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6. Nakayama J, Suzuki M, Suzuki M, Fukuda M: Expression profiling of glycosyltransferases and related enzymes using in situ hybridization. Methods Enzymol; 2006;416:120-9
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  • Polysialic acid (PSA) is a unique glycan composed of a linear homopolymer of alpha2,8-linked sialic acid residues and formed by two distinct polysialyltransferases, ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV.
  • This chapter describes the use of ISH to detect ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV mRNAs expressed in human astrocytomas using digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Gene Expression Profiling. Glycosyltransferases / biosynthesis. Glycosyltransferases / genetics. Sialyltransferases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17113863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0076-6879
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in enzymology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Meth. Enzymol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.4.- / Glycosyltransferases; EC 2.4.99.- / CMP-N-acetylneuraminate-poly-alpha-2,8-sialosyl sialyltransferase; EC 2.4.99.- / Sialyltransferases; EC 3.4.99.- / ST8SIA4 protein, human; NQ1SX9LNAU / Digoxigenin
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7. Jing R, Pizzolato G, Robson RM, Gabbiani G, Skalli O: Intermediate filament protein synemin is present in human reactive and malignant astrocytes and associates with ruffled membranes in astrocytoma cells. Glia; 2005 Apr 15;50(2):107-20
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  • [Title] Intermediate filament protein synemin is present in human reactive and malignant astrocytes and associates with ruffled membranes in astrocytoma cells.
  • Western blotting shows that astrocytic tumors contain greater amounts of alpha-synemin than do normal brain tissues.
  • Taken together with synemin localization within ruffled membranes, this finding suggests that synemin plays a role in motility of glioblastoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Muscle Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actinin / metabolism. Antibodies, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Antibodies, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Blotting, Western. Brain Chemistry. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Movement. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunoprecipitation. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15657940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1491
  • [Journal-full-title] Glia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-35317
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / desmuslin; 11003-00-2 / Actinin
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8. Pathak S, Chatterjee PK, Das S, Majumder N, Ghosh RK: Solitary retinal astrocytoma. J Indian Med Assoc; 2008 Dec;106(12):809
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  • [Title] Solitary retinal astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19370956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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9. D'Angelo A, Capucchio MT, Ferroglio E, Jaggy A: Astrocytoma in a chamois. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd; 2005 Oct;147(10):453-5
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  • [Title] Astrocytoma in a chamois.
  • Astrocytomas represent the most common cerebral tumors in humans and in animals, and the fibrillary cytological subtype is the most frequently observed.
  • In this report and for the first time, a thalamic astrocytoma is described in a chamois showing depressed mentation, pleurothotonus and circling to the right side.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / veterinary. Brain Neoplasms / veterinary. Goat Diseases / diagnosis. Rupicapra

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  • (PMID = 16259411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-7281
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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10. Dasgupta B, Gutmann DH: Neurofibromin regulates neural stem cell proliferation, survival, and astroglial differentiation in vitro and in vivo. J Neurosci; 2005 Jun 8;25(23):5584-94
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  • Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common inherited disease in which affected children exhibit abnormalities in astrocyte growth regulation and are prone to the development of brain tumors (astrocytoma).
  • Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that Nf1 mutant mouse astrocytomas contains populations of proliferating nestin+ progenitor cells, suggesting that immature astroglial progenitors may serve as a reservoir of proliferating tumor cells.
  • Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that alterations in neurofibromin expression in the developing brain have significant consequences for astrocyte growth and differentiation relevant to normal brain development and astrocytoma formation in children.


11. Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma occurring 6 years after subtotal resection of a central neurocytoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jul;107(1):185-9
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma occurring 6 years after subtotal resection of a central neurocytoma. Case report.
  • The authors present the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with an anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma that developed 6 years after subtotal resection of a central neurocytoma in his right lateral ventricle.
  • Histological examination revealed anaplastic oligodendroglioma in the parietal lobe and anaplastic astrocytoma in the insula.
  • One year later, the anaplastic astrocytoma was found to have transformed into a glioblastoma multiforme.
  • These findings suggest that central neurocytoma or progenitor cells have the potential for oligodendrocytic and astrocytic transformation with different genetic aberrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neurocytoma / surgery. Oligodendroglioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Time Factors


12. Liu WC, Feldman SC, Schulder M, Kalnin AJ, Holodny AI, Zimmerman A, Sinensky R, Rao S: The effect of tumour type and distance on activation in the motor cortex. Neuroradiology; 2005 Nov;47(11):813-9
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  • The intra-axial groups consisted of patients with astrocytomas, glioblastomas and metastatic tumours of mixed histology; all the extra-axial tumours were meningiomas.

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  • (PMID = 16142482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Kim YH, Nobusawa S, Mittelbronn M, Paulus W, Brokinkel B, Keyvani K, Sure U, Wrede K, Nakazato Y, Tanaka Y, Vital A, Mariani L, Stawski R, Watanabe T, De Girolami U, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H: Molecular classification of low-grade diffuse gliomas. Am J Pathol; 2010 Dec;177(6):2708-14
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  • [Title] Molecular classification of low-grade diffuse gliomas.
  • The current World Health Organization classification recognizes three histological types of grade II low-grade diffuse glioma (diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma).
  • The aim of our study was to establish genetic profiles for diffuse gliomas and to estimate their predictive impact.
  • In this study, we screened 360 World Health Organization grade II gliomas for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2, and TP53 genes and for 1p/19q loss and correlated these with clinical outcome.
  • The molecular classification on the basis of IDH1/2 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p/19q loss has power similar to histological classification and avoids the ambiguity inherent to the diagnosis of oligoastrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. Glioma / classification. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 21075857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993282
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1
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4. García-Escudero R, Martínez-Cruz AB, Santos M, Lorz C, Segrelles C, Garaulet G, Saiz-Ladera C, Costa C, Buitrago-Pérez A, Dueñas M, Paramio JM: Gene expression profiling of mouse p53-deficient epidermal carcinoma defines molecular determinants of human cancer malignancy. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:193
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  • We have obtained a 20-gene signature whose genes are overexpressed in mouse tumors and can identify human tumors with poor outcome from breast cancer, astrocytoma and multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


