological parameters in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(3):171-81
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  • [Title] [Analysis of serum levels of selected biological parameters in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma].
  • BACKGROUNDS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum levels of 18 selected parameters in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, and the initial, asymptomatic phase of multiple myeloma, also from the point of view of the potential contribution to the differentiation of these two units.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analyzed 119-patient group consisted of 59 individuals with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 60 patients with multiple myeloma assessed at the time of diagnosis before the start of the treatment.
  • RESULTS: Statistically significant differences between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma were found in the case of serum levels of thymidine kinase (0.0002), ICTP (0.001), MIP-1 alpha (0.002), osteopontin (<0.0001), HGF (< 0.0001), syndecan-1 (<0.0001), and the kappa/lambda ratio (0.0002), while lower significance was found in the case of angiogenin (0.031) and endostatin (0.011).
  • Statistically non-significant differences between multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were within the serum levels of IGF-1, osteocalcin, bALP, PINP, OPG, MIP-1 beta, IL-17, parathormon and VEGF.
  • CONCLUSION: Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma in 9 of the 18 evaluated parameters.
  • A certain contribution in the discrimination of multiple myeloma from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance was found in markedly increased serum levels of thymidine kinase, MIP-1 alpha, osteopontin, HGF and significant pathology of the kappa/lambda index.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / blood. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Paraproteinemias / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20608327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. Lazaraki G, Nakos A, Katodritou E, Pilpilidis I, Tarpagos A, Katsos I: A rare case of multiple myeloma initially presenting with pseudoachalasia. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(6):E21-4
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  • [Title] A rare case of multiple myeloma initially presenting with pseudoachalasia.
  • Gastrointestinal manifestations in primary or secondary amyloidosis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, malabsorption, obstruction, motility disturbance, intestinal infarction, perforation, and hemorrhage; however, gastrointestinal tract involvement is asymptomatic in most instances.
  • We present here a rare case of multiple myeloma initially presenting with dysphagia because of esophageal amyloidosis and manometric findings typical of achalasia.

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  • (PMID = 19207546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Rajkumar SV: MGUS and smoldering multiple myeloma: update on pathogenesis, natural history, and management. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program; 2005;:340-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MGUS and smoldering multiple myeloma: update on pathogenesis, natural history, and management.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are asymptomatic, pre-malignant disorders characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the bone marrow and absence of end-organ damage.

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  • (PMID = 16304401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4383
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 62242
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains; 0 / Myeloma Proteins; 0 / multiple myeloma M-proteins; 0 / protein M (glycoprotein)
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48. Bergón E, Miravalles E, Bergón E, Miranda I, Bergón M: The predictive power of serum kappa/lambda ratios for discrimination between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma. Clin Chem Lab Med; 2005;43(1):32-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The predictive power of serum kappa/lambda ratios for discrimination between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma.
  • The predictive power of serum kappa/lambda ratios on initial presentation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgA monoclonal component was studied to differentiate between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM) patients.
  • The retrospective study involved 145 patients clinically diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or multiple myeloma, who had serum M-protein IgG <35 g/L or IgA <20 g/L at M-protein detection.
  • Thus, serum M-protein with a kappa/lambda ratio between 0.6 and 4.2 increases the posterior probability of MGUS from 0.60 to 0.96 in asymptomatic patients, for whom only monitoring may be suggested when the serum kappa/lambda ratio is within these limits.

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(3):349
  • (PMID = 15653439.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-6621
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; 0 / Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains; 0 / Myeloma Proteins; 0 / multiple myeloma M-proteins
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49. Scudla V, Pika T, Budikova M, Petrova J, Minarik J, Bacovsky J, Langova K, Zivna J, Czech Myeloma Group: The importance of serum levels of selected biological parameters in the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of multiple myeloma. Neoplasma; 2010;57(2):102-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The importance of serum levels of selected biological parameters in the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of multiple myeloma.
  • The study aimed at evaluating the relation of 7 parameters associated with the internal biological properties of myeloma cells and the bone marrow microenvironment to multiple myeloma (MM) stages, distinguishing its initial/asymptomatic phase from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and assessing their relation to myeloma prognosis.
  • A deeper analysis showed statistically significant differences between MGUS and the initial/asymptomatic phase of MM (stage 1 according to the International Staging System) only in the cases of syndecan-1 (p=0.001) and Fas (p=0.008).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Multiple Myeloma / blood

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  • (PMID = 20099972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / HGF protein, human; 0 / Osteoprotegerin; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / SDC1 protein, human; 0 / Syndecan-1; 0 / TNFRSF11B protein, human; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide; 0 / procollagen Type I N-terminal peptide; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor
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50. Harousseau JL: Optimising patient outcomes in myeloma. Cancer Treat Rev; 2010 May;36 Suppl 2:S33-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimising patient outcomes in myeloma.
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable disease, and the goal of therapy is to prolong survival.
  • With the aim of prolonging survival, trials are currently evaluating newer therapies as long-term maintenance therapy or as prevention therapy for patients with smouldering myeloma.
  • Given that these patients are often asymptomatic and free of clinically active disease, success in this setting depends highly on long-term tolerability of these agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20472187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1967
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; F0P408N6V4 / lenalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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51. Tashjian RZ, Bradley MP, Lucas PR: Spinal epidural hematoma after a pathologic compression fracture: an unusual presentation of multiple myeloma. Spine J; 2005 Jul-Aug;5(4):454-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal epidural hematoma after a pathologic compression fracture: an unusual presentation of multiple myeloma.
  • Atraumatic spinal epidural hematomas have been reported as an initial presentation of multiple myeloma.
  • PURPOSE: To present the first reported case of a spinal epidural hematoma after a pathologic fracture and a very unusual initial presentation of multiple myeloma in a young patient.
  • METHODS: A healthy asymptomatic 37-year-old male was struck in the head with a ball while playing soccer.
  • The bone marrow biopsy was positive for plasma cell myeloma.
  • The patient was subsequently started on steroids and chemotherapy for myeloma.
  • The patient has also undergone bone marrow transplant, and his myeloma is currently in remission.
  • Also, this case represents an unusual initial presentation of multiple myeloma in a young patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Spontaneous / etiology. Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Thoracic Vertebrae / injuries

