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1. Chen HJ, Panigrahy A, Dhall G, Finlay JL, Nelson MD Jr, Blüml S: Apparent diffusion and fractional anisotropy of diffuse intrinsic brain stem gliomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Nov;31(10):1879-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Reference data were obtained from 8 controls with normal brain stem, 6 patients with medulloblastoma, and 7 patients with pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • FA was lower in DIBSG than in normal brain stem (0.24 ± 0.04 versus 0.43 ± 0.02, P < .001) but was higher than that in pilocytic astrocytoma (0.17 ± 0.05, P < .05).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Medulloblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20595371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Hoyama E, Cruz AA, Colli BO, Matos JR, Chahud F: Isolated low grade pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic nerve in the elderly: case report. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2008 Jan-Feb;71(1):97-100
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  • [Title] Isolated low grade pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic nerve in the elderly: case report.
  • At that time histology revealed that the tumor was an optic nerve glioma with a pilocytic pattern.
  • The tumor was excised by a combined neurosurgical and orbital approach.
  • Histology proved that the neoplasm was a low grade pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18408847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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3. Kim SH, Kim TS: Squash smear findings of eosinophilic granular bodies in pilocytic astrocytoma. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jan-Feb;49(1):112-4
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  • [Title] Squash smear findings of eosinophilic granular bodies in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cytoplasmic Granules / pathology. Eosinophils / pathology. Specimen Handling / methods

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  • (PMID = 15717769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Hernáiz Driever P, von Hornstein S, Pietsch T, Kortmann R, Warmuth-Metz M, Emser A, Gnekow AK: Natural history and management of low-grade glioma in NF-1 children. J Neurooncol; 2010 Nov;100(2):199-207
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  • [Title] Natural history and management of low-grade glioma in NF-1 children.
  • Pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) patients are prone to developing low-grade glioma (LGG).
  • Eighty-three patients (76%) suffered from an optic pathway tumor.
  • Histology revealed pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I in 38 of 42 biopsied patients.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed surgical intervention and localization within the optic pathway as factors that increased the risk of tumor progression.

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  • (PMID = 20352473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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5. Tripp SR, Willmore-Payne C, Layfield LJ: Relationship between EGFR overexpression and gene amplification status in central nervous system gliomas. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2005 Apr;27(2):71-8
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  • STUDY DESIGN: Forty-seven central nervous system gliomas, including 34 cases of glioblastoma multiforme, 3 oligodendrogliomas, 4 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and 5 low grade astrocytomas, were obtained from the files of the University of Utah Pathology Department.
  • None of the low grade, pilocytic or anaplastic astrocytomas demonstrated either EGFR protein overexpression or gene amplification.
  • All central nervous system neoplasms demonstrating gene amplification and/or overexpression were high grade neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 15913199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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6. Dasgupta B, Yi Y, Chen DY, Weber JD, Gutmann DH: Proteomic analysis reveals hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in neurofibromatosis 1-associated human and mouse brain tumors. Cancer Res; 2005 Apr 1;65(7):2755-60
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  • Individuals with the tumor predisposition syndrome, neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), are prone to development of nervous system tumors, including neurofibromas and pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • This mTOR pathway hyperactivation was reflected by high levels of ribosomal S6 activation in both Nf1 mutant mouse optic nerve gliomas and in human NF1-associated pilocytic astrocytoma tumors.


7. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Nikiforov Y, Pollack IF: Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 May;119(5):641-9
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  • [Title] Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma in the pediatric population.
  • Parameters included quantification of characteristic morphologic variables as well as genes and molecular loci previously shown to be of relevance in high-grade gliomas, including 1p, 9p, 10q, 17p, 19q, and BRAF.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20044755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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8. Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Velázquez-Fragua R, Viaño J, García-Segura JM, Botella MP: [Neurofibromatosis type 1 and optic pathway gliomas. A series of 80 patients]. Rev Neurol; 2008 May 1-15;46(9):530-6
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  • Two patients showed pilocytic astrocytoma in the histological study.
  • Despite the apparent tumoral agressivity of the magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance spectroscopy images, histological findings corresponded to benign pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 18446694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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9. Ruggeri M, Sabatini U: Recovery from amnesic confabulatory syndrome after right fornix lesion. Neurorehabil Neural Repair; 2008 Jul-Aug;22(4):404-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of right fornix lesion in amnesia, the association of confabulation with executive disorders, and to evaluate the long-term recovery of memory and executive functions after surgical removal of a pilocytic astrocytoma in the right orbitofrontal region extending to the right fornix.
  • [MeSH-major] Amnesia / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Cognition Disorders / diagnosis. Fornix, Brain / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18270272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9683
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurorehabilitation and neural repair
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurorehabil Neural Repair
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Tatevossian RG, Tang B, Dalton J, Forshew T, Lawson AR, Ma J, Neale G, Shurtleff SA, Bailey S, Gajjar A, Baker SJ, Sheer D, Ellison DW: MYB upregulation and genetic aberrations in a subset of pediatric low-grade gliomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Dec;120(6):731-43
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  • [Title] MYB upregulation and genetic aberrations in a subset of pediatric low-grade gliomas.
  • Recent studies of genetic abnormalities in pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) have focused on activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway by KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusions in the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) and by rare mutations in elements of the pathway across histopathologically diverse LGGs.
  • The study cohort comprised 57 pediatric LGGs and a comparative cohort of 59 pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs).
  • The LGG cohort included 34 PAs and 23 diffuse gliomas; fibrillary astrocytomas (n = 14), oligodendroglial tumors (n = 7), and angiocentric gliomas (n = 2).
  • Novel MYB amplifications that upregulate MYB RNA and protein expression were demonstrated in 2/14 diffuse astrocytomas.
  • MYB upregulation at the protein level was demonstrated in a proportion of diffuse LGGs (60%), pilocytic astrocytomas (41%), and HGGs (19%), but abnormalities at the genomic level were only a feature of diffuse gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 21046410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096832-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA096832-07; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins v-myb
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS266504; NLM/ PMC3066475
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11. Henderson MA, Fakiris AJ, Timmerman RD, Worth RM, Lo SS, Witt TC: Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg; 2009;87(3):161-7
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  • [Title] Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA; 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 2 fibrillary astrocytomas) were selected for treatment with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) based on having a demarcated appearance on CT or MRI and the possibility of dose sparing of adjacent eloquent structures.
  • A median dose of 13 Gy was prescribed to the 50% isodose line, which covered the gross tumor.
  • With a median follow-up of 48.2 months, 4-year tumor control and overall survival were 77 and 83%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19321969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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12. Le Bas JF, Grand S, Kremer S, Tropres I, Jiang Z, Krainik A, Remy C, Berger F, Benabid AL: [Perfusion MR imaging for initial diagnosis and follow-up of brain tumors]. Neurochirurgie; 2005 Sep;51(3-4 Pt 2):287-98
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  • RESULTS: The method provided interesting data for establishing the differential diagnosis between different kinds of lesions, in particular between lymphoma and pilocytic astrocytoma, and for grading gliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Biopsy. Brain / pathology. Brain / radionuclide imaging. Brain / surgery. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioma / blood supply. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / surgery. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / blood supply. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / blood supply. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 16292173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Jurkiewicz E, Pakuła-Kościesza I, Chełstowska S, Nowak K, Roszkowski M, Grajkowska W, Szary C: Infratentorial tumors in children - value of ADC in prediction of grade of neoplasms. Pol J Radiol; 2010 Oct;75(4):18-23
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  • [Title] Infratentorial tumors in children - value of ADC in prediction of grade of neoplasms.
  • All children were operated on and tumors were histopathologically proved as low-grade - 25 (24 pilocytic astrocytomas, 1 ependymoma) and high-grade lesions - 25 (19 medulloblastomas, 6 anaplastic ependymomas).
  • RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the comparisons of mean ADC of pilocytic astrocytomas (1.54×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.2) with medulloblastomas (0.75×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.075) and pilocytic astrocytomas (1.54×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.2) with anaplastic ependymomas (0.99×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.25).

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  • (PMID = 22802799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1899-0967
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3389889
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; children / diffusion-weighted imaging – DWI / infratentorial tumors / magnetic resonance
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14. Domínguez-Páez M, Weil-Lara B, Rodríguez-Barceló S, Medina-Imbroda JM, Puch-Ramírez M, Ros-López B, Arráez-Sánchez MA: [Pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Three cases and review]. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2010 Feb;21(1):22-9
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  • [Title] [Pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Three cases and review].
  • INTRODUCTION: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a central nervous system (CNS) tumour with peculiar clinicopathological features, that turn it into an entity different from pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • It appears in 2007 WHO classification of tumours of the CNS as an PA subtype belonging to the group of astrocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Central Nervous System Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20186371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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15. Rodriguez FJ, Perry A, Gutmann DH, O'Neill BP, Leonard J, Bryant S, Giannini C: Gliomas in neurofibromatosis type 1: a clinicopathologic study of 100 patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Mar;67(3):240-9
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  • The median age at tumor diagnosis was 13 years (range, 4 months to 68 years).
  • Most tumors were typical pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) (49%) or diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma (DA) (27%) that included World Health Organization Grades II (5%), III (15%), and IV (7%); others were designated as low-grade astrocytoma, subtype indeterminate (LGSI; 17%).
  • Two pilomyxoid astrocytomas, 1 desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma and 1 conventional ganglioglioma, were also identified.
  • The tumors in 24 cases arose in the optic pathways and included PA (n = 14), LGSI (n = 4), DA (n = 4), pilomyxoid astrocytoma (n = 1), and ganglioglioma (n = 1).
  • The prognoses of the PA and LGSI gliomas overall were generally favorable; there were no survival differences between PA and LGSI groups based on site, tumor size, mitotic activity, or MIB-1 labeling index.

