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1. Otero-Rodríguez A, Sarabia-Herrero R, García-Tejeiro M, Zamora-Martínez T: Spontaneous malignant transformation of a supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2010 Jun;21(3):245-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spontaneous malignant transformation of a supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a circumscribed neoplasia considered as a grade I astrocytoma by the World Health Organization.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20571729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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2. Rush SZ, Abel TW, Valadez JG, Pearson M, Cooper MK: Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):790-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is commonly viewed as a benign lesion.
  • The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates the growth of higher WHO grade gliomas, and in this study, we have evaluated the activation and operational status of this regulatory pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Expression levels of the Hh pathway transcriptional target PTCH were elevated in 45% of tumor specimens analyzed (ages 1-22 years) and correlated inversely with patient age.
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that Hh pathway activation is common in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and may be associated with younger age at diagnosis and tumor growth.

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  • (PMID = 20223881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02NS053614
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / patched receptors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940682
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3. Slatter T, Gifford-Garner J, Wiles A, Tan X, Chen YJ, MacFarlane M, Sullivan M, Royds J, Hung N: Pilocytic astrocytomas have telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies without alternatively lengthened telomeres. Am J Pathol; 2010 Dec;177(6):2694-700
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytomas have telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies without alternatively lengthened telomeres.
  • In this study, we investigated the possibility that APBs could occur before the long 'alternatively' lengthened telomeres arise, particularly in low-grade tumors.
  • We measured APBs, telomere length, and telomerase activity in 64 astrocytomas inclusive of grade 1-4 tumors.
  • Almost all grade 1-3 tumors (93%) were APB-positive using published criteria.
  • Grade 2-3 APB-positive tumors also had long telomeres and were confirmed as ALT positive.
  • However, grade 1 tumors lacked long telomeres and were therefore classified as ALT negative, but positive for telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies (TPB).
  • This is the first report of a TPB-positive but ALT-negative tumor, and suggests that low-grade tumors have the foundation for recombinational telomere repair, as in ALT.

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  • (PMID = 21037079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993310
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4. Jones DT, Ichimura K, Liu L, Pearson DM, Plant K, Collins VP: Genomic analysis of pilocytic astrocytomas at 0.97 Mb resolution shows an increasing tendency toward chromosomal copy number change with age. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Nov;65(11):1049-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genomic analysis of pilocytic astrocytomas at 0.97 Mb resolution shows an increasing tendency toward chromosomal copy number change with age.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), World Health Organization grade I, are one of the most frequently occurring childhood brain tumors, yet little is known about genetic changes characterizing this entity.
  • No copy number abnormality was seen in 64% of cases at this resolution.
  • This is the first genomewide study to show this nonrandom pattern of genetic alteration in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Dosage. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17086101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2761618; NLM/ UKMS2694
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5. Bhattacharjee M, Bose I, Sarkar P, Banerjee C, Dutta S, Ghosh A, Mukherjee J, Acharya S, Goswami S, Mazumdar A, Chaudhuri S, Chaudhuri S: A sequential scanning of the immune efficiency in astrocytoma (Grade I to Grade Iii), meningioma and secondary glioma patients with and without therapeutic scheduling. Cancer Invest; 2006 Aug-Sep;24(5):502-13
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  • [Title] A sequential scanning of the immune efficiency in astrocytoma (Grade I to Grade Iii), meningioma and secondary glioma patients with and without therapeutic scheduling.
  • Thus, the study aims at evaluating the sequential immune status of glioma bearing patients (Astrocytoma Grade I to Grade III) receiving conventional therapeutic measures.
  • METHODS: Functional immune parameters of peripheral blood lymphocytes were assayed by CD2 receptors enumeration through E-rosetting and lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay and assessing the generation of reactive oxygen species by NBT assay of peripheral blood macrophages in patient groups bearing Astrocytoma (Grade I to Grade III), meningioma and secondary glioma.
  • RESULTS: Patients bearing Astrocytoma (all 3 grades) showed maximum immune suppression as compared to the normal subjects, diseased meningioma controls, and secondary glioma.
  • However, therapeutic scheduling could recover the functional activity of the CD8 bearing lymphocytes and the CD56 NK cells from that of tumor bearing patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Astrocytoma and not meningioma is capable of causing immunesuppression.
  • As the tumor progresses from Grade I to Grade III, a linear reduction in the functional efficacy of immunocytes is seen to occur.
  • The inhibitory effect of tumor as well as of therapy were mainly directed towards the CD2 bearing lymphocyte population and the peripheral blood macrophage population.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / immunology. Glioma / immunology. Immune Tolerance. Meningioma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD2 / analysis. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Humans. Macrophages / immunology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phagocytosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Rosette Formation. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16939959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD2; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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6. Sharma MK, Mansur DB, Reifenberger G, Perry A, Leonard JR, Aldape KD, Albin MG, Emnett RJ, Loeser S, Watson MA, Nagarajan R, Gutmann DH: Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin. Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;67(3):890-900
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common glioma in children.
  • Whereas many PAs are slow-growing or clinically indolent, others exhibit more aggressive features with tumor recurrence and death.
  • Lastly, we also identified a gene expression pattern common to PAs and normal mouse astrocytes and neural stem cells from these distinct brain regions as well as a gene expression pattern shared between PAs and another human glial tumor (ependymoma) arising supratentorially compared with those originating in the posterior fossa.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Infratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17283119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE5582/ GSE5675
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 91842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Wong KK, Chang YM, Tsang YT, Perlaky L, Su J, Adesina A, Armstrong DL, Bhattacharjee M, Dauser R, Blaney SM, Chintagumpala M, Lau CC: Expression analysis of juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas by oligonucleotide microarray reveals two potential subgroups. Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;65(1):76-84
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  • [Title] Expression analysis of juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas by oligonucleotide microarray reveals two potential subgroups.
  • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is one of the most common brain tumors in children.
  • Immunostaining of myelin basic protein on paraffin sections derived from 18 incompletely resected JPAs suggests that JPA without myelin basic protein-positively stained tumor cells may have a higher tendency to progress.

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  • (PMID = 15665281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA120534
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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8. Jones DT, Kocialkowski S, Liu L, Pearson DM, Bäcklund LM, Ichimura K, Collins VP: Tandem duplication producing a novel oncogenic BRAF fusion gene defines the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas. Cancer Res; 2008 Nov 01;68(21):8673-7
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  • [Title] Tandem duplication producing a novel oncogenic BRAF fusion gene defines the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors of childhood, and pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) are the most common central nervous system tumor in 5 to 19 year olds.
  • This rearrangement, which was not observed in a series of 244 higher-grade astrocytomas, results in an in-frame fusion gene incorporating the kinase domain of the BRAF oncogene.
  • This is the first report of BRAF activation through rearrangement as a frequent feature in a sporadic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Duplication. Gene Fusion. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18974108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2577184; NLM/ UKMS2350
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9. Parsa CF, Givrad S: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas do not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation: grounds for designation as hamartomas. Br J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan;92(1):40-6
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  • [Title] Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas do not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation: grounds for designation as hamartomas.
  • AIM: To determine whether juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I have the potential for spontaneous malignant transformation.
  • METHODS: A literature search was performed, cross-referencing juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, astrocytoma grade I, optic glioma, glioma, low-grade gliomas, polar spongioblastoma, gliocytoma embryonale, and malignant transformation, anaplasia or anaplastic change.
  • Twenty-two of these tumours, however, did not initially match criteria for juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I and were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I do not undergo spontaneous anaplastic transformation.
  • Earlier clinical and histopathological opinions regarding juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas as hamartomatous lesions are reaffirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Diseases / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17962395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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10. Kitamura N, Hasebe T, Kasai R, Kasuya S, Nakatsuka T, Kudo H, Higuchi M, Nakano K, Hiruta N, Kameda N, Ogata K, Watanabe Y, Morita H, Terada H: Pilocytic astrocytomas in elderly adults. Neuroradiol J; 2010 Dec;23(6):690-5

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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytomas in elderly adults.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are classified as WHO grade I gliomas that occur predominantly in children and young adults.
  • We describe two cases of pilocytic astrocytoma in elderly adults, a 68-year-old man and a 71-year-old woman.
  • Pathological studies revealed findings consistent with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Although these tumors are rarely found in elderly adults, pilocytic astrocytomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis if the radiographic features of the tumors are characteristic of pilocytic astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 24148722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-4009
  • [Journal-full-title] The neuroradiology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Huang H, Hara A, Homma T, Yonekawa Y, Ohgaki H: Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Oct;64(10):891-901
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  • [Title] Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) is a circumscribed, slowly growing, benign astrocytoma that most frequently develops in the cerebellar hemispheres and in midline structures and occurs predominantly in childhood and adolescence.
  • In contrast to diffusely infiltrating gliomas in adults (e.g. grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas), survival of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma is excellent after surgical intervention.
  • To search for potential molecular mechanisms underlying its benign biologic behavior, we compared gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas (8 cases) with those of normal cerebellum (4 cases), low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II; 15 cases), and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II; 17 cases) by cDNA array analysis.
  • A number of immune system-related genes such as HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, IgG3, IgGK, FCER1G, A2M, FCRN, IFI-56K, and DAP12 were upregulated in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to normal cerebellum, grade II astrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Genes expressed at higher levels in pilocytic astrocytomas than in grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas include HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, A2M, TIMP1, TIMP2, CDKN1A, and SOCS3 and those expressed at lower levels include EGFR and PDGFRA.
  • Hierarchical clustering analysis using the entire set of 1176 genes distinguished pilocytic astrocytomas from grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Clustering analysis using selected subgroups of genes based on their molecular functions revealed that immune system-related genes (75 genes) or cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis-related genes (69 genes) showed similar power to the entire gene set for separation of pilocytic astrocytomas from diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that HLA-DRalpha is expressed diffusely in neoplastic cells in pilocytic astrocytomas, whereas in oligodendrogliomas, expression was limited to scattered reactive astrocytes.
  • These results suggest that gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas differ significantly from those of diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas and that their benign biologic behavior may be related to upregulation of immune defense-associated genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Gene Expression. Immunity / genetics


