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1. Krueger DA, Care MM, Holland K, Agricola K, Tudor C, Mangeshkar P, Wilson KA, Byars A, Sahmoud T, Franz DN: Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis. N Engl J Med; 2010 Nov 4;363(19):1801-11
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  • [Title] Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical resection is the standard treatment for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • METHODS: Patients 3 years of age or older with serial growth of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas were eligible for this open-label study.
  • The primary efficacy end point was the change in volume of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas between baseline and 6 months.
  • Everolimus therapy was associated with a clinically meaningful reduction in volume of the primary subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma, as assessed on independent central review (P<0.001 for baseline vs. 6 months), with a reduction of at least 30% in 21 patients (75%) and at least 50% in 9 patients (32%).
  • There were no new lesions, worsening hydrocephalus, evidence of increased intracranial pressure, or necessity for surgical resection or other therapy for subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma.
  • Single cases of grade 3 treatment-related sinusitis, pneumonia, viral bronchitis, tooth infection, stomatitis, and leukopenia were reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus therapy was associated with marked reduction in the volume of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas and seizure frequency and may be a potential alternative to neurosurgical resection in some cases, though long-term studies are needed. (Funded by Novartis; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00411619.).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Seizures / drug therapy. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Tuberous Sclerosis / drug therapy


2. Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Velázquez-Fragua R, Viaño J, Carceller F, Hernández-Moneo JL, Gutiérrez-Molina M, Morales C: [Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex. A presentation of eight paediatric patients]. Neurologia; 2010 Jun;25(5):314-21
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  • [Title] [Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex. A presentation of eight paediatric patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Astrocitoma subependimario de células gigantes en el complejo de esclerosis tuberosa. Presentación de ocho pacientes infantiles.
  • OBJECTIVE: Presentation of 8 patients with subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas (SGCA) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: There are 8 patients, 6 males and 2 females with TSC, who presented with the tumour between the neonatal period and 24 years.
  • Only one patient developed the tumour suddenly from pre-existing subependymal nodules from the childhood and they had to be removed at 24 years of age.
  • By contrast, 32 patients with TSC and images of subependymal nodules whose CT or MR progress was followed up for between 10 and 30 years did not develop a tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / etiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Tuberous Sclerosis


3. Ahmad Z, Rauf F, Azad NS, Ahsan A: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. J Pak Med Assoc; 2006 Oct;56(10):463-5
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  • [Title] Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are slowly growing tumours corresponding to WHO grade I.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17144395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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4. Tyburczy ME, Kotulska K, Pokarowski P, Mieczkowski J, Kucharska J, Grajkowska W, Roszkowski M, Jozwiak S, Kaminska B: Novel proteins regulated by mTOR in subependymal giant cell astrocytomas of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and new therapeutic implications. Am J Pathol; 2010 Apr;176(4):1878-90
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  • [Title] Novel proteins regulated by mTOR in subependymal giant cell astrocytomas of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and new therapeutic implications.
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are rare brain tumors associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a disease caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in enhancement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, dysregulation of cell growth, and tumorigenesis.
  • Of the genes differentially expressed in TSC, 11 were validated by real-time PCR on independent tumor samples and 3 SEGA-derived cultures.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Giant Cells / cytology. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Tuberous Sclerosis / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20133820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2843477
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5. You H, Kim YI, Im SY, Suh-Kim H, Paek SH, Park SH, Kim DG, Jung HW: Immunohistochemical study of central neurocytoma, subependymoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. J Neurooncol; 2005 Aug;74(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of central neurocytoma, subependymoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • For investigation of histogenesis of central neurocytomas (CNs), subependymoma (SEs), subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs), we studied expression of various neuronal and glial biomarkers by immunohistochemical (IHC) study and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • Control group was five ependymomas (EPs) and four pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • Conclusively, coexpression of neuronal and glial markers and expression of nestin in CNs, SEGAs and SEs suggested the origin of these tumor cells might be the stem cells being able to differentiate into both neuronal and glial phenotypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma, Subependymal / metabolism. Neurocytoma / metabolism


6. Ech-Cherif El Kettani N, Salaheddine T, El Quessar A, El Kharras A, El Hassani MR, Chakir N, Boukhrissi N, Benameur M, Jiddane M: [Neuro-imaging of tuberous sclerosis]. J Radiol; 2006 Feb;87(2 Pt 1):109-13
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Tuberous Sclerosis.

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  • Tuberous sclerosis is a phakomatosis with central nervous system manifestations characterized by 4 lesions detectable on neuro-imaging: tubers, white matter abnormalities, subependymal nodules and subependymal astrocytomas.
  • The first three are benign lesions composed of by identical cytological lesions varying only in size and location.
  • At CT, enhancement of subependymal nodules is usually considered as evidence of transformation to subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 16484932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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7. Koenig MK, Butler IJ, Northrup H: Regression of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma with rapamycin in tuberous sclerosis complex. J Child Neurol; 2008 Oct;23(10):1238-9
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  • [Title] Regression of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma with rapamycin in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • The authors present a 21-year-old woman who has been receiving rapamycin for 5 months for bilateral subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain 2(1/2) months after initiating rapamycin demonstrated a decrease in size of both astrocytomas (11 to 7.5 mm on the right and 8 to 5 mm on the left).

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  • (PMID = 18952591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024149; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR024149-05S1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024149-05S1
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS282750; NLM/ PMC3072698
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8. Dapena-Sevilla I, Drake-Rodríguez P, Gutiérrez-Ortiz C, Bolívar G, Castejón M, Teus-Guezala MA: [Band atrophy of the optic disc secondary to ventricular subependymoma compression]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2007 Sep;82(9):567-9
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  • [Title] [Band atrophy of the optic disc secondary to ventricular subependymoma compression].
  • [Transliterated title] Atrofia de disco óptico en banda secundaria a compresión por subependimoma ventricular.
  • Craniotomy and tumor resection were performed.
  • The biopsy revealed a subependymoma of the temporal horn of the left ventricular system.
  • Subependymomas are infrequent and benign tumors that are typically associated with the ventricular system.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / complications. Glioma, Subependymal / complications. Optic Atrophy / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17846949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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9. Işik U, Dinçer A, Sav A, Ozek MM: Basal ganglia location of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in two infants. Pediatr Neurol; 2010 Feb;42(2):157-9
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  • [Title] Basal ganglia location of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in two infants.
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are benign tumors that constitute one of the primary features of tuberous sclerosis.
  • Two infants with tuberous sclerosis had very unusual subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, confirmed on biopsy in one of the infants.
  • Biopsy of the basal ganglia lesion in that case suggested subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • In infants, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas can present with unusual morphology and may feature diffuse basal ganglia involvement and severe calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Basal Ganglia / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20117758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5150
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Jozwiak J, Kotulska K, Grajkowska W, Jozwiak S, Zalewski W, Oldak M, Lojek M, Rainko K, Maksym R, Lazarczyk M, Skopinski P, Wlodarski P: Upregulation of the WNT pathway in tuberous sclerosis-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Brain Dev; 2007 Jun;29(5):273-80
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  • [Title] Upregulation of the WNT pathway in tuberous sclerosis-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Tuberous sclerosis (TS), autosomal dominant disorder manifested by the formation of usually benign tumors in the brain, heart, kidneys and skin, results from an inactivating mutation in one of two tumor suppressor genes TSC1 or TSC2.
  • In order to test this hypothesis we evaluated samples of four subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs), brain tumors developing in the progress of TS.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Tuberous Sclerosis / etiology. Tuberous Sclerosis / physiopathology. Up-Regulation / physiology. Wnt Proteins / physiology


11. de Ribaupierre S, Dorfmüller G, Bulteau C, Fohlen M, Pinard JM, Chiron C, Delalande O: Subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in pediatric tuberous sclerosis disease: when should we operate? Neurosurgery; 2007 Jan;60(1):83-89; discussion 89-90
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  • [Title] Subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in pediatric tuberous sclerosis disease: when should we operate?
  • OBJECTIVE: A small percentage of tuberous sclerosis patients will develop a subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma.
  • RESULTS: The results from our own population, as well as from other published pediatric series (15 series), indicate that subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas have a good prognosis when a macroscopically total resection has been performed.
  • CONCLUSION: We think that any lesion fulfilling the criteria for a subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma as previously described in the literature (lesion around the foramen of Monro, greater than 5 mm, with incomplete calcifications) should be removed as soon as clear evidence of growth has been confirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Tuberous Sclerosis / surgery


12. Clarke MJ, Foy AB, Wetjen N, Raffel C: Imaging characteristics and growth of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2006;20(1):E5
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  • [Title] Imaging characteristics and growth of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • OBJECT: Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are a common manifestation of tuberous sclerosis (TS).
  • Differentiating SEGAs from subependymal nodules (SENs) before obstruction occurs may improve the morbidity associated with these tumors.
  • Resection was recommended for symptomatic and neuroimaging evidence of hydrocephalus (41%), tumor growth without evidence of hydrocephalus (33%), and for poorly controlled seizures (25%).
  • The mean diameter of the tumors at the time of resection was 1.9 cm (range 0.3-4 cm), and no tumor recurred.
  • Tumor growth and contrast enhancement are the most common signs of progression on neuroimages, and may be seen prior to the development of obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16459995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Arvanitis LD, Koukoulis GK, Kanavaros P: The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Oncol Rep; 2009 Sep;22(3):521-4
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  • [Title] The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • In normal human brains the epitope H is present mostly to a minority of fibrous astrocytes, whereas it is greatly up-regulated in reactive astrocytes and is increased in well differentiated fibrillary astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • In this study the expression of the epitope H was investigated in thirty cases of gemistocytic (WHO grade II), pilocytic (WHO grade I), and subependymal giant cell (WHO grade I) astrocytomas using the mAbH with the indirect immunoperoxidase method.
  • The ten cases of gemistocytic astrocytomas revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • The ten cases of pilocytic astrocytomas revealed a biphasic pattern of epitope H expression.
  • The dense tumor areas composed of elongated pilocytic cells revealed high expression of the epitope H.
  • The loose cystic tumor areas composed of stellate cells revealed low expression of the epitope H.
  • The ten cases of subependynal giant cell astrocytomas occurring in tuberous sclerosis revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • This study shows that there is high expression of the epitope H in gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Collectively considering, the present and our previous data, it appears that there is a spectrum of the expression levels of the epitope H ranging from the high expression in the reactive astrocytes and low grade astrocytomas to the low/null expression in the normal astrocytes and glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylglucosamine / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Epitopes

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  • (PMID = 19639198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epitopes; V956696549 / Acetylglucosamine
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14. Cai R, Di X: Combined intra- and extra-endoscopic techniques for aggressive resection of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. World Neurosurg; 2010 Jun;73(6):713-8
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  • [Title] Combined intra- and extra-endoscopic techniques for aggressive resection of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • We report two cases of combined intra-/extra-axial endoscopic procedures--intraventricular solid tumor resection for subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: In 2007, two patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma with a long history of tuberous sclerosis underwent solely endoscopic, minimally invasive intraventricular tumor resection.
  • Pathologic diagnoses were subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • EMIN is a completive, safe procedure for intraventricular subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Frontal Lobe / surgery. Lateral Ventricles / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20934162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Potthast L, Chowdhary S, Pan E, Yu D, Zhu W, Brem S: The infiltrative, diffuse pattern of recurrence in patients with malignant gliomas treated with bevacizumab. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2057

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  • [Title] The infiltrative, diffuse pattern of recurrence in patients with malignant gliomas treated with bevacizumab.
  • : 2057 Background: There is no standard of care for recurrent gliomas; however, bevacizumab is often used as a salvage chemotherapy regimen.
  • A diffuse, infiltrative pattern of recurrence, as evidenced by MR imaging, was seen manifesting as multifocal disease or presumed CSF dissemination with subependymal spread.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 40 recurrent glioma patients followed at Moffitt Cancer Center from September 2006 through December 2008 treated with bevacizumab alone or in combination with irinotecan.
  • Histologies included glioblastoma (GB), anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO), anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA), and low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Incidence of diffuse, infiltrative recurrence was seen in 8 (20%) of patients (95% CI: [9%, 36%]).
  • This recurrence seems to be negatively associated with age: rate for age<=50: 6/18 (33%); (95% CI: [13%, 59%]) while rate for age>50: 2/22 (9%); (95% CI: [1%, 29%]), with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.0.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be an increase in a diffuse, infiltrative pattern of recurrence among recurrent glioma patients treated with bevacizumab as a salvage regimen.
  • It is unclear why the disparity among this subset of patients occurs, however, we hypothesize that this may once again highlight the distinct tumor biology among young glioma patients.
  • The impact of this observation on clinical decision making on whether to utilize bevacizumab in young recurrent glioma patients warrants further investigation.

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  • (PMID = 27964663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Ragel BT, Osborn AG, Whang K, Townsend JJ, Jensen RL, Couldwell WT: Subependymomas: an analysis of clinical and imaging features. Neurosurgery; 2006 May;58(5):881-90; discussion 881-90
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  • [Title] Subependymomas: an analysis of clinical and imaging features.
  • OBJECTIVE: Subependymomas are slow-growing, benign tumors usually found incidentally in the fourth ventricle at autopsy.
  • We review clinical, histological, and contemporary radiographic presentations of 16 subependymomas, including 2 intraparenchymal tumors.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated eight patients with pathologically proven subependymomas.
  • Imaging was also available on eight outside subependymoma cases reviewed by our radiology department.
  • RESULTS: Twelve of these subependymomas were intraventricular, one was in the posterior fossa, two were intraparenchymal, and one was an intramedullary spinal cord tumor.
  • Among our eight patients who underwent gross total resection with no adjuvant therapy, no recurrences have been noted on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging.
  • CONCLUSION: Subependymomas are rare, representing only 0.51% of all central nervous system tumors operated on during an 8-year period at the University of Utah.
  • Clinical symptoms were associated with tumor location: intracranial masses caused headaches, seizures, and neurological complaints, and spinal cord locations resulted in neurological deficit.
  • The authors review the clinical presentation, management, and contemporary radiographic appearance of this rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Glioma, Subependymal / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 16639322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Birca A, Mercier C, Major P: Rapamycin as an alternative to surgical treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Oct;6(4):381-4
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  • [Title] Rapamycin as an alternative to surgical treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with the potential development of benign hamartomas, including subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs).
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / administration & dosage. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications


18. Levine NB, Collins J, Franz DN, Crone KR: Gradual formation of an operative corridor by balloon dilation for resection of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in children with tuberous sclerosis: specialized minimal access technique of balloon dilation. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2006 Oct;49(5):317-20
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  • [Title] Gradual formation of an operative corridor by balloon dilation for resection of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in children with tuberous sclerosis: specialized minimal access technique of balloon dilation.
  • BACKGROUND: Major sources of morbidity and mortality in patients with tuberous sclerosis who develop subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) relate to tumor growth and resultant hydrocephalus.
  • We describe a modification of a specialized minimal access resection technique in which an operative corridor is formed with balloon dilation over the course of a week prior to tumor resection.
  • METHODS: Three patients with tuberous sclerosis who had an enlarging SEGA and concomitant hydrocephalus underwent surgical resection with this modified technique.
  • A frontal craniotomy was performed and the optimal trajectory for tumor resection was confirmed by image guidance.
  • One week after the first operation, the balloon was deflated and removed, and the patient underwent tumor resection via the newly formed operative corridor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Catheterization / methods. Craniotomy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Tuberous Sclerosis / surgery


19. Fisher PG, Tihan T, Goldthwaite PT, Wharam MD, Carson BS, Weingart JD, Repka MX, Cohen KJ, Burger PC: Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Aug;51(2):245-50
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  • [Title] Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the long-term natural history of low-grade astrocytomas (LGA) in children, with respect to pathology, and to evaluate influence of treatment on survival.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-eight children (160 males; mean age 9.1 years; tumor location: 77 cerebrum, 62 cerebellum, 51 hypothalamic, 30 thalamus, 9 ventricle, 40 brainstem, and 9 spine) were assessed.
  • Among 246 specimens reviewed, diagnoses were 135 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 27 diffuse astrocytoma (DA), 75 unclassifiable well-differentiated astrocytoma (NOS), and 9 subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • Reviewed diagnoses were highly associated with OS (P < 0.0001), with 5-year OS for PA 96%, DA 48%, and NOS 86%; these differences remained significant when stratified by location or extent of resection.
  • Among patients with residual tumor after surgery, 5-year PFS was 48% with observation alone (n = 114), no different (P = 0.32) from that achieved with immediate irradiation (n = 86).
  • While tumor location and resection extent affect outcome, pathologic diagnosis when carefully interpreted significantly influences long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18386785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. O'Callaghan FJ, Martyn CN, Renowden S, Noakes M, Presdee D, Osborne JP: Subependymal nodules, giant cell astrocytomas and the tuberous sclerosis complex: a population-based study. Arch Dis Child; 2008 Sep;93(9):751-4
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  • [Title] Subependymal nodules, giant cell astrocytomas and the tuberous sclerosis complex: a population-based study.
  • OBJECTIVES:. (1) In a population-based study of tuberous sclerosis (TSC), to identify the number of patients presenting with symptomatic giant cell astrocytomas (GCAs);.
  • (2) within a subset of this population, to identify the number who would be diagnosed with GCAs on predetermined radiological criteria.
  • Thirty-nine of these had subependymal nodules, of whom 24 (59%) had at least one (maximum 11) that showed enhancement with gadolinium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the proportion of patients with TSC who had a history of symptomatic GCA was 5.6%.
  • In the subset without such a history, who underwent imaging, the number diagnosed as having a GCA on radiological criteria was much higher (59% gadolinium enhancement and 17% >1 cm in size).
  • Screening for GCAs (performing scans on asymptomatic patients with TSC) would therefore identify large numbers of patients who had not presented with symptoms.
  • This finding leads us to recommend that screening should not be undertaken.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Tuberous Sclerosis / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mental Disorders / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dis Child. 2009 Jan;94(1):75-6 [19103791.001]
  • (PMID = 18456692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2044
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of disease in childhood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dis. Child.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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21. Raju GP, Urion DK, Sahin M: Neonatal subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: new case and review of literature. Pediatr Neurol; 2007 Feb;36(2):128-31
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  • [Title] Neonatal subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: new case and review of literature.
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are one of the three major intracranial lesions found in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are typically slow-growing tumors of mixed glioneuronal lineage which can become aggressive and cause obstructive hydrocephalus usually in older children and adolescents.
  • Neonatal subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are extremely rare, and their natural history and prognosis are poorly understood.
  • This report investigates an extremely large neonatal subependymal giant cell astrocytoma which was initially identified in utero at 19 weeks of gestation in a high-risk pregnancy with no family history of tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17275668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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22. Henderson MA, Fakiris AJ, Timmerman RD, Worth RM, Lo SS, Witt TC: Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg; 2009;87(3):161-7
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  • [Title] Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA; 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 2 fibrillary astrocytomas) were selected for treatment with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) based on having a demarcated appearance on CT or MRI and the possibility of dose sparing of adjacent eloquent structures.
  • A median dose of 13 Gy was prescribed to the 50% isodose line, which covered the gross tumor.
  • With a median follow-up of 48.2 months, 4-year tumor control and overall survival were 77 and 83%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19321969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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23. Orakcioglu B, Schramm P, Kohlhof P, Aschoff A, Unterberg A, Halatsch ME: Characteristics of thoracolumbar intramedullary subependymomas. J Neurosurg Spine; 2009 Jan;10(1):54-9
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  • [Title] Characteristics of thoracolumbar intramedullary subependymomas.
  • OBJECT: Thoracolumbar intraspinal subependymomas are very rare intramedullary low-grade tumors.
  • The authors report on the clinical and morphological features of 2 cases of thoracolumbar intraspinal subependymomas and provide midterm follow-up data.
  • METHODS: The clinical and radiological profiles of 2 patients with progressive spinal cord dysfunction due to thoracolumbar intraspinal subependymomas were retrospectively studied and compared with previously reported cases.
  • RESULTS: Patients with intraspinal subependymomas initially presented with back pain and long-tract signs.
  • On follow-up (at 58 and 18 months, respectively), no tumor recurrence was observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic thoracolumbar intraspinal subependymomas with a distinct appearance on MR imaging are amenable to complete excision with favorable neurological outcome.
  • In this study no tumor recurrence was observed at midterm follow-up in either patient, neither of whom underwent adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19119934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Rushing EJ, Cooper PB, Quezado M, Begnami M, Crespo A, Smirniotopoulos JG, Ecklund J, Olsen C, Santi M: Subependymoma revisited: clinicopathological evaluation of 83 cases. J Neurooncol; 2007 Dec;85(3):297-305
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  • [Title] Subependymoma revisited: clinicopathological evaluation of 83 cases.
  • OBJECT: Subependymomas are rare ependymal neoplasms.
  • To date, a large clinicopathologic study of these benign neoplasms treated with modern neurosurgical techniques has not been reported.
  • METHODS: Eighty-three cases of subependymoma were retrieved from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
  • Eighteen-percent (15/83) of subependymomas exhibited a mixed histologic pattern; that is, subependymoma together with another glial tumor.
  • The most common mixture (13/15) was subependymoma and ependymoma.
  • All patients were without evidence of disease at the last follow-up: alive (n = 28) or dead (n = 8).
  • Subependymomas do not appear to be associated with NF2 mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17569000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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25. Buccoliero AM, Franchi A, Castiglione F, Gheri CF, Mussa F, Giordano F, Genitori L, Taddei GL: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA): Is it an astrocytoma? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Neuropathology; 2009 Feb;29(1):25-30
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  • [Title] Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA): Is it an astrocytoma? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.
  • Subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a rare intra-ventricular low-grade tumor which frequently occurs as a manifestation of tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • In spite of this, in the recently revised WHO classification of the CNS tumors, SEGA has been still included in the group of astrocytomas.
  • We suggest moving it into the group of mixed glio-neuronal tumors under the denomination of subependymal giant cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18564101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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26. Ess KC, Kamp CA, Tu BP, Gutmann DH: Developmental origin of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex. Neurology; 2005 Apr 26;64(8):1446-9
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  • [Title] Developmental origin of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) harbor developmental brain abnormalities (cortical tubers) and low-grade tumors (subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs]).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics. Tuberous Sclerosis / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Animals. Cell Lineage / genetics. Child. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / genetics. Genetic Markers / genetics. Humans. Infant. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Neurons / metabolism. Stem Cells / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


27. Franz DN, Leonard J, Tudor C, Chuck G, Care M, Sethuraman G, Dinopoulos A, Thomas G, Crone KR: Rapamycin causes regression of astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. Ann Neurol; 2006 Mar;59(3):490-8
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  • [Title] Rapamycin causes regression of astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • OBJECTIVE: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of hamartomas in multiple organs.
  • Five to 15% of affected individuals display subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, which can lead to substantial neurological and postoperative morbidity due to the production of hydrocephalus, mass effect, and their typical location adjacent to the foramen of Monro.
  • We sought to see whether therapy with oral rapamycin could affect growth or induce regression in astrocytomas associated with TSC.
  • METHODS: Five subjects with clinically definite TSC and either subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (n = 4) or a pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 1) were treated with oral rapamycin at standard immunosuppressive doses (serum levels 5-15 ng/ml) from 2.5 to 20 months.
  • Interruption of therapy resulted in regrowth of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in one patient.
  • INTERPRETATION: Oral rapamycin therapy can induce regression of astrocytomas associated with TSC and may offer an alternative to operative therapy of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents. Regression (Psychology). Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications


28. Kidd EA, Mansur DB, Leonard JR, Michalski JM, Simpson JR, Perry A: The efficacy of radiation therapy in the management of grade I astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jan;76(1):55-8
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  • [Title] The efficacy of radiation therapy in the management of grade I astrocytomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome of patients with grade I astrocytomas treated with radiation therapy, specifically looking at the prognostic significance of age, timing of radiation therapy (immediately after surgery or delayed until progression) and tumor location.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of patients with grade I astrocytomas treated at Washington University Medical Center between 1982 and 2002 were reviewed.
  • Twenty patients with grade I pilocytic astrocytoma (n=19) or subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (n=1) were treated with radiation therapy with curative intent.
  • Patients who received radiation therapy immediately after biopsy or surgery had a 5-year PFS of 77% versus 50% for patients who received radiation therapy after initial disease progression (P=0.013).
  • All tumor recurrences were local.
  • CONCLUSIONS: While this study reports an excellent overall survival, approximately one third of patients with grade I astrocytomas had progressive disease following radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16132503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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29. Rath TJ, Sundgren PC, Brahma B, Lieberman AP, Chandler WF, Gebarski SS: Massive symptomatic subependymoma of the lateral ventricles: case report and review of the literature. Neuroradiology; 2005 Mar;47(3):183-8
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  • [Title] Massive symptomatic subependymoma of the lateral ventricles: case report and review of the literature.
  • Subependymomas are benign intraventricular tumors with an indolent growth pattern, which are usually asymptomatic, and most commonly occur in the fourth and lateral ventricles.
  • When symptomatic, subependymomas often obstruct critical portions of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathway, causing hydrocephalus, and range from 3 cm to 5 cm in size.
  • We report a case of an unusually massive subependymoma of the lateral ventricles treated with subtotal resection, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and post-surgical radiation.
  • The clinical course, radiographic and pathologic characteristics of this massive intraventricular subependymoma are discussed, as well as the differential diagnosis of lateral ventricular masses and a review of the literature concerning subependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15702322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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30. Akamatsu Y, Utsunomiya A, Suzuki S, Endo T, Suzuki I, Nishimura S, Ezura M, Suzuki H, Uenohara H, Tominaga T: Subependymoma in the lateral ventricle manifesting as intraventricular hemorrhage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(11):1020-3
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  • [Title] Subependymoma in the lateral ventricle manifesting as intraventricular hemorrhage.
  • A 32-year-old man presented with subependymoma in the lateral ventricle causing intraventricular hemorrhage and manifesting as severe headache and disturbance of consciousness.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging at 5 weeks after admission showed a tumor arising from the septum pellucidum or the floor of the right lateral ventricle, appearing as a mixed-intensity solid tumor, which was partially enhanced following gadolinium administration.
  • The tumor had arisen from the septum pellucidum and was totally removed via an interhemispheric anterior transcallosal approach.
  • Histological examination found typical subependymoma, with little vascularity.
  • Since subependymomas are quite benign and show poor vascularity, intraventricular or subarachnoid hemorrhages are very rare, but do occasionally occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / complications. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma, Subependymal / complications. Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Lateral Ventricles / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21123990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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31. Kurt E, Zheng PP, Hop WC, van der Weiden M, Bol M, van den Bent MJ, Avezaat CJ, Kros JM: Identification of relevant prognostic histopathologic features in 69 intracranial ependymomas, excluding myxopapillary ependymomas and subependymomas. Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;106(2):388-95
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  • [Title] Identification of relevant prognostic histopathologic features in 69 intracranial ependymomas, excluding myxopapillary ependymomas and subependymomas.
  • Furthermore, in many investigations, myxopapillary ependymomas and subependymomas were included and may have confounded results, because those tumors should be considered clinicopathologic entities distinct from the other ependymomas.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective study, the influence of the histologic subtype of ependymoma and of individual histologic features on the outcome of 69 patients with ependymomas was investigated.
  • Myxopapillary ependymomas, subependymomas, and ependymomas with spinal localizations were excluded from the analysis.
  • Neither tumor localization (either infratentorial or supratentorial), patient age, nor gender affected survival.
  • The survival of patients who underwent complete tumor resection differed significantly from that of patients who underwent partial resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the univariate analysis indicated that, for patients with intracranial ependymoma, nuclear atypia, the mitotic index, and the MIB-1 LI significantly influenced survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / mortality. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16342252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / MIB-1 antibody
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32. Chittiboina P, Zhang S, Bao J, Vannemreddy P, Guthikonda B: Subependymoma at the foramen of Monro presenting with intermittent hydrocephalus: case report and review of the literature. J La State Med Soc; 2010 Jul-Aug;162(4):214-7
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  • [Title] Subependymoma at the foramen of Monro presenting with intermittent hydrocephalus: case report and review of the literature.
  • Subependymomas are benign neoplasms, accounting for 0.5 % of all central nervous system tumors.
  • However, patients may be symptomatic with the symptoms depending on location of the tumor.
  • Since subependymomas typically arise from the ventricular wall, obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid is a major cause of onset symptoms.
  • We present a rare case report of a subependymoma at the foramen of Monro presenting with intermittent hydrocephalus.
  • The patient's tumor was asymptomatic for many years.
  • Our report illustrates a case of intermittent hydrocephalus due to a sessile subependymoma.
  • Even though our patient presented with a histologically benign ventricular tumor, she demonstrated rapidly worsening symptoms that culminated in herniation.
  • By presenting our case report, we hope to draw attention to this rare but potentially life-threatening presentation of subependymoma.
  • Once diagnosed, we recommend early tumor removal and restoration of normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways for these intraventricular tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricles. Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Hydrocephalus / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Headache / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20882814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-6921
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society : official organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J La State Med Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Schramm J, Blümcke I, Ostertag CB, Schlegel U, Simon M, Lutterbach J: Low-grade gliomas -- current concepts. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2006 May;67(2):55-66
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  • [Title] Low-grade gliomas -- current concepts.
  • Diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas (mixed gliomas) WHO grade II, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs), pilocytic astrocytomas, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are often referred to as low-grade gliomas.
  • WHO grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed gliomas are characterized by their infiltrative growth, frequent tumor recurrence and a more than 50 % risk for malignant progression.
  • In contrast, pilocytic astrocytomas and SEGAs are circumscribed tumors amenable to a (radio)surgical cure.
  • There are few universally accepted guidelines for the treatment of low-grade gliomas.
  • In this review, three neurosurgeons, a neurologist, a neuropathologist, and a radiation oncologist discuss some of the difficult issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of low-grade gliomas from their individual points of view (i. e., classification and neuropathology, MR imaging, stereotactic biopsy, microsurgery, interstitial radiotherapy/brachytherapy, radiotherapy, wait and see strategy).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 16673237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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34. Yu T, Zeng C, Zhao JZ: [Intracranial subependymoma: clinical features and surgical management of 22 cases]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Mar 23;90(11):756-9
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  • [Title] [Intracranial subependymoma: clinical features and surgical management of 22 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features, neuro-radiology and treatment of intracranial subependymomas.
  • METHODS: A total of 22 subependymomas were reviewed with regards to clinical presentation, neuro-imaging features, treatment, histopathological features and long-term follow-up.
  • One tumor was located in temporal lobe, mesencephalon, thalamus and pons.
  • CONCLUSION: Intracranial subependymoma is a rare benign tumor.
  • The prognosis is excellent and there is a rare tumor recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Glioma, Subependymal

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  • (PMID = 20627021.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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35. Kawaguchi T, Kumabe T, Shimizu H, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: 201Tl-SPECT and 1H-MRS study of benign lateral ventricle tumors: differential diagnosis of subependymoma. Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Apr;28(2):96-103
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  • [Title] 201Tl-SPECT and 1H-MRS study of benign lateral ventricle tumors: differential diagnosis of subependymoma.
  • Our study includes nine cases of benign lateral ventricle tumors including two cases of central neurocytoma, two of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, two of pilocytic astrocytoma and three of subependymoma treated surgically between 1996 and 2003.
  • All three types of tumor demonstrated heterogeneous enhancement on MR imaging with gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and increased choline (Cho) peak and decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cre) peaks on (1)H-MRS. (201)Tl-SPECT showed high uptake of (201)Tl without wash out in all cases of central neurocytoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma, but no uptake in cases of subependymoma.
  • Absence of (201)Tl uptake in contrast with enhancement on MR imaging and the (1)H-MRS features of modest elevation of the Cho/Cre ratio, reduction of the NAA peak and presence of lactate/lipid peaks are characteristic features of subependymomas and useful to establish a preoperative diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Lateral Ventricles. Neurocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15580370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thallium Radioisotopes
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36. Koutourousiou M, Georgakoulias N, Kontogeorgos G, Seretis A: Subependymomas of the lateral ventricle: tumor recurrence correlated with increased Ki-67 labeling index. Neurol India; 2009 Mar-Apr;57(2):191-3

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  • [Title] Subependymomas of the lateral ventricle: tumor recurrence correlated with increased Ki-67 labeling index.
  • Subependymomas of the lateral ventricles are rare tumors.
  • We present two patients with subependymomas of the lateral ventricle, who underwent gross total resection of the tumor via transcallosal approach.
  • The patient, with increased Ki-67 labeling index had recurrence of tumor two years after the initial operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma, Subependymal / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19439853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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37. Limaïem F, Bellil SB, Bellil K, Chelly I, Jemel H, Haouet S, Khaldi M, Zitouna M, Kchir N: Subependymomas: a clinicopathological study of 6 symptomatic cases. Pathologica; 2008 Oct;100(5):401-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subependymomas: a clinicopathological study of 6 symptomatic cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Subependymomas are rare, slow-growing, ependymal neoplasms that commonly occur in the fourth or lateral ventricles.
  • OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: A retrospective study of 6 histologically proven subependymomas was undertaken to analyse their clinicopathological characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebral Ventriculography. Child. Female. Fourth Ventricle / chemistry. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / radiography. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vimentin / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19253599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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38. Carrasco R, Pascual JM, Navas M, Fraga J, Manzanares-Soler R, Sola RG: Spontaneous acute hemorrhage within a subependymoma of the lateral ventricle: successful emergent surgical removal through a frontal transcortical approach. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2010 Dec;21(6):478-83
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  • [Title] Spontaneous acute hemorrhage within a subependymoma of the lateral ventricle: successful emergent surgical removal through a frontal transcortical approach.
  • INTRODUCTION. Subependymomas are benign neoplasms intimately related to the ventricular system which only exceptionally associate hemorrhagic events.
  • We present neuroradiological and pathological evidences of intratumoral hemorrhage within a single case of subependymoma operated on at our institution.
  • Pathological diagnosis was consistent with subependymoma displaying areas of microhemorrhage.
  • CONCLUSIONS. A spontaneous hemorrhagic event within an asymptomatic lateral ventricle subependymoma can result in a surgical emergence as a consequence of sudden obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Hemorrhage / surgery. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms. Glioma, Subependymal. Lateral Ventricles. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 21165545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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39. Jabri HE, Dababo MA, Alkhani AM: Subependymoma of the spine. Neurosciences (Riyadh); 2010 Apr;15(2):126-8
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  • [Title] Subependymoma of the spine.
  • Subependymoma is a rare benign CNS tumor (WHO grade I).
  • The common sites of origin for this type of tumor are the lateral and the fourth ventricles.
  • Radiological features of intramedullary subependymoma can mimic more common and more aggressive tumor types.
  • We report a case of a 61-year-old male who presented with a 3-year history of low back pain, associated with right lower limb progressive weakness and sensory numbness.
  • Clinical presentation, radiological, and pathological studies of this case of subependymoma are presented.
  • The incidence of spinal subependymoma was also discussed in light of a literature review.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spine / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20672503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-6138
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosciences (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosciences (Riyadh)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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40. Zenmyo M, Ishido Y, Terahara M, Yamamoto T, Tanimoto A, Komiya S, Ijiri K: Intramedullary subependymoma of the cervical spinal cord: a case report with immunohistochemical study. Int J Neurosci; 2010 Oct;120(10):676-9
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  • [Title] Intramedullary subependymoma of the cervical spinal cord: a case report with immunohistochemical study.
  • Spinal subependymomas, which have a relatively benign nature, are very rare tumors.
  • It is difficult to distinguish spinal subependymomas from other intramedullary spinal tumors based on neuroradiological findings.
  • A case of cervical intramedullary subependymoma in a 63-year-old female is reported.
  • Enhancement in the small part of the tumor was observed on a T1-weighted MRI with gadolinium administration.
  • The tumor occupied the left side of the spinal cord, and was totally removed through a laminoplasty of C2.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependyma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20942580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1563-5279
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Kurian KM, Jones DT, Marsden F, Openshaw SW, Pearson DM, Ichimura K, Collins VP: Genome-wide analysis of subependymomas shows underlying chromosomal copy number changes involving chromosomes 6, 7, 8 and 14 in a proportion of cases. Brain Pathol; 2008 Oct;18(4):469-73
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  • [Title] Genome-wide analysis of subependymomas shows underlying chromosomal copy number changes involving chromosomes 6, 7, 8 and 14 in a proportion of cases.
  • Subependymomas (SE) are slow-growing brain tumors that tend to occur within the ventricles of middle-aged and elderly adults.
  • The World Health Organization classifies these tumors within the ependymoma group.
  • Previous limited analysis of this tumor type had not revealed significant underlying cytogenetic abnormalities.
  • The observation that five of 12 cases examined (42%) at 0.97-Mb resolution showed chromosomal copy number abnormalities is a novel finding in this tumor type.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. Gene Dosage / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Glioma, Subependymal / genetics. Monosomy. Trisomy

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  • (PMID = 18397339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2659379
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42. Piao Y, Lu L, de Groot J: AMPA receptors promote perivascular glioma invasion via beta1 integrin-dependent adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Neuro Oncol; 2009 Jun;11(3):260-73
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  • [Title] AMPA receptors promote perivascular glioma invasion via beta1 integrin-dependent adhesion to the extracellular matrix.
  • High-grade gliomas release excitotoxic concentrations of glutamate, which has been shown to enhance tumor proliferation and migration. alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors are abundantly expressed at the invading edge of glioblastoma specimens, suggesting they may play an important biologic role in tumor invasion.
  • In this study, we examined potential mechanisms by which AMPA receptor (AMPAR) expression and stimulation promote glioma cell migration and invasion.
  • Overexpression of GluR1, the most abundant AMPAR subunit in gliomas, positively correlated with glioma cell adhesion to type I and type IV collagen, which was decreased in cells with knockdown of GluR1 and with blocking antibodies to beta1 integrin.
  • Cells overexpressing GluR1 had increased colocalization of actin and paxillin at FAs and, in several glioma cell lines, significantly increased invasion in an in vitro Matrigel transwell assay.
  • Likewise, in an intracranial xenograft model, overexpression of GluR1 led to perivascular and subependymal glioma cell invasion similar to patterns of tumor dissemination described in human glioblastoma.
  • Together, these results suggest that AMPARs may link signals from the ECM to sites of FA, where signal integration promotes tumor invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD29 / metabolism. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Glioma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Receptors, AMPA / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / genetics. Collagen / metabolism. Female. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Mice. Mice, Nude. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transfection. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 18957620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD29; 0 / Receptors, AMPA; 0 / glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 1; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2718970
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43. Maekawa M, Fujisawa H, Iwayama Y, Tamase A, Toyota T, Osumi N, Yoshikawa T: Giant subependymoma developed in a patient with aniridia: analyses of PAX6 and tumor-relevant genes. Brain Pathol; 2010 Nov;20(6):1033-41
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  • [Title] Giant subependymoma developed in a patient with aniridia: analyses of PAX6 and tumor-relevant genes.
  • We observed an unusually large subependymoma in a female patient with congenital aniridia.
  • To analyze the genetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, we first examined the paired box 6 (PAX6) gene using both tumor tissue and peripheral lymphocytes.
  • Tumor suppressor activity has been proposed for PAX6 in gliomas, in addition to its well-known role in the eye development.
  • The subependymoma had an additional de novo deletion spanning from the intron 4 to intron 6 of PAX6, although we could not completely determine whether these two deletions are on the same chromosome or not.
  • We also examined other potentially relevant tumor suppressor genes: PTEN, TP53 and SOX2.
  • Collectively, we speculate that the defect in PAX6 may have contributed to the extremely large size of the subependymoma, due to a loss of tumor suppressor activity in glial cell lineage.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Eye Proteins / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors; Brain Pathology © 2010 International Society of Neuropathology.
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  • (PMID = 20500513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991767
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44. Holveck A, Grand S, Boini S, Kirchin M, Le Bas JF, Dietemann JL, Bracard S, Kremer S: Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI evaluation of cerebral intraventricular tumors: preliminary results. J Neuroradiol; 2010 Dec;37(5):269-75
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  • METHODS: A total of 28 patients with intraventricular tumors (five meningiomas, five papillomas, three ependymomas, four subependymomas, seven central neurocytomas, two subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and two metastases) underwent conventional and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI.
  • Cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps were obtained and the relative CBV (rCBV) calculated for each tumor.
  • RESULTS: Intraventricular tumors presented with three different patterns of vascularization: highly vascularized tumors (mean rCBV(max)>3), including papillomas, meningiomas and renal carcinoma metastases; poorly vascularized tumors (mean rCBV(max)<2), including ependymomas and subependymomas; and intermediately vascularized tumors (mean rCBV(max)>2 but<3), including central neurocytomas and lung metastases.
  • There was a significant difference between the highly vascularized (papillomas, meningiomas) and poorly vascularized (subependymomas) tumors.
  • In cases of suspected meningioma, papilloma or neurocytoma, low rCBV values (<3) point to a diagnosis of neurocytoma rather than either of the other tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Meningioma / pathology. Neurocytoma / pathology. Papilloma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20435349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0150-9861
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroradiology. Journal de neuroradiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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45. White JB, Miller GM, Layton KF, Krauss WE: Nonenhancing tumors of the spinal cord. J Neurosurg Spine; 2007 Oct;7(4):403-7
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  • OBJECT: Enhancement of pathological entities in the central nervous system is a common finding when the blood-brain barrier has been compromised.
  • In the brain, the presence or absence of gadolinium enhancement is often an indicator of tumor invasiveness and/or grade.
  • In the spinal cord, however, contrast enhancement has been shown in all tumor types, regardless of grade.
  • Histologically, a majority of tumors were astrocytomas (eight low-grade and two high-grade lesions); one tumor was a subependymoma.
  • The absence of enhancement does not imply the absence of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / radiography. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17933314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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46. Koral K, Kedzierski RM, Gimi B, Gomez A, Rollins NK: Subependymoma of the cerebellopontine angle and prepontine cistern in a 15-year-old adolescent boy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Jan;29(1):190-1
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  • [Title] Subependymoma of the cerebellopontine angle and prepontine cistern in a 15-year-old adolescent boy.
  • SUMMARY: A case of cerebellopontine angle and prepontine cistern subependymoma in a 15-year-old adolescent boy is presented with a review of the literature.
  • Apparent diffusion coefficient values for subependymoma are reported.
  • Differential considerations for the unusual location of this rare tumor are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / radiography. Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17925361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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47. Fujisawa H, Hasegawa M, Ueno M: Clinical features and management of five patients with supratentorial subependymoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Feb;17(2):201-4
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  • [Title] Clinical features and management of five patients with supratentorial subependymoma.
  • Subependymoma is a rare low-grade glioma of the central nervous system that is often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally.
  • Of the three symptomatic patients, one presented with sudden loss of consciousness despite having only a small tumor, while in contrast, another patient showed only gradual memory disturbance despite having a very large tumor (90 mm diameter).
  • We concluded that as surgery is the only curative treatment for subependymoma, and even a small tumor can present with sudden deterioration, we recommend early and total resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Lateral Ventricles / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20036555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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48. Choi YL, Kim CJ, Matsuo T, Gaetano C, Falconi R, Suh YL, Kim SH, Shin YK, Park SH, Chi JG, Thiele CJ: HUlip, a human homologue of unc-33-like phosphoprotein of Caenorhabditis elegans; Immunohistochemical localization in the developing human brain and patterns of expression in nervous system tumors. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;73(1):19-27
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  • Ten human brains at different developmental stages and 118 cases of nervous system tumor tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry.
  • Twelve related tumor cell lines were also analyzed by northern blotting and immunoblotting.
  • Among tumors, hUlip expression was easily detected in tumor cells undergoing neuronal differentiation such as ganglioneuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas.
  • Furthermore, hUlip immunoreactivity was also found in various brain tumors showing neuronal differentiation: central neurocytomas (6 of 6 cases were positive), medulloblastomas (5/11), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (1/1) and gangliogliomas (4/7).
  • Some astrocytic tumors also showed weak positivity: astrocytomas (1 of 5 cases), anaplastic astrocytomas (2/5), and glioblastomas (3/11).
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and subependymomas, which are of controversial histogenetic origin, showed strong hUlip immunoreactivity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytes / cytology. Astrocytes / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neuroblastoma / genetics. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neurons / cytology. Neurons / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15933812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DPYSL3 protein, human; 0 / Muscle Proteins
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49. Jang WY, Lee JK, Lee JH, Kim JH, Kim SH, Lee KH, Lee MC: Intramedullary subependymoma of the thoracic spinal cord. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Jun;16(6):851-3
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  • [Title] Intramedullary subependymoma of the thoracic spinal cord.
  • We report a rare case of a thoracic intramedullary subependymoma in a 37-year-old woman.
  • The patient developed a monoparesis of the right leg after a subtotal resection of the tumor.
  • During the 30 months of follow-up the neurological deficit improved and the patient remained symptom free without progression of the remnant tumor.
  • A complete resection of the tumor is usually curative with improved function.
  • In patients with poor delineation between the tumor and the spinal cord, subtotal removal and close follow-up should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19297162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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50. Ohmura T, Tsugu H, Iwaasa M, Utsunomiya H, Fukushima T, Inoue T: Subependymoma with prominent rosenthal fiber formation: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(10):933-5
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  • [Title] Subependymoma with prominent rosenthal fiber formation: case report.
  • A 62-year-old woman presented with a rare case of subependymoma associated with prominent Rosenthal fibers located in the left lateral ventricle manifesting as right hemiparesis and mild motor aphasia.
  • The tumor was well demarcated and consisted of clusters of round nuclei embedded in an abundant gliofibrillary matrix with some microcysts and prominent Rosenthal fibers.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor stained positively for glial fibrillary acidic protein and negatively for synaptophysin.
  • This case of subependymoma containing Rosenthal fiber formation is very unusual.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / pathology. Extracellular Matrix / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21030810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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51. Romoli S, Abbruzzese A, Castagna M, Becherini F, Parenti G: Unusual exophytic subependymoma in the bulbo-cerebellar angle. Case report. J Neurosurg Sci; 2007 Jun;51(2):81-4
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  • [Title] Unusual exophytic subependymoma in the bulbo-cerebellar angle. Case report.
  • Subependymoma was first described by Scheinker in 1945; it frequently occurs in the ventricles and rarely in the spinal canal representing 0.7% of all central nervous system tumours.
  • We report a case of subependymoma with a completely exophytic growth from the foramen of Luscka: only a similar one has been described in the literature but with a lesser cysternal involvement.
  • Neuroradiological and anatomopathological features of subependymoma are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17571040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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52. Osztie E, Hanzély Z, Afra D: Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Jan;69(1):67-73
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  • [Title] Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives.
  • Neuroimaging data of lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas diagnosed in one institution were reviewed and compared to the corresponding literature data.
  • Thirteen subependymomas were hypodense, mostly without enhancement, but occasionally mild or moderate enhancement was noted.
  • Eight subependymal giant cell astrocytomas also displayed hypodense, rarely hyperdense or mixed imaging characteristics, and always showed significant degree of contrast enhancement.
  • Nineteen central neurocytomas showed hypo- or mixed density, but mostly mild to moderate enhancement.
  • Ependymomas and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas followed the characteristics of the similar extraventricular ones.
  • In our series low-grade astrocytomas, WHO I-II [Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Canevee WK.
  • WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system.
  • Our data support those of previous studies in that MRI has been found to be superior to CT for a more precise imaging of lateral ventricle gliomas.
  • Survival data were available in 65 cases, which have confirmed a favourable outcome in most of the patients with subependymoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, central neurocytomas or pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neurocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18023315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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53. Gibson SE, Zeng WF, Weil RJ, Prayson RA: Aurora B kinase expression in ependymal neoplasms. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 May;16(3):274-8
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  • [Title] Aurora B kinase expression in ependymal neoplasms.
  • Overexpression of Aurora B kinase, which regulates cell progression through mitosis and cytokinesis, has been shown to be associated with higher-grade tumors and shortened survival in astrocytomas.
  • Aurora B expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 32 ependymomas, 10 anaplastic ependymomas, 16 myxopapillary ependymomas, and 9 subependymomas.
  • Aurora B expression was identified in 20 (62.5%) ependymomas, 5 (50%) anaplastic ependymomas, 1 (6.3%) myxopapillary ependymoma, and no subependymomas.
  • The association between Aurora B expression and World Health Organization grade II/III tumors was statistically significant (P<0.0001).
  • Aurora B expression was not associated with patient age, sex, tumor location, tumor recurrence, or death from tumor.
  • In contrast to astrocytomas, elevated Aurora B expression in higher-grade ependymomas does not seem to correlate with clinical course, although it may be a potential target of Aurora kinase inhibitors.

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  • (PMID = 18301241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / AURKB protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase B; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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54. Yadav RK, Agarwal S, Saini J, Sharma NK: Imaging appearance of subependymoma: a rare tumor of the cord. Indian J Cancer; 2008 Jan-Mar;45(1):33-5
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  • [Title] Imaging appearance of subependymoma: a rare tumor of the cord.
  • Subependymoma of the cord are rare tumors with very few cases described in the literature.
  • They are biologically benign with low proliferative index, hence postoperative prognosis is very good.
  • We present a case of a 42-year-old male patient with an intramedullary Subependymoma located within the central canal of thoracic region cord.
  • On imaging with T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences it mimicked syringohydromyelia, however, on heavily T2-weighted images the tumor located within the central canal could be delineated.
  • The tumor was excised with complete recovery.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18453739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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55. Ariga T, Suetake K, Nakane M, Kubota M, Usuki S, Kawashima I, Yu RK: Glycosphingolipid antigens in neural tumor cell lines and anti-glycosphingolipid antibodies in sera of patients with neural tumors. Neurosignals; 2008;16(2-3):226-34
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  • [Title] Glycosphingolipid antigens in neural tumor cell lines and anti-glycosphingolipid antibodies in sera of patients with neural tumors.
  • To characterize biomarkers in neural tumors, we analyzed the acidic lipid fractions of 13 neural tumor cell lines using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) immunostaining.
  • Sulfoglucuronosyl paragloboside (SGPG) was the prominent species with lesser amounts of sulfoglucuronosyl lactosaminyl paragloboside (SGLPG) in these tumor cell lines as assessed by quantitative HPTLC immunostaining.
  • Among the gangliosides surveyed, GD3 and 9-O-acetylated GD3 (OAc-GD3) were expressed in all tumor cell lines.
  • All sera had high titers of antibodies of the IgM isotype against SGPG (titers over 1:3,200), especially in tumors such as meningiomas, germinomas, orbital tumors, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, and subependymomas.
  • Serum in a patient with subependymomas also had a high anti-SGGL antibody titer of the IgG and IgA types (titers over 12,800).
  • The titer of anti-GD3 antibody was also elevated in patients with subependymomas and medulloblastomas; the latter cases also had a high titer of antibody against OAc-GD3.
  • Our data indicate that certain GSL antigens, especially SGGLs, GD3, and OAc-GD3, are expressed in neural tumor cells and may be considered as tumor-associated antigens that represent important biomarkers for neural tumors.
  • Furthermore, antibody titers in sera of patients with these tumors may be of diagnostic value for monitoring the presence of tumor cells and tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neoplasm / blood. Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Glycosphingolipids / physiology. Nervous System Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers / blood. Cattle. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18253060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-8638
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Signals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosignals
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 2 RO1 NS26994-33
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Glycosphingolipids
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56. Boada M, Gómez E, Puig J, Pedraza S: [Intraventricular fibrous tumor: a case report]. Radiologia; 2009 Sep-Oct;51(5):512-5
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  • [Title] [Intraventricular fibrous tumor: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor fibroso intraventricular: a propósito de un caso.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor was first reported in the pleura; however, it has since been reported in many other locations.
  • To our knowledge, only eight cases of intraventricular solitary fibrous tumor have been reported.
  • We describe a case of intraventricular solitary fibrous tumor.The imaging characteristics of intraventricular solitary fibrous tumors are nonspecific; the differential diagnosis should include other tumors that can affect the ventricular system such as meningioma, high grade glioma, metastasis, subependymoma, choroid plexus papilloma, ependymoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, and neurocytoma.
  • At histological study, immunohistochemical techniques allow solitary fibrous tumor to be differentiated from fibrous meningioma and hemangiopericytoma.

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  • (PMID = 19646726.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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57. Berhouma M: Management of subependymal giant cell tumors in tuberous sclerosis complex: the neurosurgeon's perspective. World J Pediatr; 2010 May;6(2):103-10
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  • [Title] Management of subependymal giant cell tumors in tuberous sclerosis complex: the neurosurgeon's perspective.
  • BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, can lead to the development of hamartomas in various organs, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, skin and brain.
  • The management of subependymal giant cell tumors (SGCTs) is still controversial, and peri- and/or intraventricular neoplasms may lead to life-threatening hydrocephalus.
  • The data were collected after a bibliography made using PubMed/Medline with these terms: subependymal, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, subependymal giant cell tumor, and tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • RESULTS: SGCTs are shown to be generated from a glioneuronal lineage, but their filiation with subependymal nodules (SENs) is still under debate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An earlier diagnosis of SGCT in neurologically asymptomatic children with TSC may allow a precocious surgical removal of the tumor before the installation of increased intracranial pressure signs, an attitude that is being progressively adopted to lessen the morbimortality rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Child. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Mutation. Neurosurgical Procedures. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20490765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-0687
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of pediatrics : WJP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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58. Tan KB, Magdalene Koh HK, Tan SY: Double immunofluorescence shows coexpression of Bcl-x with GFAP in a variety of glial lesions. J Neurooncol; 2006 Dec;80(3):235-42
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  • The former included astrocytomas, GBMs, ependymomas, oligodendrogliomas, gangliogliomas, subependymomas and neurocytomas.
  • Expression of Bcl-x closely follows that of GFAP with strong expression in both reactive astrocytes and astrocytomas.
  • There is more focal expression in other gliomas.
  • Double immunolabelling confirms the coexpression of Bcl-x and GFAP in various gliomas and reactive brain conditions.

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  • (PMID = 16773221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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59. Dashti SR, Robinson S, Rodgers M, Cohen AR: Pineal region giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis: case report. J Neurosurg; 2005 Apr;102(3 Suppl):322-5
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  • [Title] Pineal region giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis: case report.
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of hamartomas in multiple organs including the brain, skin, eye, kidney, and heart.
  • Cortical tubers and subependymal nodules are the characteristic intracranial lesions of tuberous sclerosis.
  • Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, typically located adjacent to the foramen of Monro, can enlarge and cause symptomatic ventricular obstruction.
  • The authors describe the case of a 3-year-old boy with a history of tuberous sclerosis and retinal lesions who presented with an enlarging enhancing pineal region mass.
  • Pathological examination showed a giant cell astrocytoma.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of tuberous sclerosis associated with a giant cell astrocytoma of the pineal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / surgery. Pinealoma / complications. Pinealoma / surgery. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 15881760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Tadros R, Tonkin A: Bilateral bulbar palsy and postural hypotension following surgery for fourth ventricle subependymoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Dec;16(12):1646-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral bulbar palsy and postural hypotension following surgery for fourth ventricle subependymoma.
  • We report a 54-year-old man who developed bilateral bulbar palsy and severe postural hypotension following resection of a fourth ventricle subependymoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19766493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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61. Schittenhelm J, Trautmann K, Tabatabai G, Hermann C, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Comparative analysis of annexin-1 in neuroepithelial tumors shows altered expression with the grade of malignancy but is not associated with survival. Mod Pathol; 2009 Dec;22(12):1600-11
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of annexin-1 in neuroepithelial tumors shows altered expression with the grade of malignancy but is not associated with survival.
  • It serves as a substrate for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is frequently amplified in primary gliomas.
  • It is unclear how annexin-1 is expressed in various neuroepithelial tumors, and whether there is any association with tumor malignancy or survival.
  • In the normal human brain, the expression of annexin-1 is limited to ependymal cells and subependymal astrocytes, but is also upregulated in reactive astrocytes.
  • Ependymomas and astrocytomas showed significantly higher mean annexin-1 expression levels in the cytoplasm compared with oligodendrogliomas (both: P<0.0001).
  • In addition, nuclear staining of annexin-1 in oligodendroglial tumor cells was significantly reduced (P=0.0002), which may be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating between astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Although annexin-1 expression in ependymomas decreased with the grade of malignancy, diffuse astrocytomas showed a significant increase in cytoplasmic annexin-1-positive tumor cells.
  • Thus, annexin-1 upregulation in astrocytomas may contribute to tumor progression and its expression profile is similar to its substrate, EGFR, suggesting a possible regulation thereof.
  • [MeSH-major] Annexin A1 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Glioma / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Blotting, Western. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / chemistry. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / chemistry. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19767728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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62. Balss J, Meyer J, Mueller W, Korshunov A, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Analysis of the IDH1 codon 132 mutation in brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2008 Dec;116(6):597-602
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  • We analyzed the genomic region spanning wild type R132 of IDH1 by direct sequencing in 685 brain tumors including 41 pilocytic astrocytomas, 12 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 7 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas, 93 diffuse astrocytomas, 120 adult glioblastomas, 14 pediatric glioblastomas, 105 oligodendrogliomas, 83 oligoastrocytomas, 31 ependymomas, 58 medulloblastomas, 9 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 17 schwannomas, 72 meningiomas and 23 pituitary adenomas.
  • A total of 221 somatic IDH1 mutations were detected and the highest frequencies occurred in diffuse astrocytomas (68%), oligodendrogliomas (69%), oligoastrocytomas (78%) and secondary glioblastomas (88%).
  • The very high frequency of IDH1 mutations in WHO grade II astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas suggests a role in early tumor development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Gene Frequency. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioma / etiology. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18985363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
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63. Habib SL: Tuberous sclerosis complex and DNA repair. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2010;685:84-94
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  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder in humans characterized by the development of hamartomas in several organs, including renal angiomyolipomas, cardiac rhabdomyomas and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Brain lesions, including subependymal and subcortical hamartomas, have also been reported in TSC patients.
  • In addition, we show that loss of TSC2 in kidney tumor of Eker rat is associated with loss of OGG1 and accumulation significant levels of oxidative DNA damage 8-oxo-deoxyguanine suggesting that TSC2 and OGG1 play a major role in renal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Disorders. DNA Repair-Deficiency Disorders. Kidney Neoplasms. Tuberous Sclerosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. DNA Glycosylases / genetics. DNA Glycosylases / metabolism. DNA Repair / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Kidney Tubules, Proximal / metabolism. Kidney Tubules, Proximal / pathology. Mice. Multiprotein Complexes / genetics. Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism. Oxidation-Reduction. Rats

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  • (PMID = 20687497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / OGG1 protein, rat; EC 3.2.2.- / Ogg1 protein, mouse; EC 3.2.2.- / oxoguanine glycosylase 1, human
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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64. Laxton AW, Shannon P, Nag S, Farb RI, Bernstein M: Rapid expansion of a previously asymptomatic subependymoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2005 Dec;103(6):1084-7
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  • [Title] Rapid expansion of a previously asymptomatic subependymoma. Case report.
  • One month after his initial presentation, he was admitted to the hospital with significant tumor expansion and clinical deterioration.
  • Histopathological analysis of this tumor showed central necrosis with associated edema in an otherwise typical and benign-appearing subependymoma.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of rapid, nonhemorrhagic expansion associated with necrosis in a previously asymptomatic subependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Edema / etiology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Headache / etiology. Humans. Male. Necrosis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16381197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Park SH, Min HS, Kim B, Myung J, Paek SH: Galectin-3: a useful biomarker for differential diagnosis of brain tumors. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):497-506
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  • It showed consistent and diffuse positivity in 100% of the pilocytic astrocytomas, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA), Schwannomas, meningiomas, capillary hemangioblastomas, as well as in ependymomas, but it was completely negative in the diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, both low- and high-grades of the oligodendrogliomas, central neurocytomas, and medulloblastomas.
  • Definitely positive but heterogeneous expression was found in various tumors including subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA), classic glioblastoma multiforme, anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS PNETs), and hemangiopericytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18384511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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66. Rogers L, Pueschel J, Spetzler R, Shapiro W, Coons S, Thomas T, Speiser B: Is gross-total resection sufficient treatment for posterior fossa ependymomas? J Neurosurg; 2005 Apr;102(4):629-36
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  • Those with supratentorial primary lesions, subependymomas, or neuraxis dissemination were excluded.
  • The 10-year actuarial local control rate was 100% for patients who underwent GTR and radiotherapy, 50% for those who underwent GTR alone, and 36% for those who underwent both STR and radiotherapy, representing significant differences between the GTR-plus-radiotherapy and GTR-alone cohorts (p = 0.018), and between the GTR-plus-radiotherapy and the STR-plus-radiotherapy group (p = 0.003).
  • The 10-year overall survival was numerically superior in patients who underwent both GTR and radiotherapy: 83% compared with 67% in those who underwent GTR alone and 43% in those who underwent both STR and radiotherapy.
  • Univariate analyses revealed that radiotherapy, tumor grade, and extent of resection were significant predictors of local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Infratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15871504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Lam C, Bouffet E, Tabori U, Mabbott D, Taylor M, Bartels U: Rapamycin (sirolimus) in tuberous sclerosis associated pediatric central nervous system tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Mar;54(3):476-9
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  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with hamartomatous growths including subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs).

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19856393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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68. Maliszewski M, Majchrzak H: [Operative treatment of the intramedullary tumors with the methylprednisolone usage--preliminary report]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(7-8):481-5
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  • Neuroprotection of the spinal cord in the course of treatment included: determining operational tactics on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed in three planes, using MP according to NASCIS II and in maintenance dose in the 2-7 day after the operation, SSEP monitoring, myelotomy in the form of anatomical preparation of the posterior longitudinal fissure, sparing big transverse branches of the vasocorona of the posterior column, debulking of the tumor with an ultrasonic aspirator or CO2 laser, closure of the spinal cord after the removal of the tumor with pial sutures and sutures of the arachnoidea.
  • RESULTS: Among the operated tumors 16 had a clear border, the remaining ones were 14 astrocytomas of varying malignancy and infiltration of the white matter of the spinal cord and 3 lipomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Glioma, Subependymal / surgery. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Neuroprotective Agents / administration & dosage. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17209343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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69. Tay A, Scheithauer BW, Cameron JD, Myhre MJ, Boerner MJ: Retinal ependymoma: an immunohistologic and ultrastructural study. Hum Pathol; 2009 Apr;40(4):578-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retinal ependymoma: an immunohistologic and ultrastructural study.
  • Most are syndrome associated and include pilocytic astrocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Acquired, more conventional, diffuse astrocytomas are less frequent.
  • Ependymoma is exquisitely rare.
  • Herein, we report the clinicopathologic features of the second case of retinal ependymoma.
  • The tumor was sporadic in occurrence and unilateral, low grade, and of cellular type.
  • The literature regarding retinal glial neoplasia including ependymoma as well as the so-called massive retinal gliosis is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / ultrastructure. Retinal Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 18835620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Wong KK, Tsang YT, Chang YM, Su J, Di Francesco AM, Meco D, Riccardi R, Perlaky L, Dauser RC, Adesina A, Bhattacharjee M, Chintagumpala M, Lau CC: Genome-wide allelic imbalance analysis of pediatric gliomas by single nucleotide polymorphic allele array. Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 1;66(23):11172-8
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genome-wide allelic imbalance analysis of pediatric gliomas by single nucleotide polymorphic allele array.
  • Using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) allele arrays, we analyzed 28 pediatric gliomas consisting of 14 high-grade gliomas and 14 low-grade gliomas.
  • Most of the low-grade gliomas had no detectable loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in any of the 11,562 SNP loci; exceptions were two gangliogliomas (3q and 9p), one astrocytoma (6q), and two subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (16p and 21q).
  • On the other hand, all high-grade gliomas had various degrees of LOH affecting 52 to 2,168 SNP loci on various chromosomes.
  • This may represent a new molecular mechanism underlying tumor progression.

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  • (PMID = 17145861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA120534
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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71. Franken SP, Setz-Pels W, Smink-Bol M, Gijtenbeek JM, Nanda D, Van Der Maazen RW, Van Der Vliet T, Bussink J: Unusual case of bifocal leptomeningeal melanocytoma in the posterior fossa with seeding in the spinal canal. Br J Radiol; 2009 Aug;82(981):e182-8

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  • The radiological differential diagnoses included multiple meningiomas, schwannomas, neurofibromas and subependymomas.

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  • (PMID = 19729548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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72. Adamsbaum C, Merzoug V, Kalifa G: [Imaging of CNS manifestations of tuberous sclerosis in children]. J Neuroradiol; 2005 Jun;32(3):204-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Brain MRI is very important for diagnosis, already showing the major signs during fetal life: subependymal nodules, tubers and giant cell astrocytomas.


73. Waldau B, McLendon RE, Fuchs HE, George TM, Grant GA: Few isolated neurons in hypothalamic hamartomas may cause gelastic seizures. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2009;45(3):225-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are congenital, benign masses in the hypothalamus and tuber cinereum that may cause central precocious puberty and gelastic seizures.
  • Here we describe the case of a 5-year-old boy with gelastic seizures who underwent resection of a HH that contained nodules of glial cells, but only few, randomly distributed neurons.
  • This finding is clinically important since hypothalamic hamartomas with rare neurons can easily be misdiagnosed as pilocytic astrocytomas or subependymomas if their presence is overlooked.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19521137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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74. Timotin L, Sarrot-Reynauld F, Lantuejoul S, Pasquier B, Massot C, Ashraf A, Borgel F: [Tuberous sclerosis without mental impairment, diagnosed in adulthood]. Rev Med Interne; 2005 Jun;26(6):511-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • EXEGESIS: We report a case of TSC diagnosed in a 33-year-old man, without any known family history of phakomatosis, presenting with facial angiofibromas, hypomelanotic macules, a giant-cell astrocytoma and retinal phakomas without any mental impairment or epilepsy.
  • CONCLUSION: TSC may occur in patients who do not have any family history of phakomatosis because de novo mutations are frequent.
  • They should lead to brain imaging in search for astrocytoma, subependymal nodules and cortical tubers which number is directly correlated with the risk of seizures and the degree of mental impairment.

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  • (PMID = 15936480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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75. Roma AA, Prayson RA: Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in ependymal tumors. Neuropathology; 2006 Oct;26(5):422-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in ependymal tumors.
  • Up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), a cytokine-induced enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, has been described in some brain tumors, including astrocytomas.
  • Little is known about its expression in ependymal neoplasms.
  • The objective of the present study was to assess COX-2 immunostaining of ependymal tumors.
  • Retrospective COX-2 immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on 117 ependymal tumors.
  • The study group (56 men and 44 women, mean age, 30.8 years) was comprised of 48 low-grade ependymomas (WHO grade II), 12 anaplastic ependymomas (WHO grade III), 27 myxopapillary ependymomas (WHO grade I) and 13 subependymomas (WHO grade I).
  • At last known follow-up (range, 12-226 months; mean, 74 months), 52 patients were alive with no evidence of tumor, 16 patients were alive with residual tumor, nine patients died with tumor, one patient died with no tumor and three died with tumor status unknown.
  • Thirty-six (36%) patients had tumors, which demonstrated positive COX-2 staining, including 16/27 (59%) myxopapillary ependymomas, 3/13 (23%) subependymomas, 14/48 (29%) ependymomas and 3/12 (25%) anaplastic ependymomas.
  • Statistically significant COX-2 positive immunostaining was observed in myxopapillary ependymomas versus WHO grade II (P = 0.03) and grade III (P = 0.02) tumors.
  • Increased COX-2 expression in myxopapillary ependymoma as compared to the WHO grade II and II ependymoma was observed.
  • The reason for this apparent increased immunoexpression in these low-grade tumors is uncertain.
  • COX-2 inhibitors may play a role in treatment of the subset of ependymal tumors that demonstrate increased expression.
  • COX-2 staining did not reliably predict tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Ependymoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17080719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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76. Ertan G, Arulrajah S, Tekes A, Jordan L, Huisman TA: Cerebellar abnormality in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex: MR and diffusion weighted imaging findings. J Neuroradiol; 2010 Oct;37(4):231-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cerebellar abnormality in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex: MR and diffusion weighted imaging findings.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: MRI studies of 27 TSC patients (mean age, 10.6 years) were evaluated for: cortical/subcortical tubers, white matter lesions, subependymal nodules, and giant cell astrocytomas.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20381146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0150-9861
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroradiology. Journal de neuroradiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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77. Barton VN, Donson AM, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Birks DK, Handler MH, Foreman NK: Unique molecular characteristics of pediatric myxopapillary ependymoma. Brain Pathol; 2010 May;20(3):560-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unique molecular characteristics of pediatric myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • Myxopapillary ependymoma (MEPN) generally can be cured by gross total surgical resection and usually manifest a favorable prognosis.
  • Clinical trial design requires a better understanding of tumor biology.
  • Unique molecular features of MEPN were investigated by using microarray technology to compare the gene expression of five pediatric MEPN to 24 pediatric intracranial ependymoma (EPN).
  • Protein expression in MEPN was compared to subependymoma, spinal EPN, intracranial EPN and normal fetal and adult ependyma.
  • Immunoreactivity for HOXB13, NEFL and PDGFR alpha was strongest in MEPN and virtually absent in subependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19793339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2871180
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78. Govindarajan B, Brat DJ, Csete M, Martin WD, Murad E, Litani K, Cohen C, Cerimele F, Nunnelley M, Lefkove B, Yamamoto T, Lee C, Arbiser JL: Transgenic expression of dominant negative tuberin through a strong constitutive promoter results in a tissue-specific tuberous sclerosis phenotype in the skin and brain. J Biol Chem; 2005 Feb 18;280(7):5870-4
SciCrunch. Marmoset Gene list: Data: Gene Annotation .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a common autosomal dominant disorder caused by loss or malfunction of hamartin (tsc1) or tuberin (tsc2).
  • In addition, numerous small subpial collections of external granule cells in the cerebellum were observed, which may be the murine equivalent of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas or tubers commonly seen in TS patients.
  • Our data are the first to demonstrate that specific signaling abnormalities underlie specific hamartomas in a model of a human genetic disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, Dominant / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15576369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR47901
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCR2 protein, human; 0 / Ccr2 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Receptors, CCR2; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
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79. McCall T, Chin SS, Salzman KL, Fults DW: Tuberous sclerosis: a syndrome of incomplete tumor suppression. Neurosurg Focus; 2006;20(1):E3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tuberous sclerosis: a syndrome of incomplete tumor suppression.
  • Although the clinical phenotype of TS is complex, only three lesions characterize the neuropathological features of the disease: cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • The latter is a benign brain tumor of mixed neuronal and glial origin.
  • The authors review the clinical and neuropathological features of TS as well as recent research into the molecular biology of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / complications. Tuberous Sclerosis / etiology. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16459993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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80. Abel TW, Curtis M, Lin DD, Burger PC, Cummings TJ: Complex choristoma of the gyrus rectus: a distinct clinicopathologic entity? Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 May;30(5):625-9
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  • In some areas, the epithelial structures were separated by reactive glial tissue resembling pilocytic astrocytoma, with prominent, piloid processes, Rosenthal fibers, and gemistocytic astrocytes.
  • In other areas, glial nuclei formed small clusters reminiscent of subependymoma, but no glioma was identified in either case.
  • Follow-up interval of up to 2 years showed no evidence of recurrent tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16699317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Daou MC, Smith TW, Litofsky NS, Hsieh CC, Ross AH: Doublecortin is preferentially expressed in invasive human brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Nov;110(5):472-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DCX was highly expressed in both high-grade invasive tumors (glioblastoma, n=11; anaplastic astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=7; and medulloblastoma/PNET, n=6) and low-grade invasive tumors (oligodendroglioma, n=3; and astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=5).
  • However, DCX was less intensely expressed in the circumscribed group of tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma, n=6; ependymoma/subependymoma, n=7; dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, n=4; ganglioglioma, n=2; meningioma, n=9; and schwannoma, n=9).
  • By the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical test, the circumscribed group was significantly different from both the high-grade invasive group (P<0.0001) and the low-grade invasive group (P<0.0001).
  • In addition, DCX immunostaining was stronger at the margin of the tumor than at the center.
  • DCX mRNA and protein was detected in glioma cell lines by Northern blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting.