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  • (PMID = 18344915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS07494-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS396162; NLM/ PMC3417064
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16. Shingu T, Akiyama Y, Daisu M, Maruyama N, Matsumoto Y, Miyazaki T, Nagai H, Yamamoto Y, Yamasaki T, Yoshida M, Maruyama R, Moritake K: Symptomatic hemorrhage associated with recurrent pilocytic astrocytoma with granulation tissue--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 May;47(5):222-8
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  • [Title] Symptomatic hemorrhage associated with recurrent pilocytic astrocytoma with granulation tissue--case report.
  • A 51-year-old woman had been followed up for 10 years for recurrence of pilocytic astrocytoma 5 years after the initial treatment consisting of subtotal resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
  • Computed tomography and T(2)*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed hemorrhage in the tumor located in the right basal ganglia, thalamus, and hypothalamus.
  • Histological examination confirmed recurrent pilocytic astrocytoma with organizing hematoma and granulation tissue.
  • Although neither symptomatic hemorrhage nor late benign recurrence is common, careful long-term follow up is necessary for patients with pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17527050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Sugo N, Yokota K, Kondo K, Harada N, Aoki Y, Miyazaki C, Nemoto M, Kano T, Ohishi H, Seiki Y: Early dynamic 201Tl SPECT in the evaluation of brain tumours. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Feb;27(2):143-9
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  • RESULTS: In static SPECT, there was no significant difference between the STI of malignant tumours (glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma) and that of benign tumours (low-grade glioma, meningioma, pituitary adenoma, neurinoma and haemangioblastoma) (3.7+/-1.5, 5.0+/-3.5, respectively).
  • In contrast, the DTI of benign tumours increased slightly, steadily or decreased.
  • The slope of the linear functions calculated from the DTRs was much higher in the malignant tumour group than in the benign tumour group (P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the performance of 201Tl dynamic SPECT for 15 min is useful for distinguishing malignant brain tumours from benign brain tumours and reduces the examination stress of patients.

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  • (PMID = 16404227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 7791-12-0 / thallium chloride; AD84R52XLF / Thallium
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18. Solivera J, Navarro R, Costa JM: Orbital emphysema after endoscopic third ventriculostomy and posterior fossa surgery in the sitting position. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Jan;23(1):27-9
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a 4-year-old girl who presented right orbital emphysema after posterior fossa surgery for pilocytic astrocytoma resection in the sitting position.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Orbital Diseases / etiology. Posture. Ventriculostomy

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19. Malik A, Deb P, Sharma MC, Sarkar C: Neuropathological spectrum of pilocytic astrocytoma: an Indian series of 120 cases. Pathol Oncol Res; 2006;12(3):164-71
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  • [Title] Neuropathological spectrum of pilocytic astrocytoma: an Indian series of 120 cases.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are generally well circumscribed, slowly growing, cystic tumors, occurring in the pediatric age group.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16998597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Mirone G, Schiabello L, Chibbaro S, Bouazza S, George B: Pediatric primary pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebellopontine angle: a case report. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Feb;25(2):247-51
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  • [Title] Pediatric primary pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebellopontine angle: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: We describe a rare case of pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma presented as a right cerebellopontine angle (CPA) mass, completely separated from the brain stem and arising from the proximal VIII nerve portion.
  • The tumor was resected by a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach.
  • DISCUSSION: Our case seems to be the first report of a primary pediatric CPA pylocitic astrocytoma arising from the VIII nerve complex and presenting internal auditory canal enlargement.
  • It represents the third reported case of a primary CPA pilocytic astrocytoma (the second pediatric case with the first arising from V nerve) and the eighth report of primary CPA glioma, overall.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18690462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Perry A, Lusis EA, Gutmann DH: Meningothelial hyperplasia: a detailed clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic study of 11 cases. Brain Pathol; 2005 Apr;15(2):109-15
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  • All cases had at least one putative predisposing factor, including hemorrhage (7), chronic renal disease (5), old age (5), trauma (1), and an adjacent optic nerve pilocytic astrocytoma (1).
  • The immunoprofile was similar to normal cap cells with one exception; whereas normal cells were uniformly negative for PR, nuclear positivity was seen in 64% of hyperplasias, a frequency similar to that of benign meningiomas.

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  • (PMID = 15912882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS41520
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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22. Matusan-Ilijas K, Behrem S, Jonjic N, Zarkovic K, Lucin K: Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Sep;14(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma.
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the expression of OPN in human astrocytomas and to correlate it with angiogenesis and patients' outcome.
  • Seventy-six human astrocytomas including eight pilocytic astrocytomas (grade I), 10 diffuse astrocytomas (grade II), 8 anaplastic astrocytomas (grade III) and 50 glioblastomas (grade IV) were immunohistochemically stained for OPN protein.
  • Astrocytomas were heterogeneous regarding the OPN expression.
  • Our results indicate the overexpression of OPN protein in astrocytoma cells and suggest the role of OPN in astrocytoma progression and angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Osteopontin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18493866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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23. Oka F, Yamashita Y, Kumabe T, Tominaga T: Total resection of a hemorrhagic tectal pilocytic astrocytoma--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 May;47(5):219-21
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  • [Title] Total resection of a hemorrhagic tectal pilocytic astrocytoma--case report.
  • A 21-year-old man presented with a hemorrhagic pilocytic astrocytoma of the tectal plate manifesting as sudden onset of severe headache, vertigo, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a dorsally exophytic tectal tumor as hypointense on the T(1)-weighted image and hyperintense on the T(2)-weighted image with contrast enhancement.
  • Radical resection of the tumor was selected because of the unusual aggressive clinical course with hemorrhage and suspicion of malignant components.
  • The tumor was totally resected via an occipital transtentorial approach using a neuronavigation system without surgical complications.
  • The histological diagnosis was pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Tectal plate pilocytic astrocytoma is rarely associated with hemorrhage but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage with acute presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Intracranial Hemorrhages / etiology. Tectum Mesencephali

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  • (PMID = 17527049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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24. Zhang JG, Kruse CA, Driggers L, Hoa N, Wisoff J, Allen JC, Zagzag D, Newcomb EW, Jadus MR: Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2008 May;88(1):65-76
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  • [Title] Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated and compared tumor antigen precursor protein (TAPP) profiles in adult and pediatric brain tumors of 31 genes related to tumor associated antigens (TAA) for possible use in immunotherapy.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven brain tumor specimens from 11 adult and 26 pediatric patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the relative expression of 31 TAPP mRNAs.
  • Histological diagnoses consisted of 16 glioblastomas, 4 low grade astrocytomas, 10 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, and 7 ependymomas.
  • RESULTS: The adult gliomas expressed 94% (29 of 31) of the TAPP mRNAs evaluated compared with pediatric brain tumors that expressed 55-74% of the TAPP mRNAs, dependent on tumor histological subtype.
  • The pediatric brain tumors lacked expression of some genes associated with engendering tumor survival, such as hTert and Survivin.

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  • (PMID = 18259692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121258; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 046463; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 121258; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS057829; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 054093; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 056300; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS056300; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS046463; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 057829
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS572988; NLM/ PMC4005736
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25. Kitamura N, Hasebe T, Kasai R, Kasuya S, Nakatsuka T, Kudo H, Higuchi M, Nakano K, Hiruta N, Kameda N, Ogata K, Watanabe Y, Morita H, Terada H: Pilocytic astrocytomas in elderly adults. Neuroradiol J; 2010 Dec;23(6):690-5
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytomas in elderly adults.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are classified as WHO grade I gliomas that occur predominantly in children and young adults.
  • We describe two cases of pilocytic astrocytoma in elderly adults, a 68-year-old man and a 71-year-old woman.
  • Pathological studies revealed findings consistent with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Although these tumors are rarely found in elderly adults, pilocytic astrocytomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis if the radiographic features of the tumors are characteristic of pilocytic astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 24148722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-4009
  • [Journal-full-title] The neuroradiology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Shinoura N, Takahashi M, Yamada R: Delineation of brain tumor margins using intraoperative sononavigation: implications for tumor resection. J Clin Ultrasound; 2006 May;34(4):177-83
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  • [Title] Delineation of brain tumor margins using intraoperative sononavigation: implications for tumor resection.
  • PURPOSE: Sonography has been employed for real-time intraoperative delineation of tumor boundaries during resection of brain tumors.
  • However, the variably hyperechoic appearance of brain edema or gliosis surrounding the brain may interfere with accurate depiction of tumor margins.
  • The goal of the present study was to use sononavigation, which provides coregistration between real-time sonograms and MRI scans, to assess the accuracy of sonographic determination of tumor margins.
  • METHODS: Sononavigation was performed on 12 brain tumors (7 metastatic brain tumors, 2 meningiomas, 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 1 anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma, and 1 anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • Sonograms of tumor margins were categorized into 1 of 3 types: in type 1, the tumor margin was clearly visualized and corresponded to the margin of the enhanced lesion on MR scan in all areas; in type 2, the tumor margin was clearly seen in some areas but was obscure in others due to hyperechoic edema; and in type 3, the tumor margin was indistinguishable from surrounding tissues in all areas.
  • The anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma, 1 metastatic brain tumor (which consisted mainly of necrotic tissue), and the anaplastic astrocytoma were categorized as type 3.
  • These data assist in determining whether the sonographic appearance of tumor margins is accurate and whether to rely on information from either sonography (type 1) or the sononavigation system when resecting tumor types 1, 2, and 3.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sononavigation can help categorize the sonographic tumor margins into 3 different patterns, and this categorization can assist in determining which imaging modalities are needed to better delineate the tumor margins for subsequent resection.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16615048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Strazzer S, Zucca C, Fiocchi I, Genitori L, Castelli E: Epilepsy and neuropsychologic deficit in a child with cerebellar astrocytoma. J Child Neurol; 2006 Sep;21(9):817-20
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  • [Title] Epilepsy and neuropsychologic deficit in a child with cerebellar astrocytoma.
  • We report the case of a 32-month-old female patient presenting with cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma with epileptic seizures, psychomotor delay, and severe language delay.
  • Usually, the typical onset of cerebellar tumor is characterized by raised intracranial pressure and cerebellar incoordination.
  • Moreover, a discussion about the cerebellar contribution to nonmotor functions in children is presented, in particular following tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Developmental Disabilities / etiology. Epilepsy / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16970895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0883-0738
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants
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28. You H, Kim YI, Im SY, Suh-Kim H, Paek SH, Park SH, Kim DG, Jung HW: Immunohistochemical study of central neurocytoma, subependymoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. J Neurooncol; 2005 Aug;74(1):1-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of central neurocytoma, subependymoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • For investigation of histogenesis of central neurocytomas (CNs), subependymoma (SEs), subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs), we studied expression of various neuronal and glial biomarkers by immunohistochemical (IHC) study and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • Control group was five ependymomas (EPs) and four pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • Conclusively, coexpression of neuronal and glial markers and expression of nestin in CNs, SEGAs and SEs suggested the origin of these tumor cells might be the stem cells being able to differentiate into both neuronal and glial phenotypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma, Subependymal / metabolism. Neurocytoma / metabolism