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  • (PMID = 15996616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-9430
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Pérez-Díaz H, Serrano-Pozo A, González-Marcos JR: [Multiple myeloma as a treatable cause of stroke: clinical case and review of the literature]. Neurologia; 2007 Jan-Feb;22(1):54-7
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  • [Title] [Multiple myeloma as a treatable cause of stroke: clinical case and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] El mieloma múltiple como causa tratable de ictus. Caso clínico y revisión de la literatura.
  • Monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulinemia, including lymphoma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and less commonly multiple myeloma (MM), are considered as infrequent causes of ischemic stroke.
  • We report a case of a patient diagnosed with IgG type MM, who suffered multiple vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks and minor ischemic strokes concurrent with a reactivation of his hematological disease.
  • He became completely asymptomatic after specific treatment with dexamethasone of the paraproteinemia associated with MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / complications. Stroke / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17315105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-4853
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurología (Barcelona, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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53. Sirohi B, Powles R: Epidemiology and outcomes research for MGUS, myeloma and amyloidosis. Eur J Cancer; 2006 Jul;42(11):1671-83
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  • [Title] Epidemiology and outcomes research for MGUS, myeloma and amyloidosis.
  • MGUS is a pre-malignant disorder characterised by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the bone marrow and no end-organ damage; the patients are asymptomatic.
  • Primary amyloidosis is a rare disorder that is characterised by deposition of amyloid fibrils composed of immunoglobulin light chain fragments; symptoms relate to the affected organ.
  • Multiple myeloma is a malignant disease of plasma cells and with improvements in treatment, patients can now expect a doubling of median survival to 5 years, a 20% chance of surviving >10 years and a 50% chance of complete remission (CR), morphological and biochemical.
  • The challenge is now to determine exactly what this means to the individual myeloma patient in terms of benefit, and to society as a whole and this is the basis of 'outcomes research' which is discussed in this review.

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  • (PMID = 16870424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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54. Landgren O, Kyle RA, Pfeiffer RM, Katzmann JA, Caporaso NE, Hayes RB, Dispenzieri A, Kumar S, Clark RJ, Baris D, Hoover R, Rajkumar SV: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) consistently precedes multiple myeloma: a prospective study. Blood; 2009 May 28;113(22):5412-7
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  • [Title] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) consistently precedes multiple myeloma: a prospective study.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant plasma-cell proliferative disorder associated with a life-long risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM).
  • It is not known whether MM is always preceded by a premalignant asymptomatic MGUS stage.
  • In the present study, an asymptomatic MGUS stage consistently preceded MM.