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  • (PMID = 16195916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS021716; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA107372; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-10737; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-21716
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / doublecortin protein
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82. Yanni DS, Ulkatan S, Deletis V, Barrenechea IJ, Sen C, Perin NI: Utility of neurophysiological monitoring using dorsal column mapping in intramedullary spinal cord surgery. J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Jun;12(6):623-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • There were 4 ependymomas, 1 subependymoma, 1 gangliocytoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 cavernous malformation, and 2 symptomatic syringes requiring shunting.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Electrodes. Ependymoma / surgery. Evoked Potentials, Motor / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20515347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Rodriguez FJ, Scheithauer BW, Perry A, Oliveira AM, Jenkins RB, Oviedo A, Mork SJ, Palmer CA, Burger PC: Ependymal tumors with sarcomatous change ("ependymosarcoma"): a clinicopathologic and molecular cytogenetic study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):699-709
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  • [Title] Ependymal tumors with sarcomatous change ("ependymosarcoma"): a clinicopathologic and molecular cytogenetic study.
  • Sarcomatous change occurring in ependymal tumors is rare.
  • At presentation, the sarcomatous component was noted in 6 (of 10) cases and the ependymal element was grade III in 7 and grade II in 3 tumors, respectively.
  • The single case involving the fourth ventricle/left cerebellopontine angle consisted of subependymoma and fibrosarcoma components in roughly equal proportions at presentation.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies performed with probes targeting the NF2 gene and other members of the protein 4.1 gene family demonstrated similar alterations in the ependymal and sarcomatous components in the cases tested, including polysomies/polyploidy (n=3), gains of 1q (n=3), deletions of 22q (n=2) and 6q (n=1), and monosomy 18 (n=1).
  • On follow-up, 5 patients expired 4 months to 18 years after initial resection and 4 to 11 months after development of the sarcomatous component (mean, 7.6 mo); 1 patient is alive at 5 years with recurrent disease, and 1 is alive without recurrence 12 years after initial gross total resection followed by radiation therapy.
  • Although rare, ependymal neoplasms must be included among the gliomas prone to undergo sarcomatous change and we propose the term "ependymosarcoma" for these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary. Fibrosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18347506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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84. Wen PY: American Society of Clinical Oncology 2010: report of selected studies from the CNS tumors section. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2010 Sep;10(9):1367-9
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  • There was particular interest in a Phase II study showing that the mTOR inhibitor everolimus had significant activity in tuberous patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Tuberous Sclerosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20836670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Conference; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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85. Shuangshoti S, Rushing EJ, Mena H, Olsen C, Sandberg GD: Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2598-605
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  • [Title] Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Published research on the clinicopathologic features of extraventricular ependymal neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres has been scant.
  • RESULTS: Among these 32 cases were 2 subependymomas, 19 ependymomas, and 11 anaplastic ependymomas.
  • Ki-67 proliferation index paralleled tumor grade.
  • Immunoreactivity for p53 protein was observed in the 2 cases of subependymoma, in 10 of 11 anaplastic ependymomas, and in 6 of 17 ependymomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that there is no significant relation between histopathology, Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 immunolabeling, tumor ploidy, and biologic behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Prognosis. S Phase. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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  • [Copyright] Published 2005 by the American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15861411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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86. Rivera VM: Modafinil for the treatment of diminished responsiveness in a patient recovering from brain surgery. Brain Inj; 2005 Aug 20;19(9):725-7
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  • PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This case report reviews the history and post-operative status of a 77-year-old woman who underwent transcallosal resection of an intra-ventricular haemorrhagic subependymoma and who remained in a deep post-operative state of lethargy and listlessness.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Glioma, Subependymal / surgery. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16195186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9052
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain injury
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Inj
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; R3UK8X3U3D / modafinil
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87. Reni M, Gatta G, Mazza E, Vecht C: Ependymoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2007 Jul;63(1):81-9
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  • [Title] Ependymoma.
  • Ependymomas are rare tumours of neuroectodermal origin classified as myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma (grade I), ependymoma (grade II) and anaplastic ependymoma (grade III).
  • Age <40 years and extent of surgery appear related to better prognosis, while the role of other prognostic factors, such as tumour grade and tumour site are equivocal.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy is indicated in high-grade ependymomas, and is recommended in low-grade ependymomas after subtotal or incomplete resection (confirmed by postoperative MR).
  • Recommended dose to involved fields is 45-54 Gy for low-grade (grade II) and 54-60 Gy for high-grade ependymomas (grade III).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17482475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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88. Bongiorni L, Arroyo HA, Lubienicki F: [Subependymal nodules-sudependymal giant cell astrocytoma complex in children with tuberous sclerosis]. Medicina (B Aires); 2009;69(1 Pt 1):8-14
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  • [Title] [Subependymal nodules-sudependymal giant cell astrocytoma complex in children with tuberous sclerosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Complejo nódulo subependimario-astrocitoma subependimario gigantocelular en niños con esclerosis tuberosa.
  • The object of this paper is to describe the imaging and clinical characteristics of subependymal nodule (SN) - subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SGCA) complex in tuberous sclerosis and analyze its evolution in order to attempt early detection and the prevention of intracranial hypertension.
  • Six patients presented visual deficit and in these, the average diameter of the tumor was 31.5 mm, a high value when compared to 18.7 mm in the patients without visual deficit.
  • The imaging and clinical follow-up of any subependymal lesion close to the foramen of Monro will permit, at a presymptomatic stage, an anticipation of surgical treatment thus reducing intracranial hypertension incidence.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Tuberous Sclerosis / pathology


89. Gilhuis HJ, van der Laak JA, Pomp J, Kappelle AC, Gijtenbeek JM, Wesseling P: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes. Angiogenesis; 2006;9(4):201-8
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes.
  • In the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of tumours of the nervous system, four main histopathological subtypes of medulloblastomas (classic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic medulloblastoma, medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation and large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma) as well as of ependymal tumours (low-grade ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma) are recognised.
  • Under the hypothesis that the microvascular architecture of tumours is a reflection of the histopathological subtype, we performed three-dimensional reconstructions of the microvasculature in these subtypes of medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours using computerised image analysis.
  • Three-dimensional analysis of ependymal tumours showed that low-grade ependymoma had larger but fewer vessels compared to anaplastic ependymoma, while myxopapillary ependymoma had a complex, heterogeneous pattern of vessels and subependymoma few but regular vessels.
  • In ependymal tumours, the highest values for vessel number, vessel area and vessel perimeter were found in anaplastic ependymoma and the lowest values in subependymoma.
  • We conclude that our three-dimensional reconstructions shed unprecedented light on the tumour vasculature in medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours and expect that such reconstructions are helpful tools for further studies on tumour angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / blood supply. Ependymoma / blood supply. Medulloblastoma / blood supply. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 17109194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-6970
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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90. Jozwiak J, Jozwiak S, Wlodarski P: Possible mechanisms of disease development in tuberous sclerosis. Lancet Oncol; 2008 Jan;9(1):73-9
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  • [Title] Possible mechanisms of disease development in tuberous sclerosis.
  • Tumours in which loss of heterozygosity is rare, such as subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma, might all share a common feature that mimics loss of heterozygosity either by inactivation of the TSC complex or by direct activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) or its downstream targets.
  • AKT activation is detected only in few samples, whereas ERK is hyperactive in all subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas.


91. Narisawa A, Kumabe T, Anzai T, Utsumi Y, Tominaga T: [A case of cavernous angioma at the septum pellucidum]. No Shinkei Geka; 2007 Jan;35(1):53-8
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  • Digital subtraction angiography showed no abnormal finding and thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography showed no uptake in the lesion.
  • The preoperative diagnosis was intraventricular tumor, such as subependymoma.

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  • (PMID = 17228768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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92. Santagata S, Tuli S, Wiese DE 2nd, Day A, De Girolami U: Intramedullary neuroma of the cervicomedullary junction. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2006 Oct;5(4):362-6
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  • The authors report the case of a 50-year-old man who had been involved in a motor vehicle accident, during which his car was struck from behind as it was stationary at an intersection, more than 5 years before presentation.
  • The imaging features of the lesion raised the question of an ependymoma or subependymoma.

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  • (PMID = 17048775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Arca G, Pacheco E, Alfonso I, Duchowny MS, Melnick SJ: Characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neonates with tuberous sclerosis complex. J Child Neurol; 2006 Apr;21(4):280-5
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  • In addition to the previously described characteristic brain MRI findings in neonates, which included cortical tuber, transmantle dysplasia, subependymal nodules, cerebral subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, white-matter anomalies, and hemimegalencephaly, we found one neonate with cerebellar subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and one patient who had a normal MRI and computed tomographic scan of the brain at 4 days of age but subsequently was found to have cortical tubers and subependymal nodules by MRI.

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  • (PMID = 16900920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0883-0738
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Ma L, Teruya-Feldstein J, Bonner P, Bernardi R, Franz DN, Witte D, Cordon-Cardo C, Pandolfi PP: Identification of S664 TSC2 phosphorylation as a marker for extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediated mTOR activation in tuberous sclerosis and human cancer. Cancer Res; 2007 Aug 1;67(15):7106-12
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  • In our present study, 25 TSC-related cortical tubers or subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, as well as tissue microarrays of six types of human cancers, were analyzed for the expression of phospho-Erk (pErk) 1/2, S664-phospho-TSC2 (pTSC2), and phospho-S6 (pS6) by immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology. Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Tuberous Sclerosis / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism


95. Lukashova-v Zangen I, Kneitz S, Monoranu CM, Rutkowski S, Hinkes B, Vince GH, Huang B, Roggendorf W: Ependymoma gene expression profiles associated with histological subtype, proliferation, and patient survival. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Mar;113(3):325-37
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  • [Title] Ependymoma gene expression profiles associated with histological subtype, proliferation, and patient survival.
  • (1) tumors from children and adults with poor versus favorable outcome, (2) tumors from children with poor versus favorable outcome, (3) tumors with high versus low proliferation indices, (4) subependymomas versus myxopapillary ependymomas, and (5) spinal versus intracranial ependymomas.
  • Thirty genes, including ETV6, YWHAE, TOP2A, TLR2, IRAK1, TIA1, and UFD1L were found to be highly expressed in subependymomas but not myxopapillary ependymomas.
  • There was no relationship between expression profiles and tumor grade, patient age, and patient gender.
  • Our results provide insight into specific molecular events underlying ependymoma tumorigenesis and may contribute to more accurate diagnosis and prediction of clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17265049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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96. Scarabino T, Giannatempo GM, Nemore F, Popolizio T, Stranieri A: Supratentorial low-grade gliomas. Neuroradiology. J Neurosurg Sci; 2005 Sep;49(3):73-6
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  • [Title] Supratentorial low-grade gliomas. Neuroradiology.
  • A brain tumors can be reliably ruled out, if the standard magnetic resonance examination is performed properly and experts interpret the results as negative for tumor.
  • In this paper we will illustrate morphological aspects of low-grade supratentorial neoplasms, including tumors of neuroepithelial tissue, such as low-grade diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, and circumscribed astrocytic lesions (pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xantoastrocytoma and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / diagnostic imaging. Glioma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16288189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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97. Rama Rao GR, Krishna Rao PV, Gopal KV, Kumar YH, Ramachandra BV: Forehead plaque: a cutaneous marker of CNS involvement in tuberous sclerosis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2008 Jan-Feb;74(1):28-31
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  • Computerized tomography of brain revealed subependymal nodules (SENs) in eight cases (53.33%).
  • In addition to SENs, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and cortical tubers were seen in 2 cases each.


98. Grajkowska W, Kotulska K, Jurkiewicz E, Matyja E: Brain lesions in tuberous sclerosis complex. Review. Folia Neuropathol; 2010;48(3):139-49
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  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disease characterized by the development of multiple hamartomas and benign or rarely malignant neoplasms distributed at various sites throughout the body, especially in the brain, skin, retina, kidney, heart, and lungs.
  • Brain lesions in TSC include: cortical/subcortical glioneuronal tubers, subependymal glial nodules (SENs), and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs).
  • SENs are typically covered by a layer of ependyma and can grow over time and develop into subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • SEGAs consist of a mixed cell population of large ganglioid-like cells, spindle and giant cells with nuclear pleomorphism.
  • Oral rapamycin therapy may induce regression of astrocytomas associated with TSC.

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  • (PMID = 20924998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-572X
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein
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99. Fratzoglou M, Leite dos Santos AR, Gawish I, Perneczky A: Endoscope-assisted microsurgery for tumors of the septum pellucidum: surgical considerations and benefits of the method in the treatment of four serial cases. Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Jan;28(1):39-43

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  • In all four patients the endoscope-assisted microsurgery technique was used to remove the tumor.
  • Complete tumor excision was achieved in all patients.
  • The histological findings showed pilocytic astrocytoma in two cases, one subependymoma and one neurocytoma, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Microsurgery. Neurocytoma / surgery. Neuroendoscopy. Septum Pellucidum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15138845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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100. Barbería Marcalain E, Borondo Alcázar JC, Canós Villena JC, Arimany Mansó J: [Sudden death to fourth ventricular subependymoma]. Neurologia; 2008 Nov;23(9):608-9
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  • [Title] [Sudden death to fourth ventricular subependymoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Subependimoma de cuarto ventrículo y muerte súbita.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / mortality. Death, Sudden / etiology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18925445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-4853
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurología (Barcelona, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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