15. Rueckriegel SM, Blankenburg F, Henze G, Baqué H, Driever PH: Loss of fine motor function correlates with ataxia and decline of cognition in cerebellar tumor survivors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Sep;53(3):424-31
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  • [Title] Loss of fine motor function correlates with ataxia and decline of cognition in cerebellar tumor survivors.
  • BACKGROUND: Motor and cognitive function losses resemble handicaps in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors.
  • PROCEDURE: Fine motor function, extent of ataxia and cognitive function were assessed in 25 medulloblastoma (MB) and 16 cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) patients at least 1 year after completion of therapy.
  • Degree of ataxia was quantified using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale and cognition was determined using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale.
  • CONCLUSION: The digitizing tablet detected extent of fine motor function loss at varying levels of complexity of pediatric cerebellar tumor survivors.
  • This tool promises to be a potentially effective method for measuring fine motor function in clinical trials and may be helpful in studying mechanisms of neurotoxicity in posterior fossa tumor patients as well as success of rehabilitation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / psychology. Ataxia / psychology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / psychology. Cognition. Medulloblastoma / psychology. Motor Activity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19484752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Drummond SR, Kemp EG: Retinal astrocytoma managed by brachytherapy. Ophthalmology; 2009 Mar;116(3):597-597.e1
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  • [Title] Retinal astrocytoma managed by brachytherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Retinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ruthenium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19264224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ruthenium Radioisotopes
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17. Paulino AC, Mai WY, Chintagumpala M, Taher A, Teh BS: Radiation-induced malignant gliomas: is there a role for reirradiation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Aug 1;71(5):1381-7
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  • [Title] Radiation-induced malignant gliomas: is there a role for reirradiation?
  • PURPOSE: To review the literature regarding the role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of patients with radiation-induced malignant gliomas (RIMGs).
  • RESULTS: Initial tumor types treated with RT included brain tumor in 37 patients (40%), acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 33 (36%), benign disease in 11 (12%), and other in 11 (12%).
  • Type of RIMG was glioblastoma in 69 (75%) and anaplastic astrocytoma in 23 (25%).
  • One-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 29.3%, 7.3%, and 0% for patients with glioblastoma and 59.7%, 30.3%, and 20.2% for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The RIMG appeared earlier in patients treated for leukemia and lymphoma and latest for those treated for a benign condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / radiotherapy. Retreatment. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Sep 1;72(1):304-5; author reply 305 [18722290.001]
  • (PMID = 18262733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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18. Söling A, Sackewitz M, Volkmar M, Schaarschmidt D, Jacob R, Holzhausen HJ, Rainov NG: Minichromosome maintenance protein 3 elicits a cancer-restricted immune response in patients with brain malignancies and is a strong independent predictor of survival in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;11(1):249-58
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  • [Title] Minichromosome maintenance protein 3 elicits a cancer-restricted immune response in patients with brain malignancies and is a strong independent predictor of survival in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • PURPOSE: The identification of new molecular markers in astrocytic tumors may help to understand the biology of these tumors in more detail.
  • Informative tumor markers may represent prognostic factors for response to therapy and outcome as well as potential targets for novel anticancer therapies.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor-associated antigens were identified by immunoscreening of a human glioma cDNA expression library with allogeneic sera from patients with diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grades 2-4).
  • The expression of one of the identified antigens, the replication licensing factor minichromosome maintenance protein 3 (MCM3), was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 142 primary and 27 recurrent astrocytomas (WHO grades 2-4).
  • RESULTS: MCM3 is overexpressed in human astrocytic tumors and elicits a cancer-restricted humoral immune response in 9.3% (9 of 97) of patients with brain tumors (n = 95) and brain metastases (n = 2) but not in healthy controls.
  • Expression of MCM3 in diffuse astrocytoma is significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), histologic grade (P < 0.001), time to recurrence (P = 0.01), and expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P < 0.001) but not with sex (P = 0.800).
  • Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed MCM3 expression as an independent predictor of poor outcome in astrocytoma patients (P < 0.001 for both).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCM3 may represent a glioma-associated antigen with significant prognostic role as well as have some potential as a target for cancer-directed therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / physiology. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytes / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins. DNA, Complementary / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Escherichia coli / metabolism. Female. Gene Library. Glioma / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15671553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MCM3 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3
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19. Parafiniuk D, Jezewski D, Nowacki P: [Malignant astrocytoma as a recurrance of astrocytoma II WHO after 13 years. Case report and literature review]. Ann Acad Med Stetin; 2010;56(2):45-50
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  • [Title] [Malignant astrocytoma as a recurrance of astrocytoma II WHO after 13 years. Case report and literature review].
  • Astrocytomas--neroepithelial originated tumors that belong to the big, differential group of tumors, which derive from astrocytic glial.
  • They include slow growing tumors such as fibillary astrocytoma or very malignant glioblastoma multiforme.
  • The case which is being presented is of a forty nine year old woman operated in July 1997 because of a protoplasmic astrocytoma II WHO in the left frontal lobe.
  • Due to this adverse event MRI was ordered and suspicion of tumor recurrence was put forward.
  • Histopathology identified anaplastic astrocytoma III WHO.
  • According to literature, the factors regarding remission time, tumor malignancy and therapeutic aim were analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma. Female. Frontal Lobe. Humans. Reoperation. Seizures / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21473001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1427-440X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Acad Med Stetin
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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20. Blauwblomme T, Varlet P, Goodden JR, Cuny ML, Piana H, Roujeau T, Dirocco F, Grill J, Kieffer V, Boddaert N, Sainte-Rose C, Puget S: Forniceal glioma in children. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Sep;4(3):249-53
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  • [Title] Forniceal glioma in children. Clinical article.
  • METHODS: From a retrospective analysis of 250 cases of supratentorial pediatric glioma, the records of 8 children presenting with forniceal lesions were selected and reviewed.
  • On histological review, the tumors were confirmed as pilocytic astrocytoma (4 lesions), WHO Grade II astrocytoma (3), and ganglioglioma (1).
  • Additional treatment was required for 5 patients for tumor progression, with a median interval of 19 months from surgery.
  • At a median follow-up duration of 4.9 years, all patients had stable disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this series, forniceal gliomas were found to be low-grade gliomas.
  • Due to the high rate of progression of residual disease, adjuvant therapy is recommended for infiltrative tumors, and it yielded excellent results.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Fornix, Brain. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19772409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Tang P, Roldan G, Brasher PM, Fulton D, Roa W, Murtha A, Cairncross JG, Forsyth PA: A phase II study of carboplatin and chronic high-dose tamoxifen in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jul;78(3):311-6
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  • [Title] A phase II study of carboplatin and chronic high-dose tamoxifen in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the response rate, time to disease progression, survival, and toxicity of intravenous carboplatin and chronic oral high-dose tamoxifen in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with histological confirmation of recurrent malignant gliomas were eligible for this multicenter phase II trial.
  • The histological subtypes were: 16 (59%) glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), malignant astrocytoma (5 patients), malignant mixed glioma (5 patients), and glioblastoma/gliosarcoma (1 patient).
  • No complete responses were observed, 4 patients (15%) achieved a partial response, and 14 patients (52%) had stable disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carboplatin and high dose tamoxifen has similar response rates to other regimens for recurrent malignant gliomas and are probably equivalent to those found using tamoxifen as monotherapy.
  • Long-lasting periods of disease free survival in some patients (particularly those with malignant mixed oligo astrocytomas) were found.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anorexia / chemically induced. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Headache / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16710748.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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22. Ohta T, Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Yoshino A, Yachi K, Ogino A, Komine C, Fukushima T: Aberrant promoter hypermethylation profile of cell cycle regulatory genes in malignant astrocytomas. Oncol Rep; 2006 Nov;16(5):957-63
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  • [Title] Aberrant promoter hypermethylation profile of cell cycle regulatory genes in malignant astrocytomas.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of promoter methylation of genes with a proven involvement in the cell cycle regulation of malignant astrocytomas.
  • We profiled the CpG island methylation status of the RB1, p14ARF, p15INK4b, p16INK4a, p21Waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1, and p73 genes by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay in a homogeneous cohort of patients with malignant astrocytomas, and assessed their relationships with clinical behavior.
  • Promoter hypermethylation of the RB1, p14ARF, p15INK4b, p16INK4a, p21Waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1, and p73 genes was detected in 3 (6%), 7 (13%), 4 (7%), 2 (4%), 1 (2%), 3 (6%), and 12 samples (22%) among 54 newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas, respectively.
  • The presence of methylation of these genes or a group of genes was not associated with any distinct clinicopathological characteristics including tumor grade, proliferation activity, responsiveness to adjuvant therapy, or patient survival. p73 protein accumulation was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining in 6 (15%) of the 40 samples examined, with no significant association with the methylation status of p73 and any of the clinicopathological parameters tested.
  • Our results demonstrated that a significant fraction of malignant astrocytomas displayed at least one methylated locus of the key cell cycle-related genes, although the genes were rarely hypermethylated, independent of the clinicopathological parameters.
  • Thus, this epigenetic change is unlikely to play an important role in the evolution and development of malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA Methylation. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Prospective Studies. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17016577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tumor suppressor protein p73
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23. Sreekanthreddy P, Srinivasan H, Kumar DM, Nijaguna MB, Sridevi S, Vrinda M, Arivazhagan A, Balasubramaniam A, Hegde AS, Chandramouli BA, Santosh V, Rao MR, Kondaiah P, Somasundaram K: Identification of potential serum biomarkers of glioblastoma: serum osteopontin levels correlate with poor prognosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2010 Jun;19(6):1409-22
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify serum biomarkers with classification and prognosis utility for astrocytoma, in particular glioblastoma (GBM).
  • METHODS: Our previous glioma microarray database was mined to identify genes that encode secreted or membrane-localized proteins.
  • Subsequent analysis was done using significant analysis of microarrays, followed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical validation in tumor tissues, ELISA and Western blot validation in sera, and correlation with survival of GBM patients.
  • With respect to osteopontin (OPN), we show the GBM-specific upregulation by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissues.
  • IMPACT: Identified serum biomarkers may have potential utility in astrocytoma classification and GBM prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brain Neoplasms / blood. Glioblastoma / blood. Osteopontin / blood

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20530493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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24. Jiang Z, Zhou W, Li XG, Jiang YQ, Wang L, Wang DH, Wang XY, Li XE: [The methylation analysis of EMP3 and PCDH-gamma-A11 gene in human glioma]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Feb 15;48(4):300-4
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  • [Title] [The methylation analysis of EMP3 and PCDH-gamma-A11 gene in human glioma].
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between promoter methylation and mRNA expressions of EMP3 and PCDH-gamma-A11 genes in human glioma, and to analyze the regulation mechanism of promoter methylation in the progression of glioma.
  • METHODS: The promoter methylation of EMP3 and PCDH-gamma-A11 was studied by a methylation specific PCR in 88 primary astrocytoma, 10 normal brain tissues and 2 glioma cell lines.
  • The mRNA expressions were detected by real-time PCR in 30 primary glioma and 10 normal brain tissues.
  • Their mRNA expressions were all significantly decreased in different pathological grade astrocytomas compared to the normal brain tissues (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The promoter methylation of EMP3 and PCDH-gamma-A11 genes may lead to the down-regulation of their mRNA levels in glioma.
  • The promoter methylation and mRNA expressions of EMP3 and PCDH-gamma-A11 are closely related with the malignant development of glioma.
  • The promoter methylation of the two genes may provide clues to evaluation of glioma malignancy as well as its prognosis.
  • It also gives us an insight for future glioma medical therapy with a demethylating agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. DNA Methylation. Glioma / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20388442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / EMP3 protein, human; 0 / Gamma-protocadherins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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25. Di Maio S, Gul SM, Cochrane DD, Hendson G, Sargent MA, Steinbok P: Clinical, radiologic and pathologic features and outcome following surgery for cervicomedullary gliomas in children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Nov;25(11):1401-10
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  • [Title] Clinical, radiologic and pathologic features and outcome following surgery for cervicomedullary gliomas in children.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of MRI findings, histopathology, extent, and morbidity of resection in cervicomedullary gliomas undergoing resection during 1985-2008.
  • RESULTS: Of 78 brainstem tumors, nine cervicomedullary tumors undergoing resection were identified: two pilocytic astrocytomas, two gangliogliomas, and five grade II astrocytomas.
  • Additionally, bulbar worsening occurred in five of five patients with a poorly defined tumor/brainstem interface and abnormal low T1 signal extending beyond obvious tumor into the brainstem versus one of four with a well-defined tumor margin (P = 0.008).
  • Following chemo- or radiotherapy, the definition of the brainstem/tumor interface improved.
  • CONCLUSION: A less aggressive initial surgical approach, supplemented by postoperative chemotherapy, designed to preserve brainstem function, is proposed for patients with interposed non-enhancing tissue continuous with normal cervical cord or medulla and/or a poorly defined ventral tumor/brainstem interface with abnormal low T1 signal extending beyond obvious tumor into the brainstem.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19636567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Mittelbronn M, Simon P, Löffler C, Capper D, Bunz B, Harter P, Schlaszus H, Schleich A, Tabatabai G, Goeppert B, Meyermann R, Weller M, Wischhusen J: Elevated HLA-E levels in human glioblastomas but not in grade I to III astrocytomas correlate with infiltrating CD8+ cells. J Neuroimmunol; 2007 Sep;189(1-2):50-8
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  • [Title] Elevated HLA-E levels in human glioblastomas but not in grade I to III astrocytomas correlate with infiltrating CD8+ cells.
  • To investigate HLA-E expression and immune cell infiltration in human astrocytic tumors in vivo, we analyzed normal CNS controls and astrocytomas of all WHO grades by immunohistochemistry.
  • Both, CD8(+) immune cell infiltration and HLA-E expression were significantly higher in astrocytic tumors than in normal brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. HLA Antigens / metabolism. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17675252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HLA-E antigen; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
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27. Richard HT, Harrison JF, Abel TW, Maertens P, Martino AM, Sosnowski JS: Pediatric gliomatosis cerebri mimicking acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Pediatrics; 2010 Aug;126(2):e479-82
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  • Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a diffuse infiltrating glial neoplasm of astrocytic origin.