55. Chiecchio L, Dagrada GP, Protheroe RK, Stockley DM, Smith AG, Orchard KH, Cross NC, Harrison CJ, Ross FM, UK Myeloma Forum: Loss of 1p and rearrangement of MYC are associated with progression of smouldering myeloma to myeloma: sequential analysis of a single case. Haematologica; 2009 Jul;94(7):1024-8
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  • [Title] Loss of 1p and rearrangement of MYC are associated with progression of smouldering myeloma to myeloma: sequential analysis of a single case.
  • We report serial genetic studies on a young female patient initially diagnosed with asymptomatic smouldering myeloma who progressed to symptomatic myeloma 4.5 years after presentation.
  • Deletion of chromosome 13 was observed in a minor population of plasma cells (<20%) for the first two years, increasing to 100% of plasma cells by the time of multiple myeloma diagnosis.
  • Loss of 1p and a rearrangement of MYC were first observed in a small population of plasma cells one year prior to the clinical diagnosis of multiple myeloma, but these subclones increased rapidly in size to become the major population suggesting that they were directly involved in the transformation process.
  • This case report provides a unique insight into the mechanisms of disease progression from smouldering multiple myeloma to multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / ultrastructure. Multiple Myeloma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • [Cites] Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Mar;2(3):175-87 [11990854.001]
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  • (PMID = 19454499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2704316
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56. Danilatou V, Liapi D, Psyllaki M, Chatzivasili A, Chronaki I, Heliakis P: Neurofibromatosis type I and smoldering multiple myeloma: a case report. Hematology; 2006 Feb;11(1):45-8
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  • [Title] Neurofibromatosis type I and smoldering multiple myeloma: a case report.
  • We present a case of a 64-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis (NF1) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM).
  • SMM was diagnosed 9 years ago when the asymptomatic patient was found to have mild anemia, IgA paraproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, osteopenia without any lytic bone lesions and bone marrow plasmacytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / administration & dosage. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Multiple Myeloma / etiology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16522549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-5332
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Paraproteins
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57. Pflugmacher R, Kandziora F, Schroeder RJ, Melcher I, Haas NP, Klostermann CK: Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of pathological vertebral body fracture and deformity in multiple myeloma: a one-year follow-up. Acta Radiol; 2006 May;47(4):369-76
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  • [Title] Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty in the treatment of pathological vertebral body fracture and deformity in multiple myeloma: a one-year follow-up.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of balloon kyphoplasty in patients with fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine caused by multiple myeloma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Vertebral fractures due to multiple myeloma were treated by balloon kyphoplasty (20 patients, 48 vertebral bodies).
  • Clinically asymptomatic cement leakage occurred at 5 fracture levels (10.4%).
  • CONCLUSION: Balloon kyphoplasty is an effective minimally invasive procedure for stabilizing pathological vertebral fractures caused by multiple myeloma and leading to a statistically significant reduction of pain status.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Kyphosis / surgery. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Polymethyl Methacrylate / therapeutic use. Spinal Fractures / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Radiol. 2006 May;47(4):339 [16739691.001]
  • (PMID = 16739696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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58. Scudla V, Petrová P, Minarík J, Pika T, Budíková M, Bacovský J, Repovský S: [Contribution to the evaluation of serum levels of selected biological parameters in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in individual clinical stages of multiple myeloma]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Jun;56(6):591-601
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  • [Title] [Contribution to the evaluation of serum levels of selected biological parameters in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and in individual clinical stages of multiple myeloma].
  • INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to measure serum levels of 12 selected parameters in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and initial, asymptomatic phase of multiple myeloma (MM) to assess their potential benefit in differentiating both conditions.
  • PATIENT SAMPLE AND METHODOLOGY: The analysed sample of 131 patients consisted of 62 patients with MGUS and 69 patients with MM fulfilling the criteria of the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG).
  • Statistically significant differences between MGUS and initial, asymptomatic phase of MM (D-S stage 1) was found only for bALP (p = 0.01) and for albumin (p = 0.004) and OPN (p = 0.003) when ISS was applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / blood. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Paraproteinemias / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20681472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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59. Myslivecek M, Bacovský J, Scudla V, Koranda P, Minarík J, Buriánková E, Formánek R, Zapletalová J: [18F-FDG PET/CT and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in evaluation of patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance: comparison of methods]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(5):325-31
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  • [Title] [18F-FDG PET/CT and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in evaluation of patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance: comparison of methods].
  • BACKGROUNDS: Newer imaging modalities, such as 18F-FDG PET/CT and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy, have been recently introduced to assess the activity and extent of disease in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 101 patients with MM (81 patients) and MGUS (20 patients) were enrolled in the study (21 newly diagnosed and 44 relapsed patients with symptomatic MM, 16 with asymptomatic MM and 20 with MGUS).
  • In our study, 18F-FDG PET/CT predicted asymptomatic MM and MGUS transformation into more aggressive forms with the necessity to start therapy more often than 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / radiography. Multiple Myeloma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • (PMID = 21061682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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60. Talamo G, Angtuaco E, Walker RC, Dong L, Miceli MH, Zangari M, Tricot G, Barlogie B, Anaissie E: Avascular necrosis of femoral and/or humeral heads in multiple myeloma: results of a prospective study of patients treated with dexamethasone-based regimens and high-dose chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Aug 1;23(22):5217-23
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  • [Title] Avascular necrosis of femoral and/or humeral heads in multiple myeloma: results of a prospective study of patients treated with dexamethasone-based regimens and high-dose chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence, time of onset, risk factors, and outcome of avascular necrosis (AVN) of bone in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing antineoplastic therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: AVN is a rare and usually asymptomatic complication during myeloma therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Femur Head Necrosis / etiology. Femur Head Necrosis / pathology. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15955903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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61. Morra E, Cesana C, Klersy C, Barbarano L, Miqueleiz S, Varettoni M, Lucchesini C, Ricci F, Lazzarino M: Prognostic factors for transformation in asymptomatic immunoglobulin m monoclonal gammopathies. Clin Lymphoma; 2005 Mar;5(4):265-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors for transformation in asymptomatic immunoglobulin m monoclonal gammopathies.
  • We evaluated the risk of transformation of asymptomatic immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy (aIgM-MG) into symptomatic lymphoproliferative disease in 384 patients, in subgroups of patients with IgM MG of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (sWM).
  • After a median of 45 months (range, 12-233 months), 45 cases of aIgM-MG (11.7%) evolved into lymphoproliferative disease, as follows: symptomatic WM (n = 41), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; n = 2), IgM multiple myeloma (IgM-MM; n = 1), and primary amyloidosis (n = 1).