29. Liang Y, Bollen AW, Aldape KD, Gupta N: Nuclear FABP7 immunoreactivity is preferentially expressed in infiltrative glioma and is associated with poor prognosis in EGFR-overexpressing glioblastoma. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:97
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  • To investigate possible molecular mechanisms underlying this association, we compared the expression and subcellular localization of FABP7 in non-tumor brain tissues with different types of glioma, and examined the expression of FABP7 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in GBM tumors.
  • METHODS: Expression of FABP7 in non-tumor brain and glioma specimens was examined using immunohistochemistry, and its correlation to the clinical behavior of the tumors was analyzed.
  • FABP7 immunoreactivity in grade I pilocytic astrocytoma was predominantly cytoplasmic, whereas nuclear FABP7 was detected in other types of infiltrative glioma.
  • FABP7 expression can be found in all grades of astrocytoma, but neoplastic cells with nuclear FABP7 were only seen in infiltrative types of tumors.
  • Nuclear FABP7 may be induced by EGFR activation to promote migration of GBM tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor / pathology. Cell Movement. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cohort Studies. Humans. Life Tables. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Prognosis. Subcellular Fractions / chemistry. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16623952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / FABP7 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1479358
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30. Tanaka KF, Ochi N, Hayashi T, Ikeda E, Ikenaka K: Fluoro-Jade: new fluorescent marker of Rosenthal fibers. Neurosci Lett; 2006 Oct 23;407(2):127-30
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  • Fluoro Jade-positive masses were seen in samples of Alexander disease brain, pilocytic astrocytoma, and in brain tissue from a mouse model of Alexander disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / pathology. Brain Diseases / pathology. Fluoresceins. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Microscopy, Confocal. Organic Chemicals. Tissue Embedding. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 16949206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluoresceins; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / fluoro jade
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31. Watanabe T, Yachi K, Ohta T, Fukushima T, Yoshino A, Katayama Y, Shinojima Y, Terui T, Nagase H: Aberrant hypermethylation of non-promoter zygote arrest 1 (ZAR1) in human brain tumors. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(12):1062-9
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  • Comprehensive methylation analysis of tumor-specific differentially methylated regions in human malignant melanoma has recently led to the identification of non-promoter hypermethylation of the ZAR1 gene that had never been previously linked to aberrant methylation.
  • Strikingly, ZAR1 hypermethylation was frequently observed in melanomas but was absent in benign nevi, and ZAR1 expression was found to be up-regulated in methylated tumors.
  • The present study searched for non-promoter ZAR1 hypermethylation in 90 primary human brain tumor samples, normal brain tissue from one autopsy case, and 7 glioma cell lines, employing Sequenom MassARRAY, in which bisulfite-treated fragments are quantitatively detected using time-of-flight mass spectroscopy.
  • Hypermethylation of ZAR1 was frequently found in diffuse astrocytomas (7/7, 100%), anaplastic astrocytomas (16/17, 94%), glioblastomas (27/29, 93%), oligodendrogliomas (3/3, 100%), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (3/3, 100%), and pituitary adenomas (9/10, 90%), but not in pilocytic astrocytomas (0/3).
  • Other tumor types showed infrequent ZAR1 hypermethylation: 1 (17%) of 6 vestibular schwannomas and 4 (33%) of 12 meningothelial meningiomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Mass Spectrometry. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Methylation. Nevus / metabolism. Nevus / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 21206179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Egg Proteins; 0 / Zar1 protein, human
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32. Colin C, Virard I, Baeza N, Tchoghandjian A, Fernandez C, Bouvier C, Calisti A, Tong S, Durbec P, Figarella-Branger D: Relevance of combinatorial profiles of intermediate filaments and transcription factors for glioma histogenesis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2007 Aug;33(4):431-9
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  • In order to define specific markers for histogenesis of three well-characterized subgroups of human gliomas (pilocytic astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme and oligodendrogliomas), we studied the expression of relevant markers that characterize gliomagenesis, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas strongly express GFAP, vimentin, Olig2, Nkx2.2 and Sox10 but not nestin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / biosynthesis. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. High Mobility Group Proteins / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Intermediate Filament Proteins / genetics. Middle Aged. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nestin. SOXE Transcription Factors. Vimentin / biosynthesis. Vimentin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17442061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Nkx-2.2 homedomain protein; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; 0 / SOX10 protein, human; 0 / SOXE Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin
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33. Daou MC, Smith TW, Litofsky NS, Hsieh CC, Ross AH: Doublecortin is preferentially expressed in invasive human brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Nov;110(5):472-80
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  • DCX was highly expressed in both high-grade invasive tumors (glioblastoma, n=11; anaplastic astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=7; and medulloblastoma/PNET, n=6) and low-grade invasive tumors (oligodendroglioma, n=3; and astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=5).
  • However, DCX was less intensely expressed in the circumscribed group of tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma, n=6; ependymoma/subependymoma, n=7; dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, n=4; ganglioglioma, n=2; meningioma, n=9; and schwannoma, n=9).
  • By the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical test, the circumscribed group was significantly different from both the high-grade invasive group (P<0.0001) and the low-grade invasive group (P<0.0001).
  • In addition, DCX immunostaining was stronger at the margin of the tumor than at the center.

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  • (PMID = 16195916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS021716; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA107372; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-10737; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-21716
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / doublecortin protein
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34. Ghosal N, Furtado SV, Hegde AS: Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor pineal gland and tectum: an intraoperative diagnosis on smear preparation. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Aug;38(8):590-3
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  • [Title] Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor pineal gland and tectum: an intraoperative diagnosis on smear preparation.
  • We present an extremely rare case of newly described entity called rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT), involving the pineal gland, tectum, and the adjacent thalamus in a 22-year-old male.
  • The tumor was diagnosed intraoperatively on smear preparation on cytomorphology.
  • One of the components is pilocytic astrocytoma and the other is composed of small cells with scant cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, arranged around neuropil-like material forming "neurocytic rosettes."

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Jager B, Schuhmann MU, Schober R, Kortmann RD, Meixensberger J: Induction of gliosarcoma and atypical meningioma 13 years after radiotherapy of residual pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(2):153-8
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  • [Title] Induction of gliosarcoma and atypical meningioma 13 years after radiotherapy of residual pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytomas in children is rare and often linked to previous radiotherapy.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We report a patient who underwent subtotal resection of a right temporal and insular pilocytic astrocytoma at age 8 in 1988 followed by high-dose radiation therapy.
  • A local recurrence, grade WHO III, with signs of focal sarcomatous transformation, was subtotally resected 13 years later in 2001.
  • A new and fast growing right frontal meningioma, grade WHO II, was removed in 2003.
  • Another tumor mass reduction in 2005 was followed by stereotactic radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Most of the reported cases of malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytomas received radiation therapy beforehand.
  • Irradiation-induced meningiomas in children are known to occur, however not following radiotherapy of low-grade hemispheric gliomas.
  • The presented case illustrates why adjuvant radiotherapy of residual pilocytic astrocytoma in children is not recommended anymore.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Gliosarcoma / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Meningioma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology


36. Huang H, Hara A, Homma T, Yonekawa Y, Ohgaki H: Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Oct;64(10):891-901
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  • [Title] Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) is a circumscribed, slowly growing, benign astrocytoma that most frequently develops in the cerebellar hemispheres and in midline structures and occurs predominantly in childhood and adolescence.
  • In contrast to diffusely infiltrating gliomas in adults (e.g. grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas), survival of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma is excellent after surgical intervention.
  • To search for potential molecular mechanisms underlying its benign biologic behavior, we compared gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas (8 cases) with those of normal cerebellum (4 cases), low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II; 15 cases), and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II; 17 cases) by cDNA array analysis.
  • A number of immune system-related genes such as HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, IgG3, IgGK, FCER1G, A2M, FCRN, IFI-56K, and DAP12 were upregulated in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to normal cerebellum, grade II astrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Genes expressed at higher levels in pilocytic astrocytomas than in grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas include HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, A2M, TIMP1, TIMP2, CDKN1A, and SOCS3 and those expressed at lower levels include EGFR and PDGFRA.
  • Hierarchical clustering analysis using the entire set of 1176 genes distinguished pilocytic astrocytomas from grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Clustering analysis using selected subgroups of genes based on their molecular functions revealed that immune system-related genes (75 genes) or cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis-related genes (69 genes) showed similar power to the entire gene set for separation of pilocytic astrocytomas from diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that HLA-DRalpha is expressed diffusely in neoplastic cells in pilocytic astrocytomas, whereas in oligodendrogliomas, expression was limited to scattered reactive astrocytes.
  • These results suggest that gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas differ significantly from those of diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas and that their benign biologic behavior may be related to upregulation of immune defense-associated genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Gene Expression. Immunity / genetics


37. Guzman G, Oh S, Shukla D, Engelhard HH, Valyi-Nagy T: Expression of entry receptor nectin-1 of herpes simplex virus 1 and/or herpes simplex virus 2 in normal and neoplastic human nervous system tissues. Acta Virol; 2006;50(1):59-66
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  • Oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme and meningothelial meningioma showed weak focal nectin-1-positivity.


38. Matyja E, Grajkowska W, Taraszewska A, Marchel A, Bojarski P, Nauman P: Advanced reactive astrogliosis associated with hemangioblastoma versus astroglial-vascular neoplasm ("angioglioma"). Folia Neuropathol; 2007;45(3):120-5
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  • [Title] Advanced reactive astrogliosis associated with hemangioblastoma versus astroglial-vascular neoplasm ("angioglioma").
  • The cyst's wall might be composed of various astroglial elements including reactive pilocytic or gemistocytic and hypertrophic astrocytes.
  • The small tissue samples composed of compact gliotic tissue are sometimes nonrepresentative for primary hemangioblastoma tumour and might be confused with both pilocytic and diffuse infiltrative astrocytoma.
  • In some cases the histopathological features of pilocytic gliosis with numerous Rosenthal fibres and eosinophilic granular bodies strongly suggest the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • One tumour was identified as an angioglioma exhibiting a combination of hemangioblastoma-like tissue and pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 17849362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1641-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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39. Capper D, Weissert S, Balss J, Habel A, Meyer J, Jäger D, Ackermann U, Tessmer C, Korshunov A, Zentgraf H, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Characterization of R132H mutation-specific IDH1 antibody binding in brain tumors. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jan;20(1):245-54
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  • Heterozygous point mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 codon 132 are frequent in grade II and III gliomas.
  • Intriguing is the ability of mIDH1R132H to detect single infiltrating tumor cells.
  • The very high frequency and the distribution of this mutation among specific brain tumor entities allow the highly sensitive and specific discrimination of various tumors by immunohistochemistry, such as anaplastic astrocytoma from primary glioblastoma or diffuse astrocytoma World Health Organization (WHO) grade II from pilocytic astrocytoma or ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Glioma / enzymology. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. Cloning, Molecular. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Mutation / physiology. Protein Biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19903171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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40. Cuellar-Baena S, Morales JM, Martinetto H, Calvar J, Sevlever G, Castellano G, Cerdá-Nicolás M, Celda B, Monleon D: Comparative metabolic profiling of paediatric ependymoma, medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma. Int J Mol Med; 2010 Dec;26(6):941-8
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  • [Title] Comparative metabolic profiling of paediatric ependymoma, medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • The most common paediatric brain tumours include ependymomas, cerebellar astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • Tumour types include ependymoma, medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Some resonances detected in this work and not previously observed by in vivo spectroscopy also show potential in determining tumour type and grade (fatty acids, phenylalanine, glutamate).
  • Overall, this work suggests that the additional information obtained by NMR metabolic profiling applied to tissue from paediatric brain tumours may be useful for assessing tumour grade and determining optimum treatment strategies.


41. Wilson M, Davies NP, Brundler MA, McConville C, Grundy RG, Peet AC: High resolution magic angle spinning 1H NMR of childhood brain and nervous system tumours. Mol Cancer; 2009 Feb 10;8:6
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  • Supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours had metabolite profiles in keeping with other primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours whilst ependymomas (n = 2) had metabolite profiles intermediate between pilocytic astrocytomas (n = 10) and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours.

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  • (PMID = 19208232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10342; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601327
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2651110
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42. Brat DJ, Scheithauer BW, Fuller GN, Tihan T: Newly codified glial neoplasms of the 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System: angiocentric glioma, pilomyxoid astrocytoma and pituicytoma. Brain Pathol; 2007 Jul;17(3):319-24
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  • [Title] Newly codified glial neoplasms of the 2007 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System: angiocentric glioma, pilomyxoid astrocytoma and pituicytoma.
  • Three new tumours, angiocentric glioma (AG), pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA), and pituicytoma are added to the section on gliomas.
  • Typically, AG can be cured by total resection, and is designated WHO grade I.
  • While PMA is considered a more aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma, this relationship awaits further clarification.
  • The PMA has been designated WHO grade II.
  • Pituicytomas are indolent tumours, and are designated WHO grade I.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / classification. Glioma / classification. Neuroglia / pathology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / classification. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17598825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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43. Martínez-Lage J, Ros de San Pedro J, Martínez-Pérez M, Poza M: Meningiomas after radiation-therapy for benign astrocytomas. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2005 Jun;16(3):266-70; discussion 270
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  • [Title] Meningiomas after radiation-therapy for benign astrocytomas.
  • A 4.5 year-old-girl was submitted to subtotal removal of a benign astrocytoma of the left temporal lobe with basal ganglia extension and given radiotherapy.
  • The authors report this case to illustrate the possibility of the appearance of radiation-induced meningiomas after an interval of 22 years and briefly discuss 16 previous reports on this occurrence in benign astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Basal Ganglia. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Meningioma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Temporal Lobe
  • [MeSH-minor] Aphasia / etiology. Child, Preschool. Craniotomy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Paresis / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Seizures / etiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16007326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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44. Ambroise MM, Khosla C, Ghosh M, Mallikarjuna VS, Annapurneswari S: The role of immunohistochemistry in predicting behavior of astrocytic tumors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(4):1079-84
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in predicting behavior of astrocytic tumors.
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the significance of p53, bcl-2 and EGFR expression in the grading and biological behavior of astrocytic tumors, especially in the Indian population.
  • A total of 117 cases of astrocytomas graded using the WHO grading system published in 2007 were immunolabeled using p53, EGFR and bcl-2 monoclonal antibodies and analyzed with respect to grade and other relevant parameters.
  • The 117 cases included 16 cases of pilocytic astrocytomas and 25, 15 and 61 cases of diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas WHO grade II, anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III and glioblastomas (GBM), respectively.
  • Our results showed that p53 alterations is an early event in astrocytic gliomagenesis, but is not significant in the evolution of pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Bcl-2 expression did not correlate with grade and no statistical correlation was seen with p53 expression.
  • EGFR protein expression correlated with the severity of tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Glioblastoma / chemistry. Nervous System Neoplasms / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 21133628.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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45. Lyons MK: Pilocytic astrocytoma with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages in an elderly adult. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2007 Jan;109(1):76-80
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages in an elderly adult.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are relatively uncommon tumors found predominantly in the pediatric population.
  • This is a report of a 75-year-old man presenting with two spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages and subsequent resection of a pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • A review of the literature summarizes the current field of knowledge of adult pilocytic astrocytomas in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Intracranial Hemorrhages / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16621238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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46. Arvanitis LD, Koukoulis GK, Kanavaros P: The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Oncol Rep; 2009 Sep;22(3):521-4
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  • [Title] The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • In normal human brains the epitope H is present mostly to a minority of fibrous astrocytes, whereas it is greatly up-regulated in reactive astrocytes and is increased in well differentiated fibrillary astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • In this study the expression of the epitope H was investigated in thirty cases of gemistocytic (WHO grade II), pilocytic (WHO grade I), and subependymal giant cell (WHO grade I) astrocytomas using the mAbH with the indirect immunoperoxidase method.
  • The ten cases of gemistocytic astrocytomas revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • The ten cases of pilocytic astrocytomas revealed a biphasic pattern of epitope H expression.
  • The dense tumor areas composed of elongated pilocytic cells revealed high expression of the epitope H.
  • The loose cystic tumor areas composed of stellate cells revealed low expression of the epitope H.
  • The ten cases of subependynal giant cell astrocytomas occurring in tuberous sclerosis revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • This study shows that there is high expression of the epitope H in gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Collectively considering, the present and our previous data, it appears that there is a spectrum of the expression levels of the epitope H ranging from the high expression in the reactive astrocytes and low grade astrocytomas to the low/null expression in the normal astrocytes and glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylglucosamine / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Epitopes

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  • (PMID = 19639198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epitopes; V956696549 / Acetylglucosamine
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47. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Lovell C, Burnham J, Pollack IF: Impact of morphology, MIB-1, p53 and MGMT on outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 May;20(3):581-8
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  • [Title] Impact of morphology, MIB-1, p53 and MGMT on outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma in the pediatric population.
  • Parameters included quantification of characteristic morphologic variables as well as genes previously shown to be of relevance in high-grade gliomas, including MIB-1, p53 and MGMT.
  • Morphologic biomarkers thus do exist for PAs, but the utility of each biomarker varies according to location.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. DNA Modification Methylases / physiology. DNA Repair Enzymes / physiology. Ki-67 Antigen / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19832838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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48. Ammerman JM, Lonser RR, Oldfield EH: Posterior subtemporal transtentorial approach to intraparenchymal lesions of the anteromedial region of the superior cerebellum. J Neurosurg; 2005 Nov;103(5):783-8
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  • Three patients (two men and one woman) with anteromedial superior cerebellar tumors (two hemangioblastomas and one pilocytic astrocytoma) underwent resection via this approach.
  • This approach provided excellent surgical access and permitted complete tumor resection in each case.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellum / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2006 May;104(5):854; author reply 855-6 [16703898.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2006 May;104(5):854-5; author reply 855-6 [16703899.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg. 2005 Nov;103(5):776-7; discussion 777 [16304978.001]
  • (PMID = 16304980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Nguyen C, Borruat FX: Bilateral peripapillary subretinal neovessel membrane associated with chronic papilledema: report of two cases. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2005 Mar;222(3):275-8
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  • Cerebral imaging revealed a pilocytic astrocytoma and hydrocephaly.
  • THERAPY AND OUTCOME: Lowering of ICP (tumor resection - Case 1 and lumboperitoneal shunt - Case 2) resulted in involution of the PSNVMs in both patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Hydrocephalus / complications. Intracranial Hypertension / complications. Optic Disk / blood supply. Papilledema / complications. Retinal Neovascularization / complications. Vision Disorders / etiology


50. Rivera-Luna R, Zapata-Tarrés M, Medina-Sansón A, López-Aguilar E, Niembro-Zúñiga A, Amador Zarco J, Marhx-Bracho A, Rueda-Franco F, Bornstein-Quevedo L: Long-term survival in children under 3 years of age with low-grade astrocytoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 May;23(5):543-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term survival in children under 3 years of age with low-grade astrocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical aspects and disease-free survival (DFS) in children less than 3 years of age diagnosed with low-grade astrocytoma.
  • Twenty-three patients had pilocytic astrocytoma, 18 diffused, and 2 mixed.
  • Thirty-one (72.1%) children had incomplete surgical tumor resection and 12 (27.9%) had a complete tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17226033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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51. Subbiah V, Huff V, Wolff JE, Ketonen L, Lang FF Jr, Stewart J, Langford L, Herzog CE: Bilateral gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma and pilocytic astrocytoma with WT1 GT-IVS9 mutation: A 46 XY phenotypic female with Frasier syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;53(7):1349-51
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  • [Title] Bilateral gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma and pilocytic astrocytoma with WT1 GT-IVS9 mutation: A 46 XY phenotypic female with Frasier syndrome.
  • Frasier syndrome is characterized by a 46 XY disorder of sex development, nephropathy, and increased risk for gonadoblastoma due to Wilms tumor 1(WT1) mutation in the donor splice site of intron-9, resulting in the splice form +KTS.
  • We present the clinical, radiological, and genetic (WT1 mutation analysis) of a 46 XY phenotypic female with Frasier syndrome with bilateral gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma who developed pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Dysgerminoma / genetics. Frasier Syndrome / genetics. Genes, Wilms Tumor. Gonadoblastoma / genetics. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Point Mutation. RNA Splice Sites / genetics


52. Johnson MW, Eberhart CG, Perry A, Tihan T, Cohen KJ, Rosenblum MK, Rais-Bahrami S, Goldthwaite P, Burger PC: Spectrum of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: intermediate pilomyxoid tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;34(12):1783-91
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  • [Title] Spectrum of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: intermediate pilomyxoid tumors.
  • To define the spectrum of pilomyxoid morphology and to characterize the association between pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) and pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 84 cases of pediatric astrocytomas with pilomyxoid features were reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 21107083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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53. Sie M, de Bont ES, Scherpen FJ, Hoving EW, den Dunnen WF: Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma? Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2010 Dec;36(7):636-47
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  • [Title] Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma?
  • AIMS: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumours in children.
  • In this study 59 paediatric pilocytic astrocytomas were compared with 62 adult glioblastomas, as a prototype of tumour angiogenesis.
  • RESULTS: Pilocytic astrocytoma and glioblastoma showed similar fractions of vessels covered with basement membrane and pericytes.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma had fewer but wider vessels compared with glioblastoma.
  • Turnover of endothelial and tumour cells were relatively lower in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Within pilocytic astrocytoma, higher ANGPT-1/ANGPT-2 balance was correlated with fewer apoptotic endothelial cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that pilocytic astrocytoma showed a different vessel architecture compared with glioblastoma, a critical overlap in vessel immaturity/instability and the angiogenic profile was seen between both tumours.
  • These findings suggest encouraging possibilities for targeting angiogenesis (for instance with anti-VEGF) as a therapeutic strategy in pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2010 British Neuropathological Society.
  • (PMID = 20704656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenic Proteins; 0 / Angiopoietin-1; 0 / Angiopoietin-2; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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54. Catrambone JE, He W, Prestigiacomo CJ, Carmel PW: Monitoring papilledema in a patient with pineal pilocytic astrocytoma by using Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Aug;107(2 Suppl):163-6
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  • [Title] Monitoring papilledema in a patient with pineal pilocytic astrocytoma by using Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II. Case report.
  • In this paper the authors report a novel use of this device in the assessment of papilledema in a patient with pilocytic astrocytoma of the pineal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / instrumentation. Papilledema / pathology. Pineal Gland. Tomography / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 18459891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Daszkiewicz P, Maryniak A, Roszkowski M, Barszcz S: Long-term functional outcome of surgical treatment of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebellum in children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jul;25(7):855-60
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  • [Title] Long-term functional outcome of surgical treatment of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the cerebellum in children.
  • PURPOSE: Increasing incidence of pediatric brain tumors and improving survival rates encouraged us to assess long-term functional outcome of patients with cerebellar juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19418058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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56. Yu J, Deshmukh H, Gutmann RJ, Emnett RJ, Rodriguez FJ, Watson MA, Nagarajan R, Gutmann DH: Alterations of BRAF and HIPK2 loci predominate in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurology; 2009 Nov 10;73(19):1526-31
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  • [Title] Alterations of BRAF and HIPK2 loci predominate in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Independent studies have previously demonstrated that both the HIPK2 and BRAF genes are amplified and rearranged, respectively, in pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • CONCLUSIONS: BRAF rearrangement represents the most common genetic alteration in sporadic, but not neurofibromatosis type 1-associated, pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • These findings implicate BRAF in the pathogenesis of these common low-grade astrocytomas in children, and suggest that PAs arise either from NF1 inactivation or BRAF gain of function.

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  • (PMID = 19794125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024992; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA91842
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.1.- / HIPK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2777068
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57. Salajegheh M, Rudnicki A, Smith TW: Expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in primary central nervous system neoplasms. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2005 Jun;13(2):184-9
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  • It is a specific cell surface receptor for its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which catalyzes the formation of plasmin from plasminogen to generate the proteolytic cascade and leads to the breakdown of the extracellular matrix. uPAR has been shown to correlate with a propensity to tumor invasion and metastasis in several types of non-central nervous system tumors.
  • In this study, the authors examined the immunohistochemical expression of uPAR in 65 primary brain tumors (5 pilocytic astrocytomas, 5 diffuse astrocytomas, 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, 8 glioblastomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 6 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, 4 gangliogliomas, 4 ependymomas, 5 medulloblastomas, 6 schwannomas, 5 meningiomas, 2 atypical meningiomas).
  • A significant positive correlation (P = 0.0006) between tumor grade and staining intensity was identified within the astrocytoma/glioblastoma subgroup, suggesting a possible correlation with anaplastic change and propensity to tumor invasion.
  • Expression of uPAR in nonmalignant, noninvasive tumors such as schwannoma and meningioma suggests that uPAR may have other biologic functions in addition to promotion of tumor invasion.

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  • (PMID = 15894933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PLAUR protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator
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58. Massimino M, Spreafico F, Riva D, Biassoni V, Poggi G, Solero C, Gandola L, Genitori L, Modena P, Simonetti F, Potepan P, Casanova M, Meazza C, Clerici CA, Catania S, Sardi I, Giangaspero F: A lower-dose, lower-toxicity cisplatin-etoposide regimen for childhood progressive low-grade glioma. J Neurooncol; 2010 Oct;100(1):65-71
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  • [Title] A lower-dose, lower-toxicity cisplatin-etoposide regimen for childhood progressive low-grade glioma.
  • After successfully using cisplatin (30 mg/m(2)/day) and etoposide (150 mg/m(2)/day) in ten three-day courses for progressive low-grade gliomas, a subsequent protocol reduced the daily doses of cisplatin (to 25 mg) and etoposide (to 100 mg), with the objective of achieving the same response and three-year PFS rates with lower neurotoxicity and myelotoxicity.
  • Diagnoses were clinical in 13 cases and histological in 24, and comprised: pilocytic astrocytoma (17), ganglioglioma (3), pilomyxoid astrocytoma (2), and fibrillary astrocytoma (2).
  • Lower doses of cisplatin/etoposide are still effective in progressive low-grade glioma, with less acute and persistent morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 20151174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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59. Hassounah M, Lach B, Allam A, Al-Khalaf H, Siddiqui Y, Pangue-Cruz N, Al-Omeir A, Al-Ahdal MN, Aboussekhra A: Benign tumors from the human nervous system express high levels of survivin and are resistant to spontaneous and radiation-induced apoptosis. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;72(3):203-8
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  • [Title] Benign tumors from the human nervous system express high levels of survivin and are resistant to spontaneous and radiation-induced apoptosis.
  • Here we have assessed the level of the survivin protein in some benign tumors of the nervous system: meningioma, schwannoma, low-grade ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and pituitary adenoma.
  • Using immuno-blot analysis we present evidence that these low-grade tumors are positive for survivin expression.
  • Using host cell reactivation assay we have also shown that these tumor cells are proficient in the repair of gamma-ray-induced DNA damage.
  • These results suggest that survivin overexpression may be an early event in the stepwise tumoregenesis and hence could be responsible for the onset as well as the growth advantage during tumoregenic progression of malignant as well as benign neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Damage / radiation effects. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Flow Cytometry. Gamma Rays. Genes, p53 / genetics. Genes, p53 / radiation effects. Humans. Immunoblotting. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / biosynthesis. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / radiation effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 15937641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 3.6.5.2 / Oncogene Protein p21(ras)
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60. Wippold FJ 2nd, Perry A, Lennerz J: Neuropathology for the neuroradiologist: Rosenthal fibers. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 May;27(5):958-61
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  • This report reviews the neuropathologically observed intracellular inclusions known as Rosenthal fibers in the context of Alexander disease and slow-growing tumors such as pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 16687524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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61. Forshew T, Tatevossian RG, Lawson AR, Ma J, Neale G, Ogunkolade BW, Jones TA, Aarum J, Dalton J, Bailey S, Chaplin T, Carter RL, Gajjar A, Broniscer A, Young BD, Ellison DW, Sheer D: Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):172-81
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  • [Title] Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • We report genetic aberrations that activate the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in 100% of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas, with a high frequency of gene fusions between KIAA1549 and BRAF among these tumours.
  • An activating mutation of KRAS was identified in the single pilocytic astrocytoma without a BRAF or RAF1 fusion.
  • Further fusions and activating mutations in BRAF were identified in 28% of grade II astrocytomas, highlighting the importance of the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in the development of paediatric low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] J Pathol. 2010 Dec;222(4):324-8 [20976706.001]
  • (PMID = 19373855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A8318; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C5321/A8318
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / GTPase-Activating Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / SRGAP3 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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62. Jeon YK, Cheon JE, Kim SK, Wang KC, Cho BK, Park SH: Clinicopathological features and global genomic copy number alterations of pilomyxoid astrocytoma in the hypothalamus/optic pathway: comparative analysis with pilocytic astrocytoma using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Mod Pathol; 2008 Nov;21(11):1345-56
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features and global genomic copy number alterations of pilomyxoid astrocytoma in the hypothalamus/optic pathway: comparative analysis with pilocytic astrocytoma using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently identified variant of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • We studied 11 circumscribed astrocytomas with focal (n=5) or diffuse (n=6) pilomyxoid features and compared them with 17 pilocytic astrocytomas from the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region in children.
  • In one patient, a tumor that recurred after initial surgery had changed from pure-form pilomyxoid astrocytoma to the mixed form.
  • Next, we compared the comprehensive genome copy number changes in the pilomyxoid astrocytoma (n=4) with those in pilocytic astrocytoma (n=6) cases by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • The number of lost clones was larger in pilomyxoid astrocytoma than in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Clones located in chromosome 8q24.3 were frequently gained in pilocytic astrocytoma (four of six) and in pilomyxoid astrocytoma (one of four).
  • Clones located in 9p24.3 and 15q26.3 were lost in all of the pilomyxoid astrocytomas and in five of the pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Those in 8p23.3 showed a copy number loss in three of the pilomyxoid astrocytomas and four of the pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • The frequency of copy number changes was significantly different between pilomyxoid astrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma in 47 (3.6%) clones, 20 of them having been located in 2p, 10 in 2q, and 11 in 3q.
  • An unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis classified the cases into three clusters: one pilomyxoid astrocytoma patient into one cluster, two pilomyxoid astrocytoma patients into another cluster, and six pilocytic astrocytoma patients and one pilomyxoid astrocytoma patient into the third cluster.
  • In conclusion, the presence of mixed-form pilomyxoid astrocytoma, the acquisition of pilocytic astrocytoma features in a recurrent tumor in pure-form pilomyxoid astrocytoma, and the above results of the genome-wide gene copy number analysis suggest that pilomyxoid astrocytoma might be a pathologically and genetically related, aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma with partially different genetic alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Comparative Genomic Hybridization / methods. Gene Dosage. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothalamus, Anterior / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18622384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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63. Porto L, Kieslich M, Franz K, Lehrbecher T, Vlaho S, Pilatus U, Hattingen E: Spectroscopy of untreated pilocytic astrocytomas: do children and adults share some metabolic features in addition to their morphologic similarities? Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jun;26(6):801-6
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  • [Title] Spectroscopy of untreated pilocytic astrocytomas: do children and adults share some metabolic features in addition to their morphologic similarities?
  • OBJECTIVE: Pilocytic astrocytomas may show heterogeneous histopathological and imaging features which are commonly attributed to malignant gliomas.
  • Using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, we assessed if pilocytic astrocytomas show increased choline (tCho), classically related to proliferation and malignancy of gliomas.
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients (five adults, age 20-55 years and 11 children, age 6 months-15 years) with histologically proven pilocytic astrocytomas were evaluated retrospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The well-known positive correlation between increase of tCho and the grade of gliomas seems to be violated by WHO grade I pilocytic astrocytomas showing a wide range of tCho values with an even marked increase in some cases.
  • No significant differences have been identified in the MR spectroscopy metabolite profiles between paediatric and adult pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20091040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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64. Josan V, Smith P, Kornberg A, Rickert C, Maixner W: Development of a pilocytic astrocytoma in a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jun;106(6 Suppl):509-12
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  • [Title] Development of a pilocytic astrocytoma in a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Case report.
  • Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) are benign supratentorial tumors based in the cerebral cortex.
  • The authors report on a patient in whom a pilocytic astrocytoma developed within a DNET, raising questions regarding the classification of these lesions and the need for lifelong clinical and imaging surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Cortex. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis


65. Klein O, Grignon Y, Civit T, Pinelli C, Auque J, Marchal JC: [Childhood diencephalic pilocytic astrocytoma. A review of seven observations]. Neurochirurgie; 2006 Feb;52(1):3-14
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  • [Title] [Childhood diencephalic pilocytic astrocytoma. A review of seven observations].
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a WHO grade I tumor of the central nervous system mostly arising in children and young adults.
  • Tumor locations were as followed: right thalamus: 2, both thalami: 1, hypothalamus: 3, and right basal ganglia: 1.
  • Three children died, two by tumor progression and one death related to late side-effects of RT.
  • We observed tumor regression in two patients at 1 and 17 years after the beginning of treatment.
  • The tumor can be controlled by a partial surgical removal, and a residual tumor can sometimes decrease in size after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Thalamic Diseases / surgery


66. Bahuleyan B, Daniel RT, Chacko G, Chacko AG: Epidermoid cysts of the velum interpositum. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Oct;15(10):1159-61
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  • Lesions located within the velum interpositum are rare and include meningiomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and arachnoid cysts.

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  • (PMID = 18710812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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67. Tsuboi K, Matsuda W, Nakamura K, Takano S, Matsumura A: Excision of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the midbrain after radiotherapy. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(5):311-5
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  • [Title] Excision of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the midbrain after radiotherapy.
  • A magnetic resonance image demonstrated marked hydrocephalus due to a large cystic tumor (40 x 40 x 30 mm) in the midbrain.
  • Conventional radiotherapy of 50.4 Gy was temporarily effective, and the growth of the tumor was stabilized until approximately 8 months later when regrowth was noticed.
  • At this stage, with the consent of her family, the tumor was removed via an infratentorial supracerebellar approach.
  • The pathological diagnosis was juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • This case study shows that initial excision may be appropriate for some low-grade focal lesions in the midbrain when the histological diagnosis and consent have been obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16902345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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68. Moiyadi AV, Shetty PM: Indigenous customized sponge shunt for a recurrent brainstem cyst. World Neurosurg; 2010 Apr;73(4):417-9
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  • This article describes a young boy who presented with an intra-axial brainstem cyst following radiation for a pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20849804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Polyurethanes
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69. de Chadarévian JP, Halligan GE, Reddy G, Bertrand L, Pascasio JM, Faerber EN, Katsetos CD: Glioneuronal phenotype in a diencephalic pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2006 Nov-Dec;9(6):480-7
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  • [Title] Glioneuronal phenotype in a diencephalic pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • We report the presence of divergent populations of cells in a hypothalamic/chiasmatic pilomyxoid astrocytoma of an 11-month-old male, exhibiting differential immunohistochemical localizations for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin.
  • The tumor cells were negative for Neu-N and neurofilament protein.
  • Ultrastructurally, the tumor comprised 2 cell types, one with features attributable to a neuronal phenotype alongside cells exhibiting an overt astroglial phenotype.
  • This composite organization was confirmed by confocal microscopy, which revealed 2 distinct, albeit tightly interwoven, populations of GFAP and synaptophysin-labeled tumor cells.
  • Our results indicate that a subset of the so-called pilomyxoid astrocytomas of the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region may represent phenotypically mixed glioneuronal neoplasms distinct from the pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Hypothalamus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17163791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Synaptophysin
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70. Deshmukh H, Yeh TH, Yu J, Sharma MK, Perry A, Leonard JR, Watson MA, Gutmann DH, Nagarajan R: High-resolution, dual-platform aCGH analysis reveals frequent HIPK2 amplification and increased expression in pilocytic astrocytomas. Oncogene; 2008 Aug 7;27(34):4745-51
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  • [Title] High-resolution, dual-platform aCGH analysis reveals frequent HIPK2 amplification and increased expression in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs, WHO grade I) are the most common brain tumors in the pediatric and adolescent population, accounting for approximately one-fifth of central nervous system tumors.
  • Because few consistent molecular alterations have been identified in PAs compared to higher grade gliomas, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization using two independent commercial array platforms.
  • Copy-number gain was confirmed in an independent tumor sample set by quantitative PCR, and this amplification was correlated to both increased mRNA and protein expression of HIPK2, a homeobox-interacting protein kinase associated with malignancy, contained within this locus.
  • Collectively, these results illustrate the power and necessity of implementing high-resolution, multiple-platform genomic analyses to discover small and subtle, but functionally significant, genomic alterations associated with low-grade tumor formation and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Cluster Analysis. DNA Mutational Analysis / instrumentation. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Frequency. Humans. Male. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • (PMID = 18408760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / HIPK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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71. Abel TJ, Chowdhary A, Thapa M, Rutledge JC, Geyer JR, Ojemann J, Avellino AM: Spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination to the brain. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;105(6 Suppl):508-14
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  • [Title] Spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination to the brain. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade spinal cord gliomas is an uncommon event.
  • The authors report a unique case of leptomeningeal dissemination of a spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma (PCA) to the intracranial cerebral subarachnoid spaces in a child.
  • An intradural intramedullary spinal cord tumor was identified, and the lesion was subtotally resected and diagnosed by the pathology department to be a PCA.
  • Subsequently, the patient had recurrences of the intradural intramedullary tumor at 6 months and 2 years after his original presentation.
  • He underwent a repeated resection of the recurrent tumor and fenestration of an associated syrinx on both occasions.
  • The pathological characteristics of the reresected tumor remained consistent with those of a PCA.
  • The patient then underwent chemotherapy, and total spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 2 months later demonstrated stability in the size of the spinal cord tumor and a decrease in the associated syrinx.
  • However, an MR image of the head demonstrated two new areas of supratentorial subarachnoid leptomeningeal spread of the primary spinal cord tumor at the 2-month follow-up examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery


72. Massimi L, Tamburrini G, Caldarelli M, Di Rocco F, Federica N, Di Rocco C: Late closure of the stoma by spreading of a periaqueductal glioma: an unusual failure of endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2006 Mar;104(3 Suppl):197-201
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  • Although the possibility of closure of the stoma by intraventricular tumor seeding has been hypothesized, no case of ETV failure caused by tumor diffusion has been reported in the literature.
  • The authors report on a 19-year-old patient, affected by obstructive hydrocephalus associated with a periaqueductal pilocytic astrocytoma, who underwent late secondary lesional obstruction of an ETV performed at diagnosis.
  • The authors suggest tumor extension along the diencephalic neural pathways as the possible cause of ETV failure in this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendoscopy. Third Ventricle / surgery. Ventriculostomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Surgical Stomas

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  • (PMID = 16572639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Gunal A, Onguru O, Safali M, Beyzadeoglu M: Fascin expression [corrected] in glial tumors and its prognostic significance in glioblastomas. Neuropathology; 2008 Aug;28(4):382-6
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  • In this study, we evaluated fascin expression in glial tumors and its relation with histologic grade.
  • Seventy-six glial tumors including 44 glioblastomas with known survival time, 18 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), six diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), and eight pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) were examined immunohistochemically for fascin expression.
  • Fascin expression was correlated with histologic grade in DAs.
  • In conclusion, fascin expression levels are correlated with histologic grade and fascin overexpression may play an important role in the biologic behavior of glial astrocytic tumors and in the prognosis of GBs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18298442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 146808-54-0 / fascin
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74. Harris LM, Davies NP, Macpherson L, Lateef S, Natarajan K, Brundler MA, Sgouros S, English MW, Arvanitis TN, Grundy RG, Peet AC: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the assessment of pilocytic astrocytomas. Eur J Cancer; 2008 Nov;44(17):2640-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the assessment of pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) are common childhood brain tumours whose management and prognosis vary widely depending on location. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures biochemistry in vivo and shows promise for characterising brain tumours and aiding management.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18835152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601327; United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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75. Xu Y, Li WL, Fu L, Gu F, Ma YJ: Slit2/Robo1 signaling in glioma migration and invasion. Neurosci Bull; 2010 Dec;26(6):474-8
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  • The expression of Slit2 is at very low levels in pilocytic astrocytoma, fibrillary astrocytoma and glioblastoma, while Robo1 is highly expressed in different grades of gliomas at both mRNA and protein levels.
  • Although the specific mechanisms of tumor-suppressive effect of Slit2/Robo1 have not been elucidated, it has been proved that Slit2/Robo1 signaling inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion by inactivation of Cdc42-GTP.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21113198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1995-8218
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Slit homolog 2 protein; 0 / roundabout protein; EC 3.6.5.2 / cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein
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76. Berg AL, Olson TJ, Feldstein NA: Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma with auditory presentation: case study. J Child Neurol; 2005 Nov;20(11):914-5
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  • [Title] Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma with auditory presentation: case study.
  • A cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Hearing Loss / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16417863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0883-0738
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Davies NP, Wilson M, Harris LM, Natarajan K, Lateef S, Macpherson L, Sgouros S, Grundy RG, Arvanitis TN, Peet AC: Identification and characterisation of childhood cerebellar tumours by in vivo proton MRS. NMR Biomed; 2008 Oct;21(8):908-18
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  • Thirty-five children with untreated cerebellar tumours (18 medulloblastomas, 12 pilocytic astrocytomas and five ependymomas) were investigated using a single-voxel short-TE PRESS sequence on a 1.5 T scanner.
  • The discriminant function coefficients were stable and showed that medulloblastomas were characterised by high taurine, phosphocholine and glutamate and low glutamine, astrocytomas were distinguished by low creatine and high N-acetylaspartate, and ependymomas were differentiated by high myo-inositol and glycerophosphocholine.
  • Successful classification was achieved for glial-cell (astrocytoma + ependymoma) versus non-glial-cell (medulloblastoma) tumours, with a bootstrap 0.632 + error, e(B.632+), of 5.3%.
  • For astrocytoma vs medulloblastoma and astrocytoma vs medulloblastoma vs ependymoma classification, the e(B.632+) was 6.9% and 7.1%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Protons

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 18613254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-3480
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10342; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601327; United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons
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78. Addo-Yobo SO, Straessle J, Anwar A, Donson AM, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK, Foreman NK: Paired overexpression of ErbB3 and Sox10 in pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Aug;65(8):769-75
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  • [Title] Paired overexpression of ErbB3 and Sox10 in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma of childhood.
  • Using gene expression microarray and Western blot analyses, we found that ErbB3 is highly overexpressed in PA compared with other pediatric brain tumors (glioblastoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, and choroid plexus papilloma).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. High Mobility Group Proteins / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-3 / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics


79. Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Viaño J, Velázquez-Fragua R, Carceller-Benito F, Gutiérrez-Molina M, Morales-Bastos C: [Cerebral hemisphere tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1 during childhood]. Rev Neurol; 2010 Apr 16;50(8):453-7
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six patients (three males and three females) of 600 cases of a series with NF1 showed features of cerebral hemispheres tumor (seizures, headache and hemiparesis).
  • Six patients had seven tumors (it was because one of them had one tumor in every frontal lobe, both with the same image characteristics), but they did not were removed and they were not studied histologically.
  • The histological study was made to the other five patients and showed that the histological nature corresponded to pilocytic astrocytoma in one patient, neuroepitelial dysembryoplastic tumor in one, polymorphe xanthoastrocytoma in one, neuroectodermic hamartoma in one, and inflammatory chronic non-granulomatose lesion in one.
  • The tumors commonly are histologically benign, and they can be found in peripheral or deep region of the cerebral hemispheres.


80. Paixão Becker A, de Oliveira RS, Saggioro FP, Neder L, Chimelli LM, Machado HR: In pursuit of prognostic factors in children with pilocytic astrocytomas. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jan;26(1):19-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In pursuit of prognostic factors in children with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study described a 23-year experience in the treatment of children with pilocytic astrocytomas (piloA) with the aim of identifying putative clinical, histopathological, and/or immunohistochemical features that could be related to the outcome of these patients.
  • The most common site of tumor formation was the cerebellum (17), followed by brainstem (4), optic chiasmatic hypothalamic region (4), cerebral hemisphere (3), cervical spinal cord (2), and optic nerve (1).
  • In all cases, Gal-3 expression in tumor cells was observed with variable staining pattern.
  • Tumor recurrence or progression of the residual lesion should be strictly observed.
  • In some aspects, childhood piloA remains an enigmatic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19823847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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81. Preusser M, Laggner U, Haberler C, Heinzl H, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Comparative analysis of NeuN immunoreactivity in primary brain tumours: conclusions for rational use in diagnostic histopathology. Histopathology; 2006 Mar;48(4):438-44
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  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Anti-NeuN immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of 106 diffuse astrocytomas, 100 pilocytic astrocytomas, 107 ependymomas, 59 1p-aberrant oligodendroglial neoplasms, 115 glioblastomas, 115 medulloblastomas, 14 gangliogliomas/gangliocytomas and 10 central neurocytomas.
  • We found no NeuN expression in pilocytic astrocytoma, whereas all other investigated tumour subtypes showed focal or widespread expression in varying proportions of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemistry can detect NeuN expression in all major brain tumour subtypes except pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Ganglioglioma / metabolism. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / metabolism. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neurocytoma / metabolism. Neurocytoma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 16487366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN, human
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82. Donson AM, Erwin NS, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Madden JR, Addo-Yobo SO, Foreman NK: Unique molecular characteristics of radiation-induced glioblastoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2007 Aug;66(8):740-9
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  • Despite the inability of histologic and molecular genetic studies to identify distinguishing features between RIGs and pediatric GBMs, gene microarrays suggested significant differences between these 2 tumor types, at least those occurring in pediatric patients.
  • Greater overlap was detected in gene expression patterns between RIGs and pilocytic astrocytomas than between RIGs and GBMs, medulloblastomas, ependymomas, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, or rhabdomyosarcomas, suggesting a common precursor cell for RIG and pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 17882018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Burkhardt K, Heuberger F, Delavelle J: Pilocytic astrocytoma in the elderly. Clin Neuropathol; 2007 Nov-Dec;26(6):306-10
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma in the elderly.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO Grade 1) is a low-grade glioma with a favorable prognosis most commonly diagnosed in patients aged below 20.
  • We report the highly unusual case of an 85-year-old man whose neurological signs included Parkinsonism, and in whom post mortem examination revealed a pilocytic astrocytoma of the brainstem.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18232598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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84. Rosenfeld A, Listernick R, Charrow J, Goldman S: Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 May;26(5):663-7
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  • [Title] Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system.
  • PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder, predisposes patients to the development of both benign and malignant tumors.
  • Although the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor is a low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway, there have been sporadic reports of NF1 patients with more aggressive CNS lesions.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with NF1 and any CNS tumor being followed in the Children's Memorial Hospital NF1 Clinic.
  • Five patients (3%) were identified as having high-grade tumors, which consisted of anaplastic medulloblastoma (n = 1) and high-grade glioma (n = 4).
  • Three of the five patients had a history of an OPT prior to the development of their high-grade lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: High-grade CNS tumors may occur in children with NF1.
  • Although tumors in NF patients are generally benign, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of malignancy in patients whose tumors are in an unusual location or behave in an uncharacteristically aggressive manner.


85. Francesco F, Maurizio I, Stefano C, Marina S, Ugo S, Massimo S: Trigeminal nerve root entry zone pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult: a rare case of an extraparenchymal tumor. J Neurooncol; 2010 Apr;97(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Trigeminal nerve root entry zone pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult: a rare case of an extraparenchymal tumor.
  • We describe a pilocytic astrocytoma of the CPA that was found to arise from the proximal portion of trigeminal nerve without any anatomic continuity with the brain stem and the cerebellum.
  • The proposed origin of this extremely rare tumor is the root entry zone of the involved nerve.
  • The tumor was completely resected via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19820900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Tung JN, Tsao TY, Tai CJ, Yeh KT, Cheng YW, Jiang MC: Distribution of lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2, and cathepsin D in eosinophilic granular bodies: possible relationship to cyst development in pilocytic astrocytomas. J Int Med Res; 2010 Jul-Aug;38(4):1354-64
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  • [Title] Distribution of lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2, and cathepsin D in eosinophilic granular bodies: possible relationship to cyst development in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are usually cystic; cyst formation within these tumours may result in increased intracranial pressure, due to the effect of their mass, and contribute to cerebral damage.
  • Eosinophilic granular bodies (EGBs) are produced abundantly in pilocytic astrocytomas but their role in disease progression remains unknown.
  • The results suggest that EGBs, together with other factors, may play a role in the development of cysts in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cathepsin D / metabolism. Cysts / complications. Cytoplasmic Granules / enzymology. Eosinophils / enzymology. Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20926008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LAMP1 protein, human; 0 / LAMP2 protein, human; 0 / Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2; 0 / Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins; EC 3.4.23.5 / Cathepsin D
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87. Kawaguchi T, Kumabe T, Shimizu H, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: 201Tl-SPECT and 1H-MRS study of benign lateral ventricle tumors: differential diagnosis of subependymoma. Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Apr;28(2):96-103
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  • [Title] 201Tl-SPECT and 1H-MRS study of benign lateral ventricle tumors: differential diagnosis of subependymoma.
  • Our study includes nine cases of benign lateral ventricle tumors including two cases of central neurocytoma, two of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, two of pilocytic astrocytoma and three of subependymoma treated surgically between 1996 and 2003.
  • All three types of tumor demonstrated heterogeneous enhancement on MR imaging with gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and increased choline (Cho) peak and decreased N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cre) peaks on (1)H-MRS. (201)Tl-SPECT showed high uptake of (201)Tl without wash out in all cases of central neurocytoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma, but no uptake in cases of subependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma, Subependymal / diagnosis. Lateral Ventricles. Neurocytoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15580370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thallium Radioisotopes
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88. French PJ, Barlow A, Barlow P, Jampana RV, Stewart W: A case of pilomyxoid astrocytoma presenting with CSF rhinorrhoea in a 15-year-old. Br J Neurosurg; 2009;23(5):545-7
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  • [Title] A case of pilomyxoid astrocytoma presenting with CSF rhinorrhoea in a 15-year-old.
  • We report a pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) presenting with CSF rhinorrhoea in a 15-year-old.
  • This uncommon, recently described entity typically presents in infancy with focal neurological or endocrine symptoms, has distinctive histologic features and displays a more aggressive behaviour than pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with which it was previously classified.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19718549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-046X
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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89. Lum DJ, Halliday W, Watson M, Smith A, Law A: Cortical ependymoma or monomorphous angiocentric glioma? Neuropathology; 2008 Feb;28(1):81-6
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  • Ependymoma is the third most common childhood intracranial tumor after medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • The current case is a 5-year-old boy with a somewhat ill-defined cortical tumor diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma on biopsy, and treated with radiotherapy.
  • Nine years later, resection of the essentially unaltered tumor was performed for treatment of intractable seizures.
  • Histologically, the tumor had some areas with the typical appearance of ependymoma as well other areas which contained piloid cells.
  • These findings bore resemblance to a recently described entity monomorphous angiocentric glioma/angiocentric neuroepithelial tumor, which combines features of ependymoma with pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Both cortical ependymomas and angiocentric monomorphous glioma/angiocentric neuroepithelial tumor appear to be low-grade tumors although their rarity makes accurate prognosis problematic.


90. Maris C, Rorive S, Sandras F, D'Haene N, Sadeghi N, Bièche I, Vidaud M, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2008 Jun;34(3):316-29
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  • [Title] Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an extracellular matrix brain glycoprotein for which conflicting in vitro and in vivo results are reported in the literature dealing with its involvement in astrocytoma aggressiveness, in particular astrocytoma invasion.
  • In view of these conflicting results and the lack of data available on low-grade astrocytomas, the present study focuses on pilocytic World Health Organization (WHO) grade I, and diffuse WHO grade II astrocytomas, that is, two histological entities associated with very different invasive abilities.
  • METHODS: Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we analysed the TN-C expression in normal brain tissue as well as in a series of 54 pilocytic and 53 grade II astrocytomas.
  • Paralleling these observations, we showed that TN-C expression in low-grade astrocytomas similarly varies according to tumour site.
  • Cox regression analysis evidenced that TN-C provided an independent prognostic value which is enhanced in the case of grade II astrocytomas for which positive TN-C expression is associated with a higher risk of recurrence.
  • We also analysed TN-C expression specifically in vascular areas of low-grade astrocytomas without demonstrating any prognostic value for this additional feature.
  • RESULTS: Similarly to normal brain, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit variations in TN-C expression with site, and this expression is associated with an independent prognostic value in terms of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Tenascin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17983425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tenascin
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91. Zorlu F, Selek U, Akyuz C, Ozturk A, Soylemezoglu F, Akalan N: Spinal seeding of a pilocytic astrocytoma following multiple subtotal resections. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2005 Sep-Oct;41(5):248-52
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  • [Title] Spinal seeding of a pilocytic astrocytoma following multiple subtotal resections.
  • We report the case of a 4-year-old girl presenting with spinal and leptomeningeal dissemination following several subtotal resections of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16195677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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92. Otero-Rodríguez A, Sarabia-Herrero R, García-Tejeiro M, Zamora-Martínez T: Spontaneous malignant transformation of a supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2010 Jun;21(3):245-52
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  • [Title] Spontaneous malignant transformation of a supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a circumscribed neoplasia considered as a grade I astrocytoma by the World Health Organization.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20571729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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93. Rueckriegel SM, Driever PH, Blankenburg F, Lüdemann L, Henze G, Bruhn H: Differences in supratentorial damage of white matter in pediatric survivors of posterior fossa tumors with and without adjuvant treatment as detected by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Mar 1;76(3):859-66
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  • PURPOSE: To elucidate morphologic correlates of brain dysfunction in pediatric survivors of posterior fossa tumors by using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine neuroaxonal integrity in white matter.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen medulloblastoma (MB) patients who had received surgery and adjuvant treatment, 13 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) patients who had been treated only with surgery, and age-matched healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging on a 3-Tesla system.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neurotoxic mechanisms that are present in PA patients (e.g., internal hydrocephalus and damaged cerebellar structures affecting neuronal circuits) contribute significantly to the alteration of supratentorial white matter in pediatric posterior fossa tumor patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Brain / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Infratentorial Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma. Survivors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19540067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Hoffman S, Schellinger KA, Propp JM, McCarthy BJ, Campbell RT, Davis FG: Seasonal variation in incidence of pediatric medulloblastoma in the United States, 1995-2001. Neuroepidemiology; 2007;29(1-2):89-95
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  • The literature suggests that one of the most common subtypes of malignant childhood brain tumor, medulloblastoma, has some seasonal variation in incidence by month of birth.
  • METHODS: Data from cases in the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, including primary brain tumor cases diagnosed in children (0-19 years) between the years 1995 and 2001 from 13 state cancer registries, were analyzed to determine whether there was seasonal variation.
  • There were no significant results for brain tumors overall, or for the other most common pediatric tumor subtypes (pilocytic astrocytoma, other astrocytoma, and ependymoma).

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17925600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0208
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroepidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroepidemiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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95. Ganesh S, Gupta A, Sharma M, Bhuttan S: A case of neurofibromatosis 1 presenting with optic pathway glioma with an early onset and an aggressive course. Indian J Ophthalmol; 2008 Mar-Apr;56(2):161-2
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  • Optic nerve biopsy confirmed pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • [Cites] Am J Ophthalmol. 2001 Apr;131(4):442-5 [11292406.001]
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  • (PMID = 18292634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4738
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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96. Yamashita Y, Kumabe T, Higano S, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient is significantly correlated with cellularity in medulloblastomas. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):940-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ADC and tumor cellularity in medulloblastoma and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • METHODS: Pre-operative diffusion-weighted MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 26 patients with posterior fossa neoplasms: 11 medulloblastomas, one atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), four glioblastomas, four ependymomas, three pilocytic astrocytomas and three hemangioblastomas.
  • The minimum ADC (minADC) value of each tumor was determined on ADC maps derived from isotropic diffusion-weighted MR images.
  • Tumor cellularity measured in surgical specimens was compared with the minADC value by simple linear regression analysis.
  • RESULTS: The mean minADC value of the medulloblastoma was significantly lower than those of ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and hemangioblastoma without overlap in the range of minADC values.
  • Tumor cellularity was negatively correlated with the minADC value in medulloblastomas and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • DISCUSSION: The low minADC value of medulloblastomas reflects the high tumor cellularity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Body Water / physiology. Cell Count. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / physiopathology. Extracellular Space / metabolism. Female. Hemangioblastoma / metabolism. Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Hemangioblastoma / physiopathology. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19138469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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97. Herrera EJ, Viano JC, Gómez JM, Surur A, Suárez JC: Interstitial stereotactic radiosurgery of pilocytic astrocytomas in paediatric patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007;149(9):887-96; discussion 896
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  • [Title] Interstitial stereotactic radiosurgery of pilocytic astrocytomas in paediatric patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentation, tumour response, clinical improvement and complications in 12 children and young people with a pilocytic astrocytoma, WHO I grade 1, who were treated with interstitial radiosurgery using Iodine-125 seed implants.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients aged under 18 years (mean 8.4 years, ranging from 8 months to 17 years of age) with a pilocytic astrocytoma treated between 1993 and 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retreatment. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17659372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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98. Schramm J, Blümcke I, Ostertag CB, Schlegel U, Simon M, Lutterbach J: Low-grade gliomas -- current concepts. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2006 May;67(2):55-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low-grade gliomas -- current concepts.
  • Diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas (mixed gliomas) WHO grade II, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs), pilocytic astrocytomas, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are often referred to as low-grade gliomas.
  • WHO grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed gliomas are characterized by their infiltrative growth, frequent tumor recurrence and a more than 50 % risk for malignant progression.
  • In contrast, pilocytic astrocytomas and SEGAs are circumscribed tumors amenable to a (radio)surgical cure.
  • There are few universally accepted guidelines for the treatment of low-grade gliomas.
  • In this review, three neurosurgeons, a neurologist, a neuropathologist, and a radiation oncologist discuss some of the difficult issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of low-grade gliomas from their individual points of view (i. e., classification and neuropathology, MR imaging, stereotactic biopsy, microsurgery, interstitial radiotherapy/brachytherapy, radiotherapy, wait and see strategy).

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  • (PMID = 16673237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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99. Ellis JA, Waziri A, Balmaceda C, Canoll P, Bruce JN, Sisti MB: Rapid recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adult patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):377-382
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rapid recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adult patients.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is a slow-growing, circumscribed glioma that most frequently occurs within the pediatric population.
  • In general, surgical resection for pilocytic astrocytoma is thought to be curative with tumor recurrence or malignant transformation being relatively rare.
  • However, there have been very few studies specifically looking at the prognosis for adult patients diagnosed with pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • To evaluate the frequency of recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adults, we performed a retrospective analysis of all adult patients who underwent surgical resection for this tumor at our institution over a period of 10 years.
  • A high rate of malignant transformation was observed in the patients that underwent repeat surgery with 75% (3/4) progressing to anaplastic astrocytoma on pathological examination.
  • This study provides further evidence that the clinical course of a subset of adult patients with pilocytic astrocytoma will not be benign.
  • The potential for rapid tumor recurrence and malignant transformation necessitates careful post-operative follow-up for adult patients with this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19533024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Azad A, Deb S, Cher L: Primary anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Dec;16(12):1704-6
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  • [Title] Primary anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • We report two adult patients with pilocytic astrocytomas with anaplastic features at initial diagnosis.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are low-grade astrocytomas that occur rarely in adults.
  • Initial presentation of a pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features is particularly uncommon and making a definitive diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features can be challenging.
  • It is critical to differentiate glioblastoma (World Health Organization [WHO] grade 4) and pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features (WHO grade 3) from pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade 1) as there are significant therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  • Improved therapeutic strategies are required for pilocytic astrocytomas with anaplastic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Anaplasia / complications. Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19815416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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