12. Moshel YA, Link MJ, Kelly PJ: Stereotactic volumetric resection of thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2007 Jul;61(1):66-75; discussion 75
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  • [Title] Stereotactic volumetric resection of thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical approaches, the radiographic and clinical outcomes, and the long-term follow-up of patients harboring thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas after radical resection by means of a stereotactic volumetric technique.
  • METHODS: Seventy-two patients with thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas underwent stereotactic volumetric resection by the senior author (PJK) at the Mayo Clinic between 1984 and 1993 (44 patients) and at New York University Medical Center between 1993 and 2005 (28 patients).
  • Postoperative imaging demonstrated gross total resection in 58 patients and minimal (<6 mm) residual tumor in 13 patients.
  • Tumor resection was aborted in one patient.
  • After 13 to 20 years of follow-up in the Mayo group (mean, 15 +/- 3 yr) and 1 to 13 years of follow-up in the New York University group (mean, 8 +/- 3 yr), 67 patients were recurrence/progression-free, one had tumor recurrence, and three had progression of residual tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Gross total removal of thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas with low morbidity and mortality can be achieved by computer-assisted stereotactic volumetric resection techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Paresis / prevention & control. Stereotaxic Techniques. Thalamic Diseases / surgery. Thalamus / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17621020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Nordfors K, Haapasalo J, Helén P, Paetau A, Paljärvi L, Kalimo H, Kinnula VL, Soini Y, Haapasalo H: Peroxiredoxins and antioxidant enzymes in pilocytic astrocytomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2007 Sep-Oct;26(5):210-8
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  • [Title] Peroxiredoxins and antioxidant enzymes in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • In this study, their biology and clinical significance were examined in pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • RESULTS: Peroxiredoxins were strongly expressed in general suggesting that oxidative damage and consequent defense takes place during the progression of pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results of this study on pilocytic astrocytomas suggest that the levels of Prxs and other AOEs and their related thiol proteins are generally strongly expressed in these tumors.
  • At least Prx VI can contribute to tumor behavior which can make it a potential prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Peroxidases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17907597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 52500-60-4 / Thioredoxins; EC 1.11.1.- / Peroxidases; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxin VI; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxins; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.8.1.9 / Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase; EC 6.3.2.2 / Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase
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14. Paixão Becker A, de Oliveira RS, Saggioro FP, Neder L, Chimelli LM, Machado HR: In pursuit of prognostic factors in children with pilocytic astrocytomas. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jan;26(1):19-28
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  • [Title] In pursuit of prognostic factors in children with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study described a 23-year experience in the treatment of children with pilocytic astrocytomas (piloA) with the aim of identifying putative clinical, histopathological, and/or immunohistochemical features that could be related to the outcome of these patients.
  • The most common site of tumor formation was the cerebellum (17), followed by brainstem (4), optic chiasmatic hypothalamic region (4), cerebral hemisphere (3), cervical spinal cord (2), and optic nerve (1).
  • In all cases, Gal-3 expression in tumor cells was observed with variable staining pattern.
  • Tumor recurrence or progression of the residual lesion should be strictly observed.
  • In some aspects, childhood piloA remains an enigmatic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19823847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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15. Scheinemann K, Bartels U, Huang A, Hawkins C, Kulkarni AV, Bouffet E, Tabori U: Survival and functional outcome of childhood spinal cord low-grade gliomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Sep;4(3):254-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival and functional outcome of childhood spinal cord low-grade gliomas. Clinical article.
  • OBJECT: Intramedullary spinal cord low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are rare CNS neoplasms in pediatric patients, and there is little information on therapy for and outcome of these tumors in this population.
  • Furthermore, most patient series combine adult and pediatric patients or high- and low-grade tumors, resulting in controversial data regarding optimal treatment of these children.
  • Histological testing revealed a Grade I astrocytoma in 86% of tumors.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy showed similar efficacy, achieving sustained tumor control in most patients.

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  • (PMID = 19772410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Witt H, Korshunov A, Remke M, Janzarik WG, Gnekow A, Scheurlen W, Kulozik AE, Lichter P, Pfister S: DNA methylation pattern of brain stem pilocytic astrocytomas in children. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10021

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DNA methylation pattern of brain stem pilocytic astrocytomas in children.
  • : 10021 Background: Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) comprises the most frequent brain tumor in childhood.
  • METHODS: To identify novel genes involved in astrocytoma pathogenesis, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 78 pilocytic astrocytoma samples from different tumor locations (diencephalic, cerebral, cerebellar, brain stem).
  • Genes contained in the signature most interestingly included three homeobox family genes (HOXB1, HOXD3, and HOXD4), and NES, a tumor stem cell marker.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that brain stem pilocytic astrocytomas display biologic features different from most tumors of other locations and share a methylation signature with tumors prone to disease recurrence from other locations.
  • We provide first evidence for a role of differentially methylated homeobox family genes in the pathogenesis of pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 27962622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Belda-Iniesta C, de Castro Carpeño J, Casado Sáenz E, Cejas Guerrero P, Perona R, González Barón M: Molecular biology of malignant gliomas. Clin Transl Oncol; 2006 Sep;8(9):635-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • For example, gliomas of astrocytic origin (astrocytomas) are classified into pilocytic astrocytoma (grade I), astrocytoma (grade II), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (GMB) (grade IV).
  • Tumors derived from oligodendrocytes include grade II (oliogodendrogliomas) and grade III neoplasms (oligoastrocytoma).
  • Furthermore, the ability that allows several low-grade gliomas to progress into more aggressive tumors has allowed cancer researchers to elucidate several pathways implicated in molecular biology of these devastating tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17005465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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18. Grand SD, Kremer S, Tropres IM, Hoffmann DM, Chabardes SJ, Lefournier V, Berger FR, Pasteris C, Krainik A, Pasquier BM, Peoch M, Le Bas JF: Perfusion-sensitive MRI of pilocytic astrocytomas: initial results. Neuroradiology; 2007 Jul;49(7):545-50
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  • [Title] Perfusion-sensitive MRI of pilocytic astrocytomas: initial results.
  • PURPOSE: To present the imaging and perfusion data obtained in nine patients with pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) and to discuss the original functional issues of this technique.
  • The maximum rCBV ratios were identified and considered as representative of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Blood Volume. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Magnetic Resonance Angiography

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  • (PMID = 17530237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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19. Amatya VJ, Akazawa R, Sumimoto Y, Takeshima Y, Inai K: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of three pilomyxoid astrocytomas: comparative study with 11 pilocytic astrocytomas. Pathol Int; 2009 Feb;59(2):80-5
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of three pilomyxoid astrocytomas: comparative study with 11 pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma, first described by Tihan et al., was recently included as an established variant of pilocytic astrocytoma in the World Health Organization classification of CNS tumors.
  • Histologically, it much resembles pilocytic astrocytoma, but monomorphic myxoid tumor of pilocytic cells with prominent angiocentric growth pattern without Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies is characteristic of pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is thought to be more aggressive with more frequent local recurrence as well as cerebrospinal spread.
  • The authors recently encountered a case of pilomyxoid astrocytoma, therefore the purpose of the present study was undertake a retrospective review of pilocytic astrocytomas previously diagnosed during the past 10 years.
  • Consequently, two of them were found to have histological features suggestive of pilomyxoid astrocytoma and both involved multiple recurrence, suggesting aggressive behavior in comparison to pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19154260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Morales H, Kwock L, Castillo M: Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):682-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) have been described only recently.
  • They appear as low-grade tumors sharing imaging features similar to pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • However, pilomyxoid astrocytomas have different histological features and behave more aggressively than PAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Myxoma / metabolism. Myxoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17895777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4L6452S749 / Inositol; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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21. Azad A, Deb S, Cher L: Primary anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Dec;16(12):1704-6
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  • [Title] Primary anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • We report two adult patients with pilocytic astrocytomas with anaplastic features at initial diagnosis.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are low-grade astrocytomas that occur rarely in adults.
  • Initial presentation of a pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features is particularly uncommon and making a definitive diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features can be challenging.
  • It is critical to differentiate glioblastoma (World Health Organization [WHO] grade 4) and pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features (WHO grade 3) from pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade 1) as there are significant therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  • Improved therapeutic strategies are required for pilocytic astrocytomas with anaplastic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Anaplasia / complications. Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19815416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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22. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Pollack IF, Jakacki RI, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas part 2: outcomes in pediatric patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):219-229
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas part 2: outcomes in pediatric patients.
  • To assess outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for newly diagnosed or recurrent pilocytic astrocytomas in pediatric patients.
  • Fifty patients (28 male and 22 females) with juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA) underwent Gamma knife SRS between 1987 and 2006.
  • The progression free survival after SRS (including tumor growth and cyst enlargement) for the entire series was 91.7, 82.8 and 70.8% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively.
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas should be considered when resection is not feasible, or if there is an early recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 19468692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Herrera EJ, Viano JC, Gómez JM, Surur A, Suárez JC: Interstitial stereotactic radiosurgery of pilocytic astrocytomas in paediatric patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007;149(9):887-96; discussion 896
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  • [Title] Interstitial stereotactic radiosurgery of pilocytic astrocytomas in paediatric patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentation, tumour response, clinical improvement and complications in 12 children and young people with a pilocytic astrocytoma, WHO I grade 1, who were treated with interstitial radiosurgery using Iodine-125 seed implants.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients aged under 18 years (mean 8.4 years, ranging from 8 months to 17 years of age) with a pilocytic astrocytoma treated between 1993 and 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retreatment. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17659372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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24. Wemmert S, Romeike BF, Ketter R, Steudel WI, Zang KD, Urbschat S: Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity in pilocytic astrocytomas revealed by CGH-analysis of microdissected tumor cells and FISH on tumor tissue sections. Int J Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):353-60
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  • [Title] Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity in pilocytic astrocytomas revealed by CGH-analysis of microdissected tumor cells and FISH on tumor tissue sections.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent gliomas of childhood.
  • Although in diffuse gliomas TP53 gene mutations or deletions occur with significant frequency, the role in pilocytic astrocytomas remains unclear.
  • Histomorphologically different areas of 14 pilocytic astrocytomas were microdissected and analyzed for genetic aberrations and heterogeneity.
  • In conclusion, pilocytic astrocytomas show a genetic heterogeneity associated with variations of histologic structure as well as an intratumoral heterogeneity observed on single cell level by FISH.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53. Genetic Heterogeneity

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  • (PMID = 16391789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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25. Porto L, Kieslich M, Franz K, Lehrbecher T, Vlaho S, Pilatus U, Hattingen E: Spectroscopy of untreated pilocytic astrocytomas: do children and adults share some metabolic features in addition to their morphologic similarities? Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jun;26(6):801-6
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  • [Title] Spectroscopy of untreated pilocytic astrocytomas: do children and adults share some metabolic features in addition to their morphologic similarities?
  • OBJECTIVE: Pilocytic astrocytomas may show heterogeneous histopathological and imaging features which are commonly attributed to malignant gliomas.
  • Using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, we assessed if pilocytic astrocytomas show increased choline (tCho), classically related to proliferation and malignancy of gliomas.
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients (five adults, age 20-55 years and 11 children, age 6 months-15 years) with histologically proven pilocytic astrocytomas were evaluated retrospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The well-known positive correlation between increase of tCho and the grade of gliomas seems to be violated by WHO grade I pilocytic astrocytomas showing a wide range of tCho values with an even marked increase in some cases.
  • No significant differences have been identified in the MR spectroscopy metabolite profiles between paediatric and adult pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20091040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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26. Harris LM, Davies NP, Macpherson L, Lateef S, Natarajan K, Brundler MA, Sgouros S, English MW, Arvanitis TN, Grundy RG, Peet AC: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the assessment of pilocytic astrocytomas. Eur J Cancer; 2008 Nov;44(17):2640-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the assessment of pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) are common childhood brain tumours whose management and prognosis vary widely depending on location. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures biochemistry in vivo and shows promise for characterising brain tumours and aiding management.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18835152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601327; United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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27. Deshmukh H, Yeh TH, Yu J, Sharma MK, Perry A, Leonard JR, Watson MA, Gutmann DH, Nagarajan R: High-resolution, dual-platform aCGH analysis reveals frequent HIPK2 amplification and increased expression in pilocytic astrocytomas. Oncogene; 2008 Aug 7;27(34):4745-51
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  • [Title] High-resolution, dual-platform aCGH analysis reveals frequent HIPK2 amplification and increased expression in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs, WHO grade I) are the most common brain tumors in the pediatric and adolescent population, accounting for approximately one-fifth of central nervous system tumors.
  • Because few consistent molecular alterations have been identified in PAs compared to higher grade gliomas, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization using two independent commercial array platforms.
  • Copy-number gain was confirmed in an independent tumor sample set by quantitative PCR, and this amplification was correlated to both increased mRNA and protein expression of HIPK2, a homeobox-interacting protein kinase associated with malignancy, contained within this locus.
  • Collectively, these results illustrate the power and necessity of implementing high-resolution, multiple-platform genomic analyses to discover small and subtle, but functionally significant, genomic alterations associated with low-grade tumor formation and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Cluster Analysis. DNA Mutational Analysis / instrumentation. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Frequency. Humans. Male. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • (PMID = 18408760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / HIPK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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28. Benesch M, Eder HG, Sovinz P, Raith J, Lackner H, Moser A, Urban C: Residual or recurrent cerebellar low-grade glioma in children after tumor resection: is re-treatment needed? A single center experience from 1983 to 2003. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(3):159-64
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  • [Title] Residual or recurrent cerebellar low-grade glioma in children after tumor resection: is re-treatment needed? A single center experience from 1983 to 2003.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report on children with cerebellar low-grade glioma (LGG), who were found to have progressive or nonprogresssive residual tumors or tumor recurrence after tumor resection.
  • RESULTS: Of 289 patients with CNS tumors referred between 1983 and 2003, 28 (9.7%) (15 male, 13 female; median age at diagnosis: 71 months) had cerebellar LGG (pilocytic astrocytoma grade I: n = 21; fibrillary astrocytoma grade II: n = 5; mixed hamartoma/pilocytic astrocytoma: n = 1; radiographic diagnosis: n = 1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A 'wait and see' strategy is justified in patients with nonprogressive recurrent or residual cerebellar LGG after primary tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16636617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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29. El Ayachi I, Baeza N, Fernandez C, Colin C, Scavarda D, Pesheva P, Figarella-Branger D: KIAA0510, the 3'-untranslated region of the tenascin-R gene, and tenascin-R are overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2010 Aug;36(5):399-410

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  • [Title] KIAA0510, the 3'-untranslated region of the tenascin-R gene, and tenascin-R are overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • We took advantage of our previous study focused on genes that were critical in tumour invasion to further study here an unknown sequence, referred to as KIAA0510, the chromosomal location of which was 1q25, described as a 5596-bp long mRNA and that we found to be significantly overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas compared with glioblastomas.
  • We have clearly confirmed the overexpression of tenascin-R in pilocytic astrocytomas vs. glioblastomas at mRNA and protein levels.
  • We also analysed a large series of various brain tumours and found that in the group of astrocytic tumours, tenascin-R expression decreased with malignancy, whereas oligodendrogliomas sometimes retained a high level of tenascin-R even in high-grade tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: KIAA0510, the 3'-untranslated region of the tenascin-R gene, and tenascin-R are overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Gangliogliomas shared with pilocytic astrocytomas strong tenascin-R expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Tenascin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20202125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Tenascin; 147604-77-1 / tenascin R
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30. Dunn IF, Agarwalla PK, Papanastassiou AM, Butler WE, Smith ER: Multiple pilocytic astrocytomas of the cerebellum in a 17-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Oct;23(10):1191-4
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  • [Title] Multiple pilocytic astrocytomas of the cerebellum in a 17-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I.
  • The most common of these are hypothalamic-optic gliomas, followed by brainstem and cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • While isolated pilocytic astrocytomas in NFI are well described, the appearance of multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in an individual patient is less common.
  • The most frequent combination in NFI patients with more than one pilocytic astrocytoma is optic tract/hypothalamic and brainstem.
  • Other combinations are exceedingly rare; multiple pilocytic astrocytomas have only been reported once in the cerebral hemispheres in a patient with NFI.
  • This report presents the first documented case, to our knowledge, of multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum of a patient with NF1.
  • CONCLUSION: The finding of multiple cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in a patient with NF1 is important because it expands the spectrum of presentations for patients with NF1 and also highlights specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced by the treating physicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17457593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Kano H, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas part 1: outcomes in adult patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):211-218
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas part 1: outcomes in adult patients.
  • To assess outcomes when stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is used during multimodality management of pilocytic astrocytomas in adult patients.
  • Fourteen patients (six male and eight females) with pilocytic astrocytomas underwent SRS between 1994 and 2006.
  • Localized solid tumor progression was seen in two patients.
  • The progression free survival after SRS (including tumor growth and cyst enlargement) for the entire series was 83.9%, 31.5% and 31.5% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively.
  • Despite their purported benign nature, pilocytic astrocytomas in adult patients often do not behave benignly.
  • Unresectable pilocytic astrocytomas that are located in critical or deep areas of the brain require additional management approaches.
  • Delayed cyst progression contributes to late loss of tumor control.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 19468691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Gunny RS, Hayward RD, Phipps KP, Harding BN, Saunders DE: Spontaneous regression of residual low-grade cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in children. Pediatr Radiol; 2005 Nov;35(11):1086-91
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of residual low-grade cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in children.
  • BACKGROUND: Cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas (CLGAs) of childhood are benign tumours and are usually curable by surgical resection alone or combined with adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • There were no differences in age, gender, symptomatology, histological grade or Ki-67 fractions between those with spontaneous tumour regression and those with progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / pathology. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 16047140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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33. Maruyama K, Morita A, Shibahara J, Nakazato Y, Kirino T: Multifocal pilocytic astrocytomas with ependymal differentiation in the bilateral medial temporal lobes: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Aug;45(8):411-4
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  • [Title] Multifocal pilocytic astrocytomas with ependymal differentiation in the bilateral medial temporal lobes: case report.
  • The histological diagnosis was pilocytic astrocytoma with ependymal differentiation and a MIB-1 staining index of up to 8.0%.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma usually presents as a solitary mass in the cerebellum or optic pathway with low proliferative activity, but should be included in the differential diagnosis of multifocal tumors arising in the bilateral temporal lobes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Temporal Lobe / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Antinuclear. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Proliferation. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependyma / pathology. Hemianopsia / etiology. Hemianopsia / pathology. Hemianopsia / physiopathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paresis / etiology. Paresis / pathology. Paresis / physiopathology. Radiotherapy. Seizures / etiology. Seizures / pathology. Seizures / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16127260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / MIB-1 antibody
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34. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Lovell C, Burnham J, Pollack IF: Impact of morphology, MIB-1, p53 and MGMT on outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 May;20(3):581-8
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  • [Title] Impact of morphology, MIB-1, p53 and MGMT on outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma in the pediatric population.
  • Parameters included quantification of characteristic morphologic variables as well as genes previously shown to be of relevance in high-grade gliomas, including MIB-1, p53 and MGMT.
  • Morphologic biomarkers thus do exist for PAs, but the utility of each biomarker varies according to location.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. DNA Modification Methylases / physiology. DNA Repair Enzymes / physiology. Ki-67 Antigen / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19832838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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35. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Nikiforov Y, Pollack IF: Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 May;119(5):641-9
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  • [Title] Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma in the pediatric population.
  • Parameters included quantification of characteristic morphologic variables as well as genes and molecular loci previously shown to be of relevance in high-grade gliomas, including 1p, 9p, 10q, 17p, 19q, and BRAF.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20044755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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36. Rorive S, Maris C, Debeir O, Sandras F, Vidaud M, Bièche I, Salmon I, Decaestecker C: Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Aug;65(8):794-807
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  • [Title] Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles.
  • Although World Health Organization (WHO) grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and grade II diffuse astrocytomas have been classified for decades as different clinicopathologic entities, few, if any, data are available on the biologic features explaining these differences.
  • Although more than 50 microarray-related studies have been carried out to characterize the molecular profiles of astrocytic tumors, we have identified only 11 that provide sound data on low-grade astrocytomas.
  • We have incorporated these data into a comparative analysis for the purpose of identifying the most relevant molecular markers characterizing grade I pilocytic and grade II diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Our analysis has identified various interesting genes that are differentially expressed in either grade I or grade II astrocytomas when compared with normal tissue and/or high-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas.
  • Interestingly, a group of 6 genes (TIMP4, C1NH, CHAD, THBS4, IGFBP2, and TLE2) constitute an expression profile characteristic of grade I astrocytomas as compared with all other categories of tissue (normal brain, grade II, and high-grade astrocytomas).
  • The end products (proteins) of these genes act as antimigratory compounds, a fact that could explain why pilocytic astrocytomas behave as compact (well-circumscribed) tumors as opposed to all the other astrocytic tumor types that diffusely invade the brain parenchyma.
  • Having validated these molecular markers by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, an integrated model was proposed illustrating how and why pilocytic astrocytomas constitute a distinct biologic and pathologic entity when compared with diffuse astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Movement / genetics. Child. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Models, Neurological. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16896313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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37. Jeuken JW, Wesseling P: MAPK pathway activation through BRAF gene fusion in pilocytic astrocytomas; a novel oncogenic fusion gene with diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential. J Pathol; 2010 Dec;222(4):324-8
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  • [Title] MAPK pathway activation through BRAF gene fusion in pilocytic astrocytomas; a novel oncogenic fusion gene with diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential.
  • Different fusion variants involving BRAF and KIAA1549 were demonstrated, present in 80% of pilocytic astrocytomas in children.
  • As the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene is detected at a much lower frequency in diffuse low-grade astrocytomas and survival was much longer than expected in the patients with a 'non-pilocytic' astrocytoma carrying the fusion gene, identification of this fusion gene can be of diagnostic and prognostic value.
  • In the near future, interference with the (fusion gene causing) activation of the MAPK signalling cascade may open new therapeutic avenues for children with pilocytic astrocytomas, as a first line of defence against tumour growth or in situations where the tumour has become refractory to other therapeutic modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. MAP Kinase Signaling System / genetics. Oncogene Fusion / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / physiology. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • [CommentOn] J Pathol. 2009 Jun;218(2):172-81 [19373855.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Pathol. 2011 Feb;223(3):446
  • (PMID = 20976706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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38. Li HM, Hsu SS, Wang JS, Weng MJ, Fu JH, Chen CK, Lai PH: Cerebral pilocytic astrocytoma with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in adults. J Chin Med Assoc; 2008 Nov;71(11):587-93
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  • [Title] Cerebral pilocytic astrocytoma with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in adults.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are found predominantly in the pediatric population; reports of these tumors are extremely rare in adults.
  • We report 2 cases of adult pilocytic astrocytoma with intracranial hemorrhage.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-enhanced and circumscribed cystic hemorrhagic tumor with mural nodule over the cerebral hemisphere region.
  • After surgical resection, microscopic examination of the lesions showed pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Since pilocytic astrocytoma and other cystic tumors with mural nodule (such as hemangioblastoma) have similar findings on conventional CT and MRI, PWI is helpful in the differential diagnosis.
  • The literature on hemorrhagic pilocytic astrocytoma is also reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19015059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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39. Jacob K, Albrecht S, Sollier C, Faury D, Sader E, Montpetit A, Serre D, Hauser P, Garami M, Bognar L, Hanzely Z, Montes JL, Atkinson J, Farmer JP, Bouffet E, Hawkins C, Tabori U, Jabado N: Duplication of 7q34 is specific to juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and a hallmark of cerebellar and optic pathway tumours. Br J Cancer; 2009 Aug 18;101(4):722-33
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  • [Title] Duplication of 7q34 is specific to juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and a hallmark of cerebellar and optic pathway tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), a subgroup of low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), are common, heterogeneous and poorly understood subset of brain tumours in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19603027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / HIPK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2736806
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40. Arvanitis LD, Koukoulis GK, Kanavaros P: The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Oncol Rep; 2009 Sep;22(3):521-4
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  • [Title] The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • In normal human brains the epitope H is present mostly to a minority of fibrous astrocytes, whereas it is greatly up-regulated in reactive astrocytes and is increased in well differentiated fibrillary astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • In this study the expression of the epitope H was investigated in thirty cases of gemistocytic (WHO grade II), pilocytic (WHO grade I), and subependymal giant cell (WHO grade I) astrocytomas using the mAbH with the indirect immunoperoxidase method.
  • The ten cases of gemistocytic astrocytomas revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • The ten cases of pilocytic astrocytomas revealed a biphasic pattern of epitope H expression.
  • The dense tumor areas composed of elongated pilocytic cells revealed high expression of the epitope H.
  • The loose cystic tumor areas composed of stellate cells revealed low expression of the epitope H.
  • The ten cases of subependynal giant cell astrocytomas occurring in tuberous sclerosis revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • This study shows that there is high expression of the epitope H in gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Collectively considering, the present and our previous data, it appears that there is a spectrum of the expression levels of the epitope H ranging from the high expression in the reactive astrocytes and low grade astrocytomas to the low/null expression in the normal astrocytes and glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylglucosamine / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Epitopes

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  • (PMID = 19639198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epitopes; V956696549 / Acetylglucosamine
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41. Forshew T, Tatevossian RG, Lawson AR, Ma J, Neale G, Ogunkolade BW, Jones TA, Aarum J, Dalton J, Bailey S, Chaplin T, Carter RL, Gajjar A, Broniscer A, Young BD, Ellison DW, Sheer D: Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):172-81
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  • [Title] Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • We report genetic aberrations that activate the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in 100% of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas, with a high frequency of gene fusions between KIAA1549 and BRAF among these tumours.
  • An activating mutation of KRAS was identified in the single pilocytic astrocytoma without a BRAF or RAF1 fusion.
  • Further fusions and activating mutations in BRAF were identified in 28% of grade II astrocytomas, highlighting the importance of the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in the development of paediatric low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] J Pathol. 2010 Dec;222(4):324-8 [20976706.001]
  • (PMID = 19373855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A8318; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C5321/A8318
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / GTPase-Activating Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / SRGAP3 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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42. Murakami R, Hirai T, Kitajima M, Fukuoka H, Toya R, Nakamura H, Kuratsu J, Yamashita Y: Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas. Acta Radiol; 2008 May;49(4):462-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: On contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images, pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are usually well-enhanced tumors that may mimic high-grade gliomas (HGGs).
  • A tumor with enhancing components should be PA instead of HGG when the minimum ADC value is higher than 1.5 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18415792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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43. Bar EE, Lin A, Tihan T, Burger PC, Eberhart CG: Frequent gains at chromosome 7q34 involving BRAF in pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Sep;67(9):878-87
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  • [Title] Frequent gains at chromosome 7q34 involving BRAF in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Relatively little is known about the molecular changes that promote the formation or growth of pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • We investigated genomic alterations in 25 pilocytic astrocytomas, including 5 supratentorial and 20 posterior fossa tumors, using oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization.
  • Western blot analysis revealed that 3 of 6 pilocytic astrocytomas with 7q34 gain contained high levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and nitrogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK), while 1 tumor lacking 7q34 gain and 2 normal brain specimens did not.
  • Immunohistochemical stains of a tissue microarray containing 43 pilocytic astrocytoma identified ERK phosphorylation in 35 (81%).
  • These data indicate that focal gains at chromosome 7q34 and increased BRAF-MEK-ERK signaling are common findings in sporadic pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18716556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 2.7.11.25 / MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases
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44. Lyons MK: Pilocytic astrocytoma with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages in an elderly adult. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2007 Jan;109(1):76-80
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages in an elderly adult.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are relatively uncommon tumors found predominantly in the pediatric population.
  • This is a report of a 75-year-old man presenting with two spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages and subsequent resection of a pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • A review of the literature summarizes the current field of knowledge of adult pilocytic astrocytomas in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Intracranial Hemorrhages / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16621238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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45. Tung JN, Tsao TY, Tai CJ, Yeh KT, Cheng YW, Jiang MC: Distribution of lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2, and cathepsin D in eosinophilic granular bodies: possible relationship to cyst development in pilocytic astrocytomas. J Int Med Res; 2010 Jul-Aug;38(4):1354-64
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  • [Title] Distribution of lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2, and cathepsin D in eosinophilic granular bodies: possible relationship to cyst development in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are usually cystic; cyst formation within these tumours may result in increased intracranial pressure, due to the effect of their mass, and contribute to cerebral damage.
  • Eosinophilic granular bodies (EGBs) are produced abundantly in pilocytic astrocytomas but their role in disease progression remains unknown.
  • The results suggest that EGBs, together with other factors, may play a role in the development of cysts in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cathepsin D / metabolism. Cysts / complications. Cytoplasmic Granules / enzymology. Eosinophils / enzymology. Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20926008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LAMP1 protein, human; 0 / LAMP2 protein, human; 0 / Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2; 0 / Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins; EC 3.4.23.5 / Cathepsin D
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46. Stüer C, Vilz B, Majores M, Becker A, Schramm J, Simon M: Frequent recurrence and progression in pilocytic astrocytoma in adults. Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;110(12):2799-808
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  • [Title] Frequent recurrence and progression in pilocytic astrocytoma in adults.
  • BACKGROUND: Most pilocytic astrocytomas (piloA) are benign growths (World Health Organization [WHO] grade 1) of the deep midline structures, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.
  • RESULTS: There were 20 patients (45%) with supratentorial lobar piloA (including 10 temporal/temporomesial tumors, 5 parietal tumors, 3 insular tumors, 1 frontal tumor, and 1 occipital tumors), 12 patients with cerebellar piloA, 7 patients with brainstem piloA, 2 patients with opticochiasmatic PiloA, 1 patient with intramedullary piloA, and 2 patients with piloA of the basal ganglia.
  • All but 1 patient with a lobar tumor presented with epilepsy.
  • WHO grade 3 primary anaplastic piloA was diagnosed in 2 patients (5%), and WHO grade 3 secondary anaplastic piloA was diagnosed in 4 patients (9%).
  • Tumor recurrence or disease progression was observed in 13 of 44 patients (30%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: PiloA in adult patients, surprisingly, often was not a benign disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2008 Jun;4(6):296-7 [18414467.001]
  • (PMID = 17973253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Larson DB, Hedlund GL: Non-enhancing pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord. Pediatr Radiol; 2006 Dec;36(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Non-enhancing pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are among the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in the pediatric age group.
  • We present a case of histologically proved non-enhancing intramedullary spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma in a 12-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Radiology. 1989 Jan;170(1 Pt 1):229-37 [2909101.001]
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  • (PMID = 17021719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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48. Yu J, Deshmukh H, Gutmann RJ, Emnett RJ, Rodriguez FJ, Watson MA, Nagarajan R, Gutmann DH: Alterations of BRAF and HIPK2 loci predominate in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurology; 2009 Nov 10;73(19):1526-31
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  • [Title] Alterations of BRAF and HIPK2 loci predominate in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Independent studies have previously demonstrated that both the HIPK2 and BRAF genes are amplified and rearranged, respectively, in pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • CONCLUSIONS: BRAF rearrangement represents the most common genetic alteration in sporadic, but not neurofibromatosis type 1-associated, pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • These findings implicate BRAF in the pathogenesis of these common low-grade astrocytomas in children, and suggest that PAs arise either from NF1 inactivation or BRAF gain of function.

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  • [CommentIn] Neurology. 2009 Nov 10;73(19):1522-3 [19812379.001]
  • (PMID = 19794125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024992; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA91842
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.1.- / HIPK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2777068
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49. Durmaz R, Vural M, Işildi E, Coşan E, Ozkara E, Bal C, Ciftçi E, Arslantaş A, Atasoy MA: Efficacy of prognostic factors on survival in patients with low grade glioma. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;18(4):336-44
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  • [Title] Efficacy of prognostic factors on survival in patients with low grade glioma.
  • AIM: In this report, we aim to determine the prognostic factors influencing the length of survival in patients with low-grade gliomas.
  • The diagnoses of the patients were histopathologically verified as low-grade glioma(LGG).
  • The medical records of the patients were reviewed for age, gender, tumor locations, extent of resection, and presence of seizure, the neurological status as defined by the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) and radiotherapy treatment after surgery as possible prognostic factors.
  • Median survival time was 216+/-78.52 months for astrocytoma Grade I; 115+/-8.22 months for astrocytoma Grade II, and 242+/-76.36 months for oligodendroglioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aging. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Oligodendroglioma / mortality. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Seizures / etiology. Survival. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19107679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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50. Petridis AK, Wedderkopp H, Hugo HH, Maximilian Mehdorn H: Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jun;151(6):601-3; discussion 603-4
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  • [Title] Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Intra-operatively collected biopsies from 30 patients with different astrocytoma grades were immuno-histochemically examined to identify expression of PSA.
  • RESULTS: Astrocytoma grade I and II had 4% PSA expressing cells whereas in grade III and IV the number of PSA expressing cells was 45%.
  • CONCLUSION: In this short communication we show that highly malignant astrocytomas express significantly more PSA compared to less malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Sialic Acids / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biopsy. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Stem Cells / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19387537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Sialic Acids; 0 / UCC1 protein, human; 0 / polysialic acid
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51. Takei H, Yogeswaren ST, Wong KK, Mehta V, Chintagumpala M, Dauser RC, Lau CC, Adesina AM: Expression of oligodendroglial differentiation markers in pilocytic astrocytomas identifies two clinical subsets and shows a significant correlation with proliferation index and progression free survival. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jan;86(2):183-90
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  • [Title] Expression of oligodendroglial differentiation markers in pilocytic astrocytomas identifies two clinical subsets and shows a significant correlation with proliferation index and progression free survival.
  • The growth pattern of pilocytic astrocytoma (PAs) is unpredictable.

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  • (PMID = 17690840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA120534
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Myelin Basic Protein; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG1 protein, human; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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52. Yan B, Omar FM, Das K, Ng WH, Lim C, Shiuan K, Yap CT, Salto-Tellez M: Characterization of Numb expression in astrocytomas. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):479-84
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  • [Title] Characterization of Numb expression in astrocytomas.
  • Numb has also been reported to function as a tumor suppressor in breast cancers and medulloblastomas.
  • Given its role in maintaining neural progenitor pools in animal models and its reported role as a tumor suppressor, Numb could potentially contribute to astrocytoma oncogenesis.
  • We characterized Numb expression in both human astrocytoma tissue samples and glioblastoma cell lines.
  • We found that Numb is expressed in all grades of astrocytomas, being predominantly cytoplasmic in higher-grade astrocytomas but nuclear in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Numb expression in astrocytomas recapitulates that of progenitor cells during neurodevelopment, and suggests a role for Numb in astrocytoma oncogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroglia / metabolism. Neurons / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18384513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Numb protein, human
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53. Kumar VA, Knopp EA, Zagzag D: Magnetic resonance dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of posterior fossa hemangioblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas: initial results. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2010 Nov-Dec;34(6):825-9
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of posterior fossa hemangioblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas: initial results.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and MR imaging findings between hemangioblastomas and pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Infratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 21084895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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54. Rorive S, Lopez XM, Maris C, Trepant AL, Sauvage S, Sadeghi N, Roland I, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas. Mod Pathol; 2010 Oct;23(10):1418-28
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  • [Title] TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas.
  • Based on the molecular profiling of astrocytomas, we previously identified a series of genes involved in astrocytoma invasion.
  • Of these, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4) was found to be overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to diffuse astrocytomas of any histological grade.
  • Although some data suggest that TIMP-4 may be an anti-tumoral actor in astrocytomas, recent findings challenge this concept.
  • The present study aims to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic values of TIMP-4 and its putative partner CD63 in human astrocytomas.
  • Tissue microarray and image analysis were first carried out to quantitatively analyze the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 471 gliomas including 354 astrocytomas.
  • Pathological semi-quantitative scores of both markers' expression were then established and correlated to astrocytoma diagnosis and patient prognosis.
  • TIMP-4 and CD63 expressions were both overexpressed in astrocytomas compared with oligodendrogliomas (P<0.001) and in pilocytic astrocytomas compared with grade II diffuse astrocytomas (P<0.001).
  • In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence of a TIMP-4/CD63 association in astrocytoma tumor cells.
  • It identifies TIMP-4 and CD63 as markers of the astrocytic phenotype in patients with gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20693981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD63; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD63 protein, human; 0 / Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 0 / tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4
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55. Tchoghandjian A, Fernandez C, Colin C, El Ayachi I, Voutsinos-Porche B, Fina F, Scavarda D, Piercecchi-Marti MD, Intagliata D, Ouafik L, Fraslon-Vanhulle C, Figarella-Branger D: Pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway: a tumour deriving from radial glia cells with a specific gene signature. Brain; 2009 Jun;132(Pt 6):1523-35
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway: a tumour deriving from radial glia cells with a specific gene signature.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are WHO grade I gliomas that occur predominantly in childhood.
  • These tumours affect preferentially the cerebellum (benign clinical course) and the optic pathway, especially the hypothalamo-chiasmatic region (poor prognosis).
  • Understanding the molecular basis responsible for the aggressive behaviour of hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas is a prerequisite to setting up new molecular targeted therapies.
  • We used the microarray technique to compare the transcriptional profiles of five hypothalamo-chiasmatic and six cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Results demonstrate that cerebellar and hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas are two genetically distinct and topography-dependent entities.
  • Numerous genes upregulated in hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas also increased in the developing chiasm, suggesting that developmental genes mirror the cell of origin whereas migrative, adhesive and proliferative genes reflect infiltrative properties of these tumours.
  • Of particular interest, NOTCH2, a gene expressed in radial glia and involved in gliomagenesis, was upregulated in hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • In order to find progenitor cells that could give rise to hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas, we performed a morphological study of the hypothalamo-chiasmatic region and identified, in the floor of the third ventricle, a unique population of vimentin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells highly suggestive of radial glia cells.
  • Therefore, pilocytic astrocytomas of the hypothalamo-chiasmatic region should be considered as a distinct entity which probably originates from a unique population of cells with radial glia phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytes / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Hypothalamus / metabolism. Infant. Middle Aged. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Neuroglia / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Optic Chiasm / cytology. Optic Chiasm / embryology. Optic Chiasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Up-Regulation. Vimentin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19336457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Vimentin
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56. Jager B, Schuhmann MU, Schober R, Kortmann RD, Meixensberger J: Induction of gliosarcoma and atypical meningioma 13 years after radiotherapy of residual pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(2):153-8
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  • [Title] Induction of gliosarcoma and atypical meningioma 13 years after radiotherapy of residual pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytomas in children is rare and often linked to previous radiotherapy.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We report a patient who underwent subtotal resection of a right temporal and insular pilocytic astrocytoma at age 8 in 1988 followed by high-dose radiation therapy.
  • A local recurrence, grade WHO III, with signs of focal sarcomatous transformation, was subtotally resected 13 years later in 2001.
  • A new and fast growing right frontal meningioma, grade WHO II, was removed in 2003.
  • Another tumor mass reduction in 2005 was followed by stereotactic radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Most of the reported cases of malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytomas received radiation therapy beforehand.
  • Irradiation-induced meningiomas in children are known to occur, however not following radiotherapy of low-grade hemispheric gliomas.
  • The presented case illustrates why adjuvant radiotherapy of residual pilocytic astrocytoma in children is not recommended anymore.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Gliosarcoma / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Meningioma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology


57. White JB, Piepgras DG, Scheithauer BW, Parisi JE: Rate of spontaneous hemorrhage in histologically proven cases of pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;108(2):223-6
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  • [Title] Rate of spontaneous hemorrhage in histologically proven cases of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • The rate of tumor-related intracranial hemorrhage is variably reported from <1 to 14.6%.
  • Hemorrhage in primary gliomas occurs in 3.7-7.2% of gliomas, mainly in glioblastoma muliforme and oligodendroglioma with low-grade astrocytomas accounting for <1%.
  • Hemorrhage associated with pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) is only sporadically reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology


58. Dorward IG, Luo J, Perry A, Gutmann DH, Mansur DB, Rubin JB, Leonard JR: Postoperative imaging surveillance in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Oct;6(4):346-52
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  • [Title] Postoperative imaging surveillance in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • OBJECT: Currently there is no consensus regarding the frequency of neuroimaging following gross-total resection (GTR) of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) in children.
  • At last follow-up, 29 patients had no recurrence, whereas in 1 additional patient the tumor recurred at 48 months, despite the absence of a new contrast-enhancing nodule at 3-6 months (for a total of 11 patients with recurrence).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance MR imaging at 3-6 months after resection predicts tumor recurrence following GTR.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Postoperative Complications / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20887107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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59. Janzarik WG, Kratz CP, Loges NT, Olbrich H, Klein C, Schäfer T, Scheurlen W, Roggendorf W, Weiller C, Niemeyer C, Korinthenberg R, Pfister S, Omran H: Further evidence for a somatic KRAS mutation in a pilocytic astrocytoma. Neuropediatrics; 2007 Apr;38(2):61-3
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  • [Title] Further evidence for a somatic KRAS mutation in a pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors of childhood.
  • However, knowledge of the molecular etiology of astrocytomas WHO grade I and II is limited.
  • Germline mutations in the Ras-guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein, neurofibromin, in individuals with neurofibromatosis type I predispose to pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • This association suggests that constitutive activation of the Ras signaling pathway plays a fundamental role in astrocytoma development.
  • We screened 25 WHO I and II astrocytomas for mutations of PTPN11, NRAS, KRAS, and HRAS genes and identified the somatic G12A KRAS mutation in one pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Analyzed astrocytomas without mutations in Ras or neurofibromin may harbor mutations in other proteins of this pathway leading to hyperactive Ras signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17712732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-304X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPN11 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11; EC 3.6.5.2 / HRAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras); EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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60. Nakamura M, Ishii K, Watanabe K, Tsuji T, Takaishi H, Matsumoto M, Toyama Y, Chiba K: Surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: prognosis and complications. Spinal Cord; 2008 Apr;46(4):282-6

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  • METHODS: We reviewed 68 cases of intramedullary tumors (ependymoma, 33; astrocytoma, 23; hemangioblastoma, 12), treated surgically between 1994 and 2003.
  • The tumor malignancy grade according to the WHO classification was astrocytoma grade I, 3; grade II, 8 (low-grade: 11 cases); grade III, 10; grade IV, 2 (high-grade: 12 cases).
  • All ependymomas were grade II.
  • Approximately 50% of low-grade astrocytomas could be totally excised with favorable survival outcomes, suggesting that total excision should be attempted for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • However, total excision of high-grade tumors was difficult and the functional outcomes were poor.
  • Cordotomy should be considered in patients with a thoracic high-grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17909556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Jones DT, Kocialkowski S, Liu L, Pearson DM, Ichimura K, Collins VP: Oncogenic RAF1 rearrangement and a novel BRAF mutation as alternatives to KIAA1549:BRAF fusion in activating the MAPK pathway in pilocytic astrocytoma. Oncogene; 2009 May 21;28(20):2119-23
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  • [Title] Oncogenic RAF1 rearrangement and a novel BRAF mutation as alternatives to KIAA1549:BRAF fusion in activating the MAPK pathway in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), WHO malignancy grade I, are the most frequently occurring central nervous system tumour in 5- to 19-year-olds.
  • Although these two alterations are not common, they bring the number of cases with an identified 'hit' on the Ras/Raf-signalling pathway to 36 from our series of 44 (82%), confirming its central importance to the development of pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Gene Rearrangement. MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology. Mutation / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf / genetics


62. Jeon YK, Cheon JE, Kim SK, Wang KC, Cho BK, Park SH: Clinicopathological features and global genomic copy number alterations of pilomyxoid astrocytoma in the hypothalamus/optic pathway: comparative analysis with pilocytic astrocytoma using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Mod Pathol; 2008 Nov;21(11):1345-56
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features and global genomic copy number alterations of pilomyxoid astrocytoma in the hypothalamus/optic pathway: comparative analysis with pilocytic astrocytoma using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently identified variant of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • We studied 11 circumscribed astrocytomas with focal (n=5) or diffuse (n=6) pilomyxoid features and compared them with 17 pilocytic astrocytomas from the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region in children.
  • In one patient, a tumor that recurred after initial surgery had changed from pure-form pilomyxoid astrocytoma to the mixed form.
  • Next, we compared the comprehensive genome copy number changes in the pilomyxoid astrocytoma (n=4) with those in pilocytic astrocytoma (n=6) cases by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • The number of lost clones was larger in pilomyxoid astrocytoma than in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Clones located in chromosome 8q24.3 were frequently gained in pilocytic astrocytoma (four of six) and in pilomyxoid astrocytoma (one of four).
  • Clones located in 9p24.3 and 15q26.3 were lost in all of the pilomyxoid astrocytomas and in five of the pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Those in 8p23.3 showed a copy number loss in three of the pilomyxoid astrocytomas and four of the pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • The frequency of copy number changes was significantly different between pilomyxoid astrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma in 47 (3.6%) clones, 20 of them having been located in 2p, 10 in 2q, and 11 in 3q.
  • An unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis classified the cases into three clusters: one pilomyxoid astrocytoma patient into one cluster, two pilomyxoid astrocytoma patients into another cluster, and six pilocytic astrocytoma patients and one pilomyxoid astrocytoma patient into the third cluster.
  • In conclusion, the presence of mixed-form pilomyxoid astrocytoma, the acquisition of pilocytic astrocytoma features in a recurrent tumor in pure-form pilomyxoid astrocytoma, and the above results of the genome-wide gene copy number analysis suggest that pilomyxoid astrocytoma might be a pathologically and genetically related, aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma with partially different genetic alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Comparative Genomic Hybridization / methods. Gene Dosage. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothalamus, Anterior / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18622384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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63. Arai K, Sato N, Aoki J, Yagi A, Taketomi-Takahashi A, Morita H, Koyama Y, Oba H, Ishiuchi S, Saito N, Endo K: MR signal of the solid portion of pilocytic astrocytoma on T2-weighted images: is it useful for differentiation from medulloblastoma? Neuroradiology; 2006 Apr;48(4):233-7
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  • [Title] MR signal of the solid portion of pilocytic astrocytoma on T2-weighted images: is it useful for differentiation from medulloblastoma?
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although imaging features of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma have been described in many texts, original comparisons of magnetic resonance intensity between these two tumours are limited.
  • METHODS: MR images of ten cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and ten medulloblastomas were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: On T2-weighted images, the signal intensity of the solid portion was equal to that of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 50% of pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity varied widely in pilocytic astrocytomas; however, all medulloblastomas were iso- or hypointense to grey matter.
  • CONCLUSION: A signal intensity of the solid portion isointense to CSF on T2-weighted images was characteristic of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas; this was not observed in medulloblastomas.
  • Attention to T2-weighted imaging of the solid portions of a tumour is easy and helpful in differentiating between cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1992 Sep;159(3):609-12 [1503035.001]
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  • (PMID = 16550430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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64. Omura Y, Horiuchi N, Jones MK, Lu DP, Shimotsuura Y, Duvvi H, Pallos A, Ohki M, Suetsugu A: Temporary anti-cancer & anti-pain effects of mechanical stimulation of any one of 3 front teeth (1st incisor, 2nd incisor, & canine) of right & left side of upper & lower jaws and their possible mechanism, & relatively long term disappearance of pain & cancer parameters by one optimal dose of DHEA, Astragalus, Boswellia Serrata, often with press needle stimulation of True ST. 36. Acupunct Electrother Res; 2009;34(3-4):175-203
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  • One minute downward pressure on the tip of any one of the front 3 teeth (1st incisor, 2nd incisor, and canine) at the right and left sides of the upper and lower jaw by a wooden toothpick induced temporary disappearance (20 min approximately 4 hours) of abnormally increased pain parameters (pain grading, Substance P, & TXB2), and cancer parameters (Telomere, Integrin alpha5beta1, Oncogene C-fos Ab2, etc. of Astrocytoma, Glioblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus, adenocarcinoma of lung, breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of colon, prostate cancer).
  • Increasing NC telomere to optimally high level resulted in disappearance of pain and improvement or significant reduction of malignant tumor.
  • One optimal dose of Boswellia Serrata or Astragalus not only increased NC telomere 650 ng BDORT units, eliminating pain and cancer parameters, but also reduced the size of the Astrocytoma grade I by 10-20% and the Glioblastoma by 15-90% in less than 2-6 months in some patients, as long as high NC telomere is maintained.