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  • (PMID = 15794862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-9655
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin M
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62. Baughn LB, Di Liberto M, Niesvizky R, Cho HJ, Jayabalan D, Lane J, Liu F, Chen-Kiang S: CDK2 phosphorylation of Smad2 disrupts TGF-beta transcriptional regulation in resistant primary bone marrow myeloma cells. J Immunol; 2009 Feb 15;182(4):1810-7
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  • [Title] CDK2 phosphorylation of Smad2 disrupts TGF-beta transcriptional regulation in resistant primary bone marrow myeloma cells.
  • In multiple myeloma, a fatal cancer of plasma cells, malignant cells accumulate in the TGF-beta-rich bone marrow due to loss of both cell cycle and apoptotic controls.
  • Herein we show that TGF-beta activates Smad2 but fails to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in primary bone marrow myeloma and human myeloma cell lines due to its inability to activate G(1) cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (p15(INK4b), p21(CIP1/WAF1), p27(KIP1), p57(KIP2)) or to repress c-myc and Bcl-2 transcription.
  • Correlating with aberrant activation of CDKs, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of Smad2 on Thr(8) (pT8), a modification linked to impaired Smad activity, is elevated in primary bone marrow myeloma cells, even in asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
  • Moreover, CDK2 is the predominant CDK that phosphorylates Smad2 on T8 in myeloma cells, leading to inhibition of Smad2-Smad4 association that precludes transcriptional regulation by Smad2.
  • Our findings provide the first direct evidence that pT8 Smad2 couples dysregulation of CDK2 to TGF-beta resistance in primary cancer cells, and they suggest that disruption of Smad2 function by CDK2 phosphorylation acts as a mechanism for TGF-beta resistance in multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / physiology. Multiple Myeloma / metabolism. Smad2 Protein / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19201832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-6606
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120531; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA93771
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SMAD2 protein, human; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
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63. Berenson JR, Matous J, Swift RA, Mapes R, Morrison B, Yeh HS: A phase I/II study of arsenic trioxide/bortezomib/ascorbic acid combination therapy for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Mar 15;13(6):1762-8
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  • [Title] A phase I/II study of arsenic trioxide/bortezomib/ascorbic acid combination therapy for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.
  • PURPOSE: This multicenter, open-label, phase I/II dose escalation study assessed the safety/tolerability and initial efficacy of arsenic trioxide/bortezomib/ascorbic acid (ABC) combination therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
  • One patient had asymptomatic arrhythmia and withdrew from the study.
  • These findings warrant further clinical evaluation of the ABC combination for treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17363530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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64. Ross FM, Ibrahim AH, Vilain-Holmes A, Winfield MO, Chiecchio L, Protheroe RK, Strike P, Gunasekera JL, Jones A, Harrison CJ, Morgan GJ, Cross NC, UK Myeloma Forum: Age has a profound effect on the incidence and significance of chromosome abnormalities in myeloma. Leukemia; 2005 Sep;19(9):1634-42
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  • [Title] Age has a profound effect on the incidence and significance of chromosome abnormalities in myeloma.
  • A simple high throughput micro-fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique (FISH) was used to detect chromosome 13 deletions (delta13), immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements, t(11;14)(q13;q32), t(4;14)(p16;q32), t(14;16)(q23;q32), p53 loss, and numerical changes of chromosomes 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11 and 17 in 228 cases of multiple myeloma (MM), including 33 asymptomatic/smouldering MM (SMM).
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Multiple Myeloma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15990862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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65. Yun SJ, Lee KH, Yang DW, Lee JB, Kim SJ, Lee SC, Won YH: Primary cutaneous spindle cell B-cell lymphoma with multiple figurate erythema-like manifestation. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jan;36(1):49-52
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous spindle cell B-cell lymphoma with multiple figurate erythema-like manifestation.
  • We report a 68-year-old Korean man presenting with asymptomatic erythematous polycyclic annular firm plaques on his back that spread to the right shoulder.
  • They consistently expressed nuclear bcl-6, but did not express bcl-2, multiple myeloma-1 and p16.

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  • (PMID = 19125734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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66. Vacula I, Ambrózy E, Makovník M, Stvrtina S, Babál P, Stvrtinová V: Cryoglobulinemia manifested by gangraene of almost all fingers and toes. Int Angiol; 2010 Dec;29(6):560-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Multiple Myeloma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Monoclonal cryoglobulins are often revealed in patients with multiple myeloma or Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.
  • Cryoglobulinemia is in most cases asymptomatic.
  • Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is an immune complex-mediated systemic disorder involving mostly small, but sometimes also larger vessels.
  • In this report, we describe a case of a patient presented with gangrene of almost all fingers and toes, who was finally diagnosed and treated as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryoglobulinemia / etiology. Fingers / blood supply. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Toes / blood supply. Vasculitis, Leukocytoclastic, Cutaneous / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21173736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-1839
  • [Journal-full-title] International angiology : a journal of the International Union of Angiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Angiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Vasodilator Agents
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67. Berenson JR, Yellin O: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: why identification of these patients and assessment of their skeletons is important. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2009 Aug;9(4):311-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by the presence of a serum monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein) at <or= 3 g/dL.
  • It is an asymptomatic premalignant disorder that can progress to multiple myeloma and related B-cell disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Compression / diagnosis. Fractures, Compression / therapy. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / diagnosis. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / therapy. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19717382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0712
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal
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68. Wang XW, Li F: [Clinical significance of monoclonal gammopathy with undetermined significance--review]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Oct;18(5):1365-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Monoclonal gammopathy with undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common plasma cell disorder, MGUS is an asymptomatic premalignant disorder, which is markedly underdiagnosed in the general population.
  • The risk frequency of progression to multiple myeloma or a closely related plasma cell disorder was developed at a rate of 1.5% per year, indicating that the condition is not entirely benign.
  • As compared with control populations, the progression rate of MGUS into multiple myeloma, Waldenstr m's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis and lymphoma were increased by 25, 46, 8.4 and 2.4 times respectively.

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  • (PMID = 21129295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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69. Migliorati CA, Siegel MA, Elting LS: Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis: a long-term complication of bisphosphonate treatment. Lancet Oncol; 2006 Jun;7(6):508-14
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  • The disorder affects patients with cancer on bisphosphonate treatment for multiple myeloma or bone metastasis from breast, prostate, or lung cancer.
  • Patients might have severe pain or be asymptomatic.
  • Other risk factors include duration of bisphosphonate treatment (ie, 36 months and longer), old age in patients with multiple myeloma, and a history of recent dental extraction.
  • We also discuss pathobiology, clinical features, management, and future directions for the disorder.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dental Care for Chronically Ill. Humans. Imidazoles / adverse effects. Jaw / drug effects. Jaw / pathology. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2006 Jun;7(6):447-9 [16750492.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Lancet Oncol. 2006 Jul;7(7):533
  • (PMID = 16750501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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70. Elis A, Radnay J, Shapiro H, Itzhaky D, Manor Y, Lishner M: Should bone marrow examination be routinely performed for the diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance? Isr Med Assoc J; 2006 Dec;8(12):840-2
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Multiple Myeloma.

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  • Asymptomatic patients who had serum monoclonal immunoglobulin G < 3.0 g/dl or IgA < 2.0 g/dl or IgM < 1.0 g/dl without anemia, renal failure, hypercalcemia or any bone lesions on skeletal survey were eligible.
  • However, only in two of the latter six could a diagnosis of multiple myeloma be established.
  • All group 1 patients were followed for 22 +/- 11 months and onlytwo developed overt multiple myeloma.
  • During the same period, 6 of 255 patients (group 2) were diagnosed as multiple myeloma and 3 as MGUS in other hospitals.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Marrow Examination / utilization. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Paraproteinemias / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17214099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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71. Kalayoglu Beşişik S, Sen F, Midilli K, Yilmaz G, Ozsüt H, Calangu S, Sargin D: [Nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections in three cases in a bone marrow transplantation unit]. Mikrobiyol Bul; 2008 Apr;42(2):359-64
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  • First case was a 62 years-old man with advanced multiple myeloma, which was refractory to multiple line treatment with high dose steroid including regimens and with secondary acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML); second case was a 45 years-old male patient with multiple myeloma, who had undergone autologous HSCT following high dose chemotherapy; third case was a 52 years-old man with AML that was refractory to multiple line treatment and had undergone allogeneic HSCT from a HLA-matched unrelated donor.
  • While clinical signs and symptoms of RSV infection developed in second case, third case remained asymptomatic.
  • [MeSH-major] Cross Infection / etiology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / etiology


72. Coulier B, Montfort L, Doyen V, Gielen I: MDCT findings in primary amyloidosis of the greater omentum and mesentery: a case report. Abdom Imaging; 2010 Feb;35(1):88-91
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  • This report illustrates the MDCT findings fortuitously found in a 70-year-old male presenting with a known latent myeloma.Extra abdominal deposits-axilla and cardiophrenic angles-were first fortuitously found during thoracic MDCT.
  • Secondary abdominal MDCT revealed the extensive abdominal spread that consisted of very diffuse but asymptomatic pseudo carcinomatous hazy omental, mesenteric and-in a minder proportion-retroperitoneal deposits; these remained isolated without calcification, lymphadenopathy, ascites, or any sign of associated bowel wall thickening.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Male. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Radiography, Thoracic

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  • (PMID = 19048333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Ramazzina C, Zysset Aschmann Y, Kummer O, Rätz Bravo AE, Bodmer M: [Zoledronate-associated end stage renal failure and hypocalcaemia]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2007 Apr 25;96(17):673-6; quiz 677-8
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  • In an 81-year-old patient with a history of long-standing stable chronic renal failure a diagnosis of multiple myeloma was made.
  • At admission, besides end-stage renal failure, severe asymptomatic hypocalcemia was noted.
  • Prerenal and postrenal failure could be excluded as well as myeloma kidney.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Calcium / therapeutic use. Creatinine / blood. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kidney Tubules / drug effects. Kidney Tubules / pathology. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Renal Dialysis. Risk Factors. Switzerland. Time Factors. Vitamin D / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17491196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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74. Rossini F, Terruzzi E, Cammarota S, Morini F, Fumagalli M, Verga L, Elli E, Verga M, Miccolis I, Parma M, Pogliani EM: Cytomegalovirus infection after autologous stem cell transplantation: incidence and outcome in a group of patients undergoing a surveillance program. Transpl Infect Dis; 2005 Sep-Dec;7(3-4):122-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cytomegalovirus Infections.

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  • The incidence of CMV infection in the seropositive population was 40/102 (39.3%); 6 patients (5 with multiple myeloma and 1 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) who received 2 ASCTs developed CMV infections after both transplantations, so that positive antigenemia developed after 46/171 (26.9%) transplantations.
  • In 5 patients fever without any other clinical signs or symptoms was present; 30 patients were asymptomatic.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cytomegalovirus / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Incidence. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Multiple Myeloma / therapy. Phosphoproteins / blood. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Viral Matrix Proteins / blood. Viremia / diagnosis. Viremia / epidemiology. Viremia / virology

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  • [CommentIn] Transpl Infect Dis. 2005 Sep-Dec;7(3-4):97-8 [16390396.001]
  • (PMID = 16390400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1398-2273
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Viral Matrix Proteins; 0 / cytomegalovirus matrix protein 65kDa
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75. Cook L, Macdonald DH: Management of paraproteinaemia. Postgrad Med J; 2007 Apr;83(978):217-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Plasma cell disorders can be considered as a spectrum of conditions ranging from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), through asymptomatic, to symptomatic myeloma.
  • MGUS is defined by a low level of paraprotein <30 g/l, bone marrow plasma cells <10% and the absence of myeloma related organ or tissue damage (predominantly renal, skeletal or bone marrow impairment.
  • ) MGUS requires no therapy and the overall risk of progression to myeloma is 1% per year.
  • Myeloma remains incurable with a median survival of 3-4 years; autologous stem cell transplant can prolong survival, if appropriate.
  • Thalidomide in combination with dexamethasone has an emerging role in the treatment of myeloma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypercalcemia / therapy. Infection / etiology. Kidney Diseases / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Pain / prevention & control. Prognosis. Referral and Consultation