28. Rafique MZ, Ahmad MN, Yaqoob N, Ahsan H: Diffuse bilateral thalamic astrocytoma. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 Mar;17(3):170-2
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  • [Title] Diffuse bilateral thalamic astrocytoma.
  • Diffuse astrocytoma with bilateral thalamic involvement is extremely rare.
  • MRI scans were performed twice and were reported as Leigh's disease and hemimegalencephaly respectively.
  • Biopsy showed grade III Astrocytoma with bilateral thalamic involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Thalamic Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17374306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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29. Grajkowska W, Kotulska K, Jurkiewicz E, Matyja E: Brain lesions in tuberous sclerosis complex. Review. Folia Neuropathol; 2010;48(3):139-49
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  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disease characterized by the development of multiple hamartomas and benign or rarely malignant neoplasms distributed at various sites throughout the body, especially in the brain, skin, retina, kidney, heart, and lungs.
  • Brain lesions in TSC include: cortical/subcortical glioneuronal tubers, subependymal glial nodules (SENs), and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs).
  • SENs are typically covered by a layer of ependyma and can grow over time and develop into subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • SEGAs consist of a mixed cell population of large ganglioid-like cells, spindle and giant cells with nuclear pleomorphism.
  • Oral rapamycin therapy may induce regression of astrocytomas associated with TSC.


30. Horger M, Fenchel M, Nägele T, Moehle R, Claussen CD, Beschorner R, Ernemann U: Water diffusivity: comparison of primary CNS lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Nov;193(5):1384-7
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  • [Title] Water diffusivity: comparison of primary CNS lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum can be reliably differentiated with measurement of water diffusivity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR images of 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme, five patients with low-grade astrocytoma, five patients with gliomatosis cerebri, and nine patients with primary lymphoma infiltrating the corpus callosum were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Regions of interest were drawn on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps inside the callosal tumor.
  • ADCs were normalized by calculation of the ratio between the ADC of the tumor and the ADC of an uninvolved region of corpus callosum.
  • RESULTS: The mean ADC of glioblastoma multiforme was 1.13 +/- 0.31 (SD) x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, and the mean tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio was 1.51 +/- 0.46; of low-grade astrocytoma, 1.14 +/- 0.23 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.54 +/- 0.28; gliomatosis cerebri, 1.01 +/- 0.20 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.31 +/- 0.36; and lymphoma, 0.71 +/- 0.13 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 0.93 +/- 0.19.
  • The difference between the mean tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio of lymphoma and that of all grades of astrocytoma (1.48 +/- 0.43) was statistically significant (p < 0.001).
  • The optimal ADC threshold for discriminating astrocytic tumor and lymphoma was 0.90 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s (sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 89%).
  • The optimal threshold for tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio was 1.22 (sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 100%).
  • CONCLUSION: The water diffusivity and the ADC ratio of the tumor to normal-appearing corpus callosum of astrocytic tumor differ significantly from those of lymphoma infiltrating the corpus callosum, allowing reliable differentiation of the two types of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Corpus Callosum / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Glioblastoma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Water / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19843757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 059QF0KO0R / Water
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31. Slatter T, Gifford-Garner J, Wiles A, Tan X, Chen YJ, MacFarlane M, Sullivan M, Royds J, Hung N: Pilocytic astrocytomas have telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies without alternatively lengthened telomeres. Am J Pathol; 2010 Dec;177(6):2694-700
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytomas have telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies without alternatively lengthened telomeres.
  • We measured APBs, telomere length, and telomerase activity in 64 astrocytomas inclusive of grade 1-4 tumors.
  • This is the first report of a TPB-positive but ALT-negative tumor, and suggests that low-grade tumors have the foundation for recombinational telomere repair, as in ALT.

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  • (PMID = 21037079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993310
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32. Lai JP, Douglas SD, Wang YJ, Ho WZ: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantitation of substance P receptor (NK-1R) mRNA. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol; 2005 Apr;12(4):537-41
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  • We applied a newly developed real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay to quantify NK-1R mRNA in human neuronal cell line (NT-2N), a human B-cell line (IM9), monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and human astroglioma cells (U87 MG).
  • These data indicate that the NK-1R real-time RT-PCR has potential for a wide application in investigation of NK-1R expression at the mRNA level under physiological and pathological conditions in both the central nervous system and the immune system.

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  • (PMID = 15817763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-412X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / R01 MH049981; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / NIH-DA112815; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / NIH-MH 49981
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Neurokinin-1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1074379
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33. Magrassi L, Conti L, Lanterna A, Zuccato C, Marchionni M, Cassini P, Arienta C, Cattaneo E: Shc3 affects human high-grade astrocytomas survival. Oncogene; 2005 Aug 4;24(33):5198-206
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  • [Title] Shc3 affects human high-grade astrocytomas survival.
  • We now show that in human astrocytomas and glioblastomas, the normal pattern of expression of Shc1/Shc3 is totally subverted, both proteins being present at the same time and in the same cells.
  • Our data indicate that Shc3 is maximally expressed, together with Shc1, in glioblastoma, a highly proliferative tumor with little, if any, indication of neuronal differentiation.
  • In primary cultures of glioblastoma, tumor cells maintain Shc1 expression but downregulate Shc3.
  • Analysis of the phosphorylation status of Shc3 in human glioblastoma tumor samples in vivo indicates that it is tyrosine phosphorylated.
  • Finally, we found that the expression of truncated variants of Shc3 with dominant-negative effects in human high-grade glioma cells that maintain Shc3 expression in vitro leads to a decreased Akt posphorylation and increased apoptosis, thus resulting in impaired survival of the transfected cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neuropeptides / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / biosynthesis. Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / physiology. Adult. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Phosphorylation. Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15870690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / SHC3 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins
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34. Kolb EA, Gorlick R, Houghton PJ, Morton CL, Neale G, Keir ST, Carol H, Lock R, Phelps D, Kang MH, Reynolds CP, Maris JM, Billups C, Smith MA: Initial testing (stage 1) of AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Oct;55(4):668-77
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  • Subsequently, AZD6244 was evaluated against two juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) xenografts using once and twice daily dosing schedules.
  • Against the in vivo tumor panels, AZD6244 induced significant differences in EFS distribution in 10 of 37 (27%) solid tumor models and 0 of 6 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) models.
  • CONCLUSIONS: At the dose and schedule of administration used, AZD6244 as a single agent had limited in vitro and in vivo activity against the PPTP tumor panels despite inhibition of MEK1/2 activity.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20806365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01 CM042216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01-CM-42216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CM42216
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AZD 6244; 0 / Benzimidazoles; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218595; NLM/ PMC3004092
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35. Lo HW: Targeting Ras-RAF-ERK and its interactive pathways as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2010 Dec;10(8):840-8
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  • [Title] Targeting Ras-RAF-ERK and its interactive pathways as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.
  • Malignant gliomas are the most common and the deadliest brain malignancies in adults.
  • Despite the lack of a complete understanding of the biology of these tumors, significant advances have been made in the past decades.
  • One of the key discoveries made in the area of malignant gliomas is that these tumors can be induced and maintained by aberrant signaling networks.
  • Although somatic oncogenic mutations of Ras genes are frequent in several cancer types, early investigations on gliomas revealed disappointing facts that the Ras mutations are nearly absent in malignant gliomas and that the BRAF mutations are present in a very small percentage of gliomas.
  • Therefore, the observed deregulation of the Ras-RAF-ERK signaling pathway in gliomas is attributed to its upstream positive regulators, including, EGFR and PDGFR known to be highly active in the majority of malignant gliomas.
  • In contrast to the initial negative results on the somatic mutations of H-Ras, K-Ras and BRAF, recent breakthrough studies on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas uncovered genetic alterations of the BRAF gene involving copy number gains and rearrangements.
  • In light of the earlier findings and recent breakthroughs, this review summarizes our current understanding of the Ras-RAF-ERK signaling pathway in gliomas and the outcome of preclinical and clinical studies that evaluated the efficacy of Ras-targeted therapy in malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / metabolism. raf Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. ras Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 20718706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA118423; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5K01-CA118423; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA118423-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 2P50-NS020023-26
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.11.1 / raf Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS357377; NLM/ PMC3615246
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36. Grommes C, Conway DS, Alshekhlee A, Barnholtz-Sloan JS: Inverse association of PPARγ agonists use and high grade glioma development. J Neurooncol; 2010 Nov;100(2):233-9
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  • [Title] Inverse association of PPARγ agonists use and high grade glioma development.
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists have antineoplastic effects on gliomas in cell lines and animal models.
  • In a retrospective chart review, we assessed the influence of PPARγ agonists on the odds of having a high grade glioma.
  • We reviewed patients with a diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) between 1999 and 2008.
  • Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of diabetic hip fracture patients using a PPARγ agonist at time of diagnosis as compared to diabetic glioma patients.
  • We identified 1602 hip fracture patients and 302 high grade glioma patients, 15 and 16% were diabetics, respectively.
  • PPARγ agonists were used by 20% of diabetic hip fracture patients and by 6% of high grade glioma patients (chi-square P-value = 0.02) with an odds ratio of 4.081 (95% CI: 1.119-14.881).
  • The prevalence of PPARγ agonist use was lower in the diabetic high grade glioma group when compared to diabetic hip fracture patients.
  • These findings suggest that diabetic high grade glioma patients are not given PPARγ agonists as often as diabetic hip fracture patients even though these drugs are considered standard of care and should be equally distributed throughout both groups.
  • This indicates a possible anti-neoplastic effect of PPARγ agonists in gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. PPAR gamma / agonists

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  • (PMID = 20443132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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37. Righi V, Andronesi OC, Mintzopoulos D, Black PM, Tzika AA: High-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects glycine as a biomarker in brain tumors. Int J Oncol; 2010 Feb;36(2):301-6
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  • Using 36 biopsies from patients with brain tumors [12 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); 10 low-grade (LG), including 7 schwannoma and 3 pylocytic astrocytoma; 7 meningioma (MN); 7 brain metastases (MT), including 3 adenocarcinoma and 4 breast cancer] and 9 control biopsies from patients undergoing surgery for epilepsy, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of glycine may distinguish among these brain tumor types.
  • Quantitative analysis revealed higher levels of Gly in tumor biopsies (all combined) relative to controls; Gly levels were significantly elevated in LG, MT and GBM biopsies (P<or=0.05).
  • We conclude from these findings that Gly can serve as a biomarker for brain tumors and that the Gly:Myo ratio may be a useful index for brain tumor classification.

