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1. Söling A, Sackewitz M, Volkmar M, Schaarschmidt D, Jacob R, Holzhausen HJ, Rainov NG: Minichromosome maintenance protein 3 elicits a cancer-restricted immune response in patients with brain malignancies and is a strong independent predictor of survival in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;11(1):249-58
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  • [Title] Minichromosome maintenance protein 3 elicits a cancer-restricted immune response in patients with brain malignancies and is a strong independent predictor of survival in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • PURPOSE: The identification of new molecular markers in astrocytic tumors may help to understand the biology of these tumors in more detail.
  • Informative tumor markers may represent prognostic factors for response to therapy and outcome as well as potential targets for novel anticancer therapies.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor-associated antigens were identified by immunoscreening of a human glioma cDNA expression library with allogeneic sera from patients with diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grades 2-4).
  • The expression of one of the identified antigens, the replication licensing factor minichromosome maintenance protein 3 (MCM3), was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 142 primary and 27 recurrent astrocytomas (WHO grades 2-4).
  • RESULTS: MCM3 is overexpressed in human astrocytic tumors and elicits a cancer-restricted humoral immune response in 9.3% (9 of 97) of patients with brain tumors (n = 95) and brain metastases (n = 2) but not in healthy controls.
  • Expression of MCM3 in diffuse astrocytoma is significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), histologic grade (P < 0.001), time to recurrence (P = 0.01), and expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P < 0.001) but not with sex (P = 0.800).
  • Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed MCM3 expression as an independent predictor of poor outcome in astrocytoma patients (P < 0.001 for both).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / physiology. Transcription Factors / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytes / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins. DNA, Complementary / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Escherichia coli / metabolism. Female. Gene Library. Glioma / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3. Neoplasm Metastasis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15671553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MCM3 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3
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2. Lee EJ, Lee SK, Agid R, Bae JM, Keller A, Terbrugge K: Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Nov;29(10):1872-7
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  • [Title] Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histopathologic grade of glial tumors is inversely correlated with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
  • We assessed the diagnostic values of minimum ADC for preoperative grading of supratentorial astrocytomas that were diagnosed as low-grade astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 118 patients with astrocytomas (WHO grades II-IV), 16 who showed typical MR imaging findings of low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging were included.
  • The minimum ADC value of each tumor was determined from several regions of interest in the tumor on ADC maps.
  • To assess the relationship between the minimum ADC and tumor grade, we performed the Mann-Whitney U test.
  • A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the cutoff value of the minimum ADC that had the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Eight of the 16 patients (50%) were confirmed as having high-grade astrocytomas (WHO grades III and IV), and the other 8 patients were confirmed as having low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II).
  • The median minimum ADC of the high-grade astrocytoma (1.035 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • sec(-1)) group was significantly lower than that of the low-grade astrocytoma group (1.19 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • CONCLUSION: Measuring minimum ADC can provide valuable diagnostic information for the preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18719036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Fujita A, Sato JR, Festa F, Gomes LR, Oba-Shinjo SM, Marie SK, Ferreira CE, Sogayar MC: Identification of COL6A1 as a differentially expressed gene in human astrocytomas. Genet Mol Res; 2008;7(2):371-8
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  • [Title] Identification of COL6A1 as a differentially expressed gene in human astrocytomas.
  • Diffuse infiltrating gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system.
  • Gliomas are classified by the WHO according to their histopathological and clinical characteristics into four classes: grade I (pilocytic astrocytoma), grade II (diffuse astrocytoma), grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma), and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme).
  • Several genes have already been correlated with astrocytomas, but many others are yet to be uncovered.
  • By analyzing the public SAGE data from 21 patients, comprising low malignant grade astrocytomas and glioblastomas, we found COL6A1 to be differentially expressed, confirming this finding by real time RT-PCR in 66 surgical samples.
  • The expression of this gene has significantly different means when normal glia is compared with low-grade astrocytomas (grades I and II) and high-grade astrocytomas (grades III and IV), with a tendency to be greater in higher grade samples, thus rendering it a powerful tumor marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Collagen Type VI / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18551403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1676-5680
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics and molecular research : GMR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Mol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type VI; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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4. Dickinson PJ, Sturges BK, Higgins RJ, Roberts BN, Leutenegger CM, Bollen AW, LeCouteur RA: Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression and peritumoral edema in canine primary central nervous system tumors. Vet Pathol; 2008 Mar;45(2):131-9
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  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of tumor angiogenesis and vascular permeability, and has been implicated both in progression of central nervous system (CNS) tumors and development of vasogenic peritumoral edema.
  • Increased expression of VEGF relative to normal cerebral cortex tissue was seen predominantly in high grade astrocytic (grade IV) and oligodendroglial (grade III) tumors, with lower expression in low grade astrocytomas (grade II) and meningiomas (grade I).
  • Peritumoral edema was present in all tumor types; however, a significant association between the extent of peritumoral edema and the level of VEGF expression was not apparent.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / veterinary. Dogs. Meningioma / genetics. Meningioma / metabolism. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / veterinary. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / veterinary. Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Protein Isoforms. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 18424825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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5. Salvan CV, Ulmer JL, Mueller WM, Krouwer HG, Prost RW, Stroe GO: Presurgical and intraoperative mapping of the motor system in congenital truncation of the precentral gyrus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Mar;27(3):493-7
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  • A 43-year-old man presented with a grade II astrocytoma in the left postcentral gyrus and superior parietal lobule.
  • Preoperative functional MR imaging and diffusion tensor imaging mapped distal upper-extremity primary motor cortex and white matter, respectively, adjacent to the tumor, within a congenitally truncated precentral gyrus.
  • The integration of preoperative and intraoperative mapping data facilitated resection of the tumor while avoiding a postoperative motor deficit.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Mapping. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Motor Cortex / abnormalities. Motor Cortex / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16551983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Gimenez M, Souza VC, Izumi C, Barbieri MR, Chammas R, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Marie SK, Rosa JC: Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin. Proteomics; 2010 Aug;10(15):2812-21
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin.
  • The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in diffuse astrocytoma grade II, anaplastic astrocytoma grade III and glioblastoma multiforme grade IV in human tumor samples and in non-neoplastic brain tissue as control using 2-DE and MS.
  • Tumor and control brain tissue dissection was guided by histological hematoxylin/eosin tissue sections to provide more than 90% of tumor cells and astrocytes.
  • Six proteins were detected as up-regulated in higher grade astrocytomas and the most important finding was nucleophosmin (NPM) (p<0.05), whereas four proteins were down-regulated, among them raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) (p<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein / genetics. Proteomics


7. Opstad KS, Wright AJ, Bell BA, Griffiths JR, Howe FA: Correlations between in vivo (1)H MRS and ex vivo (1)H HRMAS metabolite measurements in adult human gliomas. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2010 Feb;31(2):289-97
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  • PURPOSE: To assess how accurately ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) from small biopsy tissues relate to in vivo (1)H MRS (from larger tumor volumes) in human astrocytomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo (PRESS, TE = 30 msec) and ex vivo (presaturation) (1)H spectra of 17 human astrocytomas (4 grade II, 1 grade III and 12 glioblastomas) were quantified using LCModel.
  • Concentrations of 11 metabolites and 2 lipid/macromolecules were retrospectively compared, with histogram analysis of the in vivo MRI data used to evaluate tumor heterogeneity.
  • CONCLUSION: Within defined limitations, ex vivo astrocytoma biopsy HRMAS (1)H spectra have similar metabolic profiles to that obtained in vivo and therefore detailed ex vivo characterization of glioma biopsies can directly relate to the original tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20099340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C1459/A2592
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons
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8. Raymond E, Brandes AA, Dittrich C, Fumoleau P, Coudert B, Clement PM, Frenay M, Rampling R, Stupp R, Kros JM, Heinrich MC, Gorlia T, Lacombe D, van den Bent MJ, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor Group Study: Phase II study of imatinib in patients with recurrent gliomas of various histologies: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor Group Study. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 1;26(28):4659-65
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  • [Title] Phase II study of imatinib in patients with recurrent gliomas of various histologies: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumor Group Study.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and the efficacy of imatinib in recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single-arm, phase II study.
  • Three different histologic groups were studied: glioblastomas (GBM), pure/mixed (anaplastic) oligodendrogliomas (OD), and low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas (A).

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  • (PMID = 18824712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-34
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2653126
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9. Born PW, Broholm H, Laursen H: [Loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1 and 19 in cases of primary brain tumour]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2006 Oct 30;168(44):3813-6
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 oligodendrogliomas (5 WHO grade II and 5 grade III), 10 mixed gliomas (5 WHO grade II and 5 grade III), 10 astrocytomas (5 WHO grade II and 5 grade III) and 11 glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) were investigated.
  • RESULTS: A significiant loss of 1p/19q was found in the oligodendrogliomas; the astrocytomas showed a selective loss of 19q; the glioblastomas showed a selective loss of 1p but also polyploidy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / therapy. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17118240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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10. Misra A, Chattopadhyay P, Chosdol K, Sarkar C, Mahapatra AK, Sinha S: Clonal mutations in primary human glial tumors: evidence in support of the mutator hypothesis. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:190
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  • BACKGROUND: A verifiable consequence of the mutator hypothesis is that even low grade neoplasms would accumulate a large number of mutations that do not influence the tumor phenotype (clonal mutations).
  • In this study, we have attempted to quantify the number of clonal mutations in primary human gliomas of astrocytic cell origin.
  • These alterations were identified in tumor tissue, microscopically confirmed to have over 70% neoplastic cells.
  • METHODS: Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed using a set of fifteen 10-mer primers of arbitrary but definite sequences in 17 WHO grade II astrocytomas (low grade diffuse astrocytoma or DA) and 16 WHO grade IV astrocytomas (Glioblastoma Multiforme or GBM).
  • The RAPD profile of the tumor tissue was compared with that of the leucocyte DNA of the same patient and alteration(s) scored.
  • The difference between high and lower grade tumors was statistically significant by both methods.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the presence of extensive clonal mutations in gliomas, more in lower grade.
  • This is consistent with our earlier work demonstrating that technique like RAPD analysis, unbiased for locus, is able to demonstrate more intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in lower grade gliomas compared to higher grade.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cloning, Molecular. DNA / metabolism. DNA Primers / chemistry. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Glioma / genetics. Humans. Leukocytes / metabolism. Models, Genetic. Models, Theoretical. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Genetic. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17925012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2190769
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11. Chang SM, Nelson S, Vandenberg S, Cha S, Prados M, Butowski N, McDermott M, Parsa AT, Aghi M, Clarke J, Berger M: Integration of preoperative anatomic and metabolic physiologic imaging of newly diagnosed glioma. J Neurooncol; 2009 May;92(3):401-15
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  • Regions of interest corresponding to anatomic and metabolic lesions were identified to assess tumor burden.
  • MR parameters that had been found to be predictive of survival in patients with grade IV glioma were evaluated as a function of tumor grade and histological sub-type.
  • RESULTS: Histological analysis indicated that the population comprised 56 patients with grade II, 31 with grade III, and 56 with grade IV glioma.
  • Based on standard anatomic imaging, the presence of hypointense necrotic regions in post-Gadolinium T1-weighted images and the percentage of the T2 hyperintense lesion that was either enhancing or necrotic were effective in identifying patients with grade IV glioma.
  • The individual parameters of diffusion and perfusion parameters were significantly different for patients with grade II astrocytoma versus oligodendroglioma sub-types.
  • Lactate was higher for grade III and grade IV glioma and lipid was significantly elevated for grade IV glioma.
  • CONCLUSION: Metabolic and physiologic imaging characteristics provide information about tumor heterogeneity that may be important for assisting the surgeon to ensure acquisition of representative histology.

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  • (PMID = 19357966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA118816; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116041; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA97257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097257-080002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 118816; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097257-080002
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS177631; NLM/ PMC2834319
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12. Klironomos G, Bravou V, Papachristou DJ, Gatzounis G, Varakis J, Parassi E, Repanti M, Papadaki H: Loss of inhibitor of growth (ING-4) is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of human astrocytomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 Mar;20(2):490-7
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  • [Title] Loss of inhibitor of growth (ING-4) is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of human astrocytomas.
  • Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING-4) is a tumor suppressor gene that interacts with nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and represses its transcriptional activity.
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that the tumor suppressor gene ING-4, the transcription factor NF-kappaB and its target genes matrix metalloproteases MMP-2, MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) are critically involved in tumor invasion.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate immunohistochemically the expression pattern of ING-4, NF-kappaB and the NF-kappaB downstream targets MMP-2, MMP-9 and u-PA in human astrocytomas from 101 patients.
  • We found that ING-4 expression was significantly decreased in astrocytomas, and ING-4 loss was associated with tumor grade progression.
  • Expression of p65, a NF-kappaB subunit, was significantly higher in grade IV than in grade III and grade I/II tumors, and a statistical significant negative correlation between expression of ING-4 and expression of nuclear p65 was noticed.
  • MMP-9, MMP-2 and u-PA were overexpressed in human astrocytomas.
  • Of note, astrocytomas of advanced histologic grades (grade III, IV) displayed significantly higher expression levels of these proteins compared to tumors of lower grades (grade I, II).
  • Collectively, our data suggest an essential role for ING-4 in human astrocytoma development and progression possibly through regulation of the NF-kappaB-dependent expression of genes involved in tumor invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19775294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / ING4 protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; EC 3.4.24.24 / MMP2 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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13. Comincini S, Ferrara V, Arias A, Malovini A, Azzalin A, Ferretti L, Benericetti E, Cardarelli M, Gerosa M, Passarin MG, Turazzi S, Bellazzi R: Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy. Oncol Rep; 2007 May;17(5):989-96
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy.
  • It is abundant in testis and, unlike PRNP, it is expressed at low levels in the adult central nervous system (CNS).
  • Recently, ectopic expression of doppel was found in two different tumor types, specifically in glial and haematological cancers.
  • In order to address clinical important issues, PRND mRNA expression was investigated in a panel of 111 astrocytoma tissue samples, histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (6 grade I pilocytic astrocytomas, 15 grade II low-grade astrocytomas, 26 grade III anaplastic astrocytomas and 64 grade IV glioblastoma multiforme).
  • Real-time PRND gene expression profiling, after normalisation with GAPDH, revealed large differences between low (WHO I and II) and high grade (III and IV) of malignancy (P<0.001).
  • Extensive differences in PRND gene expression were also found within each grade of malignancy, suggesting that PRND mRNA quantitation might be useful to distinguish astrocytoma subtypes, and important in disease stratification and in the assessment of specific treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Prions / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17390034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / PRND protein, human; 0 / Prions
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14. Aragão Mde F, Otaduy MC, Melo RV, Azevedo Filho HR, Victor EG, Silva JL, Araújo N, Leite Cda C, Valença MM: [Multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time: choline/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio and the grading of cerebral astrocytomas]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2007 Jun;65(2A):286-94
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  • [Title] [Multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time: choline/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio and the grading of cerebral astrocytomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Espectroscopia multivoxel com tempo de eco curto: a razão colina/N-acetil-aspartato e a graduação dos astrocitomas cerebrais.
  • The choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio, obtained by the multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time (TE), was evaluated, in the histological grading of the brain astrocytomas (grades I, II and III-IV) in comparison with the normal cerebral parenchyma.
  • A significant increase (p<0.05) in the average ratios of Cho/NAA was observed in the three astrocytoma groups studied in relation to normal tissue, having a tendency to increase with the increase in grading, without any statistic significance, which corresponded to: 0.53+/-0.24 in the control group, 1.19+/-0.49 in grade I, 1.58+/-0.65 in grade II and 5.13+/-8.12 in the high grade group (grades III-IV), with variation in the values encountered.
  • There was an increase in the Cho/NAA ratio in 4/5 (80%) in grade I, 5/6 (83%) in grade II and 10/20 (50%) in grades III and IV.
  • We conclude that multivoxel spectroscopy with short TE can be used in discriminating between normal parenchyma and neoplasm tissue.
  • However, not all neoplasm tissue studied presented an increase in Cho/NAA, especially in the group with higher grade of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid / metabolism. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Choline / metabolism. Female. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prospective Studies. Protons. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17607430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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15. Huang L, Jiang T, Yuan F, Li GL, Cui Y, Liu EZ, Wang ZC: Correlation of chromosomes 1p and 19q status and expressions of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p53 and Ki-67 in diffuse gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III: a clinicopathological study. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2009 Aug;35(4):367-79
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  • [Title] Correlation of chromosomes 1p and 19q status and expressions of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p53 and Ki-67 in diffuse gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III: a clinicopathological study.
  • AIMS: The objective of the present study was to verify the correlation of chromosomes 1p and 19q status and expressions of O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p53 and Ki-67 in diffuse gliomas of World Health Organization grades II and III.
  • METHODS: A series of 146 diffuse gliomas, including 45 oligodendrogliomas, 42 oligoastrocytomas and 59 astrocytomas, were analysed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for 1p and 19q status and by immunohistochemistry for MGMT, p53 and Ki-67 expression patterns.
  • RESULTS: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 1p, combined LOH on 1p and 19q, low MGMT expression and high Ki-67 expression were associated with oligodendroglial tumours, whereas high p53 expression was associated with astrocytic and mixed tumours.
  • LOH on 1p and low MGMT expression were associated with grade II oligodendroglial tumours, whereas high expressions of p53 and Ki-67 were associated with grade III oligodendroglial tumours.
  • In addition, high Ki-67 expression was associated with grade III astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed significant interrelationships of the investigated molecular alterations and clinicopathological characteristics in diffuse gliomas of World Health Organization grades II and III, which support a promising role of molecular markers in the diagnostic assessment of these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Glioma / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Child. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19019173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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16. Xiangsong Z, Weian C: Differentiation of recurrent astrocytoma from radiation necrosis: a pilot study with 13N-NH3 PET. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;82(3):305-11
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  • [Title] Differentiation of recurrent astrocytoma from radiation necrosis: a pilot study with 13N-NH3 PET.
  • Differentiation of posttherapy radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumor remains a challenging diagnostic problem.
  • The present study assessed the role of (13)N-NH(3) PET in differentiating recurrent cerebral astrocytoma from radiation necrosis.
  • METHODS: Seven patients, who were previously treated with conventional external-beam radiation therapy after surgical resection for cerebral astrocytomas, and showed the enhancing brain lesions on T1-weighted gadiolinium-enhanced MR studies performed in 6 months or above after the radiotherapies, were examined prospectively with (13)N-NH(3) and FDG PET.
  • Five lesions with tumor recurrence and two with radiation necrosis were histologically verified by either surgical resection or stereotactic biopsy.
  • The lesions with recurrent tumor showed moderately to markedly increased (13)N-NH(3) uptake (grade = 4-5).
  • The lesions with radiation necrosis showed absent or less (13)N-NH(3) uptake than surrounding area (grade = 1-2).
  • One lesion with gliosis and radiation necrosis showed slightly increased FDG uptake (grade = 4), but less (13)N-NH(3) uptake (grade = 2).
  • The other lesion with anaplastic astrocytoma showed moderately increased (13)N-NH(3) uptake (grade = 4), but slightly less FDG uptake than surrounding area (grade = 2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The recurrent astrocytomas showed increased (13)N-NH(3) uptake, and the radiation necrosis showed absent or less (13)N-NH(3) uptake, and (13)N-NH(3) seem superior to (18)F-FDG for this purpose, suggesting that (13)N-NH(3) is a promising tracer for separating radiation necrosis from astrocytoma recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Diseases / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Nitrogen Radioisotopes

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  • (PMID = 17120157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrogen Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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17. Varghese M, Olstorn H, Sandberg C, Vik-Mo EO, Noordhuis P, Nistér M, Berg-Johnsen J, Moe MC, Langmoen IA: A comparison between stem cells from the adult human brain and from brain tumors. Neurosurgery; 2008 Dec;63(6):1022-33; discussion 1033-4
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  • OBJECTIVE: To directly compare stem cells from the normal adult human brain (adult human neural stem cells [AHNSC]), Grade II astrocytomas (AC II), and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), with respect to proliferative and tumor-forming capacity and differentiation potential.
  • METHODS: Cells were isolated from tissue obtained during epilepsy surgery (AHNSCs) or tumor surgery (glioma stem cells [GSC]).
  • 1) GBM stem cells formed tumors after orthotopic transplantation; AHNSCs showed no sign of tumor formation;.
  • 3) both the growth rate and telomerase expression were high in GSCs and correlated with malignancy grade (GBM higher than AC II); AHNSCs had low telomerase expression;.
  • 5) both AHNSCs and stem cells from AC II and GBM responded to differentiation cues with a dramatic decrease in the proliferation index (Ki-67);.
  • 7) upon differentiation, AHNSCs produced normal glia and neurons; GSCs produced morphologically aberrant cells often expressing both glial and neuronal antigens; and 8) differentiation of AHNSCs resulted in 2 typical functional phenotypes: neurons (high electrical membrane resistance, ability to generate action potentials) and glial cells (low membrane resistance, no action potentials).
  • CONCLUSION: AHNSCs and stem cells from AC II and GBM differ with respect to proliferation, tumor-forming capacity, and rate and pattern of differentiation.


18. Kato T, Shinoda J, Oka N, Miwa K, Nakayama N, Yano H, Maruyama T, Muragaki Y, Iwama T: Analysis of 11C-methionine uptake in low-grade gliomas and correlation with proliferative activity. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Nov;29(10):1867-71
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  • [Title] Analysis of 11C-methionine uptake in low-grade gliomas and correlation with proliferative activity.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relationship of (11)C-methionine (MET) uptake and tumor activity in low-grade gliomas (those meeting the criteria for World Health Organization [WHO] grade II gliomas) remains uncertain.
  • The aim of this study was to compare MET uptake in low-grade gliomas and to analyze whether MET positron-emission tomography (PET) can estimate tumor viability and provide evidence of malignant transformation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied glioma metabolic activity in 49 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed grade II gliomas by using MET PET before surgical resection.
  • On MET PET, we measured tumor/normal brain uptake ratio (T/N ratio) in 21 diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), 12 oligodendrogliomas (ODs), and 16 oligoastrocytomas (OAs).
  • CONCLUSION: MET uptake in DAs may be closely associated with tumor viability, which depends on increased amino acid transport by an activated carrier-mediated system.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carbon Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18687745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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19. Jung CS, Foerch C, Schänzer A, Heck A, Plate KH, Seifert V, Steinmetz H, Raabe A, Sitzer M: Serum GFAP is a diagnostic marker for glioblastoma multiforme. Brain; 2007 Dec;130(Pt 12):3336-41
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  • A serum marker for malignant cerebral astrocytomas could improve both differential diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumour patients.
  • To evaluate whether the serum concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) may indicate glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in patients with single supratentorial space-occupying lesions, we prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with histologically proven GBM, World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV, 14 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), 4 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 13 patients with diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), 17 patients with a single cerebral metastasis and 50 healthy controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / blood. Glioblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17998256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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20. Eroes CA, Zausinger S, Kreth FW, Goldbrunner R, Tonn JC: Intramedullary low grade astrocytoma and ependymoma. Surgical results and predicting factors for clinical outcome. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 Apr;152(4):611-8
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  • [Title] Intramedullary low grade astrocytoma and ependymoma. Surgical results and predicting factors for clinical outcome.
  • INTRODUCTION: The optimal time point for surgery of intramedullary spinal astrocytomas and ependymomas is often debated on, as predicting factors are poorly defined.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: All consecutive adult patients with intramedullary astrocytomas or ependymomas (except filum terminale ependymomas) were included.
  • RESULTS: Forty-four patients were included (29 ependymomas World Health Organization (WHO) grades I or II, 8 astrocytomas WHO grade I, and 7 astrocytomas WHO grade II).
  • Complete tumor resection was achieved in 79% of ependymomas, 50% of astrocytomas WHO grade I, and 14% of astrocytomas WHO grade II (significantly more often in ependymomas than in astrocytomas, p < 0.05).
  • Preoperative MCS <3 and extent of tumor <5 levels were significantly (p = 0.01 and p < 0.05) associated with a favorable outcome (MCS <3) in early and late follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: An MCS of less than 3 and a tumor extent of less than 5 levels are the most important factors for a favorable postoperative functional outcome.
  • Therefore, surgery should be initiated before significant clinical symptomatology or substantial tumor growth occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20119838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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21. Rodriguez FJ, Perry A, Gutmann DH, O'Neill BP, Leonard J, Bryant S, Giannini C: Gliomas in neurofibromatosis type 1: a clinicopathologic study of 100 patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Mar;67(3):240-9
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  • The median age at tumor diagnosis was 13 years (range, 4 months to 68 years).
  • Most tumors were typical pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) (49%) or diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma (DA) (27%) that included World Health Organization Grades II (5%), III (15%), and IV (7%); others were designated as low-grade astrocytoma, subtype indeterminate (LGSI; 17%).
  • Two pilomyxoid astrocytomas, 1 desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma and 1 conventional ganglioglioma, were also identified.
  • The tumors in 24 cases arose in the optic pathways and included PA (n = 14), LGSI (n = 4), DA (n = 4), pilomyxoid astrocytoma (n = 1), and ganglioglioma (n = 1).
  • The prognoses of the PA and LGSI gliomas overall were generally favorable; there were no survival differences between PA and LGSI groups based on site, tumor size, mitotic activity, or MIB-1 labeling index.

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  • (PMID = 18344915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS07494-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS396162; NLM/ PMC3417064
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22. Stockhammer F, von Deimling A, Synowitz M, Blechschmidt C, van Landeghem FK: Expression of glucose transporter 1 is associated with loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p in oligodendroglial tumors WHO grade II. J Mol Histol; 2008 Oct;39(5):553-60
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  • [Title] Expression of glucose transporter 1 is associated with loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p in oligodendroglial tumors WHO grade II.
  • Previously, we reported glucose uptake in low-grade oligodendroglial tumors to be related to LOH 1p status.
  • Material and methods We examined 17 oligodendrogliomas (O II, 11 with LOH1p), 16 oligoastrocytomas (OA II, 5 with LOH1p) and 7 astrocytomas (A II, none with LOH1p).
  • Results Confocal microscopy depicted immunoreaction for GLUT-1, -3 and -12 in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells.
  • Oligodendrogliomas revealed a lower immunoreactivity for GLUT-1 than oligoastrocytomas and astrocytomas (P = 0.0263).
  • Conclusion Expression of GLUT-1 is significantly reduced in low-grade oligodendroglial tumors harboring LOH 1p.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative / biosynthesis. Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative / genetics. Glucose Transporter Type 3 / biosynthesis. Glucose Transporter Type 3 / genetics. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18726700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 3; 0 / SLC2A1 protein, human; 0 / SLC2A12 protein, human; 0 / SLC2A3 protein, human; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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23. Colin C, Voutsinos-Porche B, Nanni I, Fina F, Metellus P, Intagliata D, Baeza N, Bouvier C, Delfino C, Loundou A, Chinot O, Lah T, Kos J, Martin PM, Ouafik L, Figarella-Branger D: High expression of cathepsin B and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 are strong predictors of survival in glioblastomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Dec;118(6):745-54
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  • In contrast to pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I gliomas) that are circumscribed and cured by surgical resection, invasion is a hallmark of grades II-IV gliomas.
  • In this study, we have chosen to study using different technical approaches (Q-RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry) the expression of five molecules involved in extracellular matrix degradation (cathepsin B, MMP2, MMP9, uPA and PAI-1) in glioblastomas in order to determine their prognostic impact among grade IV gliomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas were used as controls.
  • Q-RT-PCR showed that transcripts of uPA, PAI-1, cathepsin B and MMP9 were significantly more expressed in glioblastomas (n = 52), in comparison to pilocytic astrocytomas (n = 17) (P = 0.049, P < 0.0001, P = 0.03 and P < 0.0001, respectively).
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19774387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B
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24. Kim YH, Nobusawa S, Mittelbronn M, Paulus W, Brokinkel B, Keyvani K, Sure U, Wrede K, Nakazato Y, Tanaka Y, Vital A, Mariani L, Stawski R, Watanabe T, De Girolami U, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H: Molecular classification of low-grade diffuse gliomas. Am J Pathol; 2010 Dec;177(6):2708-14
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  • [Title] Molecular classification of low-grade diffuse gliomas.
  • The current World Health Organization classification recognizes three histological types of grade II low-grade diffuse glioma (diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma).
  • The aim of our study was to establish genetic profiles for diffuse gliomas and to estimate their predictive impact.
  • In this study, we screened 360 World Health Organization grade II gliomas for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2, and TP53 genes and for 1p/19q loss and correlated these with clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. Glioma / classification. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 21075857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993282
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25. Balss J, Meyer J, Mueller W, Korshunov A, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Analysis of the IDH1 codon 132 mutation in brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2008 Dec;116(6):597-602
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  • We analyzed the genomic region spanning wild type R132 of IDH1 by direct sequencing in 685 brain tumors including 41 pilocytic astrocytomas, 12 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 7 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas, 93 diffuse astrocytomas, 120 adult glioblastomas, 14 pediatric glioblastomas, 105 oligodendrogliomas, 83 oligoastrocytomas, 31 ependymomas, 58 medulloblastomas, 9 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 17 schwannomas, 72 meningiomas and 23 pituitary adenomas.
  • A total of 221 somatic IDH1 mutations were detected and the highest frequencies occurred in diffuse astrocytomas (68%), oligodendrogliomas (69%), oligoastrocytomas (78%) and secondary glioblastomas (88%).
  • Primary glioblastomas and other entities were characterized by a low frequency or absence of mutations in amino acid position 132 of IDH1.
  • The very high frequency of IDH1 mutations in WHO grade II astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas suggests a role in early tumor development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Gene Frequency. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioma / etiology. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18985363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
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26. Liu X, Chen N, Wang X, He Y, Chen X, Huang Y, Yin W, Zhou Q: Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Sep;65(9):905-13
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  • [Title] Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules.
  • Limited studies of a few IAPs indicated their roles in astrocytomas.
  • However, the overall expression status and significance of apoptosis regulators in astrocytomas is not clear.
  • We examined the expression profile of the caspases (CASP3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 14), APAF1, SMAC, BCL2, the IAPs (BIRC5/survivin, CIAP1, CIAP2, XIAP, and LIVIN), and the proliferation markers Ki67 and PHH3 in 78 diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas and 24 normal brain samples by immunohistochemistry.
  • Our data showed BIRC5 nuclear labeling index (BIRC5-N) was the apoptosis marker most significantly different in World Health Organization grade II to IV astrocytomas and most strongly associated with proliferative activity.
  • Expression level of other apoptosis-related proteins was modest or low in astrocytomas and did not correlate significantly with tumor grade or proliferation.
  • This expression profile suggested involvement of apoptosis regulators in astrocytoma tumorigenesis, but tumor progression was more closely associated with proliferative advantages of which BIRC5 nuclear expression appeared to be a manifestation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16957584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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27. Grossman SA, Alavi JB, Supko JG, Carson KA, Priet R, Dorr FA, Grundy JS, Holmlund JT: Efficacy and toxicity of the antisense oligonucleotide aprinocarsen directed against protein kinase C-alpha delivered as a 21-day continuous intravenous infusion in patients with recurrent high-grade astrocytomas. Neuro Oncol; 2005 Jan;7(1):32-40
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  • [Title] Efficacy and toxicity of the antisense oligonucleotide aprinocarsen directed against protein kinase C-alpha delivered as a 21-day continuous intravenous infusion in patients with recurrent high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Aprinocarsen is an antisense oligonucleotide against PKC-alpha that reduces PKC-alphain human cell lines and inhibits a human glioblastoma tumor cell line in athymic mice.
  • In this phase 2 study, aprinocarsen was administered to patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas by continuous intravenous infusion (2.0 mg/kg/day for 21 days per month).
  • Their median age was 46 years (range, 28-68 years), median Karnofsky performance status was 80 (range, 60-100), median tumor volume was 58 cm3 (range, 16-254 cm3), and histology included glioblastoma multiforme (n = 16), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 4), and anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 1).
  • No tumor responses were observed.
  • The observed toxicities were mild, reversible, and uncommon (grade 3 thrombocytopenia [n = 3] and grade 4 AST [n = 1]), and no coagulopathy or CNS bleeding resulted from this therapy.
  • This is the first study to use an antisense oligonucleotide or a specific PKC-alpha inhibitor in patients with high-grade gliomas.
  • The rapid deterioration seen in these patients could result from tumor growth or an effect of aprinocarsen on bloodbrain barrier integrity.

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  • (PMID = 15701280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA062475; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA-26406; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA-62475
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Phosphorothioate Oligonucleotides; EC 2.7.11.13 / PRKCA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C-alpha; FMT95051CQ / aprinocarsen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871621
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28. Kuhlmann T, Gutenberg A, Schulten HJ, Paulus W, Rohde V, Bruck W: Nogo-a expression in glial CNS tumors: a tool to differentiate between oligodendrogliomas and other gliomas? Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;32(10):1444-53
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  • In a minority of cases, the differentiation between astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas based on morphologic characteristics alone can be difficult; though it is important, as patients with oligodendrogliomas follow a more favorable clinical course.
  • Here we report on the immunohistochemical expression pattern of the oligodendrocytic marker Nogo-A in 113 central nervous system tumors including 28 oligodendrogliomas [15, World Health Organization (WHO) grade II; 13, grade WHO III], 50 astrocytomas [10, grade WHO II; 11, grade WHO III; 29 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)], 11 ependymomas WHO grade II, 7 central neurocytomas, 2 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs), 5 clear cell meningiomas, and 10 metastases to the brain.
  • The oligodendrocytic marker Nogo-A was found to be strongly expressed in 71% of oligodendrogliomas, but in 0% of ependymomas WHO grade II, astrocytomas WHO grade II or III, DNTs, central neurocytomas, or clear cell meningiomas.
  • Our findings indicate that Nogo-A is strongly expressed in the majority of oligodendrogliomas and might be a helpful marker to distinguish oligodendrogliomas from astrocytomas WHO grades II and III as well as ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Glioma / chemistry. Meningioma / chemistry. Myelin Proteins / analysis. Neurocytoma / chemistry. Oligodendroglioma / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / chemistry. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18685489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Myelin Proteins; 0 / Nogo protein
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29. Rosemberg S, Fujiwara D: Epidemiology of pediatric tumors of the nervous system according to the WHO 2000 classification: a report of 1,195 cases from a single institution. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Nov;21(11):940-4
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  • [Title] Epidemiology of pediatric tumors of the nervous system according to the WHO 2000 classification: a report of 1,195 cases from a single institution.
  • OBJECT: The purpose of this study is to determine the epidemiology of tumors of the nervous system diagnosed according to the WHO 2000 classification in a single Brazilian institution.
  • In the cerebral compartment, pilocytic astrocytomas were the single most frequent tumors (18%), followed by diffuse astrocytomas (14%), medulloblastomas (11%), and craniopharyngiomas (11%).
  • In the posterior fossa, there was an even distribution among medulloblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas, but the former was much more frequent in the first 2 years of age.
  • High-grade (III and IV) diffuse astrocytomas were slightly more frequent than low grades (II), and this difference becomes more evident as the child grows older.
  • CONCLUSION: Classified according to the latest WHO classification, by a single neuropathologist in a single institution, this large series of pediatric neurological tumors may reflect fairly well their real incidence.

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  • (PMID = 16044344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Shen CF, Yuan XR, Qin ZQ: [Clinical significance of the expression of the RCAS1 mRNA and protein in astrocytic tumors]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2007 Oct;32(5):836-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical significance of the expression of the RCAS1 mRNA and protein in astrocytic tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the mRNA and protein expressions of RCAS1 in human astrocytic tumors, and to explore the relation between their expression and the genesis and development of tumor.
  • METHODS: The RCAS1 mRNA expression in human astrocytic tumors was evaluated by RT-PCR, and the RCAS1 protein expression was studied by immunohistochemical staining.
  • RESULTS: The quantities of RCAS1 mRNA expression between diffusive astrocytoma(Grade II) and anaplastic astrocytoma(Grade III), anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma(Grade IV) were significantly different(P<0.05), while the expression scores of RCAS1 protein were different only between the anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma(P<0.01).
  • RCAS1 protein expression was positively correlated with the tumor grade (r=0.573,P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The RCAS1 expression is related to the histological grade of astrocytic tumor.
  • In astrocytic tumors, the RCAS1 expression is regulated transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18007080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / EBAG9 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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31. Fellows GA, Wright AJ, Sibtain NA, Rich P, Opstad KS, McIntyre DJ, Bell BA, Griffiths JR, Howe FA: Combined use of neuroradiology and 1H-MR spectroscopy may provide an intervention limiting diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2010 Nov;32(5):1038-44
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  • GBM is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, with mean survival under a year.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients had clinical computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging and 1.5T SV SE (1)H-MRS with PRESS localization for neuroradiological diagnosis and tumor classification with spectroscopic and automated pattern recognition analysis (TE 30 ms, TR 2000 ms, spectral width 2500 Hz and 2048 data points, 128-256 signal averages were acquired, depending on voxel size (8 cm(3) to 4 cm(3)).
  • RESULTS: The 18 stereotactic biopsies revealed 14 GBM, 2 grade II astrocytomas, 1 lymphoma, and 1 anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • We do not advocate the replacement of biopsy in all patients; instead our data suggest a specific intervention limiting role for the use of (1)H-MRS in brain tumor diagnosis.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21031506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C12A/A1209; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C8807/A3870
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Suzuki M, Suzuki M, Nakayama J, Suzuki A, Angata K, Chen S, Sakai K, Hagihara K, Yamaguchi Y, Fukuda M: Polysialic acid facilitates tumor invasion by glioma cells. Glycobiology; 2005 Sep;15(9):887-94
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  • [Title] Polysialic acid facilitates tumor invasion by glioma cells.
  • Although the expression of PSA has been shown to correlate with the progression of certain tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma, there have been no studies to determine the roles of PSA in gliomas, the most common type of primary brain tumor in humans.
  • In this study, we first revealed that among patients with glioma, PSA was detected more frequently in diffuse astrocytoma cells, which spread extensively.
  • These results combined indicate that PSA facilitates tumor invasion of glioma in the brain, and that NCAM-NCAM interaction is likely attenuated in the PSA-mediated tumor invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / metabolism. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Sialic Acids / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Corpus Callosum / metabolism. Corpus Callosum / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15872150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Glycobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glycobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA33895; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS41332
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Sialic Acids; 0 / polysialic acid
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33. Kreth S, Heyn J, Grau S, Kretzschmar HA, Egensperger R, Kreth FW: Identification of valid endogenous control genes for determining gene expression in human glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Jun;12(6):570-9
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  • In the current study, we tested 19 commonly used reference genes for their expression stability in human astrocytoma WHO Grade II, astrocytoma WHO Grade III, and glioblastoma (WHO Grade IV) both alone and compared with normal brain.
  • Even though Normfinder analyses revealed a large number of genes suitable for normalization in each of the tumor subgroups and across these groups, this number was drastically reduced after inclusion of normal brain into the analyses: Only GAPDH, IPO8, RPL13A, SDHA, and TBP were expected not to be differentially expressed; NormFinder analysis indicated favorable stability values for all of these genes, with TBP and IPO8 being the most stable ones.
  • These 5 genes represent different physiological pathways and may be regarded as universal reference genes applicable for accurate normalization of gene expression in human astrocytomas of different grades (WHO Grades II-IV) alone and compared with normal brain, thereby enabling longitudinally designed studies (eg, in astrocytoma before and after malignant transformation).
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20511187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940642
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34. Ebinger M, Senf L, Wachowski O, Scheurlen W: No aberrant methylation of neurofibromatosis 1 gene (NF1) promoter in pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Jan-Feb;22(1):83-7
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  • [Title] No aberrant methylation of neurofibromatosis 1 gene (NF1) promoter in pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood.
  • With 30-40% of this heterogenous group, low-grade astrocytomas represent the most common subtype.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is strongly associated with the development of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), frequently appearing as optic glioma.
  • Neurofibromatosis 1 gene (NF1 ) fulfills the criteria of a tumor suppressor gene and is deleted or mutated heterozygously in patients with NF1.
  • To rule out that silencing of NF1 by promoter methylation is restricted to higher-grade astrocytomas, 15 pediatric WHO II degree and IV degree astrocytomas were analyzed: 12 astrocytomas II and 3 glioblastomas displayed no NF1 promoter methylation.
  • The authors conclude that NF1 silencing by methylation plays no role in low-grade astrocytoma.


35. Passarin MG, Moretto G, Musso AM, Ottaviani S, Masotto B, Ghimenton C, Iuzzolino P, Buffone E, Rudà R, Soffietti R, Vattemi E, Pedersini R: Intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in combination with temozolomide in low-grade oligoastrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;97(3):439-44
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  • [Title] Intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in combination with temozolomide in low-grade oligoastrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination.
  • Leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade gliomas is an uncommon event.
  • A nonenhancing lesion in the right cerebellar peduncle was identified, subtotally resected, and diagnosed as a grade II astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 19876600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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36. Saad A, Mo J, Miles L, Witte D: Granular cell astrocytoma of the cerebellum: report of the first case. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Oct;126(4):602-7
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  • [Title] Granular cell astrocytoma of the cerebellum: report of the first case.
  • Granular cell astrocytomas are an uncommon morphologic variant of infiltrating gliomas characterized by relatively large tumor cells with granular cytoplasm occupying variable proportions of the tumor.
  • The tumor occurred in a 9-year-old girl who was immunocompromised owing to liver transplantation.
  • Histologically, the tumor corresponded to World Health Organization grade II.
  • Of the 49 cases of granular cell astrocytomas reported to date, none have involved the cerebellum.
  • The tumor described herein represents the first case of cerebellar granular cell astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cerebellum / pathology. Child. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16938663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Carson-Walter EB, Winans BN, Whiteman MC, Liu Y, Jarvela S, Haapasalo H, Tyler BM, Huso DL, Johnson MD, Walter KA: Characterization of TEM1/endosialin in human and murine brain tumors. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:417
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  • BACKGROUND: TEM1/endosialin is an emerging microvascular marker of tumor angiogenesis.
  • We characterized the expression pattern of TEM1/endosialin in astrocytic and metastatic brain tumors and investigated its role as a therapeutic target in human endothelial cells and mouse xenograft models.
  • METHODS: In situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IH) and immunofluorescence (IF) were used to localize TEM1/endosialin expression in grade II-IV astrocytomas and metastatic brain tumors on tissue microarrays.
  • RESULTS: TEM1/endosialin was upregulated in primary and metastatic human brain tumors, where it localized primarily to the tumor vasculature and a subset of tumor stromal cells.
  • Analysis of 275 arrayed grade II-IV astrocytomas demonstrated TEM1/endosialin expression in 79% of tumors.
  • Robust TEM1/endosialin expression occurred in 31% of glioblastomas (grade IV astroctyomas).
  • Tem1/endosialin KO vs WT mice demonstrated equivalent survival and tumor growth when implanted with intracranial GBM xenografts, although Tem1/endosialin KO tumors were significantly more vascular than the WT counterparts.
  • CONCLUSION: TEM1/endosialin was induced in the vasculature of high-grade brain tumors where its expression was inversely correlated with patient age.
  • Although lack of TEM1/endosialin did not suppress growth of intracranial GBM xenografts, it did increase tumor vascularity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD / genetics. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19948061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS046461; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS046461; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32 ES007026
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD248 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2793264
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38. Nafe R, Van de Nes J, Yan B, Schlote W: Distribution of nuclear size and internuclear distance are important criteria for grading astrocytomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2006 Jan-Feb;25(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Distribution of nuclear size and internuclear distance are important criteria for grading astrocytomas.
  • AIM: The differentiation between low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas is susceptible to considerable inter-observer variability.
  • In order to contribute to a better standardization of astrocytoma-grading based on quantitative data, the present study focuses on two important aspects not being considered in previous morphometric studies: elaboration of a decision flow chart for tumor grading based on morphometric parameters and appropriate cut-off-values, easily performed using low-cost equipment such as measuring oculars; investigation of the distribution (histograms) of parameters describing nuclear size and internuclear distance, which had been represented in previous studies by their mean and standard deviation only.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: At least 300 tumor cell nuclei per case were investigated in paraffin sections from surgical specimen of 75 patients with astrocytomas WHO grade II (n = 23) and anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III (n = 52) by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • According to multivariate analysis, the best contribution to tumor grading was achieved by means of parameters concerning the distribution of values for nuclear diameters and internuclear distances.
  • A decision tree was constructed using a knowledge based algorithm, which provided astrocytoma grading based on the distribution of values for nuclear diameter, as well as the numerical nuclear density and proliferation index.
  • CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that a morphometric examination of tumor cell nuclei in paraffin sections supports the clinically important differential diagnosis between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The method for classification and the data published in the present study constitute a good basis for a standardized and reproducible grading procedure for astrocytomas, which can be performed in any histologic laboratory even without a digital image analysis system.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16465775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Scott IS, Morris LS, Rushbrook SM, Bird K, Vowler SL, Burnet NG, Coleman N: Immunohistochemical estimation of cell cycle entry and phase distribution in astrocytomas: applications in diagnostic neuropathology. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Oct;31(5):455-66
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical estimation of cell cycle entry and phase distribution in astrocytomas: applications in diagnostic neuropathology.
  • Paraffin-embedded sections of intracerebral gliomas (n = 48), consisting of diffuse astrocytoma (n = 9), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 8) and glioblastoma (n = 31), were analysed by immunohistochemistry using markers of cell cycle entry, Mcm-2 and Ki67, and putative markers of cell cycle phase, cyclins D1 (G1-phase), cyclin A (S-phase), cyclin B1 (G2-phase) and phosphohistone H3 (Mitosis).
  • There was a significant increase in Mcm-2 (P < 0.0001), Ki67 (P < 0.0001), cyclin A (P < 0.0001) and cyclin B1 (P = 0.002) expression with increasing grade from diffuse astrocytoma through anaplastic astrocytoma to glioblastoma, suggesting that any of these four markers has potential as a marker of tumour grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle / physiology. Immunohistochemistry / methods

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  • (PMID = 16150117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Histones; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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40. Rorive S, Maris C, Debeir O, Sandras F, Vidaud M, Bièche I, Salmon I, Decaestecker C: Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Aug;65(8):794-807
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  • [Title] Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles.
  • Although World Health Organization (WHO) grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and grade II diffuse astrocytomas have been classified for decades as different clinicopathologic entities, few, if any, data are available on the biologic features explaining these differences.
  • Although more than 50 microarray-related studies have been carried out to characterize the molecular profiles of astrocytic tumors, we have identified only 11 that provide sound data on low-grade astrocytomas.
  • We have incorporated these data into a comparative analysis for the purpose of identifying the most relevant molecular markers characterizing grade I pilocytic and grade II diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Our analysis has identified various interesting genes that are differentially expressed in either grade I or grade II astrocytomas when compared with normal tissue and/or high-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas.
  • Interestingly, a group of 6 genes (TIMP4, C1NH, CHAD, THBS4, IGFBP2, and TLE2) constitute an expression profile characteristic of grade I astrocytomas as compared with all other categories of tissue (normal brain, grade II, and high-grade astrocytomas).
  • The end products (proteins) of these genes act as antimigratory compounds, a fact that could explain why pilocytic astrocytomas behave as compact (well-circumscribed) tumors as opposed to all the other astrocytic tumor types that diffusely invade the brain parenchyma.
  • Having validated these molecular markers by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, an integrated model was proposed illustrating how and why pilocytic astrocytomas constitute a distinct biologic and pathologic entity when compared with diffuse astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Movement / genetics. Child. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Models, Neurological. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16896313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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41. Martinho O, Longatto-Filho A, Lambros MB, Martins A, Pinheiro C, Silva A, Pardal F, Amorim J, Mackay A, Milanezi F, Tamber N, Fenwick K, Ashworth A, Reis-Filho JS, Lopes JM, Reis RM: Expression, mutation and copy number analysis of platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) and its ligand PDGFA in gliomas. Br J Cancer; 2009 Sep 15;101(6):973-82
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  • BACKGROUND: Malignant gliomas are the most prevalent type of primary brain tumours but the therapeutic armamentarium for these tumours is limited.
  • METHODS: PDGFA and PDGFRA expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 160 gliomas of distinct World Health Organization (WHO) malignancy grade.
  • No association was found between the presence of PDGFRA gene amplification and expression, excepting for grade II diffuse astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 19707201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / platelet-derived growth factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2743351
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42. Arrieta O, Pineda-Olvera B, Guevara-Salazar P, Hernández-Pedro N, Morales-Espinosa D, Cerón-Lizarraga TL, González-De la Rosa CH, Rembao D, Segura-Pacheco B, Sotelo J: Expression of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis. Br J Cancer; 2008 Jul 8;99(1):160-6
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  • [Title] Expression of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis.
  • Astrocytomas develop intense vascular proliferation, essential for tumour growth and invasiveness.
  • Angiotensin II (ANGII) was initially described as a vasoconstrictor; recent studies have shown its participation in cellular proliferation, vascularisation, and apoptosis.
  • We studied 133 tumours from patients with diagnosis of astrocytoma who underwent surgery from 1997 to 2002.
  • Ten per cent of low-grade astrocytomas were positive for AT1, whereas grade III and IV astrocytomas were positive in 67% (P<0.001).
  • AT2 receptors were positive in 17% of low-grade astrocytomas and in 53% of high-grade astrocytomas (P=0.01).
  • Expression of AT1 and AT2 is associated with high grade of malignancy, increased cellular proliferation, and angiogenesis, and is thus related to poor prognosis.
  • These findings suggest that ANGII receptors might be potential therapeutic targets for high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / biosynthesis. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18594540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2453037
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43. Talos IF, Zou KH, Ohno-Machado L, Bhagwat JG, Kikinis R, Black PM, Jolesz FA: Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics. Radiology; 2006 May;239(2):506-13
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  • [Title] Supratentorial low-grade glioma resectability: statistical predictive analysis based on anatomic MR features and tumor characteristics.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess the main variables that affect the complete magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided resection of supratentorial low-grade gliomas.
  • Data from 101 patients (61 men, 40 women; mean age, 39 years; age range, 18-72 years) who had nonenhancing supratentorial mass lesions that were histopathologically diagnosed as low-grade (World Health Organization grade II) gliomas and consecutively underwent surgery with intraoperative MR imaging guidance were analyzed.
  • There were 21 low-grade astrocytomas, 64 oligodendrogliomas, and 16 mixed oligoastrocytomas.
  • Initial and residual tumor volumes were measured on intraoperative T2-weighted MR images and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo MR images.
  • The anatomic relationships between the tumor and eloquent cortical and/or subcortical regions and the influence of these relationships on the extent of resection were analyzed on the basis of preoperative MR imaging findings.
  • RESULTS: Tumor volume ranged from 2.7-231.0 mL.
  • Univariate analyses revealed the following tumor characteristics to be significant predictive variables of incomplete tumor resection: diffuse tumor margin on T2-weighted MR images, oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma histopathologic type, and large tumor volume (P < .05 for all).
  • Tumor involvement of the following structures was associated with incomplete resection: corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, insular lobe, middle cerebral artery, motor cortex, optic radiation, visual cortex, and basal ganglia (P < .05 for all).
  • Multivariate analyses revealed that incomplete tumor resection was due to tumor involvement of the corticospinal tract (P < .01), large tumor volume (P < .01), and oligodendroglioma histopathologic type (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSION: The main variables associated with incomplete tumor resection in 101 patients were identified by using statistical predictive analyses.

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2006.
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  • (PMID = 16641355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41-RR13218; United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / R01-LM007861; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR019703; United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / R01 LM007861; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41-RR019703; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA67165; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA067165
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS9769; NLM/ PMC1475754
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44. Yamamoto Y, Nishiyama Y, Kimura N, Kameyama R, Kawai N, Hatakeyama T, Kaji M, Ohkawa M: 11C-acetate PET in the evaluation of brain glioma: comparison with 11C-methionine and 18F-FDG-PET. Mol Imaging Biol; 2008 Sep;10(5):281-7
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  • Five patients had low-grade gliomas (grade II), three had anaplastic astrocytomas (grade III), and seven had glioblastomas (grade IV).
  • For semiquantitative analysis, the standardized uptake value (SUV) and tumor to contralateral normal gray matter (T/N) ratio were calculated.
  • The sensitivity for detection of high-grade gliomas was calculated using visual analysis.
  • ACE and FDG SUV in high-grade gliomas were significantly higher than that in low-grade gliomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ACE PET is a potentially useful radiotracer for detecting brain gliomas and differentiating high-grade gliomas.

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  • [CommentIn] Mol Imaging Biol. 2009 Jul-Aug;11(4):223 [19326176.001]
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  • (PMID = 18543041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Carbon Isotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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45. Arvanitis LD, Koukoulis GK, Kanavaros P: The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Oncol Rep; 2009 Sep;22(3):521-4
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  • [Title] The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • In normal human brains the epitope H is present mostly to a minority of fibrous astrocytes, whereas it is greatly up-regulated in reactive astrocytes and is increased in well differentiated fibrillary astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • In this study the expression of the epitope H was investigated in thirty cases of gemistocytic (WHO grade II), pilocytic (WHO grade I), and subependymal giant cell (WHO grade I) astrocytomas using the mAbH with the indirect immunoperoxidase method.
  • The ten cases of gemistocytic astrocytomas revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • The ten cases of pilocytic astrocytomas revealed a biphasic pattern of epitope H expression.
  • The dense tumor areas composed of elongated pilocytic cells revealed high expression of the epitope H.
  • The loose cystic tumor areas composed of stellate cells revealed low expression of the epitope H.
  • The ten cases of subependynal giant cell astrocytomas occurring in tuberous sclerosis revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • This study shows that there is high expression of the epitope H in gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Collectively considering, the present and our previous data, it appears that there is a spectrum of the expression levels of the epitope H ranging from the high expression in the reactive astrocytes and low grade astrocytomas to the low/null expression in the normal astrocytes and glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylglucosamine / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Epitopes

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  • (PMID = 19639198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epitopes; V956696549 / Acetylglucosamine
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46. Rafique MZ, Ahmad MN, Yaqoob N, Ahsan H: Diffuse bilateral thalamic astrocytoma. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 Mar;17(3):170-2
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  • [Title] Diffuse bilateral thalamic astrocytoma.
  • Diffuse astrocytoma with bilateral thalamic involvement is extremely rare.
  • We present a case of 10 years old female who presented with decreased mentation, dysarthria, decreased performance at school and later on with seizures.
  • Biopsy showed grade III Astrocytoma with bilateral thalamic involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Thalamic Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17374306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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47. Matsutani T, Nagai Y, Mine S, Murai H, Saeki N, Iwadate Y: Akt/protein kinase B overexpression as an accurate prognostic marker in adult diffuse astrocytoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Mar;151(3):263-8; discussion 268
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  • [Title] Akt/protein kinase B overexpression as an accurate prognostic marker in adult diffuse astrocytoma.
  • In an attempt to find a novel prognostic marker of diffuse astrocytoma, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of Akt/PKB with regard to patient survival and regrowth patterns.
  • METHODS: Twenty-four adult patients with diffuse astrocytoma were similarly managed without early post-operative radiotherapy and followed up for a median period of 7.5 years.
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that Akt/PKB overexpression would be suggestive of malignant progression and invasive regrowth of diffuse astrocytoma, and it can serve as a novel prognostic marker for this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / enzymology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / analysis. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism


48. Faria MH, Gonçalves BP, do Patrocínio RM, de Moraes-Filho MO, Rabenhorst SH: Expression of Ki-67, topoisomerase IIalpha and c-MYC in astrocytic tumors: correlation with the histopathological grade and proliferative status. Neuropathology; 2006 Dec;26(6):519-27
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  • [Title] Expression of Ki-67, topoisomerase IIalpha and c-MYC in astrocytic tumors: correlation with the histopathological grade and proliferative status.
  • Astrocytomas represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system.
  • Recently, the determination of the proliferative index of astrocytic tumors by different methods has been proposed as a valuable tool for tumor grading and also as a prognostic marker.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of cell proliferation-related proteins in human astrocytic tumors of different histopathological grades (WHO).
  • An immunohistochemical study of the Ki-67, Topoisomerase IIalpha (Topo IIalpha) and c-MYC proteins using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was performed in 55 astrocytomas (13 grade I, 14 grade II, 7 grade III and 21 grade IV) and five samples of non-tumor brain tissue (control group).
  • Ki-67, Topo IIalpha and c-MYC positive indices tended to increase according to malignant progression, were absent in non-tumor brain tissue and showed maximum values in high-grade astrocytomas (III and IV).
  • Ki-67 antigen detection in more than 8.0% of the tumor cells distinguished astrocytoma grade IV, while a labeling index between 1.5 and 8.0% characterized astrocytomas grade III and values below 1.5% discriminated low-grade tumors (I and II).
  • These results indicate that Topo IIalpha and c-MYC expression is associated with cell proliferation in astrocytomas, although not in an exclusive way.
  • Moreover, Ki-67 antigen was found to be the best marker of cellular proliferation, and its expression predicts the grade of astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Cell Division. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17203587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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49. Kruer MC, Kaplan AM, Etzl MM Jr, Carpentieri DF, Dickman PS, Chen K, Mathieson K, Irving A: The value of positron emission tomography and proliferation index in predicting progression in low-grade astrocytomas of childhood. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):239-245
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  • [Title] The value of positron emission tomography and proliferation index in predicting progression in low-grade astrocytomas of childhood.
  • Astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors of childhood and adolescence.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs), in general, have favorable prognosis, but recurrence or progressive disease with dissemination, malignant transformation, and death occur in some cases.
  • Current clinical and pathological measures including age, sex, imaging characteristics, location and size of the tumor, histopathology, and degree of resection cannot predict with certainty which tumors will demonstrate aggressive behavior.
  • We reviewed 46 cases ages 5 months to 17 years with low-grade (WHO I-II) astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals


50. Ziegler DS, Cohn RJ, McCowage G, Alvaro F, Oswald C, Mrongovius R, White L, Australian and New Zealand Children's Study Group: Efficacy of vincristine and etoposide with escalating cyclophosphamide in poor-prognosis pediatric brain tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2006 Jan;8(1):53-9
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  • Three consecutive studies by the Australia and New Zealand Children's Cancer Study Group--VETOPEC I, Baby Brain 91, and VETOPEC II--have used a specific chemotherapy regimen of vincristine (VCR), etoposide (VP-16) and escalating CPA in patients with relapsed, refractory, or high-risk solid tumors.
  • Patients in the VETOPEC II cohort were treated with very high dose CPA with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue.
  • Seventy-one brain tumor patients were treated with VETOPEC-based protocols.
  • Of the 54 patients evaluable for tumor response, 17 had a complete response (CR) and 20 a partial response (PR) to treatment, which yielded an overall response rate of 69%.
  • The CR + PR was 83% (19/23) for medulloblastomas, 56% (5/9) for primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 55% (6/11) for grade 3 and 4 astrocytomas, and 80% (6/8) for ependymomas.
  • There were no toxic deaths within the PBSC-supported VETOPEC II cohort, despite higher CPA doses, compared with 7% among the non-PBSC patients.
  • With PBSC rescue in the VETOPEC II study, hematologic toxicity was no longer a limiting factor.

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  • (PMID = 16443948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VETOPEC protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871918
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51. Somasundaram K, Reddy SP, Vinnakota K, Britto R, Subbarayan M, Nambiar S, Hebbar A, Samuel C, Shetty M, Sreepathi HK, Santosh V, Hegde AS, Hegde S, Kondaiah P, Rao MR: Upregulation of ASCL1 and inhibition of Notch signaling pathway characterize progressive astrocytoma. Oncogene; 2005 Oct 27;24(47):7073-83
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  • [Title] Upregulation of ASCL1 and inhibition of Notch signaling pathway characterize progressive astrocytoma.
  • Astrocytoma is the most common type of brain cancer constituting more than half of all brain tumors.
  • With an aim to identify markers describing astrocytoma progression, we have carried out microarray analysis of astrocytoma samples of different grades using cDNA microarray containing 1152 cancer-specific genes.
  • Data analysis identified several differentially regulated genes between normal brain tissue and astrocytoma as well as between grades II/III astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; grade IV).
  • As ASCL has been implicated in neuroendocrine, medullary thyroid and small-cell lung cancers, we chose to examine the role of ASCL1 in the astrocytoma development.
  • Our data revealed that ASCL1 is overexpressed in progressive astrocytoma as evidenced by increased levels of ASCL1 transcripts in 85.71% (6/7) of grade II diffuse astrocytoma (DA), 90% (9/10) of grade III anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and 87.5% (7/8) of secondary GBMs, while the majority of primary de novo GBMs expressed similar to or less than normal brain levels (66.67%; 8/12).
  • ASCL1 upregulation in progressive astrocytoma is accompanied by inhibition of Notch signaling as seen by uninduced levels of HES1, a transcriptional target of Notch1, increased levels of HES6, a dominant-negative inhibitor of HES1-mediated repression of ASCL1, and increased levels of Notch ligand Delta1, which is capable of inhibiting Notch signaling by forming intracellular Notch ligand autonomous complexes.
  • Our results imply that inhibition of Notch signaling may be an important early event in the development of grade II DA and subsequent progression to grade III AA and secondary GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / genetics. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Profiling. Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Receptors, Notch. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16103883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ASCL1 protein, human; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Transcription Factors
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52. Beauchesne PD, Taillandier L, Bernier V, Carnin C: Concurrent radiotherapy: fotemustine combination for newly diagnosed malignant glioma patients, a phase II study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Jun;64(1):171-5
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  • [Title] Concurrent radiotherapy: fotemustine combination for newly diagnosed malignant glioma patients, a phase II study.
  • PURPOSE: Fotemustine is a nitrosourea compound used for the treatment of malignant gliomas, especially in France.
  • We set out to test a concurrent combination of radiotherapy and fotemustine for newly malignant gliomas.
  • METHODS: A prospective single-center phase II study opened for accrual in September 2004.
  • Patients over 18 years of age able to give informed consent and with histologically proven, newly diagnosed supratentorial malignant gliomas were eligible.
  • All patients were treated by a standard cranial irradiation (conformal irradiation, tumor bulk plus a margin of 2.5 cm) and concomitant daily administration of 10 mg/m(2) of fotemustine (5 days per week, 6 weeks, 1 h 30 min before radiation therapy).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy, fotemustine, was administered at tumor progression as standard and classic regimen.
  • Histology included 16 glioblastomas, 3 anaplastic astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and 1 mixed glioma.
  • The concurrent radiotherapy-fotemustine combination was well tolerated: toxicity was mild and three hematologic toxicities grade 3-4 were observed.

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  • (PMID = 19352662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; GQ7JL9P5I2 / fotemustine
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53. Yeaney GA, O'Connor SM, Jankowitz BT, Hamilton RL: A 16-year-old male with a cerebellar mass. Brain Pathol; 2009 Jan;19(1):167-70
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  • An infiltrating component resembling diffuse astrocytoma could be found in areas.
  • Mitotic activity was very low, and necrosis was absent.
  • Ki-67 showed a very low proliferation index.
  • PXA is a diagnosis typically regarded as a superficial meningocerebral neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19076785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Reticulin; 0 / Vimentin
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54. Khwaja FW, Reed MS, Olson JJ, Schmotzer BJ, Gillespie GY, Guha A, Groves MD, Kesari S, Pohl J, Van Meir EG: Proteomic identification of biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of astrocytoma patients. J Proteome Res; 2007 Feb;6(2):559-70
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  • [Title] Proteomic identification of biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of astrocytoma patients.
  • In this report, we used two proteomic techniques, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and cleavable Isotope-Coded Affinity Tag (cICAT) to compare CSF proteomes to identify tumor- and grade-specific biomarkers in patients bearing brain tumors of differing histologies and grades.
  • Retrospective analyses were performed on 60 samples derived from astrocytomas WHO grade II, III, and IV, schwannomas, metastastic brain tumors, inflammatory samples, and non-neoplastic controls.
  • We identified 103 potential tumor-specific markers of which 20 were high-grade astrocytoma-specific.
  • These investigations allowed us to identify a spectrum of signature proteins that could be used to distinguish CSF derived from control patients versus those with low- (AII) or high-grade (AIV) astrocytoma.
  • These candidate biomarkers may also have functional properties that play a critical role in the development and malignant progression of human astrocytomas, thus possibly representing novel therapeutic targets for this highly lethal disease.

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  • (PMID = 17269713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR 02878; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA086335; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA086335-05; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000039; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR 12878; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR 00039; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR 13948; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 86335
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Affinity Labels; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS61862; NLM/ PMC2566942
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55. Varlet P, Jouvet A, Miquel C, Saint-Pierre G, Beuvon F, Daumas-Duport C: [Criteria of diagnosis and grading of oligodendrogliomas or oligo-astrocytomas according to the WHO and Sainte-Anne classifications]. Neurochirurgie; 2005 Sep;51(3-4 Pt 2):239-46
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  • [Title] [Criteria of diagnosis and grading of oligodendrogliomas or oligo-astrocytomas according to the WHO and Sainte-Anne classifications].
  • [Transliterated title] Oligodendrogliomes et oligo-astrocytomes critères diagnostiques et grading de malignité selon l'OMS et l'hôpital Sainte-Anne.
  • Two main classification systems are used in France for the histological typing and grading of oligodendrogliomas: the WHO and Sainte-Anne Hospital (SA) classifications.
  • According to the WHO, the typing of diffuse gliomas is based on the predominant cell type, oligodendroglial versus astrocytic.
  • In contrast, the SA classification is based on the distinction of two patterns of tumor growth, solid tumor tissue versus isolated tumor cells and also relies on imaging and clinical features.
  • According to this approach, the SA classification includes in the category of oligodendrogliomas, the fibrillary or gemistocytic diffuse astrocytomas (WHO grade II) as well as a substantial proportion of astrocytomas WHO grade III, 2) the WHO uses multiple histological criteria for the grading of oligodendrogliomas (grade II versus grade III), including the degree of differentiation, cellular atypia, mitotic activity and necrosis.
  • In contrast, the SA grading of these tumors (grade A versus B) only uses two criteria: the presence or absence of endothelial hyperplasia, and the presence or absence of contrast enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / classification. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. World Health Organization
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16292167.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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56. Yan H, Parsons DW, Jin G, McLendon R, Rasheed BA, Yuan W, Kos I, Batinic-Haberle I, Jones S, Riggins GJ, Friedman H, Friedman A, Reardon D, Herndon J, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE, Vogelstein B, Bigner DD: IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas. N Engl J Med; 2009 Feb 19;360(8):765-73
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  • BACKGROUND: A recent genomewide mutational analysis of glioblastomas (World Health Organization [WHO] grade IV glioma) revealed somatic mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) in a fraction of such tumors, most frequently in tumors that were known to have evolved from lower-grade gliomas (secondary glioblastomas).
  • RESULTS: We identified mutations that affected amino acid 132 of IDH1 in more than 70% of WHO grade II and III astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and in glioblastomas that developed from these lower-grade lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mutations of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases encoded by IDH1 and IDH2 occur in a majority of several types of malignant gliomas.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 19;360(8):813-5 [19228626.001]
  • (PMID = 19228619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043460-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA57345; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA118822; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA043460; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA043460-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108786; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2P30-CA-14236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P50-CA-108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA062924-150012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA043460-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R37-CA-11898; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37CA11898-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA140316; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA43460; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043460-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121113-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS20023-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA057345-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA057345-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA057345; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA062924-150012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057345; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118822; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5P50-NS-20023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA011898
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS107443; NLM/ PMC2820383
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57. Osoba AO, Kutub H, Waliuddin A, Sharab MO: Enterococcus avium. An unusual cause of cerebral abscess. Neurosciences (Riyadh); 2005 Oct;10(4):297-300
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  • Here, we report a 19-year-old Saudi girl diagnosed as a case of astrocytoma grade II arising from the right thalamus.

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  • (PMID = 22473142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-6138
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosciences (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosciences (Riyadh)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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58. Malzkorn B, Wolter M, Liesenberg F, Grzendowski M, Stühler K, Meyer HE, Reifenberger G: Identification and functional characterization of microRNAs involved in the malignant progression of gliomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 May;20(3):539-50
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  • [Title] Identification and functional characterization of microRNAs involved in the malignant progression of gliomas.
  • Diffuse astrocytoma of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II has an inherent tendency to spontaneously progress to anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III or secondary glioblastoma WHO grade IV.
  • We explored the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in glioma progression by investigating the expression profiles of 157 miRNAs in four patients with primary WHO grade II gliomas that spontaneously progressed to WHO grade IV secondary glioblastomas.
  • Validation experiments on independent series of primary low-grade and secondary high-grade astrocytomas confirmed miR-17 and miR-184 as promising candidates, which were selected for functional analyses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Dedifferentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Progression. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19775293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
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59. Ohgaki H, Kleihues P: Genetic pathways to primary and secondary glioblastoma. Am J Pathol; 2007 May;170(5):1445-53
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  • Glioblastoma is the most frequent and most malignant human brain tumor.
  • The majority of cases (>90%) are primary glioblastomas that develop rapidly de novo, without clinical or histological evidence of a less malignant precursor lesion.
  • Secondary glioblastomas develop through progression from low-grade diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma and manifest in younger patients.
  • In the pathway to secondary glioblastoma, TP53 mutations are the most frequent and earliest detectable genetic alteration, already present in 60% of precursor low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Mutation. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17456751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Number-of-references] 85
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1854940
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60. Petridis AK, Wedderkopp H, Hugo HH, Maximilian Mehdorn H: Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jun;151(6):601-3; discussion 603-4
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  • [Title] Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas.
  • Highly malignant tumours like small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) also overexpress PSA and this correlates with a negative prognosis.
  • METHODS: Intra-operatively collected biopsies from 30 patients with different astrocytoma grades were immuno-histochemically examined to identify expression of PSA.
  • RESULTS: Astrocytoma grade I and II had 4% PSA expressing cells whereas in grade III and IV the number of PSA expressing cells was 45%.
  • CONCLUSION: In this short communication we show that highly malignant astrocytomas express significantly more PSA compared to less malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Sialic Acids / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biopsy. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Stem Cells / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19387537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Sialic Acids; 0 / UCC1 protein, human; 0 / polysialic acid
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61. Grau SJ, Trillsch F, Herms J, Thon N, Nelson PJ, Tonn JC, Goldbrunner R: Expression of VEGFR3 in glioma endothelium correlates with tumor grade. J Neurooncol; 2007 Apr;82(2):141-50
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  • [Title] Expression of VEGFR3 in glioma endothelium correlates with tumor grade.
  • While VEGFR2 is thought to play a central role in tumor angiogenesis, anti-angiogenic therapies targeting VEGFR2 in glioma models can show escape phenomena with secondary onset of angiogenesis.
  • The purpose of this study was to find explanations for these processes by searching for alternative pathways regulating glioma angiogenesis and reveal a correlation with tumor grade.
  • Thus, VEGFR3, which is not expressed in normal brain, and its ligands VEGF-C and -D, were assessed in high grade (WHO degrees IV, glioblastomas, GBM) and low grade gliomas [WHO degrees II astrocytomas (AII)].
  • In all GBM, a strong protein expression of VEGFR3 was found on tumor endothelium, VEGF-C and -D expression was found on numerous cells in areas of high vascularization.
  • In AII, only very moderate VEGFR3, VEGF-C and -D expression was found on protein and RNA level indicating a correlation of VEGFR3 expression with tumor grade.
  • The demonstration of a complete angiogenic signaling system that is dependent on tumor grade may influence the traditional paradigm of glioma angiogenesis and may provide a basis for more effective anti-angiogenic treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17115285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / VEGFC protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
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62. Torii K, Tsuyuguchi N, Kawabe J, Sunada I, Hara M, Shiomi S: Correlation of amino-acid uptake using methionine PET and histological classifications in various gliomas. Ann Nucl Med; 2005 Dec;19(8):677-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: The uptake of L-methyl-11C-methionine (MET) by gliomas is greater than that by intact tissue, making methionine very useful for evaluation of tumor extent.
  • Tumors included diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, ependymoma, oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, choroid plexus papilloma, central neurocytoma, optic glioma, gliomatosis cerebri, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and ganglioglioma.
  • Tumor activity and degree of malignancy were evaluated using Ki-67LI (LI: labeling index) and Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
  • The correlations between methionine uptake and tumor proliferation (tumor versus contralateral gray matter ratio (T/N) and Ki-67LI) were determined for the group of all subjects.
  • The existence of significant correlations between T/N and Ki-67LI and between SUV and Ki-67LI was determined for astrocytic tumors.
  • Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis of T/N and standardized uptake value (SUV) was performed for the group of astrocytic tumors.
  • Ki-67LI differed significantly between the high-grade group and low-grade group at T/N levels between 1.5 and 1.8 on analysis using tumor proliferative potential (p = 0.019-0.031).
  • The prognosis differed significantly between the high-grade and low-grade groups when T/N was in the range of 1.6-1.8 (p = 0.028-0.032).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When analysis was confined to cases of astrocytic tumor, a correlation was noted between methionine accumulation and Ki-67LI.
  • For the astrocytic tumors, T/N ratio seemed to be more useful as a diagnostic indicator than SUV.
  • The cut-off level of T/N ratio for distinction between high-grade and low-grade astrocytoma appears to lie between 1.5 and 1.6.


63. Chaichana KL, McGirt MJ, Laterra J, Olivi A, Quiñones-Hinojosa A: Recurrence and malignant degeneration after resection of adult hemispheric low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg; 2010 Jan;112(1):10-7
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  • [Title] Recurrence and malignant degeneration after resection of adult hemispheric low-grade gliomas.
  • OBJECT: Unlike their malignant counterparts, low-grade gliomas are associated with prolonged survival.
  • However, these tumors have a propensity to progress after resection and ultimately undergo malignant degeneration.
  • The factors associated with recurrence and malignant degeneration remain relatively unknown.
  • The authors set out to determine factors that were independently associated with recurrence and malignant degeneration in patients who underwent resection of a hemispheric low-grade glioma.
  • METHODS: Adult patients who underwent craniotomy and resection of a hemispheric low-grade glioma (WHO Grade II) at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institution's academic tertiary-care institution between 1996 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify associations with tumor recurrence and malignant degeneration.
  • RESULTS: Of the 191 consecutive patients with low-grade gliomas in this series (89 fibrillary astrocytomas, 89 oligodendrogliomas, and 13 mixed gliomas), 83 (43%) and 44 (23%) experienced tumor recurrence and malignant degeneration at last follow-up, respectively.
  • Independent predictors of recurrence were duration of longest lasting symptom (relative risk [RR] 0.978, 95% CI 0.954-0.996, p = 0.01), tumor size (RR 1.328, 95% CI 1.109-1.602, p = 0.002), and preoperative contrast enhancement (RR 2.558, 95% CI 1.241-5.021, p = 0.01).
  • Independent factors associated with malignant degeneration were fibrillary astrocytoma pathology (RR 1.800, 95% CI 1.008-4.928, p = 0.04), tumor size (RR 1.086, 95% CI 1.044-1.358, p = 0.04), and gross-total resection (RR 0.526, 95% CI 0.221-1.007, p = 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The identification and consideration of factors associated with recurrence and malignant progression may help guide treatment strategies aimed at delaying recurrence and preventing malignant degeneration for patients with hemispheric low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19361270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Hlobilkova A, Ehrmann J, Sedlakova E, Krejci V, Knizetova P, Fiuraskova M, Kala M, Kalita O, Kolar Z: Could changes in the regulation of the PI3K/PKB/Akt signaling pathway and cell cycle be involved in astrocytic tumor pathogenesis and progression? Neoplasma; 2007;54(4):334-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Could changes in the regulation of the PI3K/PKB/Akt signaling pathway and cell cycle be involved in astrocytic tumor pathogenesis and progression?
  • The most frequent alterations found in astrocytomas are two major groups of signaling proteins: the cell cycle and the growth factor-regulated signaling pathways.
  • The aim of our study was to detect changes in expression of the following proteins: the tumor suppressors PTEN, p53, and p21Waf1/Cip1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, as a marker of astroglial differentiation), the phosphorylated form of protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt), which is downstream to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and MDM2, which degrades p53.
  • Paraffin-embedded astrocytoma tissue samples from 89 patients were divided into low grade (grade I-II; 42 samples) and high grade astrocytomas (grade III-IV; 47 samples).
  • EGFR protein was detected in 29 % of low grade and in 60 % of high grade astrocytomas.
  • The expression of phosphorylated PKB/Akt was found in roughly the same proportions: in 86% of low grade and in 79% of high grade astrocytomas.
  • PTEN was not found in most of astrocytomas, 64% of low grade and 74% of high grade tumors showed no PTEN staining.
  • Overexpression of the mutated form of p53 or loss of p53 expression, however, was found in about 63% in both groups of astrocytomas with no differences between them.
  • GFAP expression was decreased in tumor astrocytes compared to normal astrocytes and this decreased with grading.
  • GFAP positive tumor cells were detected in only 50% of low grade, and 32% of high grade astrocytomas.
  • Loss of p21Waf1/Cip1 expression was shown in 20% of low and in 45% of high grade tumors.
  • In the subgroup of high grade tumors with wild type p53, 86% showed p21Waf1/Cip1 expression, whereas in the subgroup of high grade tumors with altered p53, only 35% displayed p21Waf1/Cip1.
  • We conclude that EGFR expression increases with astrocytoma grading.
  • PTEN defects may also participate in aggressive tumor behaviour through activation of the PKB/Akt pathway.
  • The alteration of p53 supports the finding that the cell cycle regulation is also disrupted during development of astrocytomas.
  • EGFR is one of the factors, which drives the progression of astrocytomas from low to high grade stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17822324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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65. Eoli M, Bissola L, Bruzzone MG, Pollo B, Maccagnano C, De Simone T, Valletta L, Silvani A, Bianchessi D, Broggi G, Boiardi A, Finocchiaro G: Reclassification of oligoastrocytomas by loss of heterozygosity studies. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jul 1;119(1):84-90
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  • Oligoastrocytomas (OAs) are WHO grade II or III tumors composed of a mixture of 2 neoplastic cell types morphologically resembling the cells in oligodendrogliomas and diffuse astrocytomas.
  • We have studied, in 94 OAs (46 WHO grade II and 48 WHO grade III), the patterns of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 4 genomic regions: 1p, 19q, 17p and 10q.
  • OAs without LOH on 1p behave like WHO grade II or III diffuse astrocytomas: they have shorter survival, MRI characteristics implying malignancy and genetic alterations associated with tumor progression.
  • OAs with LOH on 1p, on the other hand, behave like WHO grade II or III oligodendrogliomas with 1p loss: they are associated with longer survival and do not have MRI or genetic alterations associated with malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity


66. Agrawal R: Synchronous dual malignancy: successfully treated cases. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Jul-Sep;3(3):153-6
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  • The occurrence of a second malignancy in a patient with a known malignant tumour is not uncommon.
  • HPE mastectomy specimen showed infiltrating duct carcinoma and stage II.
  • HPE brain tissue showed astrocytoma grade II and HPE parotid tumour showed low grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy


67. Kobayashi H, Sawamura Y, Ishii N, Murata J, Iwasaki Y: [Temozolomide in the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma]. No Shinkei Geka; 2006 Dec;34(12):1241-7
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  • [Title] [Temozolomide in the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma].
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) has demonstrated activity and acceptable toxicity for the treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas in carious prospective phase II studies.
  • No information is, however, available on TMZ treatment for recurrent malignant glioma in Japanese patients.
  • We report Hokkaido University Hospital experience on 35 adult patients with a recurrent malignant glioma, including 13 glioblastomas, 9 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 13 anaplastic oligondendroglial tumors.
  • Although hematological toxicity was the most frequent adverse event (CTC grade 3 or 4 in 6 patients), overall toxicity was generally mild.
  • These results suggested that the reported efficacy and toxicity profile of TMZ for the treatment of Japanese patients with recurrent malignant glioma is reproducible from the setting of clinical trials in the western countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17154070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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68. Chosdol K, Misra A, Puri S, Srivastava T, Chattopadhyay P, Sarkar C, Mahapatra AK, Sinha S: Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:5
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  • [Title] Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: We had earlier used the comparison of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) DNA fingerprinting profiles of tumor and corresponding normal DNA to identify genetic alterations in primary human glial tumors.
  • METHODS: In this study we used RAPD-PCR to identify novel genomic alterations in the astrocytic tumors of WHO grade II (Low Grade Diffuse Astrocytoma) and WHO Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme).
  • RESULTS: Bands consistently altered in the RAPD profile of tumor DNA in a significant proportion of tumors were identified.
  • One such 500 bp band, that was absent in the RAPD profile of 33% (4/12) of the grade II astrocytic tumors, was selected for further study.
  • Its sequence corresponded with a region of FAT, a putative tumor suppressor gene initially identified in Drosophila.
  • Fifty percent of a set of 40 tumors, both grade II and IV, were shown to have Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) at this locus by microsatellite (intragenic) and by SNP markers.
  • Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed low FAT mRNA levels in a major subset of tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: These results point to a role of the FAT in astrocytic tumorigenesis and demonstrate the use of RAPD analysis in identifying specific alterations in astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 19126244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / FAT1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2631005
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69. Dixit VD, Weeraratna AT, Yang H, Bertak D, Cooper-Jenkins A, Riggins GJ, Eberhart CG, Taub DD: Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor constitute a novel autocrine pathway in astrocytoma motility. J Biol Chem; 2006 Jun 16;281(24):16681-90
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  • [Title] Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor constitute a novel autocrine pathway in astrocytoma motility.
  • Here, we demonstrate that the human astrocytoma cell lines U-118, U-87, CCF-STTG1, and SW1088 express 6-, 11-, 15-, and 29-fold higher levels of GHS-R compared with primary normal human astrocytes.
  • The ligation of GHS-R by ghrelin on these cells resulted in an increase in intracellular calcium mobilization, protein kinase C activation, actin polymerization, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, and astrocytoma motility.
  • In addition, ghrelin led to actin polymerization and membrane ruffling on cells, with the specific co-localization of the small GTPase Rac1 with GHS-R on the leading edge of the astrocytoma cells and imparting the tumor cells with a motile phenotype.
  • Disruption of the endogenous ghrelin/GHS-R pathway by RNA interference resulted in diminished motility, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and Rac expression, whereas tumor cells stably overexpressing GHS-R exhibited increased cell motility.
  • The relevance of ghrelin and GHS-R expression was verified in clinically relevant tissues from 20 patients with oligodendrogliomas and grade II-IV astrocytomas.
  • Analysis of a central nervous system tumor tissue microarray revealed that strong GHS-R and ghrelin expression was significantly more common in high grade tumors compared with low grade ones.
  • Together, these findings suggest a novel role for the ghrelin/GHS-R axis in astrocytoma cell migration and invasiveness of cancers of central nervous system origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Peptide Hormones / physiology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Central Nervous System / metabolism. Ghrelin. Humans. Models, Biological. Peptides. RNA Interference. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin

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  • (PMID = 16527811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AG000758-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS41150; NLM/ PMC2271047
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70. Samaras V, Piperi C, Korkolopoulou P, Zisakis A, Levidou G, Themistocleous MS, Boviatsis EI, Sakas DE, Lea RW, Kalofoutis A, Patsouris E: Application of the ELISPOT method for comparative analysis of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 secretion in peripheral blood of patients with astroglial tumors. Mol Cell Biochem; 2007 Oct;304(1-2):343-51
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  • Glioblastoma, (grade IV astrocytoma), is characterized by rapid growth and resistance to treatment.
  • Identification of markers of aggressiveness in this tumor could represent new therapeutic targets.
  • IL-6 and IL-10 secretion levels were determined using ELISPOT methodology in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 18 patients with astrocytic neoplasms (3 grade II and 15 grade IV), in parallel with 18 healthy controls.
  • In addition, IL-10 secretion from peripheral mononuclear and tumor cells of glioma patients was also higher as compared to healthy controls (P = 0.0002).
  • Based on immunohistochemical staining, IL-6 expression was localized in tumor cells and macrophages as well as in areas of large ischemic necrosis, while the major source of IL-10 expression in glioblastomas was the microglia/macrophage cells.
  • It is suggested that IL-10 contributes to the progression of astrocytomas by suppressing the patient's immune response, whereas IL-6 provides an additional growth advantage.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood. Brain Neoplasms / blood. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Interleukin-10 / blood. Interleukin-10 / secretion. Interleukin-6 / blood. Interleukin-6 / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17551671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IL10 protein, human; 0 / IL6 protein, human; 0 / Interleukin-6; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10
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71. MacDonald TJ, Pollack IF, Okada H, Bhattacharya S, Lyons-Weiler J: Progression-associated genes in astrocytoma identified by novel microarray gene expression data reanalysis. Methods Mol Biol; 2007;377:203-22
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  • [Title] Progression-associated genes in astrocytoma identified by novel microarray gene expression data reanalysis.
  • Astrocytoma is graded as pilocytic (WHO grade I), diffuse (WHO grade II), anaplastic (WHO grade III), and glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV).
  • The progression from low- to high-grade astrocytoma is associated with distinct molecular changes that vary with patient age, yet the prognosis of high-grade tumors in children and adults is equally dismal.
  • Whether specific gene expression changes are consistently associated with all high-grade astrocytomas, independent of patient age, is not known.
  • To address this question, we reanalyzed the microarray datasets comprising astrocytomas from children and adults, respectively.
  • We identified nine genes consistently dysregulated in high-grade tumors, using four novel tests for identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • Four genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPS2, RPS8, RPS18, RPL37A) were upregulated, and five genes (APOD, SORL1, SPOCK2, PRSS11, ID3) were downregulated in high-grade by all tests.
  • Expression results were validated using a third astrocytoma dataset.
  • APOD, the most differentially expressed gene, has been shown to inhibit tumor cell and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.
  • This suggests that dysregulation of APOD may be critical for malignant astrocytoma formation, and thus a possible novel universal target for therapeutic intervention.
  • Further investigation is needed to evaluate the role of APOD, as well as the other genes identified, in malignant astrocytoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Chromosomes, Human. Cluster Analysis. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Models, Genetic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17634619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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72. Spadaro E, Migliacci ML, Romano LM, Zoppi J: [Astrocytoma grade II. Atypical image]. Medicina (B Aires); 2008;68(4):305
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  • [Title] [Astrocytoma grade II. Atypical image].
  • [Transliterated title] Astrocitoma grado II. Imagen atípica.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Demyelinating Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18786888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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73. Durmaz R, Vural M, Işildi E, Coşan E, Ozkara E, Bal C, Ciftçi E, Arslantaş A, Atasoy MA: Efficacy of prognostic factors on survival in patients with low grade glioma. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;18(4):336-44
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  • [Title] Efficacy of prognostic factors on survival in patients with low grade glioma.
  • AIM: In this report, we aim to determine the prognostic factors influencing the length of survival in patients with low-grade gliomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a retrospective evaluation, we have reviewed fiftythree patients who had been operated between the years of 1980 and 2006.
  • The diagnoses of the patients were histopathologically verified as low-grade glioma(LGG).
  • The medical records of the patients were reviewed for age, gender, tumor locations, extent of resection, and presence of seizure, the neurological status as defined by the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) and radiotherapy treatment after surgery as possible prognostic factors.
  • Median survival time was 216+/-78.52 months for astrocytoma Grade I; 115+/-8.22 months for astrocytoma Grade II, and 242+/-76.36 months for oligodendroglioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aging. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Oligodendroglioma / mortality. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Seizures / etiology. Survival. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult


74. Glotsos D, Spyridonos P, Cavouras D, Ravazoula P, Dadioti PA, Nikiforidis G: An image-analysis system based on support vector machines for automatic grade diagnosis of brain-tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine. Med Inform Internet Med; 2005 Sep;30(3):179-93
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  • [Title] An image-analysis system based on support vector machines for automatic grade diagnosis of brain-tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine.
  • An image-analysis system based on the concept of Support Vector Machines (SVM) was developed to assist in grade diagnosis of brain tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine.
  • One hundred and forty biopsies of astrocytomas were characterized according to the WHO system as grade II, III and IV.
  • Low-grade tumours were distinguished from high-grade tumours with an accuracy of 90.2% and grade III from grade IV with an accuracy of 88.3% The system was tested in a new clinical data set, and the classification rates were 87.5 and 83.8%, respectively.
  • The proposed methodology might be used in parallel with conventional grading to support the regular diagnostic procedure and reduce subjectivity in astrocytomas grading.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 16403707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-9238
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical informatics and the Internet in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Inform Internet Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Miracco C, Cosci E, Oliveri G, Luzi P, Pacenti L, Monciatti I, Mannucci S, De Nisi MC, Toscano M, Malagnino V, Falzarano SM, Pirtoli L, Tosi P: Protein and mRNA expression of autophagy gene Beclin 1 in human brain tumours. Int J Oncol; 2007 Feb;30(2):429-36
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  • We examined the expression of Beclin 1 protein in 212 primary human brain tumours, including 97 high-grade glial tumours, 29 low-grade glial tumours, 4 grade III meningiomas, 19 grade II meningiomas, 52 grade I meningiomas, and 11 medulloblastomas.
  • In most high-grade astrocytic, ependymal neoplasms and atypical meningiomas we found a decrease of cytoplasmic protein expression that was, instead, high in the majority of low-grade tumours and in medulloblastomas.
  • The expression level of Beclin 1 mRNA was significantly lower in glioblastomas than in grade II (p=0.04) and grade I (p=0.01) astrocytomas; in grade III than in grade I astrocytomas (p=0.01); in grade II than in grade I meningiomas (p=0.03); and in all glial tumours when compared to all meningiomas (p<0.0001).

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  • (PMID = 17203225.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BECN1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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76. Vlodavsky E, Soustiel JF: Immunohistochemical expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human astrocytomas and its correlation with grade of malignancy, proliferation, apoptosis and survival. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jan;81(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human astrocytomas and its correlation with grade of malignancy, proliferation, apoptosis and survival.
  • It has been established that the expression of PBR in astrocytomas is higher than in the normal brain.
  • The goal of this study was to explore the correlation of the immunohistochemical expression of PBR in astrocytomas with the grade of malignancy and rates of apoptosis, proliferation and survival.
  • In 130 cases of astrocytomas (25 grade I, 25 grade II, 20 grade III, 60 grade IV), paraffin sections were stained immunohistochemically for PBR and MIB-1(Ki-67).
  • It was found that the intensity and extent of staining for PBR had a strong direct correlation with the grade of malignancy of the tumor, along with proliferative and apoptotic indices.
  • The highest expression of PBR was in glioblastomas grade IV, especially around areas of necrosis.
  • The results of this study may be applied in the pathological diagnosis of astrocytomas as an additional clue in establishing tumor grade; they may be used in the imaging of astrocytomas, both for diagnosis and follow-up, by the application of positron emission tomography scanning with PBR specific ligands.
  • Targeting of PBR in high-grade gliomas may be a promising approach, achieving more specific anti-tumor effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Receptors, GABA / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16868661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / TSPO protein, human
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77. Nakasu S, Fukami T, Jito J, Matsuda M: Prognostic significance of loss of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression in supratentorial diffuse low-grade astrocytoma. Surg Neurol; 2007 Dec;68(6):603-8; discussion 608-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of loss of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression in supratentorial diffuse low-grade astrocytoma.
  • If loss of function in MGMT is related to tumor progression, the immunohistochemical method may predict the malignant change of gliomas.
  • METHOD: We investigated the expression of MGMT by immunohistochemical method in 28 supratentorial hemispheric diffuse astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: There were 19 MGMT-positive and 9 MGMT-negative astrocytomas.
  • Their rates of malignant transformation at 5 years were 12.3% and 51.4%, respectively.
  • Age, sex, extent of surgery, MIB-1 value, and radiation therapy at initial treatment did not correlate with the malignant progression.
  • Two long-term survivors with MGMT-negative tumor responded well to nitrosourea-based chemotherapy and lived more than 8 years after malignant transformation.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the status of MGMT did not affect the overall survival, immunohistochemical evaluation of MGMT expression may be a good marker for tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17825378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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78. Samaras V, Piperi C, Levidou G, Zisakis A, Kavantzas N, Themistocleous MS, Boviatsis EI, Barbatis C, Lea RW, Kalofoutis A, Korkolopoulou P: Analysis of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in human astrocytomas: associations with IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and microvessel morphometry. Hum Immunol; 2009 Jun;70(6):391-7
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  • [Title] Analysis of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in human astrocytomas: associations with IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and microvessel morphometry.
  • Malignant astrocytomas are highly vascular neoplasms with potent angiogenic activity.
  • The present study aimed to investigate peripheral and local expression of interleukin (IL)-8 in astrocytomas with possible associations to IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and microvessel morphometry.
  • IL-6- and IL-8-secreting peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were evaluated in 17 glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), 5 anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and 6 diffuse astrocytoma patients (WHO grade II), in parallel with 23 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay.
  • The IL-8 expression was assessed immunohistochemically in patients' tumor tissue sections and correlated with the expression of COX-2, VEGF, IL-6, and microvessel morphometry (assessed using CD34 antibody).
  • IL-8 immunoreactivity was detected in malignant cells or macrophages in perivascular areas and in pseudopalisading cells around necrosis and was positively correlated with histological grade (p = 0.0175) and tumor necrosis (p = 0.0793).
  • The coordinate expression and topographical relationship of IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and VEGF in the same tumor areas (e.g., perinecrotic areas) attest to their intimate liaison in terms of cancer-induced angiogenesis, which is probably secondary to the induction of multiple interdependent molecular pathways.
  • Moreover, our study seems to be the first attempt to link IL-8 expression by tumor cells with histological grade, implicating its potent role in gliomagenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / immunology. Microvessels / immunology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19332096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Human immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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79. Shono T, Yokoyama N, Uesaka T, Kuroda J, Takeya R, Yamasaki T, Amano T, Mizoguchi M, Suzuki SO, Niiro H, Miyamoto K, Akashi K, Iwaki T, Sumimoto H, Sasaki T: Enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase Nox4 in human gliomas and its roles in cell proliferation and survival. Int J Cancer; 2008 Aug 15;123(4):787-92
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  • We quantified Nox4 mRNA expression by real-time PCR in tumor specimens from 58 patients with astrocytomas and found that the expression levels of Nox4 mRNA in glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) were significantly higher than those in other astrocytomas (WHO grade II and III).
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / physiology. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / physiology. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA Interference. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18508317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.6.3.- / NOX4 protein, human; EC 1.6.3.1 / NADPH Oxidase
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80. Capper D, Mittelbronn M, Meyermann R, Schittenhelm J: Pitfalls in the assessment of MGMT expression and in its correlation with survival in diffuse astrocytomas: proposal of a feasible immunohistochemical approach. Acta Neuropathol; 2008 Feb;115(2):249-59
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  • [Title] Pitfalls in the assessment of MGMT expression and in its correlation with survival in diffuse astrocytomas: proposal of a feasible immunohistochemical approach.
  • Implementation of this data in routine clinical diagnostics is limited due to often inappropriate study designs, e.g. pooling of tumor entities, WHO grades or primary and secondary glioblastomas, disregard concerning the infiltration zone or various epidemiological factors.
  • For this, 162 astrocytic tumors WHO II-IV (36 diffuse astrocytomas WHO II, 51 anaplastic astrocytomas, 75 primary glioblastomas) as well as 25 glioblastoma infiltration zones and 19 glioblastoma relapses were analyzed for immunohistochemical MGMT protein expression using tissue microarray technique.
  • Expression of MGMT significantly decreased from WHO grade II (25.6%) to glioblastoma (16.8%, p = 0.01) with lowest levels in grade III tumors (10.2%, II/III p < 0.0001).
  • Significant negative associations of MGMT and survival were detected for WHO grade II and IV (p = 0.003 and 0.013).
  • We conclude that immunohistochemical MGMT assessment has potential as a powerful diagnostic tool but analysis should only be performed in a grade dependent manner, before radio-/chemotherapy and with special attention to the infiltration zone of diffuse astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. DNA Modification Methylases / biosynthesis. DNA Repair Enzymes / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17965865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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81. Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Yoshino A, Yachi K, Ohta T, Ogino A, Komine C, Fukushima T: Aberrant hypermethylation of p14ARF and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase genes in astrocytoma progression. Brain Pathol; 2007 Jan;17(1):5-10
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  • [Title] Aberrant hypermethylation of p14ARF and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase genes in astrocytoma progression.
  • The aim of the present study was to elucidate genetic alterations that are critically involved in astrocytoma progression.
  • We characterized 27 World Health Organization grade II fibrillary astrocytomas which later underwent recurrence or progression, paying specific attention to the CpG island methylation status of critical growth regulatory genes. p14(ARF) and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) hypermethylation represented frequent events (26% and 63%, respectively), which were mutually exclusive except in one case, with alternate or simultaneous methylation of these two genes occurring in 85% of our tumor series.
  • Methylation of the p21(Waf1/Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p73 genes and homozygous deletion of the p16(INK4a), p15(INK4b) and p14(ARF) genes were not detected in any of the primary low-grade tumors.
  • Examination of 20 cases whose histological data for recurrent tumors were available revealed that malignant progression occurred in all of the tumors with p14(ARF) methylation but less frequently (50%) in the lesions with MGMT methylation.
  • On analysis of their respective recurrent tumors, five of six patients whose primary low-grade tumors carried p14(ARF) methylation exhibited homozygous co-deletions of the p14(ARF), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) genes, which were restricted to glioblastoma as the most malignant end point.
  • Our findings suggest that p14(ARF) hypermethylation and MGMT hypermethylation constitute distinct molecular pathways of astrocytoma progression, which could differ in biological behavior and clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. CpG Islands / physiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Methylation. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / physiology. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17493032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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82. Kitai R, Horita R, Sato K, Yoshida K, Arishima H, Higashino Y, Hashimoto N, Takeuchi H, Kubota T, Kikuta K: Nestin expression in astrocytic tumors delineates tumor infiltration. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Apr;27(1):17-21
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  • [Title] Nestin expression in astrocytic tumors delineates tumor infiltration.
  • Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in undifferentiated cells during central nervous system development, and glioma is known to be a highly infiltrative tumor.
  • We determined whether nestin was expressed in astrocytic tumors and could identify infiltrating tumor cells.
  • We screened 65 archival, paraffin-embedded adult astrocytic tumors using immunohistochemical staining and computerized overlaid photographs.
  • The intensity of nestin expression corresponded to the tumor grade.
  • All 33 glioblastoma cases showed positive and extensive staining, which was less positive in diffuse astrocytoma.
  • Overlaid images showed that nestin immunostaining delineated tumor invasion into adjacent gray and white matter.
  • Nestin is a useful marker for examining the infiltration of malignant cells into surrounding tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Nestin. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20425043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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83. Hunter SB, Varma V, Shehata B, Nolen JD, Cohen C, Olson JJ, Ou CY: Apolipoprotein D expression in primary brain tumors: analysis by quantitative RT-PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Aug;53(8):963-9
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  • Apolipoprotein D (apoD) expression has been shown to correlate both with cell cycle arrest and with prognosis in several types of malignancy, including central nervous system astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • Sixteen poorly infiltrating WHO grade I glial neoplasms (i.e., pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas) showed an average 20-fold higher apoD expression level compared with the 20 diffusely infiltrating glial neoplasms (i.e., glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendrogliomas; p=0.00004).
  • A small number of exceptions (i.e., two high-expressing glioblastomas and three low-expressing gangliogliomas) were identified.
  • Analyzed as individual tumor groups, poorly infiltrating grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas differed significantly from each tumor type within the diffusely infiltrating higher-grade category (p<0.05 for each comparison) but not from each other (p>0.05).
  • Conversely, each individual tumor type within the diffusely infiltrating category differed significantly from both pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas (p<0.05) but did not vary from other infiltrating tumors (p>0.05).
  • Ependymomas, non-infiltrating grade II neoplasms, expressed levels of apoD similar to or lower than levels expressed by the diffusely infiltrating gliomas.
  • In addition, apoD expression was 5-fold higher in the slowly proliferating grade I glial neoplasms compared with non-proliferating normal brain tissue (p=0.01), suggesting that apoD expression is not simply an inverse measure of proliferation.
  • ApoD expression measured by quantitative RT-PCR may be useful in the differential diagnosis of primary brain tumors, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas.

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  • (PMID = 16055749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins; 0 / Apolipoproteins D; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde; 8002-74-2 / Paraffin
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84. Fathi AR, Vassella E, Arnold M, Curschmann J, Reinert M, Vajtai I, Weis J, Deiana G, Mariani L: Objective response to radiation therapy and long-term survival of patients with WHO grade II astrocytic gliomas with known LOH 1p/19q status. Strahlenther Onkol; 2007 Sep;183(9):517-22
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  • [Title] Objective response to radiation therapy and long-term survival of patients with WHO grade II astrocytic gliomas with known LOH 1p/19q status.
  • BACKGROUND: WHO grade II gliomas are often approached by radiation therapy (RT).
  • However, little is known about tumor response and its potential impact on long-term survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients subjected to RT were selected from the own database of WHO grade II gliomas diagnosed between 1991 and 2000.
  • The volumetric tumor response after RT was assessed based on magnetic resonance imaging and graded according to standard criteria as complete, partial (PR, >or= 50%), or minor (MR, 25% to <50%).
  • RESULTS: There were 24 astrocytomas and three oligoastrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Approximately 50% of patients with astrocytic WHO grade II gliomas respond to RT despite the absence of LOH for 1p/19q.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / radiation effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / radiation effects. Cranial Irradiation. Loss of Heterozygosity / radiation effects. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microsatellite Repeats. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17762927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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85. Arjona D, Bello MJ, Rey JA: EGFR intragenic loss and gene amplification in astrocytic gliomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jan 1;164(1):39-43
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  • [Title] EGFR intragenic loss and gene amplification in astrocytic gliomas.
  • We have studied EGFR gene amplification and allelic status of chromosome 7 in 68 tumors consisting of 34 WHO grade IV glioblastomas (26 primary and 8 secondary), 14 WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytomas, and 20 WHO grade II astrocytomas, by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), quantitative PCR, and microsatellite analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Gene Amplification. Genes, erbB-1. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 16364761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Bartkova J, Hamerlik P, Stockhausen MT, Ehrmann J, Hlobilkova A, Laursen H, Kalita O, Kolar Z, Poulsen HS, Broholm H, Lukas J, Bartek J: Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas. Oncogene; 2010 Sep 9;29(36):5095-102
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  • Malignant gliomas, the deadliest of brain neoplasms, show rampant genetic instability and resistance to genotoxic therapies, implicating potentially aberrant DNA damage response (DDR) in glioma pathogenesis and treatment failure.
  • Here, we report on gross, aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in low- and high-grade human gliomas, and analyze the sources of such endogenous genotoxic stress.
  • Based on analyses of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, normal astrocytes and clinical specimens from grade II astrocytomas (n=41) and grade IV GBM (n=60), we conclude that the DDR machinery is constitutively activated in gliomas, as documented by phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX), activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway, 53BP1 foci and other markers.
  • Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxoguanine) was high in some GBM cell lines and many GBM tumors, while it was low in normal brain and grade II astrocytomas, despite the degree of DDR activation was higher in grade II tumors.
  • Markers indicative of ongoing DNA replication stress (Chk1 activation, Rad17 phosphorylation, replication protein A foci and single-stranded DNA) were present in GBM cells under high- or low-oxygen culture conditions and in clinical specimens of both low- and high-grade tumors.
  • The observed global checkpoint signaling, in contrast to only focal areas of overabundant p53 (indicative of p53 mutation) in grade II astrocytomas, are consistent with DDR activation being an early event in gliomagenesis, initially limiting cell proliferation (low Ki-67 index) and selecting for mutations of p53 and likely other genes that allow escape (higher Ki-67 index) from the checkpoint and facilitate tumor progression.
  • Overall, these results support the potential role of the DDR machinery as a barrier to gliomagenesis and indicate that replication stress, rather than oxidative stress, fuels the DNA damage signalling in early stages of astrocytoma development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Signal Transduction / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20581868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / H2AFX protein, human; 0 / Histones; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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87. Nakamura M, Tsuji O, Fujiyoshi K, Watanabe K, Tsuji T, Ishii K, Matsumoto M, Toyama Y, Chiba K: Cordotomy for patients with thoracic malignant astrocytoma. J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Oct;13(4):418-23
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  • [Title] Cordotomy for patients with thoracic malignant astrocytoma.
  • OBJECT: The optimal management of malignant astrocytomas remains controversial, and the prognosis of these lesions has been dismal regardless of the administered treatment.
  • In this study the authors investigated the surgical outcomes of cordotomy in patients with thoracic malignant astrocytomas to determine the effectiveness of this procedure.
  • METHODS: Cordotomy was performed in 5 patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 2 with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA).
  • In the 2 patients with GBM, cordotomy was performed 2 and 3 weeks after a partial tumor resection.
  • In the 2 patients with AA, the initial treatment consisted of partial tumor resection and subtotal resection combined with radiotherapy, and rostral tumor growth and progressive paralysis necessitated cordotomy 2 and 28 months later.
  • One patient with a secondary GBM underwent cordotomy; the GBM developed 1 year after subtotal resection and radiotherapy for a WHO Grade II astrocytoma.
  • In patients with thoracic GBM, even if paralysis is incomplete, cordotomy should be performed before the tumor disseminates through the CSF.
  • If the tumor persists, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are indicated, and cordotomy should be reserved for lesions growing progressively after such second-line treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cordotomy. Thoracic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease Progression. Encephalitis / etiology. Female. Glioblastoma / complications. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pain, Postoperative. Paraplegia / etiology. Paraplegia / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20887138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Hattingen E, Raab P, Franz K, Zanella FE, Lanfermann H, Pilatus U: Myo-inositol: a marker of reactive astrogliosis in glial tumors? NMR Biomed; 2008 Mar;21(3):233-41
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