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  • (PMID = 17403946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] Postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 37
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2600027
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76. Gupta A, Kumar L, Aaron M: A case of plasmacytoma of the breast mimicking an inflammatory carcinoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2008 Jun;8(3):191-2
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  • A 42-year-old woman presented to our institution with asymptomatic swelling of the left breast for the previous 6 months along with pathologic fractures in the right humerus and the left femur for the past 2 months.
  • Radiology revealed multiple lytic lesions throughout the skeletal system.
  • A differential diagnosis of breast carcinoma with multiple bone secondaries, carcinoma of unknown primary origin with breast abscess, or breast secondary or a plasmacytoma with multiple myeloma was made.

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  • (PMID = 18650186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Marx RE, Sawatari Y, Fortin M, Broumand V: Bisphosphonate-induced exposed bone (osteonecrosis/osteopetrosis) of the jaws: risk factors, recognition, prevention, and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2005 Nov;63(11):1567-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sixty-two (52.1%) were treated for multiple myeloma, 50 (42%) for metastatic breast cancer, 4 (3.4%) for metastatic prostate cancer and 3 (2.5%) for osteoporosis.
  • Presenting findings in addition to exposed bone were 37 (31.1%) asymptomatic, 82 (68.9%) with pain, 28 (23.5%) mobile teeth, and 21 (17.6%) with nonhealing fistulas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / complications. Abscess / therapy. Alendronate / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Dental Caries / complications. Dental Caries / therapy. Dexamethasone / adverse effects. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Drug Interactions. Female. Humans. Hyperostosis / complications. Hyperostosis / therapy. Imidazoles / adverse effects. Male. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Osteoporosis / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Risk Factors. Tooth Extraction / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007 Feb;65(2):363-4 [17236956.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2006 Dec;6(4):283-4 [17174254.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006 Jul;64(7):1177 [16781357.001]
  • (PMID = 16243172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate; X1J18R4W8P / Alendronate
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78. Chaudhry V, Cornblath DR, Polydefkis M, Ferguson A, Borrello I: Characteristics of bortezomib- and thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst; 2008 Dec;13(4):275-82
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THALIDOMIDE .

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  • While these two agents have significant activity in multiple myeloma (MM), the combination and the associated PN have not been fully examined in untreated patients.
  • At follow-up, 80% of patients had become asymptomatic after discontinuation of the chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bortezomib. Electrophysiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 19192067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8027
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS458048; NLM/ PMC3741683
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79. Grainger R, Stuckey S, O'Sullivan R, Davis SR, Ebeling PR, Wluka AE: What is the clinical and ethical importance of incidental abnormalities found by knee MRI? Arthritis Res Ther; 2008;10(1):R18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We examined the prevalence of such lesions in healthy asymptomatic adults and those with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing knee MRI with limited sequences for the purpose of research.
  • The MRI findings in 601 asymptomatic subjects and 132 with knee OA who underwent at least one limited knee MRI scan for cartilage volume measurement were examined by an MRI radiologist for the presence of potentially clinically significant abnormalities.
  • A single potentially life-threatening lesion, a myeloma lesion, was identified in a subject with symptomatic knee OA on their second MRI scan in a longitudinal study.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Chondroma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Osteochondroma / diagnosis. Popliteal Cyst / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18252003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-6362
  • [Journal-full-title] Arthritis research & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arthritis Res. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2374445
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80. Spisek R, Kukreja A, Chen LC, Matthews P, Mazumder A, Vesole D, Jagannath S, Zebroski HA, Simpson AJ, Ritter G, Durie B, Crowley J, Shaughnessy JD Jr, Scanlan MJ, Gure AO, Barlogie B, Dhodapkar MV: Frequent and specific immunity to the embryonal stem cell-associated antigen SOX2 in patients with monoclonal gammopathy. J Exp Med; 2007 Apr 16;204(4):831-40
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  • Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) represents a precursor lesion to myeloma (MM).
  • Detection of anti-SOX2 T cells predicts favorable clinical outcome in patients with asymptomatic plasmaproliferative disorders.

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  • (PMID = 17389240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / P50 AT002779; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA55819; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106802; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109465; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106802; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / P50-AT02779; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109465; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA055819; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00102
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / HMGB Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2118551
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81. Kawada K, Minami H, Okabe K, Watanabe T, Inoue K, Sawamura M, Yagi Y, Sasaki T, Takashima S: A multicenter and open label clinical trial of zoledronic acid 4 mg in patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jan;35(1):28-33
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Electrolyte abnormalities suspected to be drug related including grade 3 or 4 hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia were observed in 11 patients; however, all patients were asymptomatic.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Calcium / blood. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15681601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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82. Biasotto M, Chiandussi S, Dore F, Rinaldi A, Rizzardi C, Cavalli F, Di Lenarda R: Clinical aspects and management of bisphosphonates-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Acta Odontol Scand; 2006 Nov;64(6):348-54
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Osteonecrosis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHOD: Our patients included 1 asymptomatic and 11 symptomatic subjects.
  • The asymptomatic patient presented as an occasional finding during a routine dental examination and the necrosis was confirmed on the basis of imaging investigations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Debridement. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperbaric Oxygenation. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Osteitis / chemically induced. Osteitis / microbiology. Osteolysis / chemically induced. Osteolysis / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 17123911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta odontologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Odontol. Scand.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
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83. Allegra A, Alonci A, Russo S, Cannavò A, Penna G, D'Angelo A, Bellomo G, Musolino C: Cardiac involvement in patients with hematologic malignancies. J Investig Med; 2010 Oct;58(7):859-74
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  • Authors have reviewed literature about the management of patients with cardiologic disease occurring secondary to hematologic pathology itself or its therapy, with a focus on infiltration of myocardium in acute and chronic leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and hypereosinophilic syndrome.
  • In fact, cardiac toxicity may range from asymptomatic subclinical abnormalities, such as electrocardiographic changes and left ventricular ejection decline, to life-threatening events and lead to chemotherapy dose reduction and delay and, in some cases, for patients with severe side effects, discontinuation of treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20683345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8267
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Investig. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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84. Ifrah N, Zandecki M: [Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance]. Rev Prat; 2006 Jan 15;56(1):18-24

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance constitute a body of asymptomatic diseases characterized by a selective increase of a single serum immunoglobulin due to an only dysregulated clone of B lymphocytes.
  • The diagnosis is suggested in presence of both M component in serum <30 g/L and bone marrow plasma cells <10% by the exclusion of multiple myeloma or lymphoproliferative disorders.

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  • (PMID = 16548245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin M
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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85. Mawardi H, Treister N, Richardson P, Anderson K, Munshi N, Faiella RA, Woo SB: Sinus tracts--an early sign of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws? J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Mar;67(3):593-601
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  • Patients had multiple myeloma (2), multiple myeloma and prostate cancer (1), monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (1) and osteoporosis (1).
  • We propose modifying the definition of BONJ to include a category of "suspected BONJ" Stage 0(sa) where patients have persistent sinus tracts or localized deep periodontal pockets and typical radiographic findings for BONJ but are asymptomatic, and Stage 0(ss) for those who are symptomatic.

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  • (PMID = 19231786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
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86. Veloso MG, Porto AS, Moraes M: [Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection: autopsy case report]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop; 2008 Jul-Aug;41(4):413-5

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  • Asymptomatic infection due to Strongyloides stercoralis may result in potentially fatal disease in immunodepressed patients.
  • A case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection discovered at autopsy in a 55-year-old man who had been undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma is reported, emphasizing the clinical and pathological findings.

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  • (PMID = 18853018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-9849
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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87. Morabito A, Piccirillo MC, Costanzo R, Sandomenico C, Carillio G, Daniele G, Giordano P, Bryce J, Carotenuto P, La Rocca A, Di Maio M, Normanno N, Rocco G, Perrone F: Vandetanib: An overview of its clinical development in NSCLC and other tumors. Drugs Today (Barc); 2010 Sep;46(9):683-98
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  • Rash, diarrhea, hypertension and asymptomatic Q-Tc prolongation were the most common adverse events.
  • No significant antitumor activity has been observed in small cell lung cancer, advanced ovarian, colorectal, breast, prostate cancer and multiple myeloma.


88. Kurzen C, Kunz I, Nigg C: [Blue discoloration of hands, numbness of feet, indolent cervical lymph node swelling in a 73-year-old man]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2006 Oct 11;95(41):1589-93
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  • So all the criterias for a POEMS syndrome (special form of multiple myeloma) were met with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein and skin changes.
  • The patient responded well to systemic glucocorticoid treatment and today he is asymptomatic.

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  • (PMID = 17080761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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89. Grosbois B, Decaux O, Guenet L, Goasguen J, Jego P: [Nosology and management of monoclonal gammapathy]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2009 May;193(5):1069-85; discussion 1085-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the most common disorder, is asymptomatic and associated with normal hemoglobin, calcium and creatinine levels and a monoclonal component of less than 15 g/l.
  • Multiple myeloma tends to be associated with IgG or IgA MG, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia with IgM MG Patients with MGUS do not need treatment but only yearly follow-up (symptoms, protein electrophoresis, hemoglobin, calcium and creatinine assay), as the estimated annual risk of malignant transformation is about 1 %.

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  • (PMID = 20120388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-4079
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de l'Académie nationale de médecine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull. Acad. Natl. Med.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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90. Roberts CC, Daffner RH, Weissman BN, Bancroft L, Bennett DL, Blebea JS, Bruno MA, Fries IB, Germano IM, Holly L, Jacobson JA, Luchs JS, Morrison WB, Olson JJ, Payne WK, Resnik CS, Schweitzer ME, Seeger LL, Taljanovic M, Wise JN, Lutz ST: ACR appropriateness criteria on metastatic bone disease. J Am Coll Radiol; 2010 Jun;7(6):400-9
eScholarship, California Digital Library, University of California. Full text from University of California eScholarship .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical scenarios reviewed include asymptomatic stage 1 breast carcinoma, symptomatic stage 2 breast carcinoma, abnormal bone scan results with breast carcinoma, pathologic fracture with known metastatic breast carcinoma, asymptomatic well-differentiated and poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma, vertebral fracture with history of malignancy, non-small-cell lung carcinoma staging, symptomatic multiple myeloma, osteosarcoma staging and surveillance, and suspected bone metastasis in a pregnant patient.


91. Manganaris A, Conn B, Connor S, Simo R: Uncommon presentation of nasopharyngeal extramedullary plasmacytoma: a case report and literature review. B-ENT; 2010;6(2):143-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report an exceptional presentation of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasopharynx without bone marrow involvement or other characteristics of multiple myeloma.
  • The patient was completely asymptomatic and following a paroxysm of coughing, expectorated a polypoidal nodule, which on histopathological investigation had features suggestive of extramedullary plasmacytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although these tumours commonly present with significant nasal symptoms, this exceptional presentation in an asymptomatic patient has never been previously reported.

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  • (PMID = 20681370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1781-782X
  • [Journal-full-title] B-ENT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] B-ENT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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92. Major P: Optimal management of metastatic bone disease. Eur J Oncol Nurs; 2007;11 Suppl 2:S32-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates effectively reduce the risk of SREs in patients with bone metastases from a variety of solid tumors and bone lesions from multiple myeloma.
  • Analysis of recent trials indicates that early zoledronic acid intervention provides greater benefit in asymptomatic patients.

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  • (PMID = 17804294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-3889
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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93. Zanglis A, Andreopoulos D, Dima M, Baltas G, Baziotis N: Jaw uptake of technetium-99 methylene diphosphonate in patients on biphosphonates: a word of caution. Hell J Nucl Med; 2007 Sep-Dec;10(3):177-80
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Nitrogen, Elemental .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Nitrogen-containing biphosphonates are a group of medications that are increasingly used in the management of Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, osteoporosis, multiple myeloma and metastatic prostate or breast cancer bone disease.
  • Jaw osteonecrosis may be asymptomatic, lasting for about a year or symptomatic, accompanied with mild or severe pain.
  • In conclusion, a 3-phase (99m)Tc-MDP scan with anterior and lateral views of the skull is indicated in all symptomatic or asymptomatic patients, with a history of long-term nitrogen-containing biphosphonate treatment, since this may lead to an early detection of the disease.

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  • (PMID = 18084661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; N762921K75 / Nitrogen; X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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94. Wu AS, Fourney DR: Supportive care aspects of vertebroplasty in patients with cancer. Support Cancer Ther; 2005 Jan 1;2(2):98-104

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although most frequently performed for osteoporotic compression fractures, vertebroplasty has also been very effective in the palliation of back pain secondary to osteolytic metastases and myeloma bone disease.
  • The decision to perform vertebroplasty is made after multiple factors are considered, including clinical presentation, medical fitness, functional capacity, tumor type, location and extent of disease, anticipated radiation sensitivity, and quality of life.
  • Cement extravasation beyond the vertebral body is the most frequent complication; however, it is asymptomatic in the vast majority of patients.

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  • (PMID = 18628195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2912
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive cancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Antunes MI, Bujor L, Grillo IM: Anal canal plasmacytoma-An uncommon presentation site. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother; 2010;16(1):36-9

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  • After 24 months, the patient is asymptomatic and the lesion has completely disappeared.
  • Patients should be followed-up for life with repeated bone marrow aspiration and protein studies to detect the development of multiple myeloma.

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  • (PMID = 24376953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1507-1367
  • [Journal-full-title] Reports of practical oncology and radiotherapy : journal of Greatpoland Cancer Center in Poznań and Polish Society of Radiation Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rep Pract Oncol Radiother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3863234
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Extramedullary plasmacytoma / Radiotherapy
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96. Hartley MA, Sokol L, Caceres G, Hussein MA, List A, Pinilla-Ibarz J: Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance disguised as chronic neutrophilic leukemia. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis; 2010;2(1):e2010002

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  • Because she was otherwise asymptomatic but continued showing elevated neutrophil levels, she sought a second opinion at our facility.
  • Comprehensive work-up for multiple myeloma and infectious etiology of neutrophilia was negative.

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  • (PMID = 21415944.001).
  • [ISSN] 2035-3006
  • [Journal-full-title] Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3033111
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97. Ryska P, Rehák S, Odráka K, Maisnar V, Raupach J, Málek V, Renc O, Kaltofen K: [Role of percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty in the treatment of oncology disorders of the spine]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2006;145(10):804-9; discussion 809-10
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  • Authors discuss the role of these invasive procedures in the treating algorithm of patients with spinal metasthases and multiple myeloma.
  • Totally, 3 asymptomatic complications were proved.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Spine Injuries and Disorders.
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  • (PMID = 17121074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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98. Knavel EM, Thielen KR, Kallmes DF: Vertebroplasty for the treatment of traumatic nonosteoporotic compression fractures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2009 Feb;30(2):323-7
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 819 patients (982 procedures) who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty, to identify patients who had normal bone mineral densitometry scores or had no previous diagnosis of osteoporosis, multiple myeloma, or history of long-term steroid use.
  • The complication rate was low and characterized by asymptomatic extravasation of cement.

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  • (PMID = 19039045.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Chang A, Peutz-Kootstra CJ, Richardson CA, Alpers CE: Expanding the pathologic spectrum of light chain deposition disease: a rare variant with clinical follow-up of 7 years. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jul;18(7):998-1004
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Subsequent tests revealed multiple myeloma confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and identification of a monoclonal kappa light chain immunoglobulin by serum and urine immunoelectrophoresis and immunofixation.
  • The patient responded well to therapy and was asymptomatic until nearly 7 years later.

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  • (PMID = 15696120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine
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100. Hugentobler M, Richter M: [A proposed algorithm for medicodental care of patients treated with bisphosphonates]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2006 Dec;107(6):441-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Injectable BP are used in patients with multiple myeloma and metastatic solid tumors.
  • Patients are usually asymptomatic but may develop pain if the bone becomes secondarily infected.

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  • (PMID = 17194996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1768
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
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