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  • (PMID = 20043062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P50 GM021700; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P50GM021700
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4L6452S749 / Inositol; TE7660XO1C / Glycine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3715372
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38. Bosnjak R, Benedicic M: Direct epidural electrical stimulation of the optic nerve: a new method for intraoperative assessment of function. J Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;109(4):647-53
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  • In the fourth patient, who harbored a frontotemporal astrocytoma, stimulation was applied at the exit of the ON from the canal.
  • The electrically induced visual evoked potentials (eVEPs) were recorded from the scalp before, during, and after tumor removal.
  • The amplitude of the N40 wave varied up to 25% prior to tumor removal.
  • In the patient with a symptomatic tuberculum sellae meningioma, the decompressive effect of opening the optic canal and the impact of manipulation during piecemeal tumor removal were detected by the eVEPs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Electrodes. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Pilot Projects. Postoperative Complications. Reproducibility of Results. Sella Turcica

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  • (PMID = 18826351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Technical Report; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Fatyga M, Majcher P, Krupski W: Reasons for diagnostic difficulties in spinal defects and deformations in children and adolescents. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2006 Oct 31;8(5):566-72
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  • Radiographic examinations done routinely mostly do not show any pathology in the initial period of disease growth.
  • The aim of our study was to present diagnostic problems in children and adolescents treated "routinely" with the diagnosis of a posture defect or scoliosis.
  • Results. In 12 cases the reason for deformity was osteoid osteoma of the spine, in 2 cases astrocytoma, in 2 others, meningioma, and in the others, hidden congenital defects of the vertebrae.
  • Early diagnosis and surgical removal of the cause of deformity in all cases led to inhibition of the tumor or reduction of spinal deformity.

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  • (PMID = 17589407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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40. Kasprzak HA, Trojan J, Bierwagen M, Kopiński P, Jarocki P, Bartczak K, Czapiewska J: [Usefulness of the antisense and triplex anti-IGF-1 techniques for postoperative cellular gene therapy of malignant gliomas expressing IGF-1]. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2006 Nov-Dec;40(6):509-15; discussion 516
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of the antisense and triplex anti-IGF-1 techniques for postoperative cellular gene therapy of malignant gliomas expressing IGF-1].
  • The histopathological examination showed 4 cases of glioblastoma and 6 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Initially, patients were operated on with dissection of 1 cm(3) of the most representative part of tumor.
  • The neoplasm cells were cultured, transfected with episomal pMT EP vector (expressing alternatively oligonucleotide sequence forming triple helix with IGF-I gene or antisense against IGF-1 mRNA), re-cultured, irradiated and resuspended in medium to prepare antineoplastic vaccine.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The method of treatment used in this study prolongs the survival time of patients with high-grade gliomas of the central nervous system.
  • This gene therapy needs further investigations as a method of oncological monotherapy of brain malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Genetic Therapy. Glioma / genetics. Glioma / therapy. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17199177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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46. Lueth M, Wronski L, Giese A, Kirschner-Schwabe R, Pietsch T, von Deimling A, Henze G, Kurtz A, Driever PH: Somatic mitochondrial mutations in pilocytic astrocytoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2009 Jul;192(1):30-5
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  • [Title] Somatic mitochondrial mutations in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • The most common brain tumors in childhood and adolescence are low grade pilocytic astrocytomas (PA).
  • Sequencing analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of tumor tissue and corresponding blood samples from 19 patients with PA was performed.
  • The PA tumors were found to have the highest percentage of mitochondrial mutations of any of the neuroectodermal tumor entities studied to date.
  • To reveal the prognostic importance of these mutations in the tumor biology of PA, larger series need to be studied prospectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Genome, Mitochondrial. Mutation


47. Maglott A, Bartik P, Cosgun S, Klotz P, Rondé P, Fuhrmann G, Takeda K, Martin S, Dontenwill M: The small alpha5beta1 integrin antagonist, SJ749, reduces proliferation and clonogenicity of human astrocytoma cells. Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 15;66(12):6002-7
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  • [Title] The small alpha5beta1 integrin antagonist, SJ749, reduces proliferation and clonogenicity of human astrocytoma cells.
  • We investigated the effects of SJ749 in two human astrocytoma cell lines, A172 and U87, which express different levels of alpha5beta1.
  • Therefore, in nonadherent conditions, the effect of SJ749 on tumor cell growth characteristics depends on the level of alpha5beta1 expression.
  • Our study highlights the importance of alpha5beta1 as an anticancer target and shows for the first time that a small nonpeptidic alpha5beta1-specific antagonist affects proliferation of tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Integrin alpha5beta1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Propionates / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. Spiro Compounds / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Spheroids, Cellular. Substrate Specificity. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • (PMID = 16778170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alpha5beta1; 0 / Propionates; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / SJ749; 0 / Spiro Compounds
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48. González-Agüero G, Gutiérrez AA, González-Espinosa D, Solano JD, Morales R, González-Arenas A, Cabrera-Muñoz E, Camacho-Arroyo I: Progesterone effects on cell growth of U373 and D54 human astrocytoma cell lines. Endocrine; 2007 Oct;32(2):129-35
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  • [Title] Progesterone effects on cell growth of U373 and D54 human astrocytoma cell lines.
  • Astrocytomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors and constitute a leading cause of cancer-related deaths.
  • We studied the effects of progesterone and its antagonist, RU486, on cell growth of two human astrocytoma cell lines with different evolution grade (U373, grade III; and D54, grade IV).
  • RU486 (10 muM) blocked progesterone effects in both astrocytoma cell lines.
  • DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) assay showed that the diminution in the number of astrocytoma cells produced by RU486 was not by apoptosis.
  • Our data suggest that progesterone induces cell growth of human astrocytoma cell lines through the interaction with its nuclear receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Progesterone / pharmacology. Progestins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Hormone Antagonists / pharmacology. Humans. Mifepristone / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18008187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Progestins; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
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49. Hwang S, Kim J, Yoon S, Cha Y, Kim M, Yong D, Chang JH, Jeong SH, Uh Y, Lee K: First report of brain abscess associated with Pseudozyma species in a patient with astrocytoma. Korean J Lab Med; 2010 Jun;30(3):284-8
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  • [Title] First report of brain abscess associated with Pseudozyma species in a patient with astrocytoma.
  • A yeast-like strain was isolated from the brain abscess of a patient diagnosed with astrocytoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of a Pseudozyma strain from brain abscess.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Abscess / microbiology. Brain Diseases / complications. Ustilaginales / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 20603589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Lab Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Fungal; 0 / RNA, Ribosomal; 0 / RNA, ribosomal, 26S
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50. Jain D, Sharma MC, Sarkar C, Deb P, Gupta D, Mahapatra AK: Correlation of diagnostic yield of stereotactic brain biopsy with number of biopsy bits and site of the lesion. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2006 Oct;23(2):71-5
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  • Astrocytic lesions, the most common, include 10 pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), 29 diffuse astrocytomas (DA), 11 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 7 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

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  • (PMID = 18095122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS); YKM8PY2Z55 / Hematoxylin
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51. Due-Tønnessen BJ, Helseth E: Management of hydrocephalus in children with posterior fossa tumors: role of tumor surgery. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(2):92-6
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  • [Title] Management of hydrocephalus in children with posterior fossa tumors: role of tumor surgery.
  • Here, we report the rate of cure of HC with tumor surgery alone.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 87 children with posterior fossa tumors in which 35 patients had medulloblastoma, 38 had astrocytoma and 14 had ependymoma.
  • All patients underwent tumor resection and were followed with close clinical and image surveillance to detect persistent HC.
  • We have focused on patients who needed permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion (ETV or shunt) within 30 days of tumor resection.
  • HC presenting after this time period is, in the majority of cases, due to tumor recurrence or progression.
  • In 41/69 (59%) patients presenting with HC, the HC was cured by tumor resection alone.
  • The HC cure rate for patients with astrocytoma was 83%, whereas it was 47% for patients with medulloblastoma and 54% for patients with ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An 87% cure rate of HC by tumor resection alone in children with posterior fossa astrocytoma warrants no change in treatment strategy.
  • However, the low cure rate of HC by tumor resection alone in patients with medulloblastoma and ependymoma raises the issue of whether these patients would benefit from preresection ETV.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / complications. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Ventriculostomy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17337918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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52. Abate LE, Mukherjee P, Seyfried TN: Gene-linked shift in ganglioside distribution influences growth and vascularity in a mouse astrocytoma. J Neurochem; 2006 Sep;98(6):1973-84
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  • [Title] Gene-linked shift in ganglioside distribution influences growth and vascularity in a mouse astrocytoma.
  • Brain tumor growth and progression is dependent upon vascularity, and is associated with altered ganglioside composition and distribution.
  • In this study, we examined the influence of gangliosides on growth and vascularity in a malignant mouse astrocytoma, CT-2A.
  • Ganglioside distribution was altered in CT-2A tumor cells using an antisense construct to beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T), a key enzyme that uses the simple ganglioside GM3 as a substrate for the synthesis of the more complex gangliosides, GM2, GM1 and GD1a.
  • GalNAc-T gene expression was significantly lower in CT-2A cells stably transfected with the antisense GalNAc-T plasmid, pcDNA3.1/TNG (CT-2A/TNG) than in either non-transfected CT-2A or mock-transfected (CT-2A/V) control tumor cells.
  • GM3 was elevated from 16% to 58% of the total ganglioside distribution, whereas GM1 and GD1a were reduced from 17% and 49% to 10% and 17%, respectively, in CT-2A/TNG tumor cells.
  • In addition, the expression of VEGF, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and neuropilin-1 (NP-1) was significantly lower in CT-2A/TNG tumor cells than in control CT-2A tumor cells.
  • These data suggest that gene-linked changes in ganglioside composition influence the growth and angiogenic properties of the CT-2A astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Gangliosides / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16911584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102135; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD39722
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gangliosides; 0 / Hif1a protein, mouse; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 144713-63-3 / Neuropilin-1; EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.41 / polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
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53. Temel SG, Kahveci Z: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in astrocytes and microglia in human oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma. J Mol Histol; 2009 Oct;40(5-6):369-77
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in astrocytes and microglia in human oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma.
  • The function of microglia in glioma biology is unclear.
  • In this study we aimed to assess the phenotypes (astrocyte, microglia) of the cox-2-expressing glial cells in various types of human gliomas and to compare their expression patterns.
  • For this purpose we employed dual immunohistochemistry for cox-2 and GFAP (astrocyte) or LCA-MAC (microglia-macrophage) in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded human tissue diagnosed as oligodendroglioma and/or astrocytoma.
  • The results showed that cox-2 immunoreactivity is up-regulated in the neurons according to the tumor grade.
  • The detection of cox-2 in astrocytes surrounding the necrotic areas might be important to develop new strategies, such as the usage of cox-2 inhibitors combine with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of glioma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / enzymology. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Microglia / enzymology. Oligodendroglioma / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20052522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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54. Kalluri SR, Illes Z, Srivastava R, Cree B, Menge T, Bennett JL, Berthele A, Hemmer B: Quantification and functional characterization of antibodies to native aquaporin 4 in neuromyelitis optica. Arch Neurol; 2010 Oct;67(10):1201-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting membrane proteins play an important role in various autoimmune diseases of the nervous system.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We developed a novel bioassay for quantification and characterization of human anti-AQP4 antibodies based on high-level expression of native AQP4 (nAQP4) protein on the surface of human astroglioma cells.
  • The test was validated in 2 independent cohorts of patients with NMO spectrum disease.
  • RESULTS: We detected anti-nAQP4-IgG with a sensitivity of 57.9% and specificity of 100% in patients with NMO spectrum diseases, suggesting that our bioassay is at least as sensitive and specific as the gold-standard NMO-IgG assay.
  • Our findings demonstrate the potential of bioassays to characterize biologically relevant antibodies in human autoimmune diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biological Assay / methods. Cell Line, Tumor. Cohort Studies. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic / methods. Female. Flow Cytometry / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Transfection / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20937947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AQP4 protein, human; 0 / Aquaporin 4; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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55. Khalil AA: Biomarker discovery: a proteomic approach for brain cancer profiling. Cancer Sci; 2007 Feb;98(2):201-13
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  • Gliomas in the form of astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are the most common brain tumors in humans.
  • Proteomics promises the discovery of biomarkers and tumor markers for early detection and diagnosis.
  • In the current study, a differential gel electrophoresis technology coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy was used to investigate tumor-specific changes in the proteome of human brain cancer.
  • Fifty human brain tissues comprising varying diagnostic groups (non-tumor, grade I, grade II, grade III and grade IV) were run in duplicate together with an internal pool sample on each gel.
  • Alb protein, peroxiredoxin 4 and SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich-like protein 3 were upregulated in glioblastoma multiform versus non-tumor tissues.
  • However, aldolase C fructose-biphosphate, creatine kinase, B chain dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, enolase 2, fumarate hydratase, HSP60, lactoylglutathione lyase, lucine aminopeptidase, Mu-crystallin homolog, NADH-UO 24, neurofilament triplet L protein, septin 2, stathmin and vacuolar ATP synthase subunit E were downregulated in glioblastoma multiform compared with non-tumor tissues.
  • These differentially expressed proteins provided novel information on the differences existing between normal brain and gliomas, and thus might prove to be useful molecular indicators of diagnostic or prognostic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Glioma / metabolism. Humans. Mass Spectrometry. Nerve Degeneration / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Proteomics


56. Li H, Wang Q, Gao F, Zhu F, Wang X, Zhou C, Liu C, Chen Y, Ma C, Sun W, Zhang L: Reduced expression of PDCD5 is associated with high-grade astrocytic gliomas. Oncol Rep; 2008 Sep;20(3):573-9
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  • [Title] Reduced expression of PDCD5 is associated with high-grade astrocytic gliomas.
  • However, the expression level of PDCD5 in human gliomas has not been investigated.
  • In the present study, we examined the expression of PDCD5 in 88 human glioma samples at both mRNA and protein levels by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
  • We found that 53.3% (16/30) of the glioma samples had a reduced expression of PDCD5 mRNA and 70.5% (62/88) had a reduced expression of the PDCD5 protein as compared to normal brain tissue.
  • Furthermore, we studied the correlation of the expression level of PDCD5 with the clinicopathological grade and survival of patients with astrocytomas.
  • Although longitudinal studies of a cohort of patients with astrocytoma revealed that PDCD5 expression was not able to predict clinical outcome (p>0.05), a decreased expression of PDCD5 correlated significantly with high-grade astrocytomas (p<0.001).
  • In conclusion, our data suggest that reduced PDCD5 expression may contribute to the pathogenesis of human gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blotting, Western. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18695908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PDCD5 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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57. Thomas SL, Alam R, Lemke N, Schultz LR, Gutiérrez JA, Rempel SA: PTEN augments SPARC suppression of proliferation and inhibits SPARC-induced migration by suppressing SHC-RAF-ERK and AKT signaling. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Sep;12(9):941-55
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  • SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is expressed in all grades of astrocytoma, including glioblastoma (GBM).
  • SPARC suppresses glioma growth but promotes migration and invasion by mediating integrin and growth factor receptor-regulated kinases and their downstream effectors.
  • This study determined whether PTEN reconstitution in PTEN-mutant, SPARC-expressing U87MG cells could further suppress proliferation and tumor growth but inhibit migration and invasion in SPARC-expressing cells in vitro and in vivo, and thereby prolong survival in animals with xenograft tumors.
  • These findings demonstrate that PTEN reconstitution or inhibition of signaling pathways that are activated by the loss of PTEN provide potential therapeutic strategies to inhibit SPARC-induced invasion while enhancing the negative effect of SPARC on tumor growth.

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  • (PMID = 20472716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA086997; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA86997
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Osteonectin; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / raf Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940688
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58. Asano K, Miyamoto S, Kubo O, Kikkukawa T, Yagihashi A, Ohkuma H: A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presenting with tumor bleeding and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2006 Apr;23(1):55-63
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  • [Title] A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presenting with tumor bleeding and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.
  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) has been considered an astrocytic tumor with a relatively favorable prognosis.
  • The present case was a 59-year-old woman who presented with tumor bleeding onset and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.
  • After emergency surgery had removed the hematoma, postoperative contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed a left temporal tumor.
  • A second surgery was therefore performed for initial tumor removal 2 months later.
  • Histopathological findings showed that the tumor was typical PXA with strong pleomorphism and xanthomatous changes and contained an ependymoma-like component in the center area.
  • This case report is the first case in which PXA presented with tumor bleeding onset.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Hematoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Mitosis / physiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18095120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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59. Aoyama T, Hida K, Ishii N, Seki T, Ikeda J, Iwasaki Y: Intramedullary spinal cord germinoma--2 case reports. Surg Neurol; 2007 Feb;67(2):177-83; discussion 183
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  • Astrocytic tumor was initially suspected, and partial removal was performed.
  • Because the lesion did not respond to steroid pulse therapy, spinal cord tumor was suspected and biopsy was performed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / metabolism. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paraparesis / etiology. Radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome. Urination Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17254883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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60. Papuashvili GSh, Gagua RO, Ninua NG: [Temozolomide--a new antitumor preparation in the treatment of central nervous system malignant tumors]. Georgian Med News; 2006 May;(134):31-4
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  • On the basis of the detailed analysis of both retrospective and prospective materials it has been shown that histological type of the tumor is of great importance for the remote treatment results.
  • Of all malignant tumors of central nervous system temozolomide is more effective in the treatment of astrocytomas in comparison with the tumors of other histological types.

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  • (PMID = 16783060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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61. Schichor C, Kerkau S, Visted T, Martini R, Bjerkvig R, Tonn JC, Goldbrunner R: The brain slice chamber, a novel variation of the Boyden Chamber Assay, allows time-dependent quantification of glioma invasion into mammalian brain in vitro. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;73(1):9-18
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  • [Title] The brain slice chamber, a novel variation of the Boyden Chamber Assay, allows time-dependent quantification of glioma invasion into mammalian brain in vitro.
  • Glioma cell invasion occurs in a complex micromilieu consisting of neural and glial cells, myelinated fiber tracts, blood vessels and extracellular matrix proteins.
  • The present work describes the brain slice chamber (BSC) as a novel experimental model for assessing invasion of glioma cells into adult mammalian white and gray matter on the basis of the well known Boyden chamber system.
  • As a matrix for invasive tumor cells we used freshly prepared brain tissue from adult pigs.
  • Human U-373 and U87 astrocytoma cells stably transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were assessed for their invasiveness into the brain-slices during a 24 h period.
  • Two cytostatics (vincristin and paclitaxel) which both are known to affect the cytoskeleton, inhibited glioma cell invasion in a dose dependent manner, which makes the presented model system suitable for functional experiments.
  • In conclusion, the BSC represents a valid and rapid experimental model that may be used to describe the invasive behavior of glioma cells within the preserved three-dimensional structure of mammalian brain tissue in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Coculture Techniques / methods. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Organ Culture Techniques / methods. Parietal Lobe / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Astrocytes / drug effects. Astrocytes / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Extracellular Matrix / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Swine. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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62. Tirosh B, Iwakoshi NN, Lilley BN, Lee AH, Glimcher LH, Ploegh HL: Human cytomegalovirus protein US11 provokes an unfolded protein response that may facilitate the degradation of class I major histocompatibility complex products. J Virol; 2005 Mar;79(5):2768-79
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  • In the human astrocytoma cell line U373, turning on expression of US11, but not US2, is sufficient to induce a UPR, as manifested by upregulation of the ER chaperone Bip and by splicing of XBP-1 mRNA.

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  • (PMID = 15708995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI32412; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA100707; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI033456; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA100707; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5R37-AI33456; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI032412
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Molecular Chaperones; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / US11 protein, herpesvirus; 0 / US2 protein, Varicellovirus; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / molecular chaperone GRP78; 0 / regulatory factor X transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC548438
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63. Witte HT, Jeibmann A, Klämbt C, Paulus W: Modeling glioma growth and invasion in Drosophila melanogaster. Neoplasia; 2009 Sep;11(9):882-8
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  • [Title] Modeling glioma growth and invasion in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • Glioblastoma is the most common and most malignant intrinsic human brain tumor, characterized by extensive invasion and proliferation of glial (astrocytic) tumor cells, frequent activation of tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways, relative resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and poor prognosis.
  • Using the Gal4-UAS system, we have produced glioma models in Drosophila by overexpressing homologs of human tyrosine kinase receptors under control of the glia-specific promoter reversed polarity (repo).
  • Glial overexpression of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) resulted in enhanced proliferation and migration of larval glial cells with increased numbers in the eye imaginal disc, diffuse tumor-like enlargement of the optic stalk, and marked ectopic invasion of glial cells along the optic nerve.
  • We suggest that Drosophila models will be useful for deciphering signaling cascades underlying abnormal behavior of glioma cells for genetic screens to reveal interacting genes involved in gliomagenesis and for experimental therapy approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Eye / cytology. Eye / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19724682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2735809
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64. Kumar R, Kalra SK: Pediatric brain stem lesions: introduction of a scoring system for clinical evaluation and their treatment analysis. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Apr;24(4):467-75
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  • [Title] Pediatric brain stem lesions: introduction of a scoring system for clinical evaluation and their treatment analysis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Brainstem lesions in pediatric age group include mainly gliomas.
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Twenty-seven had gliomas, and in nonglioma group, seven had brainstem tuberculosis (BSTB).
  • Most gliomas were pilocytic astrocytomas (n = 21).
  • CONCLUSION: Gliomas form majority of pediatric brainstem lesions, with high occurrence of BSTB in nongliomatous group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Child. Child, Preschool. Decompression / methods. Female. Glioma / complications. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17978821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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65. Chen CC, Cheng PW, Tseng HM, Young YH: Posterior cranial fossa tumors in young adults. Laryngoscope; 2006 Sep;116(9):1678-81
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  • METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 16 (0.8%) of 2,091 young adults (range, 16-29 years) with dizziness/vertigo, hearing loss, or tinnitus were diagnosed with posterior fossa tumor.
  • Diagnoses consisted of vestibular schwannoma and neurofibromatosis II in eight patients (50%), glial neoplasm (including astrocytoma, ependymoma, glioma) in four patients (25%), epidermoid cyst in three patients, and glomus jugulare tumor in one patient.
  • At study close, excluding one lost patient, three patients died as a result of recurrent or residual tumor at the primary site.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unlike predominant medulloblastoma in children, the most frequent posterior fossa tumor in young adults is vestibular schwannoma and neurofibroma.
  • However, the second most frequent one in young adults is glial neoplasm as opposed to meningioma in adults.

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  • (PMID = 16955003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Hamke M, Herpfer I, Lieb K, Wandelt C, Fiebich BL: Substance P induces expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 by activation of the neurokinin-1 receptor. Brain Res; 2006 Aug 2;1102(1):135-44
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  • As a model system, we used the human astrocytoma cell line U373 MG as well as primary rat astroglial cells, which both are known to express functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK-1-R) and to secret various cytokines upon stimulation with SP.
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrates that SP induces CRF1 receptor expression in cells of the CNS, which may be of potential interest for a better understanding of the interplay between SP and the stress hormone axis and, thus, diseases like affective or anxiety disorders.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Astrocytes / drug effects. Astrocytoma. Blotting, Western / methods. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Piperidines / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16806114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)imidazole; 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Neurokinin-1; 148700-85-0 / 3-((3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)methyloxy)-2-phenylpiperidine; 33507-63-0 / Substance P
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67. Ramos TC, Figueredo J, Catala M, González S, Selva JC, Cruz TM, Toledo C, Silva S, Pestano Y, Ramos M, Leonard I, Torres O, Marinello P, Pérez R, Lage A: Treatment of high-grade glioma patients with the humanized anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody h-R3: report from a phase I/II trial. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Apr;5(4):375-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of high-grade glioma patients with the humanized anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody h-R3: report from a phase I/II trial.
  • The poor prognosis of patients with high-grade glioma has led to the search for new therapeutic strategies.
  • In order to evaluate safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy of h-R3 in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients, we conducted a Phase I/II trial.
  • Tumor types were: glioblastoma (GB) (16 patients), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) (12 patients) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) (1 patient).
  • Objective response-rate was 37.9% (17.2% complete response, 20.7% partial response) while stable disease occurred in 41.4% of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Glioblastoma / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy. Oligodendroglioma / therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16575203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 99mTc-hR3 monoclonal antibody; 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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68. Debono B, Derrey S, Rabehenoina C, Proust F, Freger P, Laquerrière A: Primary diffuse multinodular leptomeningeal gliomatosis: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2006 Mar;65(3):273-82; discussion 282
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  • BACKGROUND: Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is an exceptional neoplasm, and only 30 cases have been reported in the literature.
  • METHODS: A 50-year-old man was admitted to the neurosurgery department for a previous 4-month history of headache, associated with nonspecific neurological signs.
  • Histological examination revealed an anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • RESULTS: Complete neuraxis postmortem examination revealed no intraparenchymatous glioma and was conclusive for the diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal gliomatosis (astrocytic, World Health Organization grade III), with a multinodular pattern in the spinal cord, the brainstem, and the brain base with diffuse extension into the cerebellar subarachnoid spaces.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / surgery. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Nerve Roots / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Cerebellum / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Male. Meninges / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neurologic Examination. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16488248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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69. Kyprianou N, Murphy E, Lee P, Hargreaves I: Assessment of mitochondrial respiratory chain function in hyperphenylalaninaemia. J Inherit Metab Dis; 2009 Apr;32(2):289-96
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  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in neurological and intellectual disability when untreated.
  • Human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells were exposed to hyperphenylalaninaemia by the addition of 300 or 900 micromol/L of Phe to the cell culture medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors / metabolism. Electron Transport / physiology. Mitochondrial Diseases / metabolism. Phenylalanine / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Culture Media. Female. Humans. Lactic Acid / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Phenylketonurias / blood. Phenylketonurias / metabolism. Pyruvic Acid / metabolism. Tremor / blood. Tremor / etiology. Tyrosine / blood. Ubiquinone / analogs & derivatives. Ubiquinone / blood. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19277893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2665
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of inherited metabolic disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media; 1339-63-5 / Ubiquinone; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 47E5O17Y3R / Phenylalanine; 8558G7RUTR / Pyruvic Acid; EJ27X76M46 / coenzyme Q10
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70. Michalowski MB, de Fraipont F, Michelland S, Entz-Werle N, Grill J, Pasquier B, Favrot MC, Plantaz D: Methylation of RASSF1A and TRAIL pathway-related genes is frequent in childhood intracranial ependymomas and benign choroid plexus papilloma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Apr 1;166(1):74-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ependymomas (EP) represent the third most frequent type of central nervous system (CNS) tumor of childhood, after astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • The present objective was, for a sample of 27 children with intracranial EP and 7 with CPP, to describe and compare the methylation status of 19 genes (with current HUGO symbol, if any): p15INK4a (CDKN2B), p16INK4a and p14ARF (both CDKN2A), APC, RB1, RASSF1A (RASSF1), BLU (ZMYND10) FHIT, RARB, MGMT, DAPK (DAPK1), ECAD (CDH1), CASP8, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF10D, FLIP (CFLAR), INI1 (SMARCB1), TIMP3, and NF2.
  • Although we did not observe a statistical relationship between methylation and clinical outcome, the methylation pattern does not appear to be randomly distributed in ependymoma and may represent a mechanism of tumor development and evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Ependymoma / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


71. Hong C, Maunakea A, Jun P, Bollen AW, Hodgson JG, Goldenberg DD, Weiss WA, Costello JF: Shared epigenetic mechanisms in human and mouse gliomas inactivate expression of the growth suppressor SLC5A8. Cancer Res; 2005 May 1;65(9):3617-23
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  • [Title] Shared epigenetic mechanisms in human and mouse gliomas inactivate expression of the growth suppressor SLC5A8.
  • Using an integrated approach for genome-wide methylation and copy number analyses, we identified SLC5A8 on chromosome 12q23.1 that was affected frequently by aberrant methylation in human astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • SLC5A8 encodes a sodium monocarboxylate cotransporter that was highly expressed in normal brain but was significant down-regulated in primary gliomas.
  • Bisulfite sequencing analysis showed that the CpG island was unmethylated in normal brain but frequently localized methylated in brain tumors, consistent with the tumor-specific loss of gene expression.
  • In glioma cell lines, SLC5A8 expression was also suppressed but could be reactivated with a methylation inhibitor.
  • Expression of exogenous SLC5A8 in LN229 and LN443 glioma cells inhibited colony formation, suggesting that it may function as a growth suppressor in normal brain cells.
  • Remarkably, 9 of 10 murine oligodendroglial tumors (from p53+/- or ink4a/arf+/- animals transgenic for S100beta-v-erbB) showed a similar tumor-specific down-regulation of mSLC5A8, the highly conserved mouse homologue.
  • Taken together, these data suggest that SLC5A8 functions as a growth suppressor gene in vitro and that it is silenced frequently by epigenetic mechanisms in primary gliomas.
  • The shared epigenetic inactivation of mSLC5A8 in mouse gliomas indicates an additional degree of commonality in the origin and/or pathway to tumorigenesis between primary human tumors and these mouse models of gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cation Transport Proteins / genetics. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation. Disease Models, Animal. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Vectors / genetics. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred DBA. Mice, Transgenic. Retroviridae / genetics


72. Kondyli M, Gatzounis G, Kyritsis A, Varakis J, Assimakopoulou M: Immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated JAK-2 and STAT-5 proteins and correlation with erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) expression status in human brain tumors. J Neurooncol; 2010 Nov;100(2):157-64
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  • Using specific antibodies and immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded semi-serial tissue sections a total of 87 human brain tumors and samples from normal brain tissue were studied. pJAK-2/pSTAT-5 nuclear co-expression was detected in 39% of astrocytomas, 43% of oligodendrogliomas, 50% of ependymomas, and in all (100%) of the medulloblastomas examined.
  • EpoR/pJAK-2/pSTAT-5 co-expression was detected in a small percentage of astrocytomas (18%) and ependymomas (33%).
  • Tumor vessels exhibited EpoR, pJAK-2, and pSTAT-5 immunoreactivity.

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  • (PMID = 20336349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 0 / STAT5 Transcription Factor; EC 2.7.10.2 / JAK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2
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73. Brozzi F, Arcuri C, Giambanco I, Donato R: S100B Protein Regulates Astrocyte Shape and Migration via Interaction with Src Kinase: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROCYTE DEVELOPMENT, ACTIVATION, AND TUMOR GROWTH. J Biol Chem; 2009 Mar 27;284(13):8797-811
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  • [Title] S100B Protein Regulates Astrocyte Shape and Migration via Interaction with Src Kinase: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROCYTE DEVELOPMENT, ACTIVATION, AND TUMOR GROWTH.
  • We show here that reducing S100B levels in the astrocytoma cell line GL15 and the Müller cell line MIO-M1 by small interference RNA technique results in a rapid disassembly of stress fibers, collapse of F-actin onto the plasma membrane and reduced migration, and acquisition of a stellate shape.
  • These results suggest that S100B might contribute to reduce the differentiation potential of cells of the astrocytic lineage and participate in the astrocyte activation process in the case of brain insult and in invasive properties of glioma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Cell Movement. Cell Shape. Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. src-Family Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bucladesine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / genetics. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism. Humans. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. Rats. S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit. Stress Fibers / genetics. Stress Fibers / metabolism. Stroke / genetics. Stroke / metabolism. rac1 GTP-Binding Protein / genetics. rac1 GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism. rhoA GTP-Binding Protein / genetics. rhoA GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19147496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / RAC1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100B protein, human; 0 / S100b protein, rat; 124671-05-2 / RHOA protein, human; 63X7MBT2LQ / Bucladesine; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3; EC 3.6.1.- / Rac1 protein, rat; EC 3.6.5.2 / rac1 GTP-Binding Protein; EC 3.6.5.2 / rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2659238
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74. Reznik TE, Sang Y, Ma Y, Abounader R, Rosen EM, Xia S, Laterra J: Transcription-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor activation by hepatocyte growth factor. Mol Cancer Res; 2008 Jan;6(1):139-50
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  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met are frequently coexpressed in cancers, including those associated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression, such as malignant astrocytoma.
  • In a previous analysis of the HGF-induced transcriptome, we found that two EGFR agonists, transforming growth factor-alpha and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), are prominently up-regulated by HGF in human glioma cells.

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  • (PMID = 18234969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS032148; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS043987; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS043987-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES 09169; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES009169; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 43987; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 32148; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS032148-13; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS043987-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS032148-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / HBEGF protein, human; 0 / Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ligands; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; 21820-51-9 / Phosphotyrosine; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor; 92092-36-9 / CRM197 (non-toxic variant of diphtheria toxin); EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS135584; NLM/ PMC2839502
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75. Edwards LA, Thiessen B, Dragowska WH, Daynard T, Bally MB, Dedhar S: Inhibition of ILK in PTEN-mutant human glioblastomas inhibits PKB/Akt activation, induces apoptosis, and delays tumor growth. Oncogene; 2005 May 19;24(22):3596-605
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  • [Title] Inhibition of ILK in PTEN-mutant human glioblastomas inhibits PKB/Akt activation, induces apoptosis, and delays tumor growth.
  • The tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) regulates the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas when mutational inactivation or loss of the PTEN gene occurs.
  • 5 mg/kg), exhibited stable disease with < or =7% increase in tumor volume over the 3-week course of treatment.
  • In contrast, animals treated with an oligonucleotide control or saline exhibited a >100% increase in tumor volume over the same time period.
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases. Animals. Apoptosis / physiology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / physiology. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mutation. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


76. Hsieh JC, Lesniak MS: Surgical management of high-grade gliomas. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S33-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of high-grade gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas, in particular anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme, represent two of the most devastating forms of brain cancer.
  • In spite of the poor prognosis, new treatments and emerging therapies are making an impact on this disease.
  • This review discusses the role of the surgical management of high-grade gliomas and provides an overview of the currently available therapies which depend on surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy / methods. Craniotomy / methods. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Disease Progression. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Drug Therapy / methods. Expert Testimony. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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77. Minehan KJ, Brown PD, Scheithauer BW, Krauss WE, Wright MP: Prognosis and treatment of spinal cord astrocytoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Mar 1;73(3):727-33
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  • [Title] Prognosis and treatment of spinal cord astrocytoma.
  • PURPOSE: To identify the prognostic factors for spinal cord astrocytoma and determine the effects of surgery and radiotherapy on outcome.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: This retrospective study reviewed the cases of consecutive patients with spinal cord astrocytoma treated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1962 and 2005.
  • Of these 136 patients, 69 had pilocytic and 67 had infiltrative astrocytoma.
  • Patients with pilocytic tumors survived significantly longer than those with infiltrative astrocytomas (median overall survival, 39.9 vs. 1.85 years; p < 0.001).
  • Postoperative radiotherapy, delivered in 75% of cases, gave no significant survival benefit for those with pilocytic tumors (39.9 vs. 18.1 years, p = 0.33) but did for those with infiltrative astrocytomas (24 vs. 3 months; Wilcoxon p = 0.006).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that histologic type is the most important prognostic variable affecting the outcome of spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy significantly improved survival for patients with infiltrative astrocytomas but not for those with pilocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18687533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Hargrave DR, Zacharoulis S: Pediatric CNS tumors: current treatment and future directions. Expert Rev Neurother; 2007 Aug;7(8):1029-42
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  • Pediatric CNS tumors are the most common solid tumor of childhood and are the leading cause of cancer-related death in this age group.
  • This article will discuss current treatment standards for the most common pediatric CNS tumors: astrocytomas (low- and high-grade glioma), ependymoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (medulloblastoma), as well as future biological-based novel therapies.

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  • (PMID = 17678498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 147
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79. Sadanari H, Tanaka J, Li Z, Yamada R, Matsubara K, Murayama T: Proteasome inhibitor differentially regulates expression of the major immediate early genes of human cytomegalovirus in human central nervous system-derived cell lines. Virus Res; 2009 Jun;142(1-2):68-77
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  • Treatment of HCMV-infected 118MGC glioma and U373-MG astrocytoma cells with three proteasome inhibitors, MG132, clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, and epoxomicin, suppressed MIE protein expression.

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  • (PMID = 19201384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-1702
  • [Journal-full-title] Virus research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virus Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Activating Transcription Factor 2; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 133407-82-6 / benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde; 134381-21-8 / epoxomicin; 155975-72-7 / clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone
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80. Chosdol K, Misra A, Puri S, Srivastava T, Chattopadhyay P, Sarkar C, Mahapatra AK, Sinha S: Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:5
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  • [Title] Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: We had earlier used the comparison of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) DNA fingerprinting profiles of tumor and corresponding normal DNA to identify genetic alterations in primary human glial tumors.
  • METHODS: In this study we used RAPD-PCR to identify novel genomic alterations in the astrocytic tumors of WHO grade II (Low Grade Diffuse Astrocytoma) and WHO Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme).
  • RESULTS: Bands consistently altered in the RAPD profile of tumor DNA in a significant proportion of tumors were identified.
  • One such 500 bp band, that was absent in the RAPD profile of 33% (4/12) of the grade II astrocytic tumors, was selected for further study.
  • Its sequence corresponded with a region of FAT, a putative tumor suppressor gene initially identified in Drosophila.
  • Fifty percent of a set of 40 tumors, both grade II and IV, were shown to have Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) at this locus by microsatellite (intragenic) and by SNP markers.
  • CONCLUSION: These results point to a role of the FAT in astrocytic tumorigenesis and demonstrate the use of RAPD analysis in identifying specific alterations in astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 19126244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / FAT1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2631005
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81. Kamnasaran D, Hawkins C, Guha A: Characterization and transformation potential of "Synthetic" astrocytes differentiated from murine embryonic stem cells. Glia; 2008 Mar;56(4):457-70
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  • In contrast, retroviral transduction of either wt or p53+/- synthetic astrocytes and not the postnatal somatic astrocytes, with relevant oncogenes found in human malignant astrocytomas (MDM2, myr-AKT, V12H-RAS), led to intracranial high-grade undifferentiated gliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Brain / cytology. Brain / embryology. Cell Lineage. Cells, Cultured. Embryo, Mammalian. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Gangliosides / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / drug effects. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Transduction, Genetic / methods. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / deficiency

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18205175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1491
  • [Journal-full-title] Glia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gangliosides; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / ganglioside A2B5; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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82. McLendon RE, Turner K, Perkinson K, Rich J: Second messenger systems in human gliomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Oct;131(10):1585-90
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  • [Title] Second messenger systems in human gliomas.
  • CONTEXT: Patients with glioblastoma (astrocytoma, World Health Organization grade IV) exhibit 2-year survival rates of less than 20% despite significant advances in therapeutic options available to patients.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) hyperexpression is one of the most commonly encountered abnormalities in this tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: It is important to both gain some understanding of the functional significance of these pathways and to understand the role the pathologist might play in characterizing the activation status of certain downstream messenger proteins that are targeted in these brain tumor therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Second Messenger Systems / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17922598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / epidermal growth factor receptor VIII; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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83. Revert Ventura AJ, Sanz-Requena R, Martí-Bonmatí L, Jornet J, Piquer J, Cremades A, Carot JM: [Nosological analysis of MRI tissue perfusion parameters obtained using the unicompartmental and pharmacokinetic models in cerebral glioblastomas]. Radiologia; 2010 Sep-Oct;52(5):432-41
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  • [Transliterated title] Análisis nosológico con parámetros de perfusión tisular de RM obtenidos mediante los modelos monocompartimental y farmacocinético en los glioblastomas cerebrales.
  • OBJECTIVES: To classify the tumor areas in patients with grade IV astrocytoma by calculating and statistically analyzing quantitative MRI perfusion parameters.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We applied two models of MRI perfusion, the unicompartmental and the pharmacokinetic models, in 15 patients diagnosed with grade IV astrocytoma.
  • For each parameter, histograms were obtained for the total tumor area, for the peritumoral area, and for the healthy tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: When parameters are considered individually, CBV is the one that best enables differentiation between tumor, peritumoral, and healthy tissue.
  • The classificatory function generated from CBV and K(trans) results in improved classification by areas.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20655078.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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84. Alexiou GA, Fotopoulos AD, Papadopoulos A, Kyritsis AP, Polyzoidis KS, Tsiouris S: Evaluation of brain tumor recurrence by (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT: a prospective pilot study. Ann Nucl Med; 2007 Jul;21(5):293-8
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  • [Title] Evaluation of brain tumor recurrence by (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT: a prospective pilot study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The differentiation between brain tumor recurrence and post-irradiation injury remains an imaging challenge.
  • Although glioma cell line studies substantiated a plausible imaging superiority of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin ((99m)Tc-TF) over other radiopharmaceuticals, little has been reported on its in vivo imaging properties.
  • We assessed (99m)Tc-TF single-photon emission CT (SPECT) in cases where morphologic brain imaging was inconclusive between recurrence and radionecrosis.
  • The initial diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme (4), anaplastic astrocytoma (1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (3), grade-II astrocytoma (2), and low-grade oligodendroglioma (1).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Organophosphorus Compounds / pharmacology. Organotechnetium Compounds / pharmacology. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacology. Recurrence. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / radionuclide imaging. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17634847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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85. Broniscer A, Chintagumpala M, Fouladi M, Krasin MJ, Kocak M, Bowers DC, Iacono LC, Merchant TE, Stewart CF, Houghton PJ, Kun LE, Ledet D, Gajjar A: Temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma in children. J Neurooncol; 2006 Feb;76(3):313-9
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  • [Title] Temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma in children.
  • Chemotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of children with high-grade glioma, although its usefulness is uncertain.
  • We conducted a multi-institutional study to evaluate the efficacy of temozolomide given after radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma (gliomatosis cerebri or bithalamic involvement).
  • The 5-day schedule of temozolomide (200 mg/m2 per day) started 4 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy and continued for a total of 6 cycles.
  • The predominant histologic diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme (n = 15, 48%) and anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 10, 32%).
  • Two patients had bithalamic grade II astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16200343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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86. Henderson MA, Fakiris AJ, Timmerman RD, Worth RM, Lo SS, Witt TC: Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg; 2009;87(3):161-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA; 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 2 fibrillary astrocytomas) were selected for treatment with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) based on having a demarcated appearance on CT or MRI and the possibility of dose sparing of adjacent eloquent structures.
  • A median dose of 13 Gy was prescribed to the 50% isodose line, which covered the gross tumor.
  • With a median follow-up of 48.2 months, 4-year tumor control and overall survival were 77 and 83%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19321969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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87. Niculescu CE, Stănescu L, Popescu M, Niculescu D: Supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma in children. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2010;51(3):577-80
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  • [Title] Supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma in children.
  • The authors describe the case of a child aged 2 years and 4 months with increased intracranial pressure, symptomatology accompanied by rapid deterioration of general condition.
  • Histopathological examination revealed the typical grade I pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20809042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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88. Zhou W, Jiang Z, Song X, Liu Y, Wen P, Guo Y, Xu F, Kong L, Zhang P, Han A, Yu J: Promoter hypermethylation-mediated down-regulation of CXCL12 in human astrocytoma. J Neurosci Res; 2008 Oct;86(13):3002-10
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  • [Title] Promoter hypermethylation-mediated down-regulation of CXCL12 in human astrocytoma.
  • However, the role of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, especially CXCL12, in the regulation of tumor invasiveness is largely still unknown.
  • Using real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays, we observed that CXCR4 expression increased with increasing WHO grade in astrocytoma, suggesting that CXCR4 may be a marker of aggressive biological behavior of astrocytoma.
  • Methylation of CXCL12 was detected in 34.2% (26/76) of astrocytomas by methylation-specific PCR.
  • Epigenetic inactivation of CXCL12 was implicated mainly in low-grade astrocytomas, via DNA hypermethylation by DNMT1, -3A, and -3B; 21.1% (16/76) of the astrocytomas showed reduced or lack of CXCL12 expression, in line with epigenetic silencing of gene transcripts.
  • However, it is interesting to note that 61.8% (47/76) of tumors, mainly high-grade astrocytomas, displayed elevated transcription of CXCL12.
  • In summary, our data show that CXCL12 promoter hypermethylation is an early event in astrocytoma development.
  • However, the high expressions of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in glioblastomas, the more invasive astrocytomas, suggest a different role of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis in astrocytoma progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chemokine CXCL12 / genetics. DNA Methylation. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18512766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4547
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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89. Palmieri C, Brock C, Newlands ES: Maintenance of fertility following treatment with temozolomide for a high grade astrocytoma. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):185
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  • [Title] Maintenance of fertility following treatment with temozolomide for a high grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Fertility / drug effects. Infertility, Male / chemically induced. Infertility, Male / prevention & control

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90. Arrieta O, Pineda-Olvera B, Guevara-Salazar P, Hernández-Pedro N, Morales-Espinosa D, Cerón-Lizarraga TL, González-De la Rosa CH, Rembao D, Segura-Pacheco B, Sotelo J: Expression of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis. Br J Cancer; 2008 Jul 8;99(1):160-6
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  • [Title] Expression of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis.
  • Astrocytomas develop intense vascular proliferation, essential for tumour growth and invasiveness.
  • We studied 133 tumours from patients with diagnosis of astrocytoma who underwent surgery from 1997 to 2002.
  • Ten per cent of low-grade astrocytomas were positive for AT1, whereas grade III and IV astrocytomas were positive in 67% (P<0.001).
  • AT2 receptors were positive in 17% of low-grade astrocytomas and in 53% of high-grade astrocytomas (P=0.01).
  • These findings suggest that ANGII receptors might be potential therapeutic targets for high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / biosynthesis. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18594540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2453037
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91. Jacob K, Albrecht S, Sollier C, Faury D, Sader E, Montpetit A, Serre D, Hauser P, Garami M, Bognar L, Hanzely Z, Montes JL, Atkinson J, Farmer JP, Bouffet E, Hawkins C, Tabori U, Jabado N: Duplication of 7q34 is specific to juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and a hallmark of cerebellar and optic pathway tumours. Br J Cancer; 2009 Aug 18;101(4):722-33
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  • [Title] Duplication of 7q34 is specific to juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and a hallmark of cerebellar and optic pathway tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), a subgroup of low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), are common, heterogeneous and poorly understood subset of brain tumours in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19603027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / HIPK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2736806
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92. Reynolds GM, Peet AC, Arvanitis TN: Generating prior probabilities for classifiers of brain tumours using belief networks. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak; 2007 Sep 18;7:27
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  • To verify the usefulness of the networks, an application of the method is presented in which prior probabilities were generated and combined with a classification of tumours based solely on MRS data.
  • Networks are presented for astrocytoma grades I and II, astrocytoma grades III and IV, ependymoma, pineoblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET), germinoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma and a group representing rare tumours, "other".
  • Using the network to generate prior probabilities for classification improves the accuracy when compared with generating prior probabilities based on class prevalence.
  • CONCLUSION: Bayesian belief networks are a simple way of using discrete clinical information to generate probabilities usable in classification.
  • Inclusion of a priori knowledge is an effective way of improving classification of brain tumours by non-invasive methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Bayes Theorem. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Decision Support Techniques. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Germinoma / classification. Neuroectodermal Tumors / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Databases, Factual. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Neoplasm Staging. Probability

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  • (PMID = 17877822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6947
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical informatics and decision making
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601327
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2040142
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93. Cassoni P, Senetta R, Castellano I, Ortolan E, Bosco M, Magnani I, Ducati A: Caveolin-1 expression is variably displayed in astroglial-derived tumors and absent in oligodendrogliomas: concrete premises for a new reliable diagnostic marker in gliomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):760-9
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  • [Title] Caveolin-1 expression is variably displayed in astroglial-derived tumors and absent in oligodendrogliomas: concrete premises for a new reliable diagnostic marker in gliomas.
  • All studied astrocitomas of any grade (from II to IV) were cav-1 positive, displaying staining patterns and intensity specifically associated to the different tumor grades.
  • In anaplastic astrocytomas, a less intense membrane staining or a cytoplasmic dotlike immunoreactivity were present, the latter being almost the exclusive pattern observed in diffuse astrocitomas grade II.
  • Interestingly, a cav-1 distribution overlapping the pattern described in tissues was observed also in primary cell cultures of human glioblastomas and astrocytomas, and also in one established glioblastoma cell line (U251 MG), analyzed by means of confocal microscopy and flow cytometry.
  • In conclusion, among astroglial tumors cav-1 expression varies in distribution, pattern, and intensity specifically according to tumor types and grades.
  • The association between tumor progression and a more structured membranous pattern of cav-1 expression could suggest the hypothesis of a neoplastic shift towards a mesenchymal phenotype, whose behavioral and biologic significance worth further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Caveolin 1 / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Count. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Separation. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Disease Progression. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17460461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Caveolin 1
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94. Ohgaki H, Kleihues P: Genetic pathways to primary and secondary glioblastoma. Am J Pathol; 2007 May;170(5):1445-53
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  • Glioblastoma is the most frequent and most malignant human brain tumor.
  • Primary and secondary glioblastoma constitute distinct disease subtypes, affecting patients of different age and developing through different genetic pathways.
  • The majority of cases (>90%) are primary glioblastomas that develop rapidly de novo, without clinical or histological evidence of a less malignant precursor lesion.
  • Secondary glioblastomas develop through progression from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma and manifest in younger patients.
  • In the pathway to secondary glioblastoma, TP53 mutations are the most frequent and earliest detectable genetic alteration, already present in 60% of precursor low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Mutation. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17456751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Number-of-references] 85
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1854940
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95. Lamoral-Theys D, Le Mercier M, Le Calvé B, Rynkowski MA, Bruyère C, Decaestecker C, Haibe-Kains B, Bontempi G, Dubois J, Lefranc F, Kiss R: Long-term temozolomide treatment induces marked amino metabolism modifications and an increase in TMZ sensitivity in Hs683 oligodendroglioma cells. Neoplasia; 2010 Jan;12(1):69-79
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  • Gliomas account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors.
  • The worst prognosis is associated with gliomas of astrocytic origin, whereas gliomas with an oligodendroglial origin offer higher sensitivity to chemotherapy, especially when oligodendroglioma cells display 1p19q deletions.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) provides therapeutic benefits and is commonly used with radiotherapy in highly malignant astrocytic tumors, including glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Genomics / methods. HT29 Cells. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplastic Stem Cells / drug effects. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Proteomics / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays