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1. Shukla B, Agarwal S, Suri V, Pathak P, Sharma MC, Gupta D, Sharma BS, Suri A, Halder A, Sarkar C: Assessment of 1p/19q status by fluorescence in situ hybridization assay: A comparative study in oligodendroglial, mixed oligoastrocytic and astrocytic tumors. Neurol India; 2009 Sep-Oct;57(5):559-66
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  • [Title] Assessment of 1p/19q status by fluorescence in situ hybridization assay: A comparative study in oligodendroglial, mixed oligoastrocytic and astrocytic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to overlapping histomorphological features, difference in clinical behavior and treatment response, establishing potential molecular markers to facilitate diagnosis of various genetic subtypes of diffuse gliomas is essential.
  • AIM: To analyze 1p/19q status in diffuse gliomas and correlate it with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p53 protein expression.
  • Astrocytomas and the astrocytic component of oligoastrocytomas showed a diffuse fibrillary type of staining.
  • None of the astrocytomas including two pediatric cases showed this alteration (P < 0.05).
  • p53 was expressed in 57.1% of astrocytomas (8/14), 33% of mixed oligoastrocytomas (3/9) and 10% of oligodendrogliomas (2/20).
  • In contrast, all astrocytomas (Grade II and III) were EGFR negative.
  • CONCLUSION: Loss of 1p/19q is strongly associated with oligodendroglial phenotype, while astrocytic tumors are more likely to show p53 over-expression. p53 expression and 1p/19q status appear to be mutually exclusive.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19934553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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2. Figarella-Branger D, Bouvier C: [Histological classification of human gliomas: state of art and controversies]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Apr;92(4):301-9
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  • The aim is to define the histological type of glioma (astrocytic, oligodendrocytic or mixed) and the grade in order to classify the patients and give them an accurate treatment.
  • Although the standard remains the WHO classification, this classification suffered from lack of reproducibility among pathologists.
  • According to the WHO classification, infiltrative gliomas encompass astrocytic gliomas (diffuse astrocytomas grade II, anaplastic astrocytomas grade III and glioblastomas grade IV), oligodendroglial tumours (oligodendrogliomas grade II, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas grade III) and mixed gliomas (oligoastrocytomas grade II and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas grade III).
  • Circumscribed gliomas mainly corresponds to pilocytic astrocytomas (grade I).
  • Three distinct tumour growth patterns may be seen in gliomas, type I: tumor tissue only, type II: tumour tissue and isolated tumor cells permeating the brain parenchyma (ITC) and type III: ITCs only and no tumor tissue.
  • According to the Sainte Anne classification, gliomas are divided into astrocytic gliomas (pilocytic astrocytomas, structure type I, glioblastomas structure type II) and oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas (grade A: lack of contrast enhancement and lack of endothelial hyperplasia, structure type III; and grade B: contrast enhancement or endothelial hyperplasia, structure type II and III).
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / pathology. Humans. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / classification. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 15888386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Kreth S, Heyn J, Grau S, Kretzschmar HA, Egensperger R, Kreth FW: Identification of valid endogenous control genes for determining gene expression in human glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Jun;12(6):570-9
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  • In the current study, we tested 19 commonly used reference genes for their expression stability in human astrocytoma WHO Grade II, astrocytoma WHO Grade III, and glioblastoma (WHO Grade IV) both alone and compared with normal brain.
  • Even though Normfinder analyses revealed a large number of genes suitable for normalization in each of the tumor subgroups and across these groups, this number was drastically reduced after inclusion of normal brain into the analyses: Only GAPDH, IPO8, RPL13A, SDHA, and TBP were expected not to be differentially expressed; NormFinder analysis indicated favorable stability values for all of these genes, with TBP and IPO8 being the most stable ones.
  • These 5 genes represent different physiological pathways and may be regarded as universal reference genes applicable for accurate normalization of gene expression in human astrocytomas of different grades (WHO Grades II-IV) alone and compared with normal brain, thereby enabling longitudinally designed studies (eg, in astrocytoma before and after malignant transformation).
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20511187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940642
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4. Nafe R, Schlote W, Schneider B: Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Feb;31(1):34-44
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  • [Title] Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis.
  • Although tumour cell nuclei are important histological structures for grading of astrocytomas according to the WHO-classification of brain tumours, there is no reported morphometric study of astrocytomas which describes quantitatively the four main morphologic criteria of tumour cell nuclei: size, shape, texture (densitometric characteristics) and spatial relationships between the nuclei (topometric analysis).
  • Using a set of morphometric parameters describing these criteria as well as the Ki67-proliferation index, 74 astrocytomas from 74 patients were studied by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • The objective of the study was to test, if these morphometric parameters were sufficient for statistical discrimination between pilocytic astrocytomas WHO-grade I, astrocytomas grade II and anaplastic astrocytomas grade III.
  • Our results showed a correct reclassification of 97.3% (72/74) of the cases with respect to the tumour grade by means of cross-validated discriminant analysis.
  • In conclusion, the present morphometric procedure provided good discrimination between the tumour grades, supporting the view that histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei could be a valuable tool for grading of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / ultrastructure. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 15634229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Miyajima Y, Sato Y, Oka H, Utsuki S, Kondo K, Tanizaki Y, Nagashio R, Tsuchiya B, Okayasu I, Fujii K: Prognostic significance of nuclear DJ-1 expression in astrocytoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jan;30(1):265-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of nuclear DJ-1 expression in astrocytoma.
  • The present study was conducted to determine whether any correlation exists between the expression of DJ-1 and WHO grading of the tumor or patient prognosis, and to analyze the function of this oncogene in astrocytomas.
  • Twenty-nine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded glioblastomas (grade IV), 21 anaplastic astorocytomas (grade III), and 14 diffuse astrocytomas (grade II) were immunohistochemically studied to identify the expression of DJ-1 protein.
  • The expression of DJ-1 was detected both in the nucleus and cytoplasm of tumor cells; however, such expression varied from case to case.
  • While there was no difference in the cytoplasmic expression of DJ-1 among astrocytomas, its nuclear expression was inversely correlated with the WHO grading of astrocytomas.
  • The present study demonstrated that the survival of patients with astrocytomas was correlated with the nuclear DJ-1 status of the tumor.
  • We herein demonstrated for the first time that the DJ-1 molecule might therefore play an important role as a tumor suppressor in astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20150646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / PARK7 protein, human
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6. Matusan-Ilijas K, Behrem S, Jonjic N, Zarkovic K, Lucin K: Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Sep;14(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma.
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the expression of OPN in human astrocytomas and to correlate it with angiogenesis and patients' outcome.
  • Seventy-six human astrocytomas including eight pilocytic astrocytomas (grade I), 10 diffuse astrocytomas (grade II), 8 anaplastic astrocytomas (grade III) and 50 glioblastomas (grade IV) were immunohistochemically stained for OPN protein.
  • Astrocytomas were heterogeneous regarding the OPN expression.
  • Our results indicate the overexpression of OPN protein in astrocytoma cells and suggest the role of OPN in astrocytoma progression and angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Osteopontin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18493866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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7. Pareés I, Alonso J, Rovira A, Martínez E, Montalban X: [Diffuse astrocytoma presenting as an optic-spinal syndrome]. Rev Neurol; 2009 Apr 1-15;48(7):354-6
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  • [Title] [Diffuse astrocytoma presenting as an optic-spinal syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome opticomedular como forma de presentación de un astrocitoma difuso.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord involvement is a rare presentation of grade II astrocytomas.
  • A patient with an optic-spinal syndrome due to a fibrillary astrocytoma is described.
  • A new MRI with spectroscopy revealed an infiltrative lesion involving the right frontal lobe, optic chiasm, internal capsule, brainstem and cervical spinal cord, which was suggestive of low-grade astrocytoma.
  • Brain biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse fibrillary astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Demyelinating Diseases. Optic Neuritis. Spinal Cord / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19319816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligoclonal Bands
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8. Jang SY, Kong MH, Song KY, Frazee JG: Intracranial Metastases of Cervical Intramedullary Low-Grade Astrocytoma without Malignant Transformation in Adult. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2009 Jun;45(6):381-5

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  • [Title] Intracranial Metastases of Cervical Intramedullary Low-Grade Astrocytoma without Malignant Transformation in Adult.
  • The first case of intracranial metastases of a cervical intramedullary low-grade astrocytoma without malignant transformation in adult is presented in this report.
  • Seven years ago, a 45 year-old male patient underwent biopsy to confirm pathologic characteristics and received craniocervical radiation and chemotherapy for a grade II astrocytoma in the cervical spinal cord.
  • The tumor at the cervical and brain lesions was classified as an astrocytoma (WHO grade II).
  • When a patient with low-grade astrocytoma in the spinal cord has new cranial symptoms after surgery, radiaton, and chemotherapy, the possibility of its metastasis should be suspected because it can spread to the intracranial cavity even without malignant transformation as shown in this case.

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  • (PMID = 19609424.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2711238
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Astrocytoma / Cranial metastases / Intramedullary / Spinal cord tumor
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9. Melchior K, Tholey A, Heisel S, Keller A, Lenhof HP, Meese E, Huber CG: Proteomic study of human glioblastoma multiforme tissue employing complementary two-dimensional liquid chromatography- and mass spectrometry-based approaches. J Proteome Res; 2009 Oct;8(10):4604-14
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  • An extensive data set comprising 2660 unique protein identifications was obtained for the proteome of a human brain tumor (glioblastoma multiforme) by combining the results of two complementary analytical strategies based on two-dimensional chromatography and mass spectrometry.
  • The identified proteins were assigned to their molecular functions and compared to previously identified proteins of glioblastoma multiforme (= astrocytoma WHO grade IV), lower WHO grade astrocytomas (grade II and III), and nontumor brain tissue.
  • The results indicate the usefulness of the semi-top-down approach for the investigation of immunogenic antigens in human tumor tissue samples.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. Brain Chemistry. Humans. Isoelectric Point. Male. Membrane Proteins / chemistry. Middle Aged. Molecular Weight. Peptides / analysis. Proteins / analysis. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 19673542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3907
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proteome
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10. Dickinson PJ, Sturges BK, Higgins RJ, Roberts BN, Leutenegger CM, Bollen AW, LeCouteur RA: Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression and peritumoral edema in canine primary central nervous system tumors. Vet Pathol; 2008 Mar;45(2):131-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of tumor angiogenesis and vascular permeability, and has been implicated both in progression of central nervous system (CNS) tumors and development of vasogenic peritumoral edema.
  • Increased expression of VEGF relative to normal cerebral cortex tissue was seen predominantly in high grade astrocytic (grade IV) and oligodendroglial (grade III) tumors, with lower expression in low grade astrocytomas (grade II) and meningiomas (grade I).
  • Peritumoral edema was present in all tumor types; however, a significant association between the extent of peritumoral edema and the level of VEGF expression was not apparent.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / veterinary. Dogs. Meningioma / genetics. Meningioma / metabolism. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / veterinary. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / veterinary. Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Protein Isoforms. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 18424825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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11. Elsir T, Eriksson A, Orrego A, Lindström MS, Nistér M: Expression of PROX1 Is a common feature of high-grade malignant astrocytic gliomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2010 Feb;69(2):129-38
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  • [Title] Expression of PROX1 Is a common feature of high-grade malignant astrocytic gliomas.
  • PROX1 is a prospero-related transcription factor that plays a critical role in the development of various organs including the mammalian lymphatic and central nervous systems; it controls cell proliferation and differentiation through different transcription pathwaysand has both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive functions.
  • We investigated PROX1 expression patterns in 56 human astrocytic gliomas of different grades using immunohistochemistry.
  • An average of 79% of cells in World Health Organization Grade IV (glioblastoma, n = 15) and 57% of cells in World Health Organization Grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma, n = 13) were strongly PROX1 positive; low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (Grade II, n = 13) had 21% of cells that were strongly positive; Grade I tumors (n = 15) had 1.5%; and non-neoplastic brain tissue (n = 15) had 3.7% of cells that were PROX1 positive.
  • Analyses of coexpression with proliferation markers suggest that PROX1+ cells have a marginally lower rate of proliferation than other tumor cells but are still mitotically active.
  • We conclude that PROX1 may constitute a useful tool for the diagnosis and grading ofastrocytic gliomas and for distinguishing Grade III and Grade IV tumors from Grade I and Grade II tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20084020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / MAP2 protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN, human; 0 / prospero-related homeobox 1 protein
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12. Lapointe M, Lanthier J, Moumdjian R, Régina A, Desrosiers RR: Expression and activity of l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase decrease in stage progression of human astrocytic tumors. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Apr 27;135(1-2):93-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression and activity of l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase decrease in stage progression of human astrocytic tumors.
  • Here we investigated PIMT regulation in astrocytic tumors, which are the most common human brain tumors.
  • PIMT expression and enzyme activity were significantly decreased in all grades of human astrocytic tumors.
  • More precisely, PIMT levels were significantly lower by 76% in pilocytic astrocytomas (grade I), 46% in astrocytomas (grade II), 69% in anaplastic astrocytomas (grade III), and a marked 80% in glioblastomas (grade IV) as compared to normal brains.
  • RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of type I PIMT mRNA were up-regulated while those of type II PIMT mRNA were down-regulated in glioblastomas.
  • Furthermore, the reduced PIMT levels correlated closely with a decrease in the number of neuron cells in astrocytic tumors as assessed by measuring the neuron-specific enolase level.
  • Many proteins with abnormal aspartyl residues accumulated in brain tumors and some were specific to individual grades of astrocytic tumors.
  • Similar results were obtained, either by measuring the reduction in PIMT activity and expression or by measuring the formation of abnormal proteins, in an orthotopic rat brain tumor model implanted with invasive CNS-1 glioma cells.
  • The novelty of these findings was to provide the first evidence for a marked reduction of PIMT expression and activity during stage progression of astrocytic tumors in humans.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Northern. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Methylation. Neoplasm Transplantation / methods. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 15857672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.1.1.77 / Protein D-Aspartate-L-Isoaspartate Methyltransferase; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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13. García-Gómez JM, Tortajada S, Vidal C, Julià-Sapé M, Luts J, Moreno-Torres A, Van Huffel S, Arús C, Robles M: The effect of combining two echo times in automatic brain tumor classification by MRS. NMR Biomed; 2008 Nov;21(10):1112-25
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  • [Title] The effect of combining two echo times in automatic brain tumor classification by MRS.
  • A clinically validated dataset of 50 low-grade meningiomas, 105 aggressive tumors (glioblastoma and metastasis), and 30 low-grade glial tumors (astrocytomas grade II, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas) was used to fit predictive models based on the combination of features from short-TEs and long-TE spectra.
  • To discriminate aggressive tumors from low-grade glial tumours, the use of short-TE acquisition alone was preferable.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 18759382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-3480
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons
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14. Ochsenbein AF, Schubert AD, Vassella E, Mariani L: Quantitative analysis of 0&lt;sup&gt;6&lt;/sup&gt;-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in patients with low-grade gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2069

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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of 0<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in patients with low-grade gliomas.
  • : 2069 Background: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on the chromosomes 1p and 19q is associated with sensitivity to alkylating agents like temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with low-grade gliomas; whether methylation of the MGMT-promoter, a predictive factor in glioblastoma patients, also correlates with tumor response to TMZ in low-grade gliomas is unclear.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with histologically verified low-grade gliomas (WHO Grade II) who were treated with TMZ for tumor progression at our hospital between November 1999 and November 2007.
  • Objective tumor response was assessed by MRI at 6-month intervals.
  • LOH of microsatellite markers on chromosomes 1p and 19q was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the matched pairs of blood and tumor DNA.
  • Seven patients had prior surgical resection of the tumor.
  • Histological classification revealed 10 oligodendrogliomas, 7 oligoastrocytomas, and 5 astrocytomas.
  • Grade 3-4 hematological toxicity occurred in 32% of the patients (9% leucopenia, 23% thrombocytopenia).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative methylation-specific PCR of the MGMT promoter correlates with radiological response to chemotherapy with temozolomide in WHO grade II gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 27964685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Herndon J 2nd, Vredenburgh J, Reardon D, Desjardins A, Peters K, Gururangan S, Norfleet J, Friedman A, Bigner D, Friedman HS: Phase I trial of vendetanib and oral etoposide for recurrent malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13016

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  • [Title] Phase I trial of vendetanib and oral etoposide for recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • : e13016 Background: Recurrent malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 6-15 months, with grade 4 glioblastomas more aggressive than grade 3 anaplastic astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas.
  • We report a phase I trial of vandetanib in combination with oral etoposide for recurrent malignant glioma.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically documented recurrent grade 3 or grade 4 malignant glioma were eligible.
  • There was more hematologic toxicity than expected, with 3/6 of the patients enrolled at dose level 1 developing grade 4 neutropenia.
  • A phase II trial is planned when the MTD of vandetanib with reduced dose etoposide is determined.

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  • (PMID = 27962830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Perdiki M, Korkolopoulou P, Thymara I, Agrogiannis G, Piperi C, Boviatsis E, Kotsiakis X, Angelidakis D, Diamantopoulou K, Thomas-Tsagli E, Patsouris E: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in astrocytomas. Relationship with microvascular parameters, angiogenic factors expression and survival. Mol Cell Biochem; 2007 Jan;295(1-2):75-83

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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in astrocytomas. Relationship with microvascular parameters, angiogenic factors expression and survival.
  • In the present study, we examined the expression of COX-2 in diffuse gliomas of astrocytic origin in relation to microvascular parameters, angiogenic factors and survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 83 cases of diffuse astrocytomas (grade II-IV) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of COX-2.
  • RESULTS: COX-2 expression was detected in 79 cases (95%) with an increased expression in grade IV as compared to grades II/III (p=0.024).
  • Multivariate survival analysis showed that the interaction model of COX-2 with grade along with age were the only significant prognostic indicators.
  • CONCLUSION: These results implicate COX-2 in the angiogenesis and biological aggressiveness of diffuse astrocytomas, and suggest that it would be worthwhile to examine how the inhibition of COX-2 expression may influence astrocytoma patients' survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents / metabolism. Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Glioma / blood supply. Glioma / enzymology. Membrane Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16868662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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17. Ohnishi M, Matsumoto T, Nagashio R, Kageyama T, Utsuki S, Oka H, Okayasu I, Sato Y: Proteomics of tumor-specific proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with astrocytoma: usefulness of gelsolin protein. Pathol Int; 2009 Nov;59(11):797-803
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  • [Title] Proteomics of tumor-specific proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with astrocytoma: usefulness of gelsolin protein.
  • Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition have been shown to accurately reflect pathological processes in the CNS, and are potential indicators of abnormal CNS states, such as tumor growth.
  • To detect biomarkers in high-grade astrocytomas, the differential expression of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed from two cases each of diffuse astrocytoma (grade II), and glioblastoma (grade IV) using agarose 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE).
  • It was found that the expression of gelsolin protein decreased with histological grade.
  • To examine whether gelsolin is a useful indicator of tumor aggressiveness or patient outcome, its expression was further studied on immunohistochemistry in 41 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded astrocytomas.
  • The positive cell rate of gelsolin in tumors was 59.4% in grade II, 30.0% in grade III and 29.4% in grade IV, respectively.
  • Gelsolin expression was significantly lower in high-grade astrocytomas (grade III or IV) than in low-grade astrocytomas (grade II; P < 0.05).
  • Moreover, in astrocytomas the overall survival of patients in the low-expression group was significantly poorer than in the high expression group (P < 0.05).
  • These data suggest that gelsolin is a prognostic factor in astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Biomarkers, Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Gelsolin / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 19883430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gelsolin
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18. Hara A, Saegusa M, Ichinoe M, Okayasu I: Diagnostic and prognostic significance of cyclin A expression in low-grade astrocytomas: comparison with astrogliosis and high-grade tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;61(3):287-92
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic significance of cyclin A expression in low-grade astrocytomas: comparison with astrogliosis and high-grade tumours.
  • AIM: Definitive distinction between low-grade astrocytoma and astrogliosis is a long-standing difficulty due to their similar histopathological characteristics.
  • To clarify differences in biological significance, this study focused on various components of the cell cycle machinery and proliferation as key parameters, comparing expression in astrogliosis, as well as low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: The expression of p16, p21 and p27, and cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, Rb and Ki-67 was immunohistochemically examined in 40 cases of astrogliosis and 48 cases of low-grade astrocytomas (grade II), as well as 50 high-grade tumours (grades III and IV).
  • The results were also compared with survival data for the astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Cell proliferation determined by Ki-67 immunoreactivity did not differ between astrogliosis and low-grade tumours.
  • Average labelling indices (LIs) for p16, p21, Rb, cyclin A and cyclin E showed a stepwise increase from astrogliosis, through low- to high-grade astrocytomas, indicating the possibility that over 9%, 6% and 4% of LIs for p16, p21 and cyclin A, respectively, may be useful predictors in the case of the latter, in contrast to significant decrease in p27 LIs.
  • Significantly higher mean LI values for cyclin D1 were also evident in astrogliosis (12.42) as compared with astrocytomas (low grade, 2.26; high grade, 4.60).
  • Positive correlations between LIs for Rb and Ki-67 were observed with astrogliosis and low- but not high-grade tumours.
  • In addition, high cyclin A LI values were independently associated with poor outcome in low-grade tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence that expression of cell-cycle-related molecules may be a reliable parameter for differential diagnosis of low-grade astrocytomas and astrogliosis.
  • Moreover, detection of cyclin A appears to be useful for predicting behaviour of low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cyclin A / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic

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  • (PMID = 18156430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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19. Yue WY, Yu SH, Zhao SG, Chen ZP: Molecular markers relating to malignant progression in Grade II astrocytoma. J Neurosurg; 2009 Apr;110(4):709-14
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  • [Title] Molecular markers relating to malignant progression in Grade II astrocytoma.
  • OBJECT: Astrocytoma may progress rapidly or remain stable for many years.
  • To clarify whether molecular characteristics could be prognostic factors, several cell cycling-associated molecular alterations in the diffuse astrocytoma have been investigated.
  • METHODS: Thirty-three patients in whom WHO Grade II astrocytoma had been initially diagnosed were assigned to 1 of 3 groups.
  • Group 1 consisted of 10 patients with malignant progression; the tumor had recurred within 5 years and histological analysis had confirmed that the tumor progressed to Grade III or IV.
  • Group 2 consisted of 10 patients in whom there was no malignant progression; the tumor recurred within 5 years, but histological analysis confirmed that the tumor remained at Grade II.
  • Group 3 consisted of 13 patients who did not experience recurrence within 5 years.
  • Expression of Ki 67, TP53, p27, and p21 was examined using immunohistochemical analysis for the tumor samples obtained during the first and second (in recurrent cases) surgeries.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of TP53, TP53 mutation, and Ki 67 labeling index could be molecular markers in astrocytomas predicting malignant progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Base Sequence. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19025355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / p27 antigen
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20. Klase D, Gottschalk S, Reusche E, Hagel C, Goebel E, Tronnier V, Giese A: Lumbosacral glioblastoma and leptomeningeal gliomatosis complicating the course of a cervicothoracic astrocytoma WHO grade II. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Aug;23(8):907-12
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  • [Title] Lumbosacral glioblastoma and leptomeningeal gliomatosis complicating the course of a cervicothoracic astrocytoma WHO grade II.
  • CASE REPORT: The reported female patient underwent sub-total resection of an intra-medullary cervicothoracic astrocytoma classified as WHO grade II in 1984 at the age of 18 months and received local irradiation.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Anaplastic progression and dissemination of spinal astrocytomas even two decades after initial diagnosis and treatment are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Glioblastoma / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17440736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Shuangshoti S, Thorner PS, Ruangvejvorachai P, Saha B, Groshen S, Taylor CR, Malhotra S, Imam SA: J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):521-7
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  • [Title] J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas.
  • J1-31 is one of the astrocytic proteins, the expression of which has not been evaluated in astrocytomas.
  • In the present study, we studied the expression of J1-31 protein in astrocytes and astrocytomas in comparison with GFAP, p53 and Ki-67.
  • Materials consisted of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens that included five cases of normal brain, 17 of gliosis, 15 of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I), 26 of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), four of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and eight of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
  • The antibody showed reactivity with tumor cells in 12/15 (80%) cases of pilocytic astrocytoma, although intensity of staining was generally weaker and more focal than observed in reactive gliosis.
  • J1-31-positive tumor cells were detected in only 9/26 (35%) cases of the low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and none of the cases of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma.
  • Increasing Ki-67 indices paralleled advancing tumor grades. p53 protein was expressed more commonly in infiltrating astrocytomas compared to pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • In conclusion, down-regulation of J1-31 expression correlates with advancing grade of astrocytomas.
  • The result suggests this protein plays some role in astrocytes that is progressively lost in malignant progression.
  • The anti-J1-31 antibody may help further our understanding of astrocytes in disease and may be useful as an aid in the pathologic diagnosis of astrocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoplasm / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Gliosis / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19019178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / J1-31 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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22. Watanabe Y, Yamasaki F, Kajiwara Y, Saito T, Nishimoto T, Bartholomeusz C, Ueno NT, Sugiyama K, Kurisu K: Expression of phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa (PEA-15) in astrocytic tumors: a novel approach of correlating malignancy grade and prognosis. J Neurooncol; 2010 Dec;100(3):449-57
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  • [Title] Expression of phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa (PEA-15) in astrocytic tumors: a novel approach of correlating malignancy grade and prognosis.
  • Despite its many important roles, the clinical significance of PEA-15 expression levels in astrocytic tumors has yet to be properly defined.
  • We studied the PEA-15 expression pattern of 65 patients [diagnosed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria] with diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III), and glioblastoma (grade IV).
  • PEA-15 expression levels were immunohistochemically measured and categorized as no, low, or high expression.
  • Twenty-three (35.4%) and 42 (64.6%) tumors expressed low and high PEA-15 levels, respectively.
  • In grade II astrocytoma (diffuse astrocytoma) and grade III astrocytoma (anaplastic astrocytoma), 100% and 88.9% of patients expressed high PEA-15 levels, respectively, while a smaller number (50%) of patients with grade IV astrocytoma (glioblastoma) expressed high PEA-15 levels.
  • PEA-15 expression level was inversely associated with WHO grade (P = 0.0006).
  • Next, we evaluated prognosis and PEA-15 expression levels in 43 patients with high-grade astrocytomas based on the following parameters: age, gender, WHO grade, surgical resection extent, MIB-1 labeling index (LI), and PEA-15 expression level.
  • Multivariable analyses revealed that high PEA-15 expression level displayed a significant correlation with longer overall survival (OS) in high-grade astrocytomas (P = 0.0024).
  • In conclusion, PEA-15 expression level was inversely associated with WHO grade and may serve as an important prognostic factor for high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20455002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / PEA15 protein, human; 0 / Phosphoproteins
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23. Weber MA, Vogt-Schaden M, Bossert O, Giesel FL, Kauczor HU, Essig M: [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas]. Radiologe; 2007 Sep;47(9):812-8
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  • [Title] [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas].
  • [Transliterated title] MR-Perfusions- und spektroskopische Bildgebung bei WHO-Grad-II-Astrozytomen.
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluates whether MR perfusion imaging and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas, whether these areas are co-localized, and whether the prognosis can be better predicted.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (nine female, six male, aged 42+/-14 years) with WHO grade II astrocytomas but without preceding radio- or chemotherapy were examined every 3 months with MR perfusion imaging and MRSI (mean follow-up 18 months).
  • Using a region of interest analysis, the regional relative cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) and blood flow (rrCBF) were measured in tumor tissue.
  • In six patients, the tumor showed progression and contrast-enhancement.
  • The progressing tumors had already had higher perfusion (rrCBF 2.1+/-1.4; rrCBV 1.9+/-1.1) parameters than the stable astrocytomas (rrCBF 1.2+/-0.6, p=0.01; rrCBV 1.4+/-0.8, p=0.05) at first examination.
  • However, the Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios only tended to be higher than in stable astrocytomas (Cho/NAA 2.4+/-1.0 vs. 2.0+/-1.5, p=0.23; Cho/Cr 1.7+/-0.6 vs. 1.4+/-0.5, p=0.06).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MR perfusion imaging can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas earlier than conventional MRI and thus enables a better prediction of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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  • (PMID = 16924439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Mursch K, Halatsch ME, Markakis E, Behnke-Mursch J: Intrinsic brainstem tumours in adults: results of microneurosurgical treatment of 16 consecutive patients. Br J Neurosurg; 2005 Apr;19(2):128-36

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Between 1986 and 1997, we operated upon 16 consecutive patients over 16 years of age (five female, 11 male, mean age 36.9 years) who were suffering from intrinsic tumours located in the pons and/or medulla oblongata.
  • Eight patients had from WHO grade II astrocytoma and a similar course as patients with higher-grade gliomas (n = 4).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16120515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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25. Rorive S, Maris C, Debeir O, Sandras F, Vidaud M, Bièche I, Salmon I, Decaestecker C: Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Aug;65(8):794-807
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  • [Title] Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles.
  • Although World Health Organization (WHO) grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and grade II diffuse astrocytomas have been classified for decades as different clinicopathologic entities, few, if any, data are available on the biologic features explaining these differences.
  • Although more than 50 microarray-related studies have been carried out to characterize the molecular profiles of astrocytic tumors, we have identified only 11 that provide sound data on low-grade astrocytomas.
  • We have incorporated these data into a comparative analysis for the purpose of identifying the most relevant molecular markers characterizing grade I pilocytic and grade II diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Our analysis has identified various interesting genes that are differentially expressed in either grade I or grade II astrocytomas when compared with normal tissue and/or high-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas.
  • Interestingly, a group of 6 genes (TIMP4, C1NH, CHAD, THBS4, IGFBP2, and TLE2) constitute an expression profile characteristic of grade I astrocytomas as compared with all other categories of tissue (normal brain, grade II, and high-grade astrocytomas).
  • The end products (proteins) of these genes act as antimigratory compounds, a fact that could explain why pilocytic astrocytomas behave as compact (well-circumscribed) tumors as opposed to all the other astrocytic tumor types that diffusely invade the brain parenchyma.
  • Having validated these molecular markers by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, an integrated model was proposed illustrating how and why pilocytic astrocytomas constitute a distinct biologic and pathologic entity when compared with diffuse astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Movement / genetics. Child. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Models, Neurological. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16896313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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26. Essig M, Giesel F, Stieltjes B, Weber MA: [Functional imaging for brain tumors (perfusion, DTI and MR spectroscopy)]. Radiologe; 2007 Jun;47(6):513-9
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  • In cases of brain tumor, PWI aids in grading and better differentiation in diagnostics as well as for pre-therapeutic planning.
  • PWI allows better estimates of biological activity and aggressiveness in low grade brain tumors, and in the case of WHO grade II astrocytoma showing anaplasically transformed tumor areas, allows more rapid visu-alization and a better prediction of the course of the disease than conventional MRI diagnostics.
  • Diffusion imaging can be used for describing brain tumors, for evaluating contralateral involvement and the course of the nerve fibers near the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17505814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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27. Burim RV, Teixeira SA, Colli BO, Peria FM, Tirapelli LF, Marie SK, Malheiros SM, Oba-Shinjo SM, Gabbai AA, Lotufo PA, Carlotti-Júnior CG: ICAM-1 (Lys469Glu) and PECAM-1 (Leu125Val) polymorphisms in diffuse astrocytomas. Clin Exp Med; 2009 Jun;9(2):157-63
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  • [Title] ICAM-1 (Lys469Glu) and PECAM-1 (Leu125Val) polymorphisms in diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphism in codon 469 of ICAM-1 and codon 125 of PECAM-1 were examined in 158 patients with astrocytomas and 162 controls using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis.
  • The distribution of PECAM-1 polymorphic genotypes in astrocytomas did not show any significant difference.
  • However, a specific ICAM-1 genotype (G/G, corresponding to Lys469Glu) exhibited higher frequency in grade II astrocytomas compared to controls, grade III, and grade IV astrocytomas; suggesting that this polymorphism could be involved in the development of grade II astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD31 / genetics. Astrocytoma / genetics. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

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  • (PMID = 19306055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1591-8890
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 126547-89-5 / Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
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28. Garcés-Ambrossi GL, McGirt MJ, Mehta VA, Sciubba DM, Witham TF, Bydon A, Wolinksy JP, Jallo GI, Gokaslan ZL: Factors associated with progression-free survival and long-term neurological outcome after resection of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: analysis of 101 consecutive cases. J Neurosurg Spine; 2009 Nov;11(5):591-9
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  • However, factors associated with tumor resectability, tumor recurrence, and long-term neurological outcome are poorly understood.
  • Pathological type included ependymoma in 51 cases, hemangioblastoma in 15, pilocytic astrocytoma in 16, WHO Grade II astrocytoma in 10, and malignant astrocytoma in 9.
  • Independent of histological tumor type, an intraoperatively identifiable tumor plane (OR 25.3, p < 0.0001) and decreasing tumor size (OR 1.2, p = 0.05) were associated with GTR.
  • In 31 patients (31%) tumor progression developed by last follow-up (mean 19 months).
  • Tumor histology (p < 0.0001) and the presence of an intraoperatively identified tumor plane (hazard ratio [HR] 0.44, p = 0.027) correlated with improved PFS.
  • A GTR resulted in improved PFS for hemangioblastoma (HR 0.004, p = 0.04) and ependymoma (HR 0.2, p = 0.02), but not astrocytoma.
  • The presence of an identifiable tumor plane (HR 3.1, p = 0.0004) and improvement in neurological symptoms before discharge (HR 2.3, p = 0.004) were associated with overall neurological improvement by last follow-up (mean 19 months).
  • A GTR should be attempted for ependymoma and hemangioblastoma, but it may not affect PFS for astrocytoma.
  • For all tumors, the intraoperative finding of a clear tumor plane of resection carries positive prognostic significance across all pathological types.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Therapeutics. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg Spine. 2009 Nov;11(5):588-9; discussion 590 [19929362.001]
  • (PMID = 19929363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Frazier JL, Johnson MW, Burger PC, Weingart JD, Quinones-Hinojosa A: Rapid malignant transformation of low-grade astrocytomas: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. World Neurosurg; 2010 Jan;73(1):53-62; discussion e5
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  • [Title] Rapid malignant transformation of low-grade astrocytomas: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Low-grade gliomas have been documented to undergo transformation into high-grade astrocytomas, and the time interval of this transformation has been reported to generally occur within 5 years in about 50% of patients harboring these low-grade lesions.
  • Several studies have investigated the evolution of low-grade gliomas into malignant gliomas by CT and MRI characteristics, but many have not documented the timing of these transformation processes.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors discuss the cases of 2 patients with histopathologically confirmed grade II astrocytomas after craniotomies that underwent rapid evolution into malignant gliomas within 13 weeks.
  • Interestingly, both low-grade astrocytomas were positive with immunostaining for the epidermal growth factor receptor, in which its amplification has been implicated as a molecular marker of malignant gliomas.
  • In addition, the grade II astrocytomas were negative for p53 in both patients but were found to be positive upon transformation into malignant gliomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of rapid malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas, which were proven by histology, within 13 weeks.
  • There may be patients with a subtype of low-grade astrocytomas that may warrant molecular characterization to determine if aggressive adjuvant therapy would be of benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Time Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20452869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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30. Maris C, Rorive S, Sandras F, D'Haene N, Sadeghi N, Bièche I, Vidaud M, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2008 Jun;34(3):316-29
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  • [Title] Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an extracellular matrix brain glycoprotein for which conflicting in vitro and in vivo results are reported in the literature dealing with its involvement in astrocytoma aggressiveness, in particular astrocytoma invasion.
  • In view of these conflicting results and the lack of data available on low-grade astrocytomas, the present study focuses on pilocytic World Health Organization (WHO) grade I, and diffuse WHO grade II astrocytomas, that is, two histological entities associated with very different invasive abilities.
  • METHODS: Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we analysed the TN-C expression in normal brain tissue as well as in a series of 54 pilocytic and 53 grade II astrocytomas.
  • Paralleling these observations, we showed that TN-C expression in low-grade astrocytomas similarly varies according to tumour site.
  • Cox regression analysis evidenced that TN-C provided an independent prognostic value which is enhanced in the case of grade II astrocytomas for which positive TN-C expression is associated with a higher risk of recurrence.
  • We also analysed TN-C expression specifically in vascular areas of low-grade astrocytomas without demonstrating any prognostic value for this additional feature.
  • RESULTS: Similarly to normal brain, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit variations in TN-C expression with site, and this expression is associated with an independent prognostic value in terms of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Tenascin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17983425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tenascin
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31. Huang H, Hara A, Homma T, Yonekawa Y, Ohgaki H: Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Oct;64(10):891-901
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  • [Title] Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) is a circumscribed, slowly growing, benign astrocytoma that most frequently develops in the cerebellar hemispheres and in midline structures and occurs predominantly in childhood and adolescence.
  • In contrast to diffusely infiltrating gliomas in adults (e.g. grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas), survival of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma is excellent after surgical intervention.
  • To search for potential molecular mechanisms underlying its benign biologic behavior, we compared gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas (8 cases) with those of normal cerebellum (4 cases), low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II; 15 cases), and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II; 17 cases) by cDNA array analysis.
  • A number of immune system-related genes such as HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, IgG3, IgGK, FCER1G, A2M, FCRN, IFI-56K, and DAP12 were upregulated in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to normal cerebellum, grade II astrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Genes expressed at higher levels in pilocytic astrocytomas than in grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas include HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, A2M, TIMP1, TIMP2, CDKN1A, and SOCS3 and those expressed at lower levels include EGFR and PDGFRA.
  • Hierarchical clustering analysis using the entire set of 1176 genes distinguished pilocytic astrocytomas from grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Clustering analysis using selected subgroups of genes based on their molecular functions revealed that immune system-related genes (75 genes) or cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis-related genes (69 genes) showed similar power to the entire gene set for separation of pilocytic astrocytomas from diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that HLA-DRalpha is expressed diffusely in neoplastic cells in pilocytic astrocytomas, whereas in oligodendrogliomas, expression was limited to scattered reactive astrocytes.
  • These results suggest that gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas differ significantly from those of diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas and that their benign biologic behavior may be related to upregulation of immune defense-associated genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Gene Expression. Immunity / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16215461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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32. Gimenez M, Souza VC, Izumi C, Barbieri MR, Chammas R, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Marie SK, Rosa JC: Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin. Proteomics; 2010 Aug;10(15):2812-21
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin.
  • The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in diffuse astrocytoma grade II, anaplastic astrocytoma grade III and glioblastoma multiforme grade IV in human tumor samples and in non-neoplastic brain tissue as control using 2-DE and MS.
  • Tumor and control brain tissue dissection was guided by histological hematoxylin/eosin tissue sections to provide more than 90% of tumor cells and astrocytes.
  • Six proteins were detected as up-regulated in higher grade astrocytomas and the most important finding was nucleophosmin (NPM) (p<0.05), whereas four proteins were down-regulated, among them raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) (p<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein / genetics. Proteomics


33. Salvati M, D'Elia A, Melone GA, Brogna C, Frati A, Raco A, Delfini R: Radio-induced gliomas: 20-year experience and critical review of the pathology. J Neurooncol; 2008 Sep;89(2):169-77
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  • There were 14 cases of glioblastoma (grade IV WHO) and 2 cases of astrocytoma (grade II WHO), with a mean latency time of 17 years (range: 6-26 years).

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  • (PMID = 18566750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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34. Maiti AK, Ghosh K, Chatterjee U, Chakrobarti S, Chatterjee S, Basu S: Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas. Neurol India; 2008 Oct-Dec;56(4):456-62
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: The involvement of various growth factors, growth factor receptors and proliferative markers in the molecular pathogenesis of astrocytic neoplasms are being studied extensively.
  • Since EGFR and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are involved in mitogenic signal transduction and cellular proliferation pathway, we have studied the correlation between the expression of EGFR and PCNA labeling index in astrocytic tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and PCNA using the appropriate monoclonal antibodies in 40 cases of astrocytic tumors of which 21 cases were glioblastoma, eight cases were Grade III or anaplastic astrocytomas and six cases were Grade II or diffuse astrocytomas and five cases were Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Both the EGFR expression and PCNA labeling index increase with increasing grades of astrocytomas with a significantly high percentage of cells showing positive staining for both EGFR and PCNA in GBM and Grade III astrocytomas compared to Grade II astrocytomas.
  • The expression levels of both EGFR and PCNA were low in Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A significant correlation was found between EGFR overexpression and PCNA labeling index in Grade III and Grade II astrocytomas and glioblastoma.
  • These suggest that the tumor proliferation, at least in higher grades of astrocytomas is dependent in some measure on EGF and EGFR-related signaling pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19127042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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35. Porto L, Kieslich M, Franz K, Lehrbecher T, Pilatus U, Hattingen E: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in pediatric low-grade gliomas. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Oct;27(2):65-70
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  • [Title] Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in pediatric low-grade gliomas.
  • Our purpose was to investigate whether in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, using normalized concentrations of total choline (tCho) and total creatine (tCr), can differentiate between WHO grade I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and diffuse, fibrillary WHO grade II astrocytoma (DA) in children.
  • Data from 16 children with astrocytomas (11 children with PA and 5 children with DA) were evaluated retrospectively.
  • MRS was performed before treatment in all patients with histologically proven low-grade astrocytomas.
  • We concluded that choline as a single parameter is not reliable in the differential diagnosis of low-grade astrocytomas in children.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Choline / metabolism. Creatine / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / metabolism. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Supratentorial Neoplasms / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21046307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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36. Fujita A, Sato JR, Festa F, Gomes LR, Oba-Shinjo SM, Marie SK, Ferreira CE, Sogayar MC: Identification of COL6A1 as a differentially expressed gene in human astrocytomas. Genet Mol Res; 2008;7(2):371-8
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  • [Title] Identification of COL6A1 as a differentially expressed gene in human astrocytomas.
  • Diffuse infiltrating gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system.
  • Gliomas are classified by the WHO according to their histopathological and clinical characteristics into four classes: grade I (pilocytic astrocytoma), grade II (diffuse astrocytoma), grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma), and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme).
  • Several genes have already been correlated with astrocytomas, but many others are yet to be uncovered.
  • By analyzing the public SAGE data from 21 patients, comprising low malignant grade astrocytomas and glioblastomas, we found COL6A1 to be differentially expressed, confirming this finding by real time RT-PCR in 66 surgical samples.
  • The expression of this gene has significantly different means when normal glia is compared with low-grade astrocytomas (grades I and II) and high-grade astrocytomas (grades III and IV), with a tendency to be greater in higher grade samples, thus rendering it a powerful tumor marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Collagen Type VI / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18551403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1676-5680
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics and molecular research : GMR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Mol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type VI; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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37. Iwami K, Arima T, Ooka F, Asai T, Tambara M, Takaoka T: [Bilateral thalamic glioma in an adult: a case report and review of the literature]. No Shinkei Geka; 2009 Mar;37(3):285-90
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  • We report a case of a 36-year-old woman who had a rare bilateral thalamic glioma (BTG).
  • Histological examination of the biopsy specimen identified diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Thalamus

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  • (PMID = 19306649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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38. Jung CS, Foerch C, Schänzer A, Heck A, Plate KH, Seifert V, Steinmetz H, Raabe A, Sitzer M: Serum GFAP is a diagnostic marker for glioblastoma multiforme. Brain; 2007 Dec;130(Pt 12):3336-41
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  • A serum marker for malignant cerebral astrocytomas could improve both differential diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumour patients.
  • To evaluate whether the serum concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) may indicate glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in patients with single supratentorial space-occupying lesions, we prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with histologically proven GBM, World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV, 14 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), 4 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 13 patients with diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), 17 patients with a single cerebral metastasis and 50 healthy controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / blood. Glioblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17998256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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39. Forshew T, Tatevossian RG, Lawson AR, Ma J, Neale G, Ogunkolade BW, Jones TA, Aarum J, Dalton J, Bailey S, Chaplin T, Carter RL, Gajjar A, Broniscer A, Young BD, Ellison DW, Sheer D: Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas. J Pathol; 2009 Jun;218(2):172-81
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  • [Title] Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • We report genetic aberrations that activate the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in 100% of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas, with a high frequency of gene fusions between KIAA1549 and BRAF among these tumours.
  • An activating mutation of KRAS was identified in the single pilocytic astrocytoma without a BRAF or RAF1 fusion.
  • Further fusions and activating mutations in BRAF were identified in 28% of grade II astrocytomas, highlighting the importance of the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in the development of paediatric low-grade gliomas.

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  • [CommentIn] J Pathol. 2010 Dec;222(4):324-8 [20976706.001]
  • (PMID = 19373855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A8318; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C5321/A8318
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / GTPase-Activating Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / SRGAP3 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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40. Bristol RE: Low-grade glial tumors: are they all the same? Semin Pediatr Neurol; 2009 Mar;16(1):23-6
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  • [Title] Low-grade glial tumors: are they all the same?
  • The most common diagnosis for supratentorial brain tumors in children is a form of low-grade glioma.
  • Even though the numbers of any given tumor type are small, the question has been raised as to whether different pathologies require different treatments.
  • We reviewed the published articles on treatment and outcomes for all pathologies included under the heading "low-grade glioma" to answer this question.
  • The only pathologic subgroups that may benefit from more aggressive up-front treatment are the grade II astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / therapy. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19410153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0776
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Pediatr Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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41. Wiencke JK, Zheng S, Jelluma N, Tihan T, Vandenberg S, Tamgüney T, Baumber R, Parsons R, Lamborn KR, Berger MS, Wrensch MR, Haas-Kogan DA, Stokoe D: Methylation of the PTEN promoter defines low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Jul;9(3):271-9
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  • [Title] Methylation of the PTEN promoter defines low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can present as either de novo or secondary tumors arising from previously diagnosed low-grade gliomas.
  • Although these tumor types are phenotypically indistinguishable, de novo and secondary GBMs are associated with distinct genetic characteristics.
  • PTEN mutations, which result in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway, are frequent in de novo but not in secondary GBMs or their antecedent low-grade tumors.
  • Results we present here show that grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas commonly display methylation of the PTEN promoter, a finding that is absent in nontumor brain specimens and rare in de novo GBMs.
  • Our results also demonstrate frequent methylation of the PTEN promoter in grade III astrocytomas and secondary GBMs, consistent with the hypothesis that these tumors arise from lower grade precursors.
  • PTEN methylation is rare in de novo GBMs and is mutually exclusive with PTEN mutations.
  • We conclude that methylation of the PTEN promoter may represent an alternate mechanism by which PI3K signaling is increased in grade II and III gliomas as well as secondary GBMs, a finding that offers new therapeutic approaches in these patients.

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  • (PMID = 17504928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA97257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA52689; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082783-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082783; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082783-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA052689
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1907411
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42. Ohgaki H, Kleihues P: Population-based studies on incidence, survival rates, and genetic alterations in astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Jun;64(6):479-89
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  • [Title] Population-based studies on incidence, survival rates, and genetic alterations in astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas.
  • This review summarizes data on incidence rates, survival, and genetic alterations from population-based studies of astrocytic and oligodendrogliomas that were carried out in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (approximately 1.16 million inhabitants).
  • While survival rates for pilocytic astrocytomas were excellent (96% at 10 years), the prognosis of diffusely infiltrating gliomas was poorer, with median survival times (MST) of 5.6 years for low-grade astrocytoma WHO grade II, 1.6 years for anaplastic astrocytoma grade III, and 0.4 years for glioblastoma.
  • For oligodendrogliomas the MSTwas 11.6 years for grade II and 3.5 years for grade III.
  • TP53 mutations were most frequent in gemistocytic astrocytomas (88%), followed by fibrillary astrocytomas (53%) and oligoastrocytomas (44%), but infrequent (13%) in oligodendrogliomas.
  • LOH 1p/19q typically occurred in tumors without TP53 mutations and were most frequent in oligodendrogliomas (69%), followed by oligoastrocytomas (45%), but were rare in fibrillary astrocytomas (7%) and absent in gemistocytic astrocytomas.
  • Primary (de novo) glioblastomas prevailed (95%), while secondary glioblastomas that progressed from low-grade or anaplastic gliomas were rare (5%).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Brain Neoplasms. Loss of Heterozygosity. Oligodendroglioma. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


43. Cha S, Tihan T, Crawford F, Fischbein NJ, Chang S, Bollen A, Nelson SJ, Prados M, Berger MS, Dillon WP: Differentiation of low-grade oligodendrogliomas from low-grade astrocytomas by using quantitative blood-volume measurements derived from dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2005 Feb;26(2):266-73
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  • [Title] Differentiation of low-grade oligodendrogliomas from low-grade astrocytomas by using quantitative blood-volume measurements derived from dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histopathologic evaluation remains the reference standard for diagnosis of glioma and classification of histologic subtypes, but is challenged by subjective criteria, tissue sampling error, and lack of specific tumor markers.
  • Anatomic imaging is essential for surgical planning of gliomas but is limited by its nonspecificity and its inability to depict beyond morphologic aberrations.
  • The purpose of our study was to investigate dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) MR imaging characteristics of the two most common subtypes of low-grade infiltrating glioma: astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma.
  • We hypothesized that tumor blood-volume measurements, derived from DSC MR imaging, would help differentiate the two on the basis of differences in tumor vascularity.
  • METHODS: We studied 25 consecutive patients with treatment-naive, histopathologically confirmed World Health Organization grade II astrocytoma (n = 11) or oligodendroglioma (n = 14).
  • Anatomic MR images were analyzed for morphologic features, and DSC MR data were processed to yield quantitative cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurements.
  • RESULTS: The maximum relative CBV (rCBV(max)) in tumor ranged from 0.48 to 1.34 (0.92 +/- 0.27, median +/- SD) in astrocytomas and from 1.29 to 9.24 (3.68 +/- 2.39) in oligodendrogliomas.
  • The difference in median rCBV(max) between the two tumor types was significant (P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSION: The tumor rCBV(max) measurements derived from DSC MR imaging were significantly higher in low-grade oligodendrogliomas than in astrocytomas.
  • Our findings suggest that tumor rCBV(max) derived from DSC MR imaging can be used to distinguish between the two low-grade gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 15709123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K23 NS 45013
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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44. Yap L, Crooks D, Warnke P: Low grade astrocytoma of the pituitary stalk. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2007 Mar;149(3):307-11; discussion 311-2
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  • [Title] Low grade astrocytoma of the pituitary stalk.
  • A case of low grade astrocytoma (WHO grade II) localised in the pituitary stalk is reported in a 46 year old female who presented with central diabetes insipidus.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Optic Nerve / pathology. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Irradiation. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17242848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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45. Liebrich M, Guo LH, Schluesener HJ, Schwab JM, Dietz K, Will BE, Meyermann R: Expression of interleukin-16 by tumor-associated macrophages/activated microglia in high-grade astrocytic brain tumors. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz); 2007 Jan-Feb;55(1):41-7
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  • [Title] Expression of interleukin-16 by tumor-associated macrophages/activated microglia in high-grade astrocytic brain tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of IL-16 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in human astrocytic brain tumors and the rat C6 glioblastoma tumor model.
  • IL-16 was detected in both human astrocytic brain tumors and rat C6 glioma.
  • RESULTS: Compared with human control brains, a significant increase in the percentages of parenchymal IL-16+ macrophages/microglia was observed already in grade II astrocytomas, indicating that IL-16+ immunostaining could be a descriptor of a macrophage/microglia subset in astrocytic brain tumors.
  • A further increase was observed at the transition from grade II to III astrocytomas.
  • This increase in IL-16 immunoreactivity correlated with WHO grades of human astrocytic brain tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, IL-16 might be a so far unknown factor in the regulation of the local inflammatory milieu of human and experimental astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Glioblastoma / immunology. Interleukin-16 / biosynthesis. Macrophages / immunology. Microglia / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Inflammation Mediators / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • [Cites] Cancer Cell. 2005 Mar;7(3):211-7 [15766659.001]
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  • (PMID = 17221335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-069X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Interleukin-16
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234149
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46. López JI, Scheithauer BW, Giannini C, Torp SH: Concurrent solitary fibrous tumor and low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma of the cerebellum. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Sep-Oct;29(5):301-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concurrent solitary fibrous tumor and low-grade fibrillary astrocytoma of the cerebellum.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the clinicopathologic features of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) having undergone malignant transformation and being intimately associated with a WHO Grade II astrocytoma.
  • Resection was initially employed and the SIOP protocol employing vincristine and carboplatin was applied upon tumor recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: The biologic basis for the association of SFT and astrocytoma is unknown.
  • The complex lesion differs substantially from WHO Grade IV gliosarcoma and from gliofibroma, lesions in which the disparate elements are linked by metaplasia.
  • Indeed, it may represent a collision tumor.
  • Lastly, induction of the glioma by the solitary fibrous tumor, a mechanism invoked to explain the poorly understood "sarcoglioma," deserves consideration.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / diagnosis. Solitary Fibrous Tumors / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20860893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Nakasu S, Fukami T, Jito J, Matsuda M: Prognostic significance of loss of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression in supratentorial diffuse low-grade astrocytoma. Surg Neurol; 2007 Dec;68(6):603-8; discussion 608-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic significance of loss of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression in supratentorial diffuse low-grade astrocytoma.
  • If loss of function in MGMT is related to tumor progression, the immunohistochemical method may predict the malignant change of gliomas.
  • METHOD: We investigated the expression of MGMT by immunohistochemical method in 28 supratentorial hemispheric diffuse astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: There were 19 MGMT-positive and 9 MGMT-negative astrocytomas.
  • Their rates of malignant transformation at 5 years were 12.3% and 51.4%, respectively.
  • Age, sex, extent of surgery, MIB-1 value, and radiation therapy at initial treatment did not correlate with the malignant progression.
  • Two long-term survivors with MGMT-negative tumor responded well to nitrosourea-based chemotherapy and lived more than 8 years after malignant transformation.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the status of MGMT did not affect the overall survival, immunohistochemical evaluation of MGMT expression may be a good marker for tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17825378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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48. Nozaki M, Ohnishi A, Fujimaki T, Nagashima K, Cho K, Sawamura Y: Congenital gemistocytic astrocytoma in a fetus. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Feb;22(2):168-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Congenital gemistocytic astrocytoma in a fetus.
  • This report presents a case of a congenital gemistocytic astrocytoma diagnosed by antenatal intrauterine ultrasound.
  • The patient was delivered by cesarean section and a total excision of the hemorrhagic tumor was carried out on the third day of his life.
  • The histological study revealed gemistocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade II).
  • Ten months after his birth, a recurrent tumor was depicted on follow-up MRI.
  • The second total excision of the recurrent tumor and chemotherapy using cisplatin and vincristine were performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fetus

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  • (PMID = 15864706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Synaptophysin
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49. Schramm J, Blümcke I, Ostertag CB, Schlegel U, Simon M, Lutterbach J: Low-grade gliomas -- current concepts. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2006 May;67(2):55-66
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  • [Title] Low-grade gliomas -- current concepts.
  • Diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas (mixed gliomas) WHO grade II, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs), pilocytic astrocytomas, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are often referred to as low-grade gliomas.
  • WHO grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed gliomas are characterized by their infiltrative growth, frequent tumor recurrence and a more than 50 % risk for malignant progression.
  • In contrast, pilocytic astrocytomas and SEGAs are circumscribed tumors amenable to a (radio)surgical cure.
  • There are few universally accepted guidelines for the treatment of low-grade gliomas.
  • In this review, three neurosurgeons, a neurologist, a neuropathologist, and a radiation oncologist discuss some of the difficult issues surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of low-grade gliomas from their individual points of view (i. e., classification and neuropathology, MR imaging, stereotactic biopsy, microsurgery, interstitial radiotherapy/brachytherapy, radiotherapy, wait and see strategy).

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  • (PMID = 16673237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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50. Nakamura M, Tsuji O, Fujiyoshi K, Watanabe K, Tsuji T, Ishii K, Matsumoto M, Toyama Y, Chiba K: Cordotomy for patients with thoracic malignant astrocytoma. J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Oct;13(4):418-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cordotomy for patients with thoracic malignant astrocytoma.
  • OBJECT: The optimal management of malignant astrocytomas remains controversial, and the prognosis of these lesions has been dismal regardless of the administered treatment.
  • In this study the authors investigated the surgical outcomes of cordotomy in patients with thoracic malignant astrocytomas to determine the effectiveness of this procedure.
  • METHODS: Cordotomy was performed in 5 patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 2 with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA).
  • In the 2 patients with GBM, cordotomy was performed 2 and 3 weeks after a partial tumor resection.
  • In the 2 patients with AA, the initial treatment consisted of partial tumor resection and subtotal resection combined with radiotherapy, and rostral tumor growth and progressive paralysis necessitated cordotomy 2 and 28 months later.
  • One patient with a secondary GBM underwent cordotomy; the GBM developed 1 year after subtotal resection and radiotherapy for a WHO Grade II astrocytoma.
  • In patients with thoracic GBM, even if paralysis is incomplete, cordotomy should be performed before the tumor disseminates through the CSF.
  • If the tumor persists, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are indicated, and cordotomy should be reserved for lesions growing progressively after such second-line treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cordotomy. Thoracic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease Progression. Encephalitis / etiology. Female. Glioblastoma / complications. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pain, Postoperative. Paraplegia / etiology. Paraplegia / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20887138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Guan X, Lai S, Lackey J, Shi J, Techavipoo U, Moulding HD, Flanders AE, Andrews DW: Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Dec;28(6):1322-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To seek to distinguish and visualize the different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) growth patterns among malignant gliomas utilizing visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients undergoing image-guided resection of a newly diagnosed malignant glioma underwent add-on acquisition of DTI data based on an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved imaging protocol during preoperative MRI scans for routine intraoperative image guidance.
  • Tumor growth patterns were assigned to expansive or mixed/infiltrative classes as described in the companion article (24).
  • Infiltrating tumors were WHO Grade IV astrocytomas and all expansive tumors were either WHO Grade III astrocytomas or WHO Grade II astrocytomas.
  • DTI-based white matter tractography was conducted and the DTI data were fused with anatomical images using an in-house software package we developed to enhance the visualization of the tumor/fiber interface.
  • RESULTS: Out of the 19 tumor patients studied, 11 had infiltrative tumors and the other 8 had expansive tumors.
  • While less clear with 2D axial diffusion color maps, visually enhanced 3D reconstructions of the tumor/fiber interface successfully corroborated distinctive growth patterns.
  • This was particularly evident when viewed in 3D video loops of each tumor/fiber interface.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed software that visually enhances the anatomic details of the tumor/fiber interface in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • These data support the existence of a subgroup of patients within the WHO Grade III classification with expansive tumors and a significantly better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19025901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Arslantas A, Artan S, Oner U, Müslümanoglu MH, Ozdemir M, Durmaz R, Arslantas D, Vural M, Cosan E, Atasoy MA: Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Pathol Oncol Res; 2007;13(1):39-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • To extend our understanding of potential stepwise genetic alterations that may underlie tumor progression from low-grade astrocytomas to glioblastomas, histopathologic and comparative genomic hybridization analyses were performed on tumor specimens from 68 primary lesions, including 40 glioblastomas, 10 anaplastic and 18 low-grade astrocytomas.
  • The number of aberrations per case increased towards the higher grade tumors (grade II: 1.66+/-1.49; grade III: 2.80+/-1.68; grade IV: 3.02+/-1.07; F=6.955, p=0.002).
  • A gain of 7/7q was common and the most frequently seen aberration in low-grade astrocytomas, whereas loss of 10q was the most frequently seen anomaly in anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • Chromosome 10/10q deletion and combination of 1p, 19q and 17p deletions were specific to high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • The genomic copy deletions of chromosomes 1p and 19q might provide an alternative mechanism in the genesis of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Glioblastoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17387387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Hagemann C, Anacker J, Gerngras S, Kühnel S, Said HM, Patel R, Kämmerer U, Vordermark D, Roosen K, Vince GH: Expression analysis of the autosomal recessive primary microcephaly genes MCPH1 (microcephalin) and MCPH5 (ASPM, abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly associated) in human malignant gliomas. Oncol Rep; 2008 Aug;20(2):301-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression analysis of the autosomal recessive primary microcephaly genes MCPH1 (microcephalin) and MCPH5 (ASPM, abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly associated) in human malignant gliomas.
  • Both proteins are also involved in the regulation of tumor growth.
  • Glioblastomas are the most prevalent malignant brain tumors in adults, characterized by increased invasiveness, an aggressive local growth pattern and short survival periods of patients.
  • In this study, we analysed the expression of microcephalin mRNA and ASPM mRNA and protein in a panel of 15 glioblastomas and 15 astrocytoma WHO grade II by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
  • Whereas microcephalin expression did not seem to be altered during glioma development, there was a clear increase in ASPM mRNA and protein expression that corresponded with the WHO grade of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Genes, Recessive. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18636190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ASPM protein, human; 0 / MCPH1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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54. Srivastava T, Chosdol K, Chattopadhayay P, Sarkar C, Mahapatra AK, Sinha S: Frequent loss of heterozygosity encompassing the hMLH1 locus in low grade astrocytic tumors. J Neurooncol; 2007 Feb;81(3):249-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequent loss of heterozygosity encompassing the hMLH1 locus in low grade astrocytic tumors.
  • In astrocytic tumors, the heterozygosity status of these genes with reference to tumor grade has not yet been determined.
  • We have analyzed the heterozygosity status and locus specific instability in 43 glial tumors comprising 22 low grades diffuses astrocytoma (WHO Grade II, DA) and 21 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV GBM) using 10 microsatellite markers at 2p and 3p to elucidate the involvement of these loci in astrocytic tumorigenesis.
  • Our results suggest that in the astrocytic tumorigenesis, LOH at the hMLH1 gene locus is an early event in tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Nuclear Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17019533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins
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55. Reis C, Carneiro E, Fonseca J, Pereira P, Vaz R, Pinto R, Capelinha AF, Lopes JM, Salgado A: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and multiple thoraco-lumbar lateral meningoceles: two rare pathological entities in a patient with NF-1. Neuroradiology; 2005 Feb;47(2):165-9
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  • We report a case of a 31-year-old woman, with NF-1 and past history of right thalamic/peduncular astrocytoma WHO grade II, admitted to the Neurosurgery Department in December 2003 due to severe low back pain, irradiating to the left leg without a radicular pattern.

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  • (PMID = 15688204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Blauwblomme T, Varlet P, Goodden JR, Cuny ML, Piana H, Roujeau T, Dirocco F, Grill J, Kieffer V, Boddaert N, Sainte-Rose C, Puget S: Forniceal glioma in children. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Sep;4(3):249-53
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  • On histological review, the tumors were confirmed as pilocytic astrocytoma (4 lesions), WHO Grade II astrocytoma (3), and ganglioglioma (1).
  • Additional treatment was required for 5 patients for tumor progression, with a median interval of 19 months from surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this series, forniceal gliomas were found to be low-grade gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 19772409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Christensen K, Schrøder HD, Kristensen BW: CD133 identifies perivascular niches in grade II-IV astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Nov;90(2):157-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CD133 identifies perivascular niches in grade II-IV astrocytomas.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and distribution of the putative brain tumour stem cell marker CD133 in formalin fixed paraffin embedded astrocytomas.
  • A retrospective analysis of 114 grade II, III and IV astrocytomas was undertaken.
  • There was no correlation between the mean volume fraction of CD133(+) niches and all CD133(+) tumour cells and tumour grade.
  • However, the volume fraction of CD133(+) blood vessels increased significantly from 0.4% in diffuse astrocytomas to 2.2% in glioblastomas.
  • In conclusion, a CD133(+) perivascular stem cell-like entity exists in astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18612800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Peptides; 47165-04-8 / DAPI; EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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58. Toy H, Yavas O, Eren O, Genc M, Yavas C: Correlation between osteopontin protein expression and histological grade of astrocytomas. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Jun;15(2):203-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation between osteopontin protein expression and histological grade of astrocytomas.
  • The expression of osteopontin is reportedly increased in a number of transformed cell lines and tumor tissues.
  • The aim of the study is to demonstrate that expression of osteopontin in human astrocytomas correlates with histological tumor grade.
  • The expression of osteopontin in human astrocytomas was determined with immunohistochemistry.
  • Median osteopontin expression levels were 1%, 7.5%, 60%, and 50% in grade I, II, III, and IV tumors, respectively.
  • Osteopontin staining was significantly higher in high grade (grade III-IV) than low grade (grade I-II) tumors.
  • These findings indicate that osteopontin immunoreactivity in human astrocytomas may correlate with the grade of a tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Osteopontin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19048398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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59. Talos IF, Zou KH, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA: Volumetric assessment of tumor infiltration of adjacent white matter based on anatomic MRI and diffusion tensor tractography. Acad Radiol; 2007 Apr;14(4):431-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Volumetric assessment of tumor infiltration of adjacent white matter based on anatomic MRI and diffusion tensor tractography.
  • We hypothesized that white matter infiltration may be common among different types of tumor.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Preoperative, anatomic (T1- and T2-weighted), and LINESCAN diffusion tensor MRI were obtained in 12 patients harboring supratentorial gliomas (World Health Organization [WHO] Grades II and III).
  • A second segmentation and volume measurement was performed on the tumor regions intersecting adjacent white matter fiber tracts.
  • Statistical methods included summary statistics to examine the fraction of tumor volume infiltrating adjacent white matter.
  • RESULTS: There were five patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma (WHO Grade II), one with low-grade mixed oligoastrocytoma (WHO Grade II), one with ganglioglioma, two with low-grade astrocytoma (WHO Grade II), and three with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III).
  • We identified white matter tracts infiltrated by tumor in all 12 cases.
  • The median tumor volume (+/- standard deviation) in our patient population was 42.5 +/- 28.9 mL.
  • The median tumor volume (+/- standard deviation) infiltrating white matter fiber tracts was 5.2 +/- 9.9 mL.
  • The median percentage of tumor volume infiltrating white matter fiber tracts was 21.4% +/- 9.7%.
  • However, prospective, large population studies are required to definitively clarify this issue, and how infiltration relates to histologic tumor type, tumor size, and location.

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  • [Cites] J Magn Reson Imaging. 2001 Jun;13(6):967-75 [11382961.001]
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  • (PMID = 17368212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-098542; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U41 RR019703; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM074068; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U41 RR019703-03S1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / P41 EB015898; United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / R01 LM007861; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR019703-03S1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR013218-108434; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR013218-098542; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA067165; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-108434
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS21072; NLM/ PMC2397554
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60. Misra A, Chattopadhyay P, Chosdol K, Sarkar C, Mahapatra AK, Sinha S: Clonal mutations in primary human glial tumors: evidence in support of the mutator hypothesis. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:190
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  • BACKGROUND: A verifiable consequence of the mutator hypothesis is that even low grade neoplasms would accumulate a large number of mutations that do not influence the tumor phenotype (clonal mutations).
  • In this study, we have attempted to quantify the number of clonal mutations in primary human gliomas of astrocytic cell origin.
  • These alterations were identified in tumor tissue, microscopically confirmed to have over 70% neoplastic cells.
  • METHODS: Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed using a set of fifteen 10-mer primers of arbitrary but definite sequences in 17 WHO grade II astrocytomas (low grade diffuse astrocytoma or DA) and 16 WHO grade IV astrocytomas (Glioblastoma Multiforme or GBM).
  • The RAPD profile of the tumor tissue was compared with that of the leucocyte DNA of the same patient and alteration(s) scored.
  • The difference between high and lower grade tumors was statistically significant by both methods.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the presence of extensive clonal mutations in gliomas, more in lower grade.
  • This is consistent with our earlier work demonstrating that technique like RAPD analysis, unbiased for locus, is able to demonstrate more intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in lower grade gliomas compared to higher grade.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cloning, Molecular. DNA / metabolism. DNA Primers / chemistry. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Glioma / genetics. Humans. Leukocytes / metabolism. Models, Genetic. Models, Theoretical. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Genetic. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17925012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2190769
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61. Rauscher A, Sedlacik J, Fitzek C, Walter B, Hochstetter A, Kalff R, Kaiser WA, Reichenbach JR: High resolution susceptibility weighted MR-imaging of brain tumors during the application of a gaseous agent. Rofo; 2005 Aug;177(8):1065-9
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  • PURPOSE: To employ a high resolution blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) method called susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) together with the breathing of carbogen to investigate the response of cerebral tumors to this breathing gas and to assess tumor anatomy at high resolution.
  • METHODS: Five patients with cerebral tumors (four glioblastoma multiforme, one astrocytoma [WHO grade II]) were studied using a susceptibility weighted 3D gradient echo, first order velocity compensated sequence (TE = 45 ms, TR = 67 ms, alpha = 25 degrees , FOV = 256 x 192 x 64 mm(3), typical matrix = 512 x 192 x 64), on a 1.5 T MR scanner while they were breathing air and carbogen.
  • The astrocytoma displayed a signal decrease during carbogen breathing (- 4.1 +/- 0.1 % to - 6.8 +/- 0.3 % in peritumoral areas that correspond to hyperintense regions on T (2)-weighted images, and - 3.1 +/- 0.1 % in the tumor-center).
  • Combined with hypercapnia it allows for regional assessment of tumor activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16021537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9029
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide; 8063-77-2 / carbogen; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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62. Galldiks N, Kracht LW, Berthold F, Miletic H, Klein JC, Herholz K, Jacobs AH, Heiss WD: [11C]-L-methionine positron emission tomography in the management of children and young adults with brain tumors. J Neurooncol; 2010 Jan;96(2):231-9
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  • Only a few Methyl-[11C]-L-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET) studies have focused on children and young adults with brain neoplasm.
  • The MET tumor-uptake relative to a corresponding control region was calculated.
  • A differentiation between high grade malignant lesions (mean MET-uptake = 2.00 +/- 0.46) and low grade tumors (mean MET-uptake = 1.84 +/- 0.31) was not possible.
  • There was a significant difference in MET-uptake between the histologically homogeneous subgroups of astrocytoma WHO grade II and anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III (P = 0.02).

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  • (PMID = 19575148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine; BN630929UL / methionine methyl ester
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2808525
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63. Samaras V, Piperi C, Levidou G, Zisakis A, Kavantzas N, Themistocleous MS, Boviatsis EI, Barbatis C, Lea RW, Kalofoutis A, Korkolopoulou P: Analysis of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in human astrocytomas: associations with IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and microvessel morphometry. Hum Immunol; 2009 Jun;70(6):391-7
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  • [Title] Analysis of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in human astrocytomas: associations with IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and microvessel morphometry.
  • Malignant astrocytomas are highly vascular neoplasms with potent angiogenic activity.
  • The present study aimed to investigate peripheral and local expression of interleukin (IL)-8 in astrocytomas with possible associations to IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and microvessel morphometry.
  • IL-6- and IL-8-secreting peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were evaluated in 17 glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), 5 anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and 6 diffuse astrocytoma patients (WHO grade II), in parallel with 23 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay.
  • The IL-8 expression was assessed immunohistochemically in patients' tumor tissue sections and correlated with the expression of COX-2, VEGF, IL-6, and microvessel morphometry (assessed using CD34 antibody).
  • IL-8 immunoreactivity was detected in malignant cells or macrophages in perivascular areas and in pseudopalisading cells around necrosis and was positively correlated with histological grade (p = 0.0175) and tumor necrosis (p = 0.0793).
  • The coordinate expression and topographical relationship of IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and VEGF in the same tumor areas (e.g., perinecrotic areas) attest to their intimate liaison in terms of cancer-induced angiogenesis, which is probably secondary to the induction of multiple interdependent molecular pathways.
  • Moreover, our study seems to be the first attempt to link IL-8 expression by tumor cells with histological grade, implicating its potent role in gliomagenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / immunology. Microvessels / immunology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19332096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Human immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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64. Krueger DA, Care MM, Holland K, Agricola K, Tudor C, Mangeshkar P, Wilson KA, Byars A, Sahmoud T, Franz DN: Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis. N Engl J Med; 2010 Nov 4;363(19):1801-11
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  • [Title] Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical resection is the standard treatment for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • METHODS: Patients 3 years of age or older with serial growth of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas were eligible for this open-label study.
  • The primary efficacy end point was the change in volume of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas between baseline and 6 months.
  • Everolimus therapy was associated with a clinically meaningful reduction in volume of the primary subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma, as assessed on independent central review (P<0.001 for baseline vs. 6 months), with a reduction of at least 30% in 21 patients (75%) and at least 50% in 9 patients (32%).
  • There were no new lesions, worsening hydrocephalus, evidence of increased intracranial pressure, or necessity for surgical resection or other therapy for subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma.
  • Single cases of grade 3 treatment-related sinusitis, pneumonia, viral bronchitis, tooth infection, stomatitis, and leukopenia were reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus therapy was associated with marked reduction in the volume of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas and seizure frequency and may be a potential alternative to neurosurgical resection in some cases, though long-term studies are needed. (Funded by Novartis; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00411619.).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Seizures / drug therapy. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Tuberous Sclerosis / drug therapy


65. Lee EJ, Lee SK, Agid R, Bae JM, Keller A, Terbrugge K: Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Nov;29(10):1872-7
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  • [Title] Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histopathologic grade of glial tumors is inversely correlated with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
  • We assessed the diagnostic values of minimum ADC for preoperative grading of supratentorial astrocytomas that were diagnosed as low-grade astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 118 patients with astrocytomas (WHO grades II-IV), 16 who showed typical MR imaging findings of low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging were included.
  • The minimum ADC value of each tumor was determined from several regions of interest in the tumor on ADC maps.
  • To assess the relationship between the minimum ADC and tumor grade, we performed the Mann-Whitney U test.
  • A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the cutoff value of the minimum ADC that had the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Eight of the 16 patients (50%) were confirmed as having high-grade astrocytomas (WHO grades III and IV), and the other 8 patients were confirmed as having low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II).
  • The median minimum ADC of the high-grade astrocytoma (1.035 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • sec(-1)) group was significantly lower than that of the low-grade astrocytoma group (1.19 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • CONCLUSION: Measuring minimum ADC can provide valuable diagnostic information for the preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18719036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Ohgaki H, Kleihues P: Genetic pathways to primary and secondary glioblastoma. Am J Pathol; 2007 May;170(5):1445-53
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • Glioblastoma is the most frequent and most malignant human brain tumor.
  • The majority of cases (>90%) are primary glioblastomas that develop rapidly de novo, without clinical or histological evidence of a less malignant precursor lesion.
  • Secondary glioblastomas develop through progression from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma and manifest in younger patients.
  • In the pathway to secondary glioblastoma, TP53 mutations are the most frequent and earliest detectable genetic alteration, already present in 60% of precursor low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Mutation. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17456751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Number-of-references] 85
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1854940
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67. Znidaric MT, Pucer A, Fatur T, Filipic M, Scancar J, Falnoga I: Metal binding of metallothioneins in human astrocytomas (U87 MG, IPDDC-2A). Biometals; 2007 Oct;20(5):781-92
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  • [Title] Metal binding of metallothioneins in human astrocytomas (U87 MG, IPDDC-2A).
  • For this reason astroglia cells possess high cytosolic levels of metallothioneins I, II and III (MT-I,II,III).
  • Our aim was to establish the inducibility and metal binding of MTs in two human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 MG (astrocytoma-glioblastoma, grade IV) and IPDDC-2A (astrocytoma, grade II), on exposure to cadmium chloride (1 microM).
  • We showed that MTs are constitutively expressed in both human astrocytoma cell lines.
  • In accordance with the higher malignancy grade of U87 MG, the amount of MTs was higher in U87 MG than in IPDDC-2A cells.
  • Isoform III (identified by chromatographic separation of isoform III from I/II) was present at all exposure times, but only in traces with respect to the prevailing amounts of MT-I/II isoforms.
  • So induction can be attributed to isoform I/II only.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Metallothionein / metabolism. Metals / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadmium Chloride / metabolism. Cadmium Chloride / pharmacology. Cadmium Chloride / toxicity. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Protein Binding / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17115260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-0844
  • [Journal-full-title] Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biometals
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; J6K4F9V3BA / Cadmium Chloride
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68. Parhar P, Ezer R, Shao Y, Allen JC, Miller DC, Newcomb EW: Possible association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Jun 13;137(1-2):98-103
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  • [Title] Possible association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Polymorphisms in codon 72 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been associated with susceptibility to human cancer.
  • In this study, we scored 135 brain tumor samples (92 adult and 43 pediatric cases consisting of 64 high-grade astrocytomas and 71 non-astrocytomas) for the P53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms.
  • (ii) that there was a significant increase in the Arg/Pro heterozygous genotype among high-grade astrocytomas compared with non-astrocytomas (P = 0.002); and (iii) that there was a significant increase in the Arg/Pro heterozygous genotype among high-grade astrocytomas containing transdominant as well as recessive p53 mutations compared with controls (P = 0.002).
  • Our results suggest a possible association between P53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms and susceptibility to brain tumors, particularly high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Codon / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15950766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U10 CA13539-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90290
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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69. Vlodavsky E, Soustiel JF: Immunohistochemical expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human astrocytomas and its correlation with grade of malignancy, proliferation, apoptosis and survival. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jan;81(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human astrocytomas and its correlation with grade of malignancy, proliferation, apoptosis and survival.
  • It has been established that the expression of PBR in astrocytomas is higher than in the normal brain.
  • The goal of this study was to explore the correlation of the immunohistochemical expression of PBR in astrocytomas with the grade of malignancy and rates of apoptosis, proliferation and survival.
  • In 130 cases of astrocytomas (25 grade I, 25 grade II, 20 grade III, 60 grade IV), paraffin sections were stained immunohistochemically for PBR and MIB-1(Ki-67).
  • It was found that the intensity and extent of staining for PBR had a strong direct correlation with the grade of malignancy of the tumor, along with proliferative and apoptotic indices.
  • The highest expression of PBR was in glioblastomas grade IV, especially around areas of necrosis.
  • The results of this study may be applied in the pathological diagnosis of astrocytomas as an additional clue in establishing tumor grade; they may be used in the imaging of astrocytomas, both for diagnosis and follow-up, by the application of positron emission tomography scanning with PBR specific ligands.
  • Targeting of PBR in high-grade gliomas may be a promising approach, achieving more specific anti-tumor effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Receptors, GABA / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16868661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / TSPO protein, human
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70. Naidoo V, Naidoo S, Mahabeer R, Raidoo DM: Localization of the endothelin system in human diffuse astrocytomas. Cancer; 2005 Sep 1;104(5):1049-57

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  • [Title] Localization of the endothelin system in human diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Because only immunoreactive ET-1 has been observed within human astrocytic tumor cells, the authors investigated the localization of the entire ET-1 system (ET-1 mRNA, ET-1, ECE-1, ETA and ETB receptors) in surgical samples of human diffuse astrocytomas WHO Grade II (n = 6).
  • RESULTS: All ET components were detected in the six tumor samples.
  • Intense (3+) cytoplasmic ET-1 mRNA labeling was observed in more than 75% of cells in all 6 astrocytomas.
  • Up to 75% of tumor cells displayed intense ET-1 and ECE-1 immunolabeling distributed throughout their cytoplasm.
  • Immunoreactive ETA and ETB receptors, observed in 25% to 75% of astrocytic tumor cells, were of moderate intensity.
  • In addition, all components of the ET system were seen within endothelial cells of tumor blood vessels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of ET-1 mRNA, ECE-1, and ET-1 within tumor astrocytes suggests local ET synthesis and processing.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Endothelin-1 / analysis. Metalloendopeptidases / analysis. Receptor, Endothelin A / analysis. Receptor, Endothelin B / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16007684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.71 / endothelin-converting enzyme
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71. Petridis AK, Wedderkopp H, Hugo HH, Maximilian Mehdorn H: Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jun;151(6):601-3; discussion 603-4
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  • [Title] Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas.
  • Highly malignant tumours like small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) also overexpress PSA and this correlates with a negative prognosis.
  • METHODS: Intra-operatively collected biopsies from 30 patients with different astrocytoma grades were immuno-histochemically examined to identify expression of PSA.
  • RESULTS: Astrocytoma grade I and II had 4% PSA expressing cells whereas in grade III and IV the number of PSA expressing cells was 45%.
  • CONCLUSION: In this short communication we show that highly malignant astrocytomas express significantly more PSA compared to less malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Sialic Acids / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biopsy. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Stem Cells / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19387537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Sialic Acids; 0 / UCC1 protein, human; 0 / polysialic acid
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72. Colman H, Giannini C, Huang L, Gonzalez J, Hess K, Bruner J, Fuller G, Langford L, Pelloski C, Aaron J, Burger P, Aldape K: Assessment and prognostic significance of mitotic index using the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 in low and intermediate-grade infiltrating astrocytomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 May;30(5):657-64
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  • [Title] Assessment and prognostic significance of mitotic index using the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 in low and intermediate-grade infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • Distinguishing between grade II and grade III diffuse astrocytomas is important both for prognosis and for treatment decision-making.
  • We tested the relationship between pHH3 staining and tumor grade and prognosis in a retrospective series of grade II and III infiltrating astrocytomas from a single institution.
  • The pHH3 index (per 1000 cells), MIB-1 index (per 1000 cells), and number of mitoses per 10 high-power fields were determined for each of 103 cases of grade II and III diffuse astrocytomas from patients with clinical follow-up. pHH3 staining was found to be a simple and reliable method for identifying mitotic figures, allowing a true mitotic index to be determined.
  • Thus, pHH3 staining provides a simple and reliable method for quantifying proliferative potential and for the stratification of patients with diffuse astrocytomas into typical grade II and III groups.
  • These results also suggest that pHH3 staining may be a useful method in other neoplasms in which accurate determination of proliferation potential is relevant to tumor grading or clinical treatment decision-making.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Histones / metabolism. Mitotic Index

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  • (PMID = 16699322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Histones; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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73. Rorive S, Lopez XM, Maris C, Trepant AL, Sauvage S, Sadeghi N, Roland I, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas. Mod Pathol; 2010 Oct;23(10):1418-28
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  • [Title] TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas.
  • Based on the molecular profiling of astrocytomas, we previously identified a series of genes involved in astrocytoma invasion.
  • Of these, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4) was found to be overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to diffuse astrocytomas of any histological grade.
  • Although some data suggest that TIMP-4 may be an anti-tumoral actor in astrocytomas, recent findings challenge this concept.
  • The present study aims to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic values of TIMP-4 and its putative partner CD63 in human astrocytomas.
  • Tissue microarray and image analysis were first carried out to quantitatively analyze the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 471 gliomas including 354 astrocytomas.
  • Pathological semi-quantitative scores of both markers' expression were then established and correlated to astrocytoma diagnosis and patient prognosis.
  • TIMP-4 and CD63 expressions were both overexpressed in astrocytomas compared with oligodendrogliomas (P<0.001) and in pilocytic astrocytomas compared with grade II diffuse astrocytomas (P<0.001).
  • In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence of a TIMP-4/CD63 association in astrocytoma tumor cells.
  • It identifies TIMP-4 and CD63 as markers of the astrocytic phenotype in patients with gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20693981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD63; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD63 protein, human; 0 / Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 0 / tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4
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74. Hu CH, Fang XM, Hu XY, Cui L: Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas. Clin Imaging; 2009 Nov-Dec;33(6):417-23
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  • [Title] Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the mismatched manifestation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) of astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Both conventional and perfusion CT were performed on 29 patients with pathologically confirmed astrocytomas (15 cases in Grades I-II, 14 cases in Grades III-IV).
  • RESULTS: Twelve low-grade astrocytomas showed low or medium values of both rCBF (46.95+/-22.92 ml 100 g(-1) mm(-1)) and rCBV (5.74+/-3.61 ml 100 g(-1)); 12 high-grade astrocytomas showed high values of both rCBF (95.44+/-42.58 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1)) and rCBV (9.24+/-5.32 ml 100g(-1)).
  • However, the remaining five astrocytomas were mismatched, showing reduced rCBF value and increased rCBV value in the same ROI.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV occasionally exists in some areas of astrocytomas.
  • Hence, attention should be paid to assessments in preoperative grading of astrocytomas and in monitoring therapeutic effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Perfusion Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19857800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Kruer MC, Kaplan AM, Etzl MM Jr, Carpentieri DF, Dickman PS, Chen K, Mathieson K, Irving A: The value of positron emission tomography and proliferation index in predicting progression in low-grade astrocytomas of childhood. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):239-245
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  • [Title] The value of positron emission tomography and proliferation index in predicting progression in low-grade astrocytomas of childhood.
  • Astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors of childhood and adolescence.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs), in general, have favorable prognosis, but recurrence or progressive disease with dissemination, malignant transformation, and death occur in some cases.
  • Current clinical and pathological measures including age, sex, imaging characteristics, location and size of the tumor, histopathology, and degree of resection cannot predict with certainty which tumors will demonstrate aggressive behavior.
  • We reviewed 46 cases ages 5 months to 17 years with low-grade (WHO I-II) astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 19506815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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76. Soffietti R, Baumert BG, Bello L, von Deimling A, Duffau H, Frénay M, Grisold W, Grant R, Graus F, Hoang-Xuan K, Klein M, Melin B, Rees J, Siegal T, Smits A, Stupp R, Wick W, European Federation of Neurological Societies: Guidelines on management of low-grade gliomas: report of an EFNS-EANO Task Force. Eur J Neurol; 2010 Sep;17(9):1124-33
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  • [Title] Guidelines on management of low-grade gliomas: report of an EFNS-EANO Task Force.
  • BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative low-grade gliomas of the cerebral hemispheres in the adult are a group of tumors with distinct clinical, histological and molecular characteristics, and there are still controversies in management.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: WHO classification recognizes grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.
  • Total/near total resection can improve seizure control, progression-free and overall survival, whilst reducing the risk of malignant transformation.
  • Low doses of radiation are as effective as high doses and better tolerated.
  • Neurocognitive deficits are frequent and can be caused by the tumor itself, tumor-related epilepsy, treatments and psychological distress.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cognition Disorders / drug therapy. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Cognition Disorders / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / standards. Europe. Evidence-Based Medicine / trends. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / standards. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20718851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-1331
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. Liu X, Chen N, Wang X, He Y, Chen X, Huang Y, Yin W, Zhou Q: Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Sep;65(9):905-13
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  • [Title] Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules.
  • Limited studies of a few IAPs indicated their roles in astrocytomas.
  • However, the overall expression status and significance of apoptosis regulators in astrocytomas is not clear.
  • We examined the expression profile of the caspases (CASP3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 14), APAF1, SMAC, BCL2, the IAPs (BIRC5/survivin, CIAP1, CIAP2, XIAP, and LIVIN), and the proliferation markers Ki67 and PHH3 in 78 diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas and 24 normal brain samples by immunohistochemistry.
  • Our data showed BIRC5 nuclear labeling index (BIRC5-N) was the apoptosis marker most significantly different in World Health Organization grade II to IV astrocytomas and most strongly associated with proliferative activity.
  • Expression level of other apoptosis-related proteins was modest or low in astrocytomas and did not correlate significantly with tumor grade or proliferation.
  • This expression profile suggested involvement of apoptosis regulators in astrocytoma tumorigenesis, but tumor progression was more closely associated with proliferative advantages of which BIRC5 nuclear expression appeared to be a manifestation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16957584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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78. Arjona D, Bello MJ, Alonso ME, Isla A, De Campos JM, Vaquero J, Sarasa JL, Gutierrez M, Rey JA: Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of regions involved in gene amplification reveals gene overdose in low-grade astrocytic gliomas. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2005 Dec;14(4):224-9

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  • [Title] Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of regions involved in gene amplification reveals gene overdose in low-grade astrocytic gliomas.
  • We have studied gene amplification of genes located in 1q32 (GAC1, ELF3, MDM4, and ren1), 4q11 (PDGFR-alpha), and in 12q13-14 (MDM2 and CDK4) using quantitative real-time PCR in a group of 86 tumors consisting of 44 WHO grade IV glioblastomas (GBM) (34 primary and 10 secondary tumors), 21 WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 21 WHO grade II astrocytomas (AII).
  • GAC1 (51%) and MDM4 (27%) were the most frequently amplified genes within the 1q32 amplicon, and their higher amplification frequency was statistically significant (P<0.05, chi) in the low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Concordant co-amplification was determined for ELF3 and ren1 or ren1 and MDM4 in the grade III-IV tumors.
  • The present study shows that gene amplification in the studied regions is already present in low-grade astrocytic tumors and that amplification of some genes may represent another molecular marker to differentiate primary from secondary GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Gene Amplification. Gene Dosage. Proto-Oncogenes / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16319692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-9551
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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79. Korshunov A, Meyer J, Capper D, Christians A, Remke M, Witt H, Pfister S, von Deimling A, Hartmann C: Combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 distinguishes pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Sep;118(3):401-5
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  • [Title] Combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 distinguishes pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma.
  • Separation of pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytomas frequently poses problems mostly related to small sample size.
  • Precise classification and grading are essential due to different therapeutic strategies prompted by diagnoses of pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I, diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II or anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas carry a duplication at chromosome band 7q34 containing a BRAF-KIAA1549 gene fusion in the majority of cases.
  • IDH1 mutations are observed very frequently in adult astrocytomas and IDH2 mutations have been reported in some astrocytomas.
  • We examined a series of 120 astrocytomas including 70 pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I and 50 diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II for both, BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion with a newly developed FISH assay and mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 by direct sequencing.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas contained the BRAF fusion in 49 cases (70%) but neither IDH1 nor IDH2 mutations.
  • Astrocytomas WHO grade II exhibited IDH1 mutations in 38 cases (76%) but neither IDH2 mutations nor BRAF fusions.
  • Thus, combined molecular analysis of BRAF and IDH1 is a sensitive and highly specific approach to separate pilocytic astrocytoma from diffuse astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Tissue Array Analysis


80. El-Rayes BF, Norton CS, Sakr W, Maciorowski Z, Smith D, Pietraszkiewicz H, Del Mar Alonso M, Ensley JF: Cellular DNA content parameters as prognostic indicators in human astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(2):85-9
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  • [Title] Cellular DNA content parameters as prognostic indicators in human astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Clinical parameters such as grade, size and/or location of the tumor are good predictors of outcome in patients with astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: Following optimization and validation of methodology for evaluating cellular DNA content parameters (CDCP), tumor DNA ploidy and percent S phase fraction (SPF) were determined from 64 patients using formalin fixed, paraffin embedded specimens (mean coefficient of variation=4.94) obtained over a 10-year period.
  • Median survival times correlated with grade (I/II=1154 vs. III/IV=483days, P=0.0317).
  • CONCLUSION: DNA content parameters may correlate with the natural history and treatment outcome of newly diagnosed untreated patients with astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15690121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 40498-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA22453
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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81. Glotsos D, Spyridonos P, Cavouras D, Ravazoula P, Dadioti PA, Nikiforidis G: An image-analysis system based on support vector machines for automatic grade diagnosis of brain-tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine. Med Inform Internet Med; 2005 Sep;30(3):179-93
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  • [Title] An image-analysis system based on support vector machines for automatic grade diagnosis of brain-tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine.
  • An image-analysis system based on the concept of Support Vector Machines (SVM) was developed to assist in grade diagnosis of brain tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine.
  • One hundred and forty biopsies of astrocytomas were characterized according to the WHO system as grade II, III and IV.
  • Low-grade tumours were distinguished from high-grade tumours with an accuracy of 90.2% and grade III from grade IV with an accuracy of 88.3% The system was tested in a new clinical data set, and the classification rates were 87.5 and 83.8%, respectively.
  • The proposed methodology might be used in parallel with conventional grading to support the regular diagnostic procedure and reduce subjectivity in astrocytomas grading.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 16403707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-9238
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical informatics and the Internet in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Inform Internet Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Tihan T, Vohra P, Berger MS, Keles GE: Definition and diagnostic implications of gemistocytic astrocytomas: a pathological perspective. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jan;76(2):175-83
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  • [Title] Definition and diagnostic implications of gemistocytic astrocytomas: a pathological perspective.
  • Gemistocytic astrocytoma still continues to be enigmatic; both in terms of definition and prognostic implications.
  • The currently accepted definition of gemistocytic astrocytoma requires 20% or more gemistocytes, and considers the neoplasm as a diffuse astrocytoma, which is a WHO grade II tumor.
  • Some suggest that gemistocytic morphology should be considered as evidence of a higher grade astrocytoma.
  • There is still a need for studies with sufficient numbers of well-matched gemistocytic and non-gemistocytic astrocytic neoplasms to decide whether upgrading a tumor with 'significant' number of gemistocytes is justifiable.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16132490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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83. Higgins RJ, Dickinson PJ, LeCouteur RA, Bollen AW, Wang H, Wang H, Corely LJ, Moore LM, Zang W, Fuller GN: Spontaneous canine gliomas: overexpression of EGFR, PDGFRalpha and IGFBP2 demonstrated by tissue microarray immunophenotyping. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;98(1):49-55
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  • Fifty-seven spontaneous canine gliomas were histologically classified and graded using the latest World Health Organization (WHO 2007) criteria for classification of human gliomas.
  • A total of 19 canine astrocytomas were classified as follows: grade IV (GBM) n = 7; grade III n = 5; and grade II, n = 7.
  • Thirty-eight oligodendrogliomas were classified as either grade III (anaplastic) n = 35 or low grade II n = 3.
  • Tissue microarray (TMA) immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate tumor expression of EGFR, PDGFRa and IGFBP2, three key molecules of known pathophysiological importance in human gliomas.
  • Findings were correlated with tumor classification and grade.
  • Increased EGFR expression was demonstrated in 57% of GBMs, 40% of grade III and 28% of grade II astrocytomas.
  • EGFR expression occurred in only 3% of grade III oligodendrogliomas.
  • Increased expression of PDGFRalpha was demonstrated in 43% of GBMs, 20% of grade III, and 14% of grade II astrocytomas.
  • In the oligodendroglioma series, 94% of grade III tumors overexpressed PDGFRalpha.
  • IGFBP2 expression was detected in 71, 60 and 28% of GBMs, grade III and grade II astrocytomas respectively.
  • IGFBP2 expression occurred in 48% of anaplastic and in 33% of low grade oligodendrogliomas.
  • The incidence of overexpression of EGFR, PDGFRalpha and IGFBP2 in these canine gliomas closely parallels that in human tumors of similar type and grade.

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  • (PMID = 19967449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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84. Wykosky J, Gibo DM, Stanton C, Debinski W: Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2, EphA2, and Fos-related antigen 1 as molecular denominators of high-grade astrocytomas and specific targets for combinatorial therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;14(1):199-208
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  • [Title] Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2, EphA2, and Fos-related antigen 1 as molecular denominators of high-grade astrocytomas and specific targets for combinatorial therapy.
  • PURPOSE: We investigated the expression of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13R alpha 2), EphA2, and Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) in astrocytomas and normal brain.
  • We sought to document whether the expression of the three factors changed with progression to higher grade malignancy and whether two or three targets in combination might be sufficient to target all patients with high-grade astrocytomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was done for IL-13R alpha 2, EphA2, and Fra-1 using human brain tumor tissue microarrays containing 30 specimens of WHO grades II and III astrocytomas, 46 glioblastoma multiformes (GBM), and 9 normal brain samples.
  • Western blotting was done for all three markers using GBM tumor specimens and xenograft cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Expression of all three proteins was significantly higher in GBM compared with normal brain, low-grade, and anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IL-13R alpha 2, EphA2, and Fra-1 are attractive therapeutic targets representing molecular denominators of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / biosynthesis. Receptor, EphA2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18172271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1F31 NS055533-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA74145
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Virulence Factors; 0 / fos-related antigen 1; EC 2.4.2.- / ADP Ribose Transferases; EC 2.4.2.31 / toxA protein, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, EphA2
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85. Bartkova J, Hamerlik P, Stockhausen MT, Ehrmann J, Hlobilkova A, Laursen H, Kalita O, Kolar Z, Poulsen HS, Broholm H, Lukas J, Bartek J: Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas. Oncogene; 2010 Sep 9;29(36):5095-102
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  • Malignant gliomas, the deadliest of brain neoplasms, show rampant genetic instability and resistance to genotoxic therapies, implicating potentially aberrant DNA damage response (DDR) in glioma pathogenesis and treatment failure.
  • Here, we report on gross, aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in low- and high-grade human gliomas, and analyze the sources of such endogenous genotoxic stress.
  • Based on analyses of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, normal astrocytes and clinical specimens from grade II astrocytomas (n=41) and grade IV GBM (n=60), we conclude that the DDR machinery is constitutively activated in gliomas, as documented by phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX), activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway, 53BP1 foci and other markers.
  • Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxoguanine) was high in some GBM cell lines and many GBM tumors, while it was low in normal brain and grade II astrocytomas, despite the degree of DDR activation was higher in grade II tumors.
  • Markers indicative of ongoing DNA replication stress (Chk1 activation, Rad17 phosphorylation, replication protein A foci and single-stranded DNA) were present in GBM cells under high- or low-oxygen culture conditions and in clinical specimens of both low- and high-grade tumors.
  • The observed global checkpoint signaling, in contrast to only focal areas of overabundant p53 (indicative of p53 mutation) in grade II astrocytomas, are consistent with DDR activation being an early event in gliomagenesis, initially limiting cell proliferation (low Ki-67 index) and selecting for mutations of p53 and likely other genes that allow escape (higher Ki-67 index) from the checkpoint and facilitate tumor progression.
  • Overall, these results support the potential role of the DDR machinery as a barrier to gliomagenesis and indicate that replication stress, rather than oxidative stress, fuels the DNA damage signalling in early stages of astrocytoma development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Signal Transduction / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20581868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / H2AFX protein, human; 0 / Histones; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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86. Zorlu F, Ozyigit G, Gurkaynak M, Soylemezoglu F, Akyol F, Lale Atahan I: Postoperative radiotherapy results in primary spinal cord astrocytomas. Radiother Oncol; 2005 Jan;74(1):45-8

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  • [Title] Postoperative radiotherapy results in primary spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the therapeutic outcomes of patients with primary spinal cord astrocytomas treated with conventional radiotherapy at our institute.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 1975 and December 1997, 26 patients with histologically proven spinal cord astrocytomas were treated with conventional radiotherapy, and twenty-four eligible patients were evaluated.
  • Fourteen of astrocytomas were grade I, 6 of them grade II and 4 grade III.
  • Patients were treated with 1-2 Gy daily fractions, and given to a median total dose of 49.5 Gy (range 35-60 Gy) external radiotherapy to primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15683668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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87. Hwang SL, Lin CL, Lieu AS, Hwang YF, Howng SL, Hong YR, Chang DS, Lee KS: The expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in human astrocytomas. Surg Neurol; 2008 Dec;70 Suppl 1:S1:4-8; discussion S1:8
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  • [Title] The expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in human astrocytomas.
  • However, little was studied about the expression of TR isoforms in human astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: In this study, RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of human TR isoforms in 34 human astrocytoma samples.
  • RESULTS: We compared the TR expression between low grade (WHO grade II) and high grade (WHO grade III and IV).
  • The frequency of TRalpha1 or TRalpha2 expression significantly decreased with the grade of malignancy (P=.005 and P=.043, respectively).
  • However, the frequency of TRbeta1 expression significantly increased with the grades of malignancy astrocytomas (P=.017).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated for the first time that TR isoforms are indeed expressed in human astrocytomas.
  • The expression of TR isoforms is correlated to the malignancy grading of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18617237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyroid Hormone; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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88. Henze M, Ozdemir-Sahin N, Hipp P, Mier W, Eisenhut M, Debus J, Haberkorn U: [Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET, (123)I-IMT- and (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT: evaluation of tumour progression in irradiated low grade astrocytomas]. Nuklearmedizin; 2006;45(1):49-56
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  • [Title] [Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET, (123)I-IMT- and (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT: evaluation of tumour progression in irradiated low grade astrocytomas].
  • AIM: To evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of the SPECT-tracers 3-(123)I-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) and (99m)Tc(I)- hexakis(2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) (MIBI) as well as the PET-tracer 2-(18)F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) for detecting tumour progression in irradiated low grade astrocytomas (LGA).
  • PATIENTS, METHODS: We examined 91 patients (56 males; 35 females; 44.7 +/- 11.5 years), initially suffering from histologically proven LGAs (mean WHO grade II) and treated by stereotactic radiotherapy (59.0 +/- 4.6 Gy).
  • CONCLUSION: MIBI-SPECT examinations resulted in a low accuracy and especially in a poor sensitivity even at modest specificity values.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Methyltyrosines. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 16493514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Methyltyrosines; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 14684-02-7 / 3-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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89. Chosdol K, Misra A, Puri S, Srivastava T, Chattopadhyay P, Sarkar C, Mahapatra AK, Sinha S: Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:5
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: We had earlier used the comparison of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) DNA fingerprinting profiles of tumor and corresponding normal DNA to identify genetic alterations in primary human glial tumors.
  • METHODS: In this study we used RAPD-PCR to identify novel genomic alterations in the astrocytic tumors of WHO grade II (Low Grade Diffuse Astrocytoma) and WHO Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme).
  • RESULTS: Bands consistently altered in the RAPD profile of tumor DNA in a significant proportion of tumors were identified.
  • One such 500 bp band, that was absent in the RAPD profile of 33% (4/12) of the grade II astrocytic tumors, was selected for further study.
  • Its sequence corresponded with a region of FAT, a putative tumor suppressor gene initially identified in Drosophila.
  • Fifty percent of a set of 40 tumors, both grade II and IV, were shown to have Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) at this locus by microsatellite (intragenic) and by SNP markers.
  • Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed low FAT mRNA levels in a major subset of tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: These results point to a role of the FAT in astrocytic tumorigenesis and demonstrate the use of RAPD analysis in identifying specific alterations in astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 19126244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / FAT1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2631005
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90. Assimakopoulou M, Kondyli M, Gatzounis G, Maraziotis T, Varakis J: Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:202
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  • [Title] Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas.
  • The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the expression levels of neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75NTR, and the activation of JNK pathway in human astrocytomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue.
  • METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded serial sections from 33 supratentorial astrocytomas (5 diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, WHO grade II; 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, WHO grade III; 22 glioblastomas multiforme, WHO grade IV) were immunostained following microwave pretreatment.
  • The labeling index (LI), defined as the percentage of positive (labeled) cells out of the total number of tumor cells counted, was determined.
  • RESULTS: Moderate to strong, granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TrkA, TrkB and TrkC receptors was detected in greater than or equal to 10% of tumor cells in the majority of tumors independently of grade; on the contrary, p75NTR receptor expression was found in a small percentage of tumor cells (approximately 1%) in some tumors.
  • The endothelium of tumor capillaries showed conspicuous immunoreactivity for TrkB receptor.
  • Phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were significantly co-expressed in a tumor grade-dependent manner (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: In the context of astrocytomas, Trk receptors (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) expression may promote tumor growth independently of grade.
  • Considering the fact that regional tumor heterogeneity may be a limiting factor for immunohistochemical studies, the significance of the reverse relationship between Trk receptors and pc-Jun/pJNK LIs with respect to biological behavior of human astrocytomas requires further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MAP Kinase Kinase 4 / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Phosphorylation. Receptor, trkA / metabolism. Receptor, trkB / metabolism. Receptor, trkC / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17971243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NGFR protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkB; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkC; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2180182
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91. Martins DC, Malheiros SM, Santiago LH, Stávale JN: Gemistocytes in astrocytomas: are they a significant prognostic factor? J Neurooncol; 2006 Oct;80(1):49-55
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  • [Title] Gemistocytes in astrocytomas: are they a significant prognostic factor?
  • Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the influence of gemistocytic astrocytes, cellular proliferation indices, immunoexpression of proteins p53 and bcl-2 in the clinical outcome of 39 patients with WHO grade II and III astrocytomas with the presence of gemistocytes.
  • Out of 24 who presented clinical and neuroimaging worsening, characterized as tumor progression or recurrence, 16 had histological confirmation and were also analyzed.
  • We could not detect significant differences when comparing all the indices between WHO grade II and III and also between the first and second biopsies.
  • We also could not detect significant differences in progression-free and overall survival when analyzing the gemistocyte index and the immunohistochemical labeling indices p53, bcl-2 and MIB-1, as well as patientsa9 age (median value, up to 34 vs. over 34 years) and histological grade (II or III).
  • Our finding confirms recent reports that question the role of gemistocytes as a prognostic factor in diffuse astrocytomas.
  • The significance and role of gemistocytes in astrocytomas has yet to be defined and warrants further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Proliferation. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16645716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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92. Arrieta O, Pineda-Olvera B, Guevara-Salazar P, Hernández-Pedro N, Morales-Espinosa D, Cerón-Lizarraga TL, González-De la Rosa CH, Rembao D, Segura-Pacheco B, Sotelo J: Expression of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis. Br J Cancer; 2008 Jul 8;99(1):160-6
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  • [Title] Expression of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis.
  • Astrocytomas develop intense vascular proliferation, essential for tumour growth and invasiveness.
  • Angiotensin II (ANGII) was initially described as a vasoconstrictor; recent studies have shown its participation in cellular proliferation, vascularisation, and apoptosis.
  • We studied 133 tumours from patients with diagnosis of astrocytoma who underwent surgery from 1997 to 2002.
  • Ten per cent of low-grade astrocytomas were positive for AT1, whereas grade III and IV astrocytomas were positive in 67% (P<0.001).
  • AT2 receptors were positive in 17% of low-grade astrocytomas and in 53% of high-grade astrocytomas (P=0.01).
  • Expression of AT1 and AT2 is associated with high grade of malignancy, increased cellular proliferation, and angiogenesis, and is thus related to poor prognosis.
  • These findings suggest that ANGII receptors might be potential therapeutic targets for high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / biosynthesis. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18594540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2453037
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93. Wang LW, Shiau CY, Chung WY, Wu HM, Guo WY, Liu KD, Ho DM, Wong TT, Pan DH: Gamma Knife surgery for low-grade astrocytomas: evaluation of long-term outcome based on a 10-year experience. J Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;105 Suppl:127-32
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  • [Title] Gamma Knife surgery for low-grade astrocytomas: evaluation of long-term outcome based on a 10-year experience.
  • OBJECT: The authors report the long-term treatment results of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for patients with low-grade astrocytomas who underwent surgery at a single institution.
  • METHODS: A series of 21 patients (median age 20 years) with 25 intracranial low-grade astrocytomas (World Health Organization Grades I and II) were treated with GKS between 1993 and 2003.
  • Tumor volumes ranged from 0.2 to 13.3 ml (median 2.4 ml).
  • Complete tumor remission was seen in three patients.
  • Tumor progression was found in six patients of whom five received further salvage treatment.
  • All the tumor progression occurred within the GKS-treated volumes.
  • Both of the patients who had undergone GKS as a treatment boost after radiotherapy developed AREs, but with good shrinkage of tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma Knife surgery provides durable long-term local tumor control with acceptable toxicity for some patients with highly selected low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 18503345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Comincini S, Ferrara V, Arias A, Malovini A, Azzalin A, Ferretti L, Benericetti E, Cardarelli M, Gerosa M, Passarin MG, Turazzi S, Bellazzi R: Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy. Oncol Rep; 2007 May;17(5):989-96
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy.
  • It is abundant in testis and, unlike PRNP, it is expressed at low levels in the adult central nervous system (CNS).
  • Recently, ectopic expression of doppel was found in two different tumor types, specifically in glial and haematological cancers.
  • In order to address clinical important issues, PRND mRNA expression was investigated in a panel of 111 astrocytoma tissue samples, histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (6 grade I pilocytic astrocytomas, 15 grade II low-grade astrocytomas, 26 grade III anaplastic astrocytomas and 64 grade IV glioblastoma multiforme).
  • Real-time PRND gene expression profiling, after normalisation with GAPDH, revealed large differences between low (WHO I and II) and high grade (III and IV) of malignancy (P<0.001).
  • Extensive differences in PRND gene expression were also found within each grade of malignancy, suggesting that PRND mRNA quantitation might be useful to distinguish astrocytoma subtypes, and important in disease stratification and in the assessment of specific treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Prions / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17390034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / PRND protein, human; 0 / Prions
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95. El-Habr EA, Tsiorva P, Theodorou M, Levidou G, Korkolopoulou P, Vretakos G, Petraki L, Michalopoulos NV, Patsouris E, Saetta AA: Analysis of PIK3CA and B-RAF gene mutations in human astrocytomas: association with activation of ERK and AKT. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Jul-Aug;29(4):239-45
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  • [Title] Analysis of PIK3CA and B-RAF gene mutations in human astrocytomas: association with activation of ERK and AKT.
  • OBJECTIVE: The analysis of the presence of PIK3CA and B-RAF gene mutations in relation to ERK and AKT activation in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas, in order to determine their potential role in tumor aggressiveness.
  • Neither low grade astrocytomas nor anaplastic astrocytomas revealed any mutations in these genes.
  • Moreover, pERK nuclear expression increased in parallel with tumor grade (II, III v/s IV, p = 0.0262).
  • pAKT cytoplasmic expression increased with increasing tumor grade (II,III v/s IV, p = 0.0930), although the latter relationship was of marginal significance. pAKT cytoplasmic expression was also positively correlated with pERK nuclear expression (p = 0.0156).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports the low frequency of PIK3CA and B-RAF mutations in astrocytomas, despite the presence of activated ERK and AKT proteins.
  • Moreover, the correlation of pERK nuclear and pAKT cytoplasmic expression with tumor grade suggests the possible crucial role of the activation of these proteins in human gliomagenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology. Mutation / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20569675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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96. Piperi C, Themistocleous MS, Papavassiliou GA, Farmaki E, Levidou G, Korkolopoulou P, Adamopoulos C, Papavassiliou AG: High incidence of MGMT and RARbeta promoter methylation in primary glioblastomas: association with histopathological characteristics, inflammatory mediators and clinical outcome. Mol Med; 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1-2):1-9
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  • The aim of this study was to analyze the methylation status of four critical tumor-associated genes (MGMT, RARbeta, RASSF1A, CDH13), and investigate possible links with inflammatory (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8) and angiogenic mediators (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], cyclooxygenase [COX]-2) and clinical outcome in 23 glioma samples (6 grade II astrocytomas, 17 grade IV glioblastomas).
  • No gene methylation was observed in grade II astrocytomas.
  • Tumor grade correlated positively with MGMT and RARbeta methylation (P = 0.005 and P = 0.019, respectively) and the extent of necrosis (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19809523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3658
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenic Proteins; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / H-cadherin; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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97. Waha A, Güntner S, Huang TH, Yan PS, Arslan B, Pietsch T, Wiestler OD, Waha A: Epigenetic silencing of the protocadherin family member PCDH-gamma-A11 in astrocytomas. Neoplasia; 2005 Mar;7(3):193-9
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  • [Title] Epigenetic silencing of the protocadherin family member PCDH-gamma-A11 in astrocytomas.
  • In a microarray-based methylation analysis of astrocytomas [World Health Organization (WHO) grade II], we identified a CpG island within the first exon of the protocadherin-gamma subfamily A11 (PCDH-gamma-A11) gene that showed hypermethylation compared to normal brain tissue.
  • Bisulfite sequencing and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) was performed to screen low- and high-grade astrocytomas for the methylation status of this CpG island.
  • Hypermethylation was detected in 30 of 34 (88%) astrocytomas (WHO grades II and III), 20 of 23 (87%) glioblastomas (WHO grade IV), and 8 of 8 (100%) glioma cell lines.
  • There was a highly significant correlation (P = .00028) between PCDH-gamma-A11 hypermethylation and decreased transcription as determined by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in WHO grades II and III astrocytomas.
  • In summary, we have identified PCDH-gamma-A11 as a new target silenced epigenetically in astrocytic gliomas.
  • The inactivation of this cell-cell contact molecule might be involved in the invasive growth of astrocytoma cells into normal brain parenchyma.

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  • (PMID = 15799819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8002
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA069065; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R29 CA069065; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-69065; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-86701
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / PCDH11X protein, human; 0 / Sulfites; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1501138
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98. Mott RT, Turner KC, Bigner DD, McLendon RE: Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;108(2):330-5
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  • [Title] Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation.
  • OBJECT: Diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors.
  • As a group, they demonstrate an inherent tendency toward malignant progression.
  • Histological grading using the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) remains the gold standard for predicting the biological behavior of these tumors.
  • Given the important roles for EGFR and PTEN in the malignant progression of astrocytomas, the authors hypothesized that the fraction of tumor cells with aberrations in these genetic loci would correlate with the histological grade.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated 217 consecutive diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas that were graded using the WHO guidelines, including 16 diffuse astrocytomas (WHO Grade II), 72 anaplastic astrocytomas ([AAs] WHO Grade III), and 129 glioblastomas multiforme ([GBMs] WHO Grade IV).
  • RESULTS: The population of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus correlated significantly with histological grade.
  • In particular, high-grade astrocytomas (that is, AAs and GBMs) had elevated fractions of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus.
  • Using these findings, the authors generated a mathematical model capable of subcategorizing high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The successful model incorporated only the percentage of tumor cells with polysomy of EGFR and monosomy of PTEN, as well as patient age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in this study emphasize the utility of combining histological interpretation and molecular testing in the evaluation of infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Genes, erbB-1 / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18240930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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99. Mehling M, Simon P, Mittelbronn M, Meyermann R, Ferrone S, Weller M, Wiendl H: WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism? Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Aug;114(2):111-9
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  • [Title] WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism?
  • Defects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen-processing machinery (APM) components have been shown to contribute to immune escape of malignant cells.
  • We investigated the expression of APM components in astrocytomas without detectable defects in HLA class I antigen expression and correlated it with grade of malignancy.
  • Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of astrocytomas revealed reduced expression of the cytosolic proteasome subunit low molecular weight protein 2 (LMP2), the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) transporter associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1), and the ER chaperone beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in astrocytoma cells when compared to astrocytes from nonpathological brain.
  • Among human WHO grade II-IV astrocytomas, downregulation of LMP2, TAP1 and beta2m correlated with grade of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, astrocytoma cell lines (n = 12) expressed all APM components analyzed at levels comparable to dendritic cells (DC), which were used for comparative purposes.
  • However, upregulation of beta2m after stimulation with inflammatory cytokines was significantly lower in astrocytoma cell lines than in control cells.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that coordinated downregulation or impaired upregulation of certain HLA class I APM components may serve as a mechanism for astrocytoma cells to evade the host's immune response, even if HLA class I antigen surface expression is not altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigen Presentation / immunology. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Tumor Escape / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / biosynthesis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cysteine Endopeptidases / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. World Health Organization. beta 2-Microglobulin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17541610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / TAP1 protein, human; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 144416-78-4 / LMP-2 protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases
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100. Nafe R, Van de Nes J, Yan B, Schlote W: Distribution of nuclear size and internuclear distance are important criteria for grading astrocytomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2006 Jan-Feb;25(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Distribution of nuclear size and internuclear distance are important criteria for grading astrocytomas.
  • AIM: The differentiation between low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas is susceptible to considerable inter-observer variability.
  • In order to contribute to a better standardization of astrocytoma-grading based on quantitative data, the present study focuses on two important aspects not being considered in previous morphometric studies: elaboration of a decision flow chart for tumor grading based on morphometric parameters and appropriate cut-off-values, easily performed using low-cost equipment such as measuring oculars; investigation of the distribution (histograms) of parameters describing nuclear size and internuclear distance, which had been represented in previous studies by their mean and standard deviation only.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: At least 300 tumor cell nuclei per case were investigated in paraffin sections from surgical specimen of 75 patients with astrocytomas WHO grade II (n = 23) and anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III (n = 52) by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • According to multivariate analysis, the best contribution to tumor grading was achieved by means of parameters concerning the distribution of values for nuclear diameters and internuclear distances.
  • A decision tree was constructed using a knowledge based algorithm, which provided astrocytoma grading based on the distribution of values for nuclear diameter, as well as the numerical nuclear density and proliferation index.
  • CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that a morphometric examination of tumor cell nuclei in paraffin sections supports the clinically important differential diagnosis between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The method for classification and the data published in the present study constitute a good basis for a standardized and reproducible grading procedure for astrocytomas, which can be performed in any histologic laboratory even without a digital image analysis system.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16465775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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