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  • (PMID = 20344885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-1293
  • [Journal-full-title] Acupuncture & electro-therapeutics research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acupunct Electrother Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal
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65. Sie M, de Bont ES, Scherpen FJ, Hoving EW, den Dunnen WF: Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma? Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2010 Dec;36(7):636-47
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  • [Title] Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma?
  • AIMS: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumours in children.
  • In this study 59 paediatric pilocytic astrocytomas were compared with 62 adult glioblastomas, as a prototype of tumour angiogenesis.
  • RESULTS: Pilocytic astrocytoma and glioblastoma showed similar fractions of vessels covered with basement membrane and pericytes.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma had fewer but wider vessels compared with glioblastoma.
  • Turnover of endothelial and tumour cells were relatively lower in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Within pilocytic astrocytoma, higher ANGPT-1/ANGPT-2 balance was correlated with fewer apoptotic endothelial cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that pilocytic astrocytoma showed a different vessel architecture compared with glioblastoma, a critical overlap in vessel immaturity/instability and the angiogenic profile was seen between both tumours.
  • These findings suggest encouraging possibilities for targeting angiogenesis (for instance with anti-VEGF) as a therapeutic strategy in pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2010 British Neuropathological Society.
  • (PMID = 20704656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenic Proteins; 0 / Angiopoietin-1; 0 / Angiopoietin-2; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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66. Berhouma M, Jemel H, Kchir N: Calcified pilocytic astrocytoma of the medulla mimicking a brainstem "stone". Pathologica; 2008 Oct;100(5):408-10
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  • [Title] Calcified pilocytic astrocytoma of the medulla mimicking a brainstem "stone".
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas usually involve the midbrain and the medulla, and their surgical resection, when feasible, is generally curative.
  • Thin calcifications can be normally found within low grade gliomas, but densely calcified pilocytic astrocytomas of the brainstem have been only rarely reported.
  • The definitive pathological diagnosis was calcified pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Medulla Oblongata / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19253601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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67. Nafe R, Schlote W, Schneider B: Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Feb;31(1):34-44
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  • [Title] Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis.
  • Although tumour cell nuclei are important histological structures for grading of astrocytomas according to the WHO-classification of brain tumours, there is no reported morphometric study of astrocytomas which describes quantitatively the four main morphologic criteria of tumour cell nuclei: size, shape, texture (densitometric characteristics) and spatial relationships between the nuclei (topometric analysis).
  • Using a set of morphometric parameters describing these criteria as well as the Ki67-proliferation index, 74 astrocytomas from 74 patients were studied by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • The objective of the study was to test, if these morphometric parameters were sufficient for statistical discrimination between pilocytic astrocytomas WHO-grade I, astrocytomas grade II and anaplastic astrocytomas grade III.
  • Our results showed a correct reclassification of 97.3% (72/74) of the cases with respect to the tumour grade by means of cross-validated discriminant analysis.
  • In conclusion, the present morphometric procedure provided good discrimination between the tumour grades, supporting the view that histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei could be a valuable tool for grading of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / ultrastructure. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 15634229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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68. Sawamura Y, Kamada K, Kamoshima Y, Yamaguchi S, Tajima T, Tsubaki J, Fujimaki T: Role of surgery for optic pathway/hypothalamic astrocytomas in children. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Oct;10(5):725-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of surgery for optic pathway/hypothalamic astrocytomas in children.
  • Optic pathway/hypothalamic pilocytic astrocytomas in children are usually treated with chemotherapy following a surgical biopsy.
  • The 11 open biopsies revealed pilocytic astrocytoma; however, noticeable complications occurred in five children after the biopsies.
  • Review of preoperative MRIs showed that all had typical findings indicating pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • In five patients, mostly older children, cystic expansion of tumor was partially resected, resulting in additional remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18612049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666249
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69. Lueth M, Wronski L, Giese A, Kirschner-Schwabe R, Pietsch T, von Deimling A, Henze G, Kurtz A, Driever PH: Somatic mitochondrial mutations in pilocytic astrocytoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2009 Jul;192(1):30-5
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  • [Title] Somatic mitochondrial mutations in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • The most common brain tumors in childhood and adolescence are low grade pilocytic astrocytomas (PA).
  • Sequencing analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of tumor tissue and corresponding blood samples from 19 patients with PA was performed.
  • The PA tumors were found to have the highest percentage of mitochondrial mutations of any of the neuroectodermal tumor entities studied to date.
  • To reveal the prognostic importance of these mutations in the tumor biology of PA, larger series need to be studied prospectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Genome, Mitochondrial. Mutation


70. Korshunov A, Meyer J, Capper D, Christians A, Remke M, Witt H, Pfister S, von Deimling A, Hartmann C: Combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 distinguishes pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Sep;118(3):401-5
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  • [Title] Combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 distinguishes pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma.
  • Separation of pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytomas frequently poses problems mostly related to small sample size.
  • Precise classification and grading are essential due to different therapeutic strategies prompted by diagnoses of pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I, diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II or anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas carry a duplication at chromosome band 7q34 containing a BRAF-KIAA1549 gene fusion in the majority of cases.
  • IDH1 mutations are observed very frequently in adult astrocytomas and IDH2 mutations have been reported in some astrocytomas.
  • We examined a series of 120 astrocytomas including 70 pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I and 50 diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II for both, BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion with a newly developed FISH assay and mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 by direct sequencing.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas contained the BRAF fusion in 49 cases (70%) but neither IDH1 nor IDH2 mutations.
  • Astrocytomas WHO grade II exhibited IDH1 mutations in 38 cases (76%) but neither IDH2 mutations nor BRAF fusions.
  • Thus, combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 is a sensitive and highly specific approach to separate pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Tissue Array Analysis


71. Gumprecht H, Grosu AL, Souvatsoglou M, Dzewas B, Weber WA, Lumenta CB: 11C-Methionine positron emission tomography for preoperative evaluation of suggestive low-grade gliomas. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2007 Feb;68(1):19-23
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  • [Title] 11C-Methionine positron emission tomography for preoperative evaluation of suggestive low-grade gliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The treatment regimen for cerebral gliomas is different, depending on the histological grade of the lesion.
  • The management for low-grade gliomas is still under discussion, operation or "wait and see" tactics are possible options.
  • Although most of the low-grade gliomas appear as hypointense lesions without contrast medium (CM) enhancement on magnetic resonance images, in some cases lesions without CM enhancement can be anaplastic tumours as well.
  • 11C-Methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) was performed for preoperative evaluation of non or low CM enhancing intracerebral lesions, so-called suggestive low-grade gliomas.
  • METHOD: 20 patients harbouring suggestive low-grade gliomas were included.
  • Histologically the 2 patients with sparse CM enhancement and MET uptake were glioblastoma multiforme, 10/14 patients with MET uptake and without CM enhancement had an anaplastic astrocytoma WHO III, 3/14 with MET uptake and no CM enhancement had an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma WHO III, and 1/14 had an oligoastrocytoma grade II.
  • The lesions of the 4 patients without MET uptake and without CM enhancement were classified as astrocytoma grade II in 2 cases, as astrocytoma grade I in 1 case and as astrocytoma III in one case.
  • CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, we find MET-PET to be a helpful tool for pretreatment evaluation of non-CM enhancing, suggestive low-grade intracerebral lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Astrocytoma / surgery. Glioblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 17487804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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72. Watanabe T, Nobusawa S, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H: IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Am J Pathol; 2009 Apr;174(4):1149-53
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  • [Title] IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • IDH1 mutations were frequent in low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (88%) and in secondary glioblastomas that developed through progression from low-grade diffuse or anaplastic astrocytoma (82%).
  • IDH1 mutations were co-present with TP53 mutations in 63% of low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and with loss of heterozygosity 1p/19q in 64% of oligodendrogliomas; they were rare in pilocytic astrocytomas (10%) and primary glioblastomas (5%) and absent in ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19246647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671348
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73. Maiti AK, Ghosh K, Chatterjee U, Chakrobarti S, Chatterjee S, Basu S: Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas. Neurol India; 2008 Oct-Dec;56(4):456-62
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: The involvement of various growth factors, growth factor receptors and proliferative markers in the molecular pathogenesis of astrocytic neoplasms are being studied extensively.
  • Since EGFR and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are involved in mitogenic signal transduction and cellular proliferation pathway, we have studied the correlation between the expression of EGFR and PCNA labeling index in astrocytic tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and PCNA using the appropriate monoclonal antibodies in 40 cases of astrocytic tumors of which 21 cases were glioblastoma, eight cases were Grade III or anaplastic astrocytomas and six cases were Grade II or diffuse astrocytomas and five cases were Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Both the EGFR expression and PCNA labeling index increase with increasing grades of astrocytomas with a significantly high percentage of cells showing positive staining for both EGFR and PCNA in GBM and Grade III astrocytomas compared to Grade II astrocytomas.
  • The expression levels of both EGFR and PCNA were low in Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A significant correlation was found between EGFR overexpression and PCNA labeling index in Grade III and Grade II astrocytomas and glioblastoma.
  • These suggest that the tumor proliferation, at least in higher grades of astrocytomas is dependent in some measure on EGF and EGFR-related signaling pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19127042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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74. Johnson MW, Eberhart CG, Perry A, Tihan T, Cohen KJ, Rosenblum MK, Rais-Bahrami S, Goldthwaite P, Burger PC: Spectrum of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: intermediate pilomyxoid tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;34(12):1783-91
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  • [Title] Spectrum of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: intermediate pilomyxoid tumors.
  • To define the spectrum of pilomyxoid morphology and to characterize the association between pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) and pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 84 cases of pediatric astrocytomas with pilomyxoid features were reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 21107083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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75. Malik A, Deb P, Sharma MC, Sarkar C: Neuropathological spectrum of pilocytic astrocytoma: an Indian series of 120 cases. Pathol Oncol Res; 2006;12(3):164-71
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  • [Title] Neuropathological spectrum of pilocytic astrocytoma: an Indian series of 120 cases.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are generally well circumscribed, slowly growing, cystic tumors, occurring in the pediatric age group.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16998597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Miyamoto S, Mikuni N, Yamada K, Takahashi JA, Hashimoto N: Radical resection for intrinsic midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma: report of two cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Jan;147(1):93-7; discussion 97
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  • [Title] Radical resection for intrinsic midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma: report of two cases.
  • It is known that the prognosis of pilocytic astrocytoma is relatively good if radical resection can be achieved without severe complications.
  • In order to remove pilocytic astrocytoma within the midbrain radically, we used microsurgical techniques.
  • METHOD: Two patients with intrinsic pilocytic astrocytomas located at the midbrain were operated on.
  • Major vessels were preserved, followed by resection of the intrinsic tumor making the cleavage between tumour and midbrain.
  • FINDINGS: In both patients, intrinsic pilocytic astrocytoma was grossly totally removed with minimal permanent morbidity.
  • They have been able to maintain independent activities in their daily lives without tumor recurrance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical cure can be accomplished in some cases of midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma, even if the lesions are intrinsic to the midbrain.
  • To remove the tumor totally without further neurological deficits, it is necessary to select a safe access or entrance point to the tumor, and to demarcate the gliotic plane between tumour and midbrain.
  • A long-term follow up with a larger number of patients is needed to establish the significance of radical resection for intrinsic midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Microsurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thalamus / pathology. Thalamus / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15309583.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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77. Tanaka Y, Sasaki A, Ishiuchi S, Nakazato Y: Diversity of glial cell components in pilocytic astrocytoma. Neuropathology; 2008 Aug;28(4):399-407
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  • [Title] Diversity of glial cell components in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • To characterize the cellular density and proliferative activity of GFAP-negative cells in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), surgically excised tissues of PAs (n=37) and diffuse astrocytomas (DAs) (n=11) were examined morphologically and immunohistochemically using antibodies against GFAP, Olig2, Iba1 and Ki-67 (MIB-1).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Neuroglia / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18312545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AIF1 protein, human; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human
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78. Cuellar-Baena S, Morales JM, Martinetto H, Calvar J, Sevlever G, Castellano G, Cerdá-Nicolás M, Celda B, Monleon D: Comparative metabolic profiling of paediatric ependymoma, medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma. Int J Mol Med; 2010 Dec;26(6):941-8
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  • [Title] Comparative metabolic profiling of paediatric ependymoma, medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • The most common paediatric brain tumours include ependymomas, cerebellar astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • Tumour types include ependymoma, medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Some resonances detected in this work and not previously observed by in vivo spectroscopy also show potential in determining tumour type and grade (fatty acids, phenylalanine, glutamate).
  • Overall, this work suggests that the additional information obtained by NMR metabolic profiling applied to tissue from paediatric brain tumours may be useful for assessing tumour grade and determining optimum treatment strategies.


79. Neves AM, Thompson G, Carvalheira J, Trindade JC, Rueff J, Caetano JM, Casey JW, Hermouet S: Detection and quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus in pilocytic astrocytoma. Brain Res; 2008 Jul 24;1221:108-14
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  • [Title] Detection and quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Thirty-five samples of pilocytic astrocytoma and 10 control samples of cerebellum from patients who died of unrelated diseases were examined.
  • HHV's DNA polymerase was found present in 20 samples (7 controls, 13 astrocytomas) and was absent in 25 samples (3 controls, 22 astrocytomas).
  • DNA polymerase of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) was present in 16 samples, 7/10 controls (70%) and 9/35 astrocytomas (26%).
  • In summary, EBV was the most frequent HHV detected in pilocytic astrocytoma, but at very low levels.
  • According to the actually accepted threshold the results suggest that EBV cannot be considered responsible for tumorigenesis of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / virology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / virology. DNA, Viral / genetics. Herpesviridae / genetics. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesviridae Infections / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18565499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 2.7.7.- / DNA Polymerase III; EC 2.7.7.- / DNA polymerase A
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80. Andrychowski J, Taraszewska A, Czernicki Z, Jurkiewicz J, Netczuk T, Dabrowski P: Ten years observation and treatment of multifocal pilocytic astrocytoma. Folia Neuropathol; 2009;47(4):362-70
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  • [Title] Ten years observation and treatment of multifocal pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) usually occurs in younger patients.
  • It is a benign, generally well-delineated, WHO grade I tumour with favorable prognosis, which makes it different from diffuse astrocytomas, classified as higher grades of malignancy.
  • Initially, the histopathological diagnosis of ganglioglioma was suggested for primary tumour, finally the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma for both recurrent and primary tumour was established.
  • Histopathological examinations of the excised foci from spinal canal revealed neoplasm consistent with WHO grade I pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • The presented case indicates that despite the spread of the neoplastic process, a histopathologically benign tumour (WHO I grade) allows for long-term survival and observation period.

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  • (PMID = 20054789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-572X
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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81. Lee CS, Huh JS, Sim KB, Kim YW: Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with intratumor bleeding, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jan;25(1):125-8
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  • [Title] Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with intratumor bleeding, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Massive intracranial hemorrhage is a very rare initial presentation of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • There are no reports in the medical literature on a cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with intratumor bleeding (ITB), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and subdural hematoma (SDH).
  • On incising the dura, we found SDH, the tumor was visible at the cerebellar cortex, and near total removal followed.
  • Microscopic examination of tissue sections revealed a pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Hematoma, Subdural / etiology. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18629510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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82. Maris C, Rorive S, Sandras F, D'Haene N, Sadeghi N, Bièche I, Vidaud M, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2008 Jun;34(3):316-29
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  • [Title] Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an extracellular matrix brain glycoprotein for which conflicting in vitro and in vivo results are reported in the literature dealing with its involvement in astrocytoma aggressiveness, in particular astrocytoma invasion.
  • In view of these conflicting results and the lack of data available on low-grade astrocytomas, the present study focuses on pilocytic World Health Organization (WHO) grade I, and diffuse WHO grade II astrocytomas, that is, two histological entities associated with very different invasive abilities.
  • METHODS: Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we analysed the TN-C expression in normal brain tissue as well as in a series of 54 pilocytic and 53 grade II astrocytomas.
  • Paralleling these observations, we showed that TN-C expression in low-grade astrocytomas similarly varies according to tumour site.
  • Cox regression analysis evidenced that TN-C provided an independent prognostic value which is enhanced in the case of grade II astrocytomas for which positive TN-C expression is associated with a higher risk of recurrence.
  • We also analysed TN-C expression specifically in vascular areas of low-grade astrocytomas without demonstrating any prognostic value for this additional feature.
  • RESULTS: Similarly to normal brain, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit variations in TN-C expression with site, and this expression is associated with an independent prognostic value in terms of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Tenascin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17983425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tenascin
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83. Franz DN, Leonard J, Tudor C, Chuck G, Care M, Sethuraman G, Dinopoulos A, Thomas G, Crone KR: Rapamycin causes regression of astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. Ann Neurol; 2006 Mar;59(3):490-8
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  • [Title] Rapamycin causes regression of astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Five to 15% of affected individuals display subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, which can lead to substantial neurological and postoperative morbidity due to the production of hydrocephalus, mass effect, and their typical location adjacent to the foramen of Monro.
  • We sought to see whether therapy with oral rapamycin could affect growth or induce regression in astrocytomas associated with TSC.
  • METHODS: Five subjects with clinically definite TSC and either subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (n = 4) or a pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 1) were treated with oral rapamycin at standard immunosuppressive doses (serum levels 5-15 ng/ml) from 2.5 to 20 months.
  • Interruption of therapy resulted in regrowth of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in one patient.
  • INTERPRETATION: Oral rapamycin therapy can induce regression of astrocytomas associated with TSC and may offer an alternative to operative therapy of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents. Regression (Psychology). Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications


84. Sievert AJ, Jackson EM, Gai X, Hakonarson H, Judkins AR, Resnick AC, Sutton LN, Storm PB, Shaikh TH, Biegel JA: Duplication of 7q34 in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas detected by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genotype arrays results in a novel BRAF fusion gene. Brain Pathol; 2009 Jul;19(3):449-58
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  • [Title] Duplication of 7q34 in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas detected by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genotype arrays results in a novel BRAF fusion gene.
  • In the present study, DNA from 28 pediatric low-grade astrocytomas was analyzed using Illumina HumanHap550K single-nucleotide polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays.
  • A novel duplication in chromosome band 7q34 was identified in 17 of 22 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and three of six fibrillary astrocytomas.
  • The 7q34 duplication spans 2.6 Mb of genomic sequence and contains approximately 20 genes, including two candidate tumor genes, HIPK2 and BRAF.
  • There were no abnormalities in HIPK2, and analysis of two mutation hot-spots in BRAF revealed a V600E mutation in only one tumor without the duplication.
  • Further studies are required to determine the role of this fusion gene in downstream MAPK signaling and its role in development of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 19016743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM081519; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133173; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133173-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM081519
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184143; NLM/ PMC2850204
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85. Zorlu F, Selek U, Akyuz C, Ozturk A, Soylemezoglu F, Akalan N: Spinal seeding of a pilocytic astrocytoma following multiple subtotal resections. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2005 Sep-Oct;41(5):248-52
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  • [Title] Spinal seeding of a pilocytic astrocytoma following multiple subtotal resections.
  • We report the case of a 4-year-old girl presenting with spinal and leptomeningeal dissemination following several subtotal resections of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16195677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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86. Henderson MA, Fakiris AJ, Timmerman RD, Worth RM, Lo SS, Witt TC: Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg; 2009;87(3):161-7
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  • [Title] Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA; 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 2 fibrillary astrocytomas) were selected for treatment with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) based on having a demarcated appearance on CT or MRI and the possibility of dose sparing of adjacent eloquent structures.
  • A median dose of 13 Gy was prescribed to the 50% isodose line, which covered the gross tumor.
  • With a median follow-up of 48.2 months, 4-year tumor control and overall survival were 77 and 83%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19321969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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87. Fujita A, Sato JR, Festa F, Gomes LR, Oba-Shinjo SM, Marie SK, Ferreira CE, Sogayar MC: Identification of COL6A1 as a differentially expressed gene in human astrocytomas. Genet Mol Res; 2008;7(2):371-8
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  • [Title] Identification of COL6A1 as a differentially expressed gene in human astrocytomas.
  • Gliomas are classified by the WHO according to their histopathological and clinical characteristics into four classes: grade I (pilocytic astrocytoma), grade II (diffuse astrocytoma), grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma), and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme).
  • Several genes have already been correlated with astrocytomas, but many others are yet to be uncovered.
  • By analyzing the public SAGE data from 21 patients, comprising low malignant grade astrocytomas and glioblastomas, we found COL6A1 to be differentially expressed, confirming this finding by real time RT-PCR in 66 surgical samples.
  • The expression of this gene has significantly different means when normal glia is compared with low-grade astrocytomas (grades I and II) and high-grade astrocytomas (grades III and IV), with a tendency to be greater in higher grade samples, thus rendering it a powerful tumor marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Collagen Type VI / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18551403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1676-5680
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics and molecular research : GMR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Mol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type VI; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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88. Colnat-Coulbois S, Klein O, Braun M, Thouvenot P, Marchal JC: Management of intramedullary cystic pilocytic astrocytoma with rhenium-186 intracavitary irradiation: case report. Neurosurgery; 2010 May;66(5):E1023-4; discussion E1024
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  • [Title] Management of intramedullary cystic pilocytic astrocytoma with rhenium-186 intracavitary irradiation: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of cystic spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma treated with surgical resection and 2 intracavitary injections of rhenium.
  • Spinal cord magnetic resonance showed a large, cystic, intramedullary tumor extending from T9 to T12.
  • Pathological examination allowed the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Interstitial intracavitary rhenium brachytherapy of recurrent spinal cord cystic astrocytomas achieved excellent stabilization of the cyst with minor side-effects and dramatic improvement of neurological deficits.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Rhenium / therapeutic use. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cauda Equina / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cysts / pathology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20404673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioisotopes; 7440-15-5 / Rhenium
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89. Bing F, Kremer S, Lamalle L, Chabardes S, Ashraf A, Pasquier B, Le Bas JF, Krainik A, Grand S: [Value of perfusion MRI in the study of pilocytic astrocytoma and hemangioblastoma: preliminary findings]. J Neuroradiol; 2009 May;36(2):82-7
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  • [Title] [Value of perfusion MRI in the study of pilocytic astrocytoma and hemangioblastoma: preliminary findings].
  • PURPOSE: Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) and hemangioblastomas (HB) can present the same morphological characteristics on conventional MRI sequences, most usually in the form of a cerebellar cystic mass with a mural nodule that strongly enhances on post-contrast T1 images.
  • The maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV(max)), defined as the ratio between the CBV(max) in tumor tissue and the CBV in healthy, contralateral white matter, is considered to be indicative of the type of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Blood Volume. Brain / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods


90. Comincini S, Ferrara V, Arias A, Malovini A, Azzalin A, Ferretti L, Benericetti E, Cardarelli M, Gerosa M, Passarin MG, Turazzi S, Bellazzi R: Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy. Oncol Rep; 2007 May;17(5):989-96
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy.
  • Recently, ectopic expression of doppel was found in two different tumor types, specifically in glial and haematological cancers.
  • In order to address clinical important issues, PRND mRNA expression was investigated in a panel of 111 astrocytoma tissue samples, histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (6 grade I pilocytic astrocytomas, 15 grade II low-grade astrocytomas, 26 grade III anaplastic astrocytomas and 64 grade IV glioblastoma multiforme).
  • Real-time PRND gene expression profiling, after normalisation with GAPDH, revealed large differences between low (WHO I and II) and high grade (III and IV) of malignancy (P<0.001).
  • Extensive differences in PRND gene expression were also found within each grade of malignancy, suggesting that PRND mRNA quantitation might be useful to distinguish astrocytoma subtypes, and important in disease stratification and in the assessment of specific treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Prions / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17390034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / PRND protein, human; 0 / Prions
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91. Fisher PG, Tihan T, Goldthwaite PT, Wharam MD, Carson BS, Weingart JD, Repka MX, Cohen KJ, Burger PC: Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Aug;51(2):245-50
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  • [Title] Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the long-term natural history of low-grade astrocytomas (LGA) in children, with respect to pathology, and to evaluate influence of treatment on survival.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-eight children (160 males; mean age 9.1 years; tumor location: 77 cerebrum, 62 cerebellum, 51 hypothalamic, 30 thalamus, 9 ventricle, 40 brainstem, and 9 spine) were assessed.
  • Among 246 specimens reviewed, diagnoses were 135 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 27 diffuse astrocytoma (DA), 75 unclassifiable well-differentiated astrocytoma (NOS), and 9 subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • Among patients with residual tumor after surgery, 5-year PFS was 48% with observation alone (n = 114), no different (P = 0.32) from that achieved with immediate irradiation (n = 86).
  • While tumor location and resection extent affect outcome, pathologic diagnosis when carefully interpreted significantly influences long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18386785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Birlik B, Canda S, Ozer E: Tumour vascularity is of prognostic significance in adult, but not paediatric astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2006 Oct;32(5):532-8
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  • [Title] Tumour vascularity is of prognostic significance in adult, but not paediatric astrocytomas.
  • Astrocytomas are the commonest type of brain tumours in adults and children.
  • Although the most reliable prognostic indicators have been shown consistently to be patient age and tumour histological grade, biological progression in these tumours is inevitable and the overall prognosis has remained poor.
  • Due to the evidence that vascular changes are important histological features of astrocytomas, the aim of this study was to investigate prognostic significance of tumour vascularity in paediatric and adult astrocytomas.
  • Study population consisted of 70 patients (45 adult and 25 children) with histologically proven diagnosis of astrocytoma with no history of previous therapy.
  • In contrast to the results in paediatric astrocytomas, tumour vascularity in adult tumours correlated significantly with postoperative survival by univariate analysis (P < 0.05).
  • Patient age and tumour histological grade were also correlated with survival.
  • We conclude that histological quantification of tumour vascularity is a significant prognosticator in adult astrocytomas, but not in children.
  • Our data do not support the validity of applications of antiangiogenic agents in paediatric astrocytic tumours, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / pathology. Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16972887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antigens, CD31
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93. Ebinger M, Senf L, Wachowski O, Scheurlen W: No aberrant methylation of neurofibromatosis 1 gene (NF1) promoter in pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Jan-Feb;22(1):83-7
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  • [Title] No aberrant methylation of neurofibromatosis 1 gene (NF1) promoter in pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood.
  • With 30-40% of this heterogenous group, low-grade astrocytomas represent the most common subtype.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is strongly associated with the development of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), frequently appearing as optic glioma.
  • Neurofibromatosis 1 gene (NF1 ) fulfills the criteria of a tumor suppressor gene and is deleted or mutated heterozygously in patients with NF1.
  • To rule out that silencing of NF1 by promoter methylation is restricted to higher-grade astrocytomas, 15 pediatric WHO II degree and IV degree astrocytomas were analyzed: 12 astrocytomas II and 3 glioblastomas displayed no NF1 promoter methylation.
  • The authors conclude that NF1 silencing by methylation plays no role in low-grade astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 15770836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurofibromin 1
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94. Foreman NK, Gore L, Wells D, Straessle J, Heideman R, Donson AM: Gefitinib is effective against juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in vitro. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Sep;47(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Gefitinib is effective against juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in vitro.
  • BACKGROUND: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPAs) are the most common central nervous system tumors in children.
  • Of interest, it appears that the anti-tumor effect of gefitinib in JPA cell-cultures may be mediated through a pathway other than EGFR inhibition.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymidine / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16206208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA49981
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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95. Jentoft M, Giannini C, Cen L, Scheithauer BW, Hoesley B, Sarkaria JN, Abell-Aleff PC, Rodriguez EF, Li Y, Rodriguez FJ: Phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas: possible role for increased mTOR activation in a subset. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010 Dec 12;4(1):43-57
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  • [Title] Phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas: possible role for increased mTOR activation in a subset.
  • Low grade astrocytomas are the most common CNS tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1) patients.
  • While most are classic pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), some are difficult to classify, and have been termed "low grade astrocytoma subtype indeterminate" (LGSI).
  • In the current study we performed electron microscopy, followed by gene expression, immunohistochemicai and western blot analyses in an effort to identify biological differences underlying phenotypic variation in NF1-associated low grade astrocytoma.
  • Phospho-ERK immunoreactivity was uniformly present in PA and LGSI groups, while BRAF duplication was absent by FISH in 8 NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas.
  • In summary, differential expression of neuronal-related genes and increased mTOR activation may underlie phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 21228927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108961; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024150; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA108961
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3016103
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Neurofibromatosis / astrocytoma / glioma / glioneuronal / mTOR / pilocytic astrocytoma
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96. Marie SK, Okamoto OK, Uno M, Hasegawa AP, Oba-Shinjo SM, Cohen T, Camargo AA, Kosoy A, Carlotti CG Jr, Toledo S, Moreira-Filho CA, Zago MA, Simpson AJ, Caballero OL: Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas. Int J Cancer; 2008 Feb 15;122(4):807-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas.
  • We have performed cDNA microarray analyses to identify gene expression differences between highly invasive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and typically benign pilocytic astrocytomas (PA).
  • Despite the significant clinical and pathological differences between the 2 tumor types, only 63 genes were found to exhibit 2-fold or greater overexpression in GBM as compared to PA.
  • In the examination of more than 100 tumors of the central nervous system, we found progressively higher expression of MELK with astrocytoma grade and a noteworthy uniformity of high level expression in GBM.
  • We found neither gene promoter hypomethylation nor amplification to be a factor in MELK expression, but were able to demonstrate that MELK knockdown in malignant astrocytoma cell lines caused a reduction in proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in in vitro assays.
  • Among them, MELK correlated with malignancy grade in astrocytomas and represents a therapeutic target for the management of the most frequent brain tumors in adult and children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Apoptosis. Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Child. DNA Methylation. Gene Dosage. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17960622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 2.7.1.- / MELK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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97. Rodriguez FJ, Scheithauer BW, Burger PC, Jenkins S, Giannini C: Anaplasia in pilocytic astrocytoma predicts aggressive behavior. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):147-60
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  • [Title] Anaplasia in pilocytic astrocytoma predicts aggressive behavior.
  • The clinical significance of anaplastic features, a rare event in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), is not fully established.
  • The tumors either had a PA precursor, coexistent (n = 14) (41%) or documented by previous biopsy (n = 10) (29%), or exhibited typical pilocytic features in an otherwise anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 10) (29%).
  • Histologically, the anaplastic component was classified as pilocytic like (41%), small cell (32%), epithelioid (15%), or fibrillary (12%).
  • The biologic behavior of PAs with high-mitotic rates and those with necrosis paralleled that of St Anne-Mayo grades 2 and 3 diffuse astrocytomas, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anaplasia. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Minnesota / epidemiology. Mitosis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20061938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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98. Shuangshoti S, Thorner PS, Ruangvejvorachai P, Saha B, Groshen S, Taylor CR, Malhotra S, Imam SA: J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):521-7
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  • [Title] J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas.
  • J1-31 is one of the astrocytic proteins, the expression of which has not been evaluated in astrocytomas.
  • In the present study, we studied the expression of J1-31 protein in astrocytes and astrocytomas in comparison with GFAP, p53 and Ki-67.
  • Materials consisted of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens that included five cases of normal brain, 17 of gliosis, 15 of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I), 26 of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), four of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and eight of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
  • The antibody showed reactivity with tumor cells in 12/15 (80%) cases of pilocytic astrocytoma, although intensity of staining was generally weaker and more focal than observed in reactive gliosis.
  • J1-31-positive tumor cells were detected in only 9/26 (35%) cases of the low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and none of the cases of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma.
  • Increasing Ki-67 indices paralleled advancing tumor grades. p53 protein was expressed more commonly in infiltrating astrocytomas compared to pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • In conclusion, down-regulation of J1-31 expression correlates with advancing grade of astrocytomas.
  • The anti-J1-31 antibody may help further our understanding of astrocytes in disease and may be useful as an aid in the pathologic diagnosis of astrocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoplasm / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Gliosis / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19019178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / J1-31 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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99. Samuelson C, Forman KM, Smith S: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with an astrocytoma. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010

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  • [Title] Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with an astrocytoma.
  • She underwent treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and steroids to increase her platelet count, followed by excision of the lesion, which was found to be a benign pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 22419950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3028124
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100. Tsugu H, Oshiro S, Yanai F, Komatsu F, Abe H, Fukushima T, Nomura Y, Matsumoto S, Nabeshima K, Takano K, Utsunomiya H: Management of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: our experience. Anticancer Res; 2009 Mar;29(3):919-26
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  • [Title] Management of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: our experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) shows a higher rate of recurrence and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination than does pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • After chemotherapy, four patients showed remarkable tumor regression.
  • Nevertheless, one patient died 22 months after initial diagnosis, due to tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